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A, Percentages of shows with sexual content over time according to type of content. B, Percentages that also included references to risks or responsibilities over time for all shows with sexual content. C, Numbers of sex-related scenes per hour for shows in 2005 with sexual content.

A, Percentages of shows with sexual content over time according to type of content. B, Percentages that also included references to risks or responsibilities over time for all shows with sexual content. C, Numbers of sex-related scenes per hour for shows in 2005 with sexual content.

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Article
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In the absence of effective sex education at home or school, the media have become important sources of sexual information for adolescents in the United States. Mainstream media inundate teenagers with sexual images and innuendoes. In the most recent content analysis of American primetime TV, more than three-fourths of the shows had sexual content;...

Citations

... When individuals identify with media characters, they can empathize with and see from the media characters' perspective and worldview, thus shaping their identities (Cohen, 2001). Adolescents often identify with media characters whom they admire or wish to emulate and may even turn to these media characters for guidance (Arnett, 1995;Brown & Strasburger, 2007). ...
Article
Adolescent female victims of sexual assault must often disclose their victimization to trusted adults to seek positive physical and mental health outcomes; however, adolescent girls face unique barriers to disclosure, and they are less likely to disclose compared to adult women. Media interventions could be useful in motivating adolescent girls to feel more efficacious about disclosing sexual assaults. Self-efficacious messages in media that model disclosure behavior could motivate adolescent girls to feel more confident disclosing information about an assault and seeking positive health outcomes. This study used quasi-experimental methods to test the effect of a YouTube vlog containing a self-efficacy message about sexual assault disclosure. Results indicate that exposure to the self-efficacious message leads to higher sexual assault disclosure efficacy among adolescent girls who identify with self-efficacious media characters (B = −.0867, SE = .059, 95% CI [−.2318, −.0033]), albeit indirectly through perceived discrimination of sexual assault victims and approach coping behaviors. Appropriate interventions targeting disclosure of sexual assault by adolescent girls could include a more holistic view of disclosure and use new mediums like YouTube vlogs to deliver self-efficacious messages.
... 7 The adolescent age group is more predisposed to high-risk behaviors, currently representing a significant portion of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV cases globally. [8][9][10] Adolescents account for an estimated 16% from the overall worldwide cases, with Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia being the regions with the highest number. This constant and rapid increase of cases recently has become a more important public health challenge in conservative Asia. ...
Article
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Background In an effort to decrease teenage pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases, there are discussions on the implementation of a school-based condom availability and distribution policy. However, there is a dearth of information on the extent and range of the empirical evidence supporting this policy initiative. Hence, this study aimed to identify enablers and deterrents of the program to serve as groundwork for health professionals and policy makers toward a more comprehensive adolescent program in the country. Methods A scoping review of literature based on the five-stage framework by Arskley and O’Malley was utilized in the study. Two researchers performed a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed literature through PubMed, ScienceDirect, EBSCOhost and ProQUEST published from 1985 to 2016. Inclusion criteria for records were: i) Original research published in a peer-reviewed journal; ii) Focused on school-based condom availability and distribution; iii) Study participants were students in a secondary public or private schools; iv) Published in English language. Two researchers independently appraised each record against the set inclusion criteria. Likewise, independent abstraction of data from selected studies were performed. Disagreements in screening, selection, and abstraction were settled through consensus. Results A total of 2,114 records were initially screened for eligibility, of which eight met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Seven of the studies were conducted in the USA and one study was carried-out in Mexico. Notably, none of the published papers originated in Asia. Four essential themes emerged that reinforces the program: i) establishment of state-level policy; ii) engagement of stakeholders and parents on public dialogue: iii) empowering activities in schools; and iv) increasing condom reach and coverage. On the other hand, four significant barriers were recognized; i) assumption that condom availability and distribution to adolescents promote sexual promiscuity; ii) lack of parental support due to religious and moral concerns and the acceptance of the students to certain programs; iii) discomfort and embarrassment felt in general by the students towards acquiring condoms in schools; and iv) structural barriers such as poor coverage and gender differences among male and female students. Conclusions These findings suggest that there have been limited studies conducted on the success and challenges of school-based condom availability program. Although study results have shown substantial benefits of the program, emergence of thematic insights relating to parental support, sexual attitude and behavior, program coverage and structural implications acted as major enablers and deterrents on condom availability and distribution program. It is crucial to recognize these existing issues to generate strategic recommendation and action for improvements of the program.
