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A. Normal lung pattern on M-mode: the seashore sign. The motionless superficial layers generate horizontal lines (the waves). The deep artifacts follow the lung sliding, hence the sandy pattern. B. Exclusively horizontal lines are displayed, indicating complete absence of dynamics at the level of, and below, the pleural line, a pattern called the stratosphere sign. C. M-mode evaluation of the lung point: a sudden change from the seashore to the stratosphere sign is clearly visible (arrow). (Modified from Lichtenstein et al, 2000 48).

A. Normal lung pattern on M-mode: the seashore sign. The motionless superficial layers generate horizontal lines (the waves). The deep artifacts follow the lung sliding, hence the sandy pattern. B. Exclusively horizontal lines are displayed, indicating complete absence of dynamics at the level of, and below, the pleural line, a pattern called the stratosphere sign. C. M-mode evaluation of the lung point: a sudden change from the seashore to the stratosphere sign is clearly visible (arrow). (Modified from Lichtenstein et al, 2000 48).

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For many years the lung has been considered off-limits for ultrasound. However, it has been recently shown that lung ultrasound (LUS) may represent a useful tool for the evaluation of many pulmonary conditions in cardiovascular disease. The main application of LUS for the cardiologist is the assessment of B-lines. B-lines are reverberation artifact...

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Context 1
... sliding is the dynamic horizontal movement of the pleural line, synchronized with respiration (see addi- tional file 1). For objectifying and documenting normal lung sliding, M-mode yields a simple pattern, the sea- shore sign ( Figure 6, panel A). The presence of lung slid- ing allows PTX to be confidently discounted because the negative predictive value is 100% [44]. ...
Context 2
... presence of lung slid- ing allows PTX to be confidently discounted because the negative predictive value is 100% [44]. The abolition of lung sliding can be also evaluated by M-mode, which shows a characteristic pattern, the stratosphere sign ( Figure 6, panel B), opposed to the normal seashore sign. However, absent lung sliding does not always mean PTX. ...
Context 3
... corresponds to the point where visceral and parietal pleura regain contact with each other. M-mode performed at the lung point, shows a clear change from one pattern to the other [48], (Figure 6, panel C). ...

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