Fig 1 - uploaded by Aaron S Poteate
Content may be subject to copyright.
(A) Map of biogeographic regions (n 1⁄4 7) delineated from vector-borne (n 1⁄4 93) human-associated diseases based on presence by country (n 1⁄4 229). (B) Regions (n 1⁄4 5) for non-vector-borne diseases (n 1⁄4 208). Regions were created by hierarchical clustering using Ward ’ s distance. 

(A) Map of biogeographic regions (n 1⁄4 7) delineated from vector-borne (n 1⁄4 93) human-associated diseases based on presence by country (n 1⁄4 229). (B) Regions (n 1⁄4 5) for non-vector-borne diseases (n 1⁄4 208). Regions were created by hierarchical clustering using Ward ’ s distance. 

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
Since the work of Alfred Russel Wallace, biologists have sought to divide the world into biogeographic regions that reflect the history of continents and evolution. These divisions not only guide conservation efforts, but are also the fundamental reference point for understanding the distribution of life. However, the biogeography of human-associat...

Context in source publication

Context 1
... the distribution of these organisms remains poorly understood, perhaps in part because they are assumed to live everywhere we do. For diseases and the pathogens that cause them this assumption is wrong. The biogeographic regions for diseases caused by pathogens are robust to the statistical approaches used and are as distinct as the biogeographic regions of, for example, vertebrates, or plants. In other words, not only do biogeographic regions exist for diseases and disease causing pathogens (and likely other human associates), they are compa- rable in their delineation to the other established biogeographic regions, regions typically described as existing due to biogeographic history before the actions and movement of humans. The biogeographic regions for vectored diseases coincide in many respects with those recently derived for non-human vertebrates (Holt et al. 2013). Where it exists, the coincidence of these regions suggests that the same historic factors that influence the composition of wild birds, mammals, and amphibians also influence (whether directly or indirectly) which diseases are present in any particular region. While previous work has suggested strong links between climate and the diversity of pathogens or diseases globally (Guernier et al. 2004, Bonds et al. 2012), here we suggest something different: namely that, in addition to climate, history and geography have strong effects on which pathogens are where. That the impacts of history and geography are nearly as strong on diseases and their pathogens as on organisms such as mam- mals, which are superficially less mobile between regions, is both novel and somewhat surprising. The biogeographic regions of birds, mammals and other animals are the result of the geographic position of landmasses, plate tectonics, and chance dispersal events (e.g., Holt et al. 2013). Ultimately, these same factors must also play a role in the distribution of the pathogens that cause diseases whether directly or via their effects on alternate hosts and vectors. As a result, the precise mix of vectored diseases in any particular place is the result of not only climate, human migration, and attempts at disease control, but also millions of years of tectonics and chance dispersal (or failure to disperse). So long as our attempts to control vectored pathogens are incomplete, human health and wellbeing, culture, and even political stability are likely to continue to be influenced by this ancient history. However, the biogeographic regions for vectored diseases did depart from those of vertebrates in several interesting ways. For example, one of the biogeographic regions clearly defined for vectored diseases, Region 6, (Fig. 1) included portions of the Holarctic, but also included historically British colonized countries, such as Australia. From the perspective of vectored diseases, Australia is part of the same biogeographic region as England even though Australia is one of the most unique historical biogeographic regions in terms of birds or mammals (Wallace 1876, Holt et al. 2013). Similarly, India and Bangladesh, despite being climatically and ...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
Constitutions reflect the character and history of countries, particularly colonial legacy. While legal systems and constitutional texts are often "inherited" from a former coloniser, until now this has not been quantified and interplay with global policy trends and horizontal influence not well understood. In this paper we analyse the structure an...