... The content of media to which adolescents are exposed is concerning given representations of men as violent and women as sexual are increasing in the media (Bleakley, Jamieson, & Romer, 2012). A growing body of research links exposure to violent or antisocial media to aggression, including in-person bullying and cyberbullying (Bushman & Huesmann, 2006;den Hamer & Konijn, 2015), and exposure to sexual media to risky sexual behaviors (Brown & Strasburger, 2007;Strasburger, 2009aStrasburger, , 2009bStrasburger & Hogan, 2013), including earlier onset of sexual initiation (Collins et al., 2004). In a longitudinal survey of youth and caregivers, exposure to sexual media content was linked to higher odds of sexual violence victimization (Ybarra, Strasburger, & Mitchell, 2014), while exposure to violent sexually explicit content significantly increased odds of perpetrating sexually aggressive behavior (i.e., in-person and technological sexual harassment; Ybarra, Mitchell, Hamburger, Diener-West, & Leaf, 2011). ...
Article
With the increasing popularity of mobile Internet devices, the exposure of adolescents to media has significantly increased. There is limited information about associations between the types and frequency of media use and experiences of violence victimization and suicide risk. The current study sought to examine the association of bullying and teen dating violence (TDV) victimization, suicide risk with different types of media use (i.e., television and computer/video game use), and number of total media use hours per school day. Data from the nationally representative 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 15,624) were used to examine the association between media use and violence victimization and suicide risk. Logistic regression models generated prevalence ratios adjusted for demographic characteristics and substance use behaviors to identify significant associations between media use and victimization and suicide risk, stratified by gender. Media use was associated with TDV victimization for male students only, while media use was related to experiences of bullying and suicide risk for both male and female students. In addition, limited (2 or fewer hours) and excessive (5 or more hours) media use emerged as significant correlates of suicide risk and bullying victimization, with limited media use associated with decreased risk and excessive media use with increased risk. Comprehensive, cross-cutting efforts to prevent different forms of victimization should take into account media use and its potential association with adolescent victimization and suicide risk. The current study results suggest limiting adolescent media use, as part of comprehensive prevention programming, might relate to reductions in risk for victimization and suicide.
... Consider that sexual development, including physical and attitudinal development, begins as early as age 7, when children begin asking specific questions about the body, pregnancy, and the like (Friedrich et al. 1998;Hornor 2004). By adolescence, these youth have already received ample information about sex and sexuality from parents, school, peers, and also from media (Brown and Strasburger 2007;Gruber and Grube 2000;Strasburger 2005). Note that children and adolescents are spending the equivalent of a full 24-hour day per week with entertainment media, most often with television (Nielsen 2015). ...
Article
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The present study explores the interrelationships between emerging adults’ exposure to sexual depictions on mainstream television, their attitudes toward sexually permissive behaviors, and the salience (accessibility) of concepts related to sexual activity in their implicit memory. Findings indicate a small but significant relationship between increased exposure to sex on television and increased favoring of sexually permissive behaviors, when taking sexual concept accessibility into account. When taking television exposure into account, young adults who held stronger sexually permissive attitudes found it easier to access concepts of sexual activity in memory, suggesting these ideas were top-of-mind for these participants, compared to participants scoring lower on permissiveness. However, there was no direct connection between exposure to sex on television and accessibility of sexual activity in memory when accounting for permissive attitudes, suggesting that sexual permissiveness is at the center of any link between exposure and accessibility. Implications for examining sexual permissiveness as a lens for structuring sexual information in memory, as well as implications for designing sexual health messages are discussed in light of the findings.
... [78][79][80] Given how suggestive mainstream media content is, and how shy writers, producers, and advertisers are about depicting birth control, this is not an entirely healthy situation. 79 There is now considerable research that sexual content in the media contribute not only to adolescents' attitudes and beliefs about sex, 81 but to their sexual behavior as well, especially to earlier intercourse. 82 Although the teenage pregnancy rate in the United States has declined significantly in the past 2 decades, it remains the highest in the Western world. ...
... 79 Teen magazines devote an average of 2.5 pages per issue to sexual topics, and the prime subject of discussion seems to be when to lose one's virginity. 81,101 In one study of mainstream advertising, women were as likely to be shown in suggestive clothing (30%), partially clothed (13%), or nude (6%) as they were being fully clothed. 102 The question always asked of media researchers is, "does any of this abundant sexual content have any actual behavioral consequences?" ...
... 83 Given this fact, increasing responsible sexual content in mainstream media and advertising contraceptives widely would seem to be an urgent public health goal. 81 Several studios have agreed to add antismoking advertisements before feature films on new DVDs, and Disney no longer permits smoking in its movies. 406 Industry ratings systems have sometimes been confusing for parents, although most have indicated that they rely on the information. ...
... Where adopting these behaviours provides the young person with friendship and support it would be expected that this would serve to normalise the acceptability of risk taking behaviours; thus beginning a vicious cycle through which acceptability by antisocial peers results in the school excluded youth becoming further isolated from prosocial peers and experiencing wider social exclusion from society as a result of being labelled by society as 'bad', 'dangerous', 'problem', 'failing' and 'damaged' youth (Becker, 2010, Berridge et al., 2012, Brown and Strasburger, 2007, Carpenter-Aeby and Aeby, 2009, Kim and Taylor, 2008, Loutzenheiser, 2002, McCrystal, 2004, Rondón et al., 2012, Shoemaker, 1990. ...
Thesis
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Background: Evidence from population-level studies demonstrates that adolescent sexual health outcomes are associated with social exclusion, and that certain groups, including young people looked after by local authorities often experience poorer sexual health outcomes. The poorer sexual health outcomes observed for looked after young people has led to the Scottish Government recommending that looked after young people be prioritised for the delivery of sexual health and relationships education, and that residential carers, foster carers and social workers should play a key role in the delivery of sexual health and relationships information to looked after young people. This recommendation builds on existing policy initiatives that have emphasised that parents should be routinely talking to their children about sexual health and relationships. Despite a growing research interest in the health of looked after young people, there is currently little known about how sexual health and relationships discussions are undertaken within the care setting. This is because much of the research that has been published to date has focussed upon identifying barriers to communication rather than establishing how communications are shaped by the characteristics of carers, looked after children and the wider context of the care system. In this thesis I hope to address this research gap by exploring what factors shape communications about sexual health and relationships within the care setting, and examining the extent to which connectedness, monitoring and supervision — parenting factors identified as promoting positive sexual health outcomes for adolescents within the wider literature — mediate these discussions. Methods: 54 in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with looked after young people (aged 14-18), care leavers (aged 16-23), residential workers, foster carers and social workers in one local authority in Scotland between August and December 2011. Data were analysed thematically, with data collected from corporate parents and looked after young people used to compare and contrast experiences of talking about sexual health within the care setting. Findings: The results presented in this study demonstrate that there has been a perceived shift in attitudes towards talking to looked after young people about their sexual health, and that residential carers, foster carers and social workers believe that talking to young people about sexual health and relationships should be a core responsibility of the corporate parent. Despite this, the results of this study demonstrate that talking to young people about sexual health and relationship is a subject that is fraught with tensions, with many of the corporate parents interviewed expressing difficulties reconciling their own views about the appropriateness of talking to young people about sexual behaviours with their professional responsibility to inform and protect looked after young people from risk. Looking specifically at how communications about sexual health and relationships were undertaken within the care setting, the results of this study show that talking to young people in care about sexual health and relationships is mediated by the impact or pre-care and care histories, in particular maltreatment and poor attachment security, upon young people’s understandings of relationships and their ability to trust other people and seek out help and support. Whilst corporate parents emphasised the need for training to help them identify strategies for talking to young people about sexual health and relationships, the results of this study show that corporate parents are already undertaking sexual health and relationships work that is tailored to the age and stage of the child, and is balanced by the provision of monitoring and supervision to minimise risk. Conclusions: The results of this thesis show that discussions about sexual health and relationships need to be underpinned by a trusting relationship between corporate parents and looked after children. As such, an emphasis needs to be placed upon improving young people’s ability to trust other people. Improving permanency for young people in the care system, in conjunction with the development of attachment based sexual health practices, may result in the promotion of positive outcomes for looked after young people. Future policies and training relating to the provision of sexual health and relationships education within the care system should reflect this fact.
... 9 Increasingly, because of access, children learn about sex online via the use of pornography. 10 Pornography as sex educator skews the young person's view of sex and sexual roles. It is known that earlier maturing boys engage in more risk-taking behaviours and late developers (associated with obesity) experience teasing, bullying, mental health issues (poor self-esteem, anxiety and depression) and substance use. ...
... Exposure to sexual portrayals in the media can play a significant role in the sexual socialization of adolescents (Brown & Strasburger, 2007). Teens spend a great deal of time with the media (Nielsen, 2009) and actively acknowledge that they turn to the media for information about sexuality (Strasburger, 2005;Strasburger, Wilson, & Jordan, 2009). ...
Article
Exposure to sexual portrayals in the media can play a major role in the sexual socialization of adolescents. Adolescent viewers of popular television teen dramas may model the sexual attitudes and behaviors of characters with which they develop a parasocial relationship and perceive as similar to him or herself. This content analysis was thus conducted to examine the sexual portrayals of sixty-four central characters from the 2009 to 2010 season of five popular television teen dramas in the United States. Results indicate gender equality in the sexual portrayals of female and male characters, as both were equally likely to engage in sexual expression and experience positive and negative consequences. Consequences experienced were primarily emotional and social, though negative consequences were more frequent than positive. Sexual talk was associated with experiencing both negative and positive consequences; however, sexual behavior (light sexual behavior and implicit sex) was only associated with positive consequences. Implications for how exposure to such portrayals may impact the sexual behaviors of adolescent viewers are discussed.