Citations

... However, maps based on case reports rarely have fine enough spatial resolution for users in the most economically developed regions (Stengaard et al. 2017). In this context, biogeography provides tools for completing knowledge gaps, mostly through the application of distribution modeling (Peterson 2006;Kraemer et al. 2016), and through the search of biogeographic patterns associated with pathogens and diseases (Just et al. 2014;Murray et al. 2015). The analysis of distribution patterns involving disease co-occurrences in time and in space facilitates the search for causes of disease outbreak, severity and spread. ...
... Just as with animals and plants, regionalization based on pathogen species composition informs about the probable history of these organisms, and so of disease. Just et al. (2014) demonstrated the existence of pathogeographic regions resulting from the presence of climatic differences, diverging biogeographic histories (i.e. vicariant and dispersal events), and human cultural and historical idiosyncrasies. ...
... vicariant and dispersal events), and human cultural and historical idiosyncrasies. Vector-borne disease communities showed similar regionalizations to those detected in vertebrates (Holt et al. 2013), and the analysis of non-vector-borne pathogens reproduced the classical Wallace's (1876) regionalization, suggesting that, despite human migrations and efforts to control pathogens and vectors, climate and the zoogeographical history still influence the biogeography of disease (Just et al. 2014). However, the human efforts against disease, and also the colonial history, have left a trace in pathogeographic regionalizations that is deduced from the similar pathogen assemblages shown by Australia and parts of the Holarctic Region (Just et al. 2014). ...
Chapter
Freshwater ecosystems occupy only 2.3% of Earth's surface, yet they support an excessive portion of the world's most speciose and endemic taxa. They are estimated to harbor 12% of the world's fauna and one third (18,000 species) of the global vertebrate species richness. In this chapter, the author draws together threads of recent theoretical and empirical results and patterns at multiple scales; both may offer a useful roadmap of theoretical background for identifying new paths of investigation and future challenges into the field of freshwater biogeography, which needs to be considered to safeguard the status of aquatic ecosystems. Neotropics and Afrotropics are among the global hotspots of freshwater fish endemism. Recent findings in freshwaters underscore the importance of studying simultaneously historical processes, drainage basin characteristics and local environmental conditions to understand variation in species richness. Freshwater species richness and endemism patterns are the result of climate, productivity and biogeographical history.
... This is the case, for example, with human pathogens. The number of kinds of human pathogens is strongly correlated with the diversity of bird and mammals, whereas the identity of those pathogens is influenced by ancient biogeographic regions and the evolutionary histories they contain (Dunn et al. 2010;Just et al. 2014). ...
Article
The control of microbes in food has been as important to human societies as the domestication of plants and animals. The direct or indirect management of microbes has been critical to food safety, ensuring nutrient availability, and developing desired sensory characteristics in food. Fermentation is more universal than is agriculture inasmuch as it is practiced by agricultural societies, pastoralists, and hunter-gatherers. In addition, fermentation likely predates agriculture, potentially by hundreds of thousands of years. However, we lack a general approach to understanding of (a) when and why technologies associated with fermentation emerged and (b) how those technologies and the microbes associated with them diverged once they emerged. Here we offer a framework for the study of the diversification of fermented foods in and among human societies. In developing this framework, we draw heavily from research on language and more generally cultural diversification. © 2021 The Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research. All rights reserved.
... Plant biodiversity shows similar global patterns to bird and mammal diversity, largely due to their covariation with climate 25 (link 10), and diversity of vertebrate hosts increases the risk of infection through zoonotic events and by acting as a reservoir for human diseases 26 (link 14). Biodiversity could also drive an indirect association between spice use and poverty, because GDP is correlated with many aspects of biodiversity 27,28 , including pathogen diversity 29 and infectious disease 30 . However, we find no evidence of a significant association between mean spice use and the diversity of plant species or crop plants in the cuisine area (Table 2); nor do we find evidence of association between mean spice per recipe and the number of spices growing within the cuisine area (link 13: β=−0.04, ...
Article
Full-text available
Spicier food in hot countries has been explained in terms of natural selection on human cultures, with spices with antimicrobial effects considered to be an adaptation to increased risk of foodborne infection. However, correlations between culture and environment are difficult to interpret, because many cultural traits are inherited together from shared ancestors, neighbouring cultures are exposed to similar conditions, and many cultural and environmental variables show strong covariation. Here, using a global dataset of 33,750 recipes from 70 cuisines containing 93 different spices, we demonstrate that variation in spice use is not explained by temperature and that spice use cannot be accounted for by diversity of cultures, plants, crops or naturally occurring spices. Patterns of spice use are not consistent with an infection-mitigation mechanism, but are part of a broader association between spice, health, and poverty. This study highlights the challenges inherent in interpreting patterns of human cultural variation in terms of evolutionary pressures.