... 21 devote an average of 2.5 pages per issue to sexual topics, but the primary focus seems to be on when to lose one's virginity. 41,42 In mainstream advertising, women are as likely to be shown in suggestive clothing (30%), partially clothed (13%), or nude (6%) as they are to be fully clothed. 43 "New" media have brought new concerns to the forefront-among them, pornography, "sexting, " and displays of risky behavior on social networking sites. ...
... 49,50 Dozens of studies show that teenagers learn information and attitudes about sex and sexuality from the media (Figures 7 and 8), and that heavy consumers of media are more likely to think that real human behavior mimics behavior seen on TV and in movies (the "cultivation hypothesis"). 42,51,52 But most studies of teenagers and media are correlational-taking a sample at one point in time and investigating if heavily exposed subjects are affected more than lightly exposed subjects. Such research yields possible associations but not causeand-effect. ...
... One of the great paradoxes of American television is that sex is used to advertise everything from cars and shampoos to the new fall line-up of TV shows, but advertising contraceptives is nearly verboten. 42 The United States is the only Western country that still subscribes to the myth that giving teenagers access to birth control-and media are one way of doing that-makes them more sexually active. ...
... Although each approach has its limitations, together they offer complementary validation of the question at hand. The section that follows integrates and summarizes recent findings from both formats, focusing on 43 studies conducted since 2000 (excellent reviews of earlier work published from 1980-2000 can be found in Brown & Strasburger, 2007;Greenberg & Hofschire, 2000;Strasburger, 2005;Ward, 2003). We focus first on two commonly studied attitude outcomes, permissive attitudes toward sex and perceptions of peer norms, and then move to four emerging domains. ...
... Media. Although sexual health content is featured less prominently in television and film than in magazines, references to sexual health issues still occur in these media and have the potential to influence adolescents and young adults (Brown & Bobkowski, 2011;Brown & Strasburger, 2007). For example, an analysis of songs popular with teenagers in 2002 indicates that 6% of the music lyrics contained information about sexual health (see Brown & Strasburger, 2007). ...
... Although sexual health content is featured less prominently in television and film than in magazines, references to sexual health issues still occur in these media and have the potential to influence adolescents and young adults (Brown & Bobkowski, 2011;Brown & Strasburger, 2007). For example, an analysis of songs popular with teenagers in 2002 indicates that 6% of the music lyrics contained information about sexual health (see Brown & Strasburger, 2007). In television and film, sexual health content primarily is conveyed through verbal comments and through interactions depicted in intimate (often sexual) relationships (Hust, Brown, & L'Engle, 2008). ...
Chapter
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Portrayals of sexual relationships in mainstream media are prevalent and complex. Content analyses estimate that sexual content appears in approximately 85% of major motion pictures (Jamieson et al., 2008), 82% of television programs (Fisher et al., 2004), 59% of music videos (Turner, 2011), 37% of music lyrics (Primack, Gold, Schwarz, & Dalton, 2008), 22% of radio segments (Gentile, 1999), and 21% of magazine headlines (Davalos, Davalos, & Layton, 2007). The portrayals are not uniform, but instead come in multiple forms— explicit and implied; verbal and nonverbal; reality based or wholly fictional; and covering a range of themes, tones (e.g., humorous or serious; positive or negative), and consequences. Consider, for example, each of the following scenarios: a sitcom episode in which a sex-starved husband devises a complex lie to make his wife have sympathy for him so she will sleep with him; a music video in which a young man encourages his two female companions to kiss each other while he watches; a magazine article that instructs young women on how to flirt successfully. In each instance the content is not necessarily sexually explicit (i.e., pornography), but the images, dialogue, storylines, and character portrayals nonetheless offer substantial insight into how sexual relationships are initiated, maintained, nourished, and terminated. This chapter reviews major findings in the field concerning the impact of portrayals of sexuality and sexual relationships in mainstream entertainment media. In compiling materials for this review, we conducted comprehensive reviews of the PsychInfo, Communication and Mass Media, and PubMed electronic databases, focusing on studies published in the new millennium, from 2000 on. In creating parameters for this review, we have chosen to focus on analyses of the following entertainment media: television, films, music, music videos, video games, and magazines. We do not cover news media, literature, mass media public health campaigns, pornography (see Chapter 1, this volume), the Internet and new technologies (see Chapter 3, this volume), or unpublished dissertations and conference presentations. We also do not include a review of media content analyses but instead focus on media effects (but for excellent recent content analysis reviews, see Arnett, 2002; Greenberg & Hofschire, 2000; Ward, 2003; Wright, 2009). We begin our review with a brief discussion of how viewers perceive sexual content in the media and then move into summarizing effects in the following domains: sexual attitudes, sexual behavior, and sexual health. We conclude with reviews of media effects on three emerging domains: homosexuality, sexual violence, and sexual objectification