... Host attributes, such as phylogenetic relatedness or overlap in habitat use, are useful for predicting whether hosts share the same parasite species through ecological fitting (Streicker et al., 2010;Wells, O'Hara, Morand, Lessard, & Ribas, 2015) or how invasions into novel environments may result in novel host-parasite associations (Agosta & Klemens, 2008;Clark et al., 2017). Conversely, knowledge of whether species attributes such as demography, body size or diet increase the likelihood of sharing parasites with humans, and whether zoonotic disease burdens in humans or domestic animals exhibit biogeographical structure, remains sparse (Han, Schmidt, Bowden, & Drake, 2015;Just et al., 2014;Stephens et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in species distributions open novel parasite transmission routes at the human–wildlife interface, yet the strength of biotic and biogeographical factors that prevent or facilitate parasite host shifting are not well understood. We investigated global patterns of helminth parasite (Nematoda, Cestoda, Trematoda) sharing between mammalian wildlife species and domestic mammal hosts (including humans) using >24,000 unique country-level records of host–parasite associations. We used hierarchical modelling and species trait data to determine possible drivers of the level of parasite sharing between wildlife species and either humans or domestic animal hosts. We found the diet of wildlife species to be a strong predictor of levels of helminth parasite sharing with humans and domestic animals, followed by a moderate effect of zoogeographical region and minor effects of species’ habitat and climatic niches. Combining model predictions with the distribution and ecological profile data of wildlife species, we projected global risk maps that uncovered strikingly similar patterns of wildlife parasite sharing across geographical areas for the different domestic host species (including humans). These similarities are largely explained by the fact that widespread parasites are commonly recorded infecting several domestic species. If the dietary profile and position in the trophic chain of a wildlife species largely drives its level of helminth parasite sharing with humans/domestic animals, future range shifts of host species that result in novel trophic interactions may likely increase parasite host shifting and have important ramifications for human and animal health.
... pathogen type, transmission mode) also affect infectious disease αand β-diversity patterns (Fig. 5C). The strongest β-diversity patterns, for example, can be observed in zoonotic, vector-borne and parasitic infectious diseases, likely due to a more dominant role of environmental factors and persistence of historical dispersal barriers limiting their geographic distributions, while patterns of humanspecific diseases are far more homogenous at the global scale (Smith et al. 2007, Dunn et al. 2010, Just et al. 2014, Murray et al. 2015, Jean et al. 2016) (see also Box 3 Fig. panel D). ...
Article
Full-text available
Biogeography is an implicit and fundamental component of almost every dimension of modern biology, from natural selection and speciation to invasive species and biodiversity management. However, biogeography has rarely been integrated into human or veterinary medicine nor routinely leveraged for global health management. Here we review the theory and application of biogeography to the research and management of human infectious diseases, an integration we refer to as ‘pathogeography’. Pathogeography represents a promising framework for understanding and decomposing the spatial distributions, diversity patterns and emergence risks of human infectious diseases into interpretable components of dynamic socio-ecological systems. Analytical tools from biogeography are already helping to improve our understanding of individual infectious disease distributions and the processes that shape them in space and time. At higher levels of organization, biogeographical studies of diseases are rarer but increasing, improving our ability to describe and explain patterns that emerge at the level of disease communities (e.g., co-occurrence, diversity patterns, biogeographic regionalisation). Even in a highly globalized world most human infectious diseases remain constrained in their geographic distributions by ecological barriers to the dispersal or establishment of their causal pathogens, reservoir hosts and/or vectors. These same processes underpin the spatial arrangement of other taxa, such as mammalian biodiversity, providing a strong empirical ‘prior’ with which to assess the potential distributions of infectious diseases when data on their occurrence is unavailable or limited. In the absence of quality data, generalized biogeographic patterns could provide the earliest (and in some cases the only) insights into the potential distributions of many poorly known or emerging, or as-yet-unknown, infectious disease risks. Encouraging more community ecologists and biogeographers to collaborate with health professionals (and vice versa) has the potential to improve our understanding of infectious disease systems and identify novel management strategies to improve local, global and planetary health.
... R. Soc. B 372: 20160164 pathogens [38,39]. Globally, human pathogen richness has been shown to correlate positively with the spatial distribution of vertebrate species richness and negatively with healthcare spending [40]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper argues for an integrative modelling approach for understanding zoonoses disease dynamics, combining process, pattern and participatory models. Each type of modelling provides important insights, but all are limited. Combining these in a ‘3P’ approach offers the opportunity for a productive conversation between modelling efforts, contributing to a ‘One Health’ agenda. The aim is not to come up with a composite model, but seek synergies between perspectives, encouraging cross-disciplinary interactions. We illustrate our argument with cases from Africa, and in particular from our work on Ebola virus and Lassa fever virus. Combining process-based compartmental models with macroecological data offers a spatial perspective on potential disease impacts. However, without insights from the ground, the ‘black box’ of transmission dynamics, so crucial to model assumptions, may not be fully understood. We show how participatory modelling and ethnographic research of Ebola and Lassa fever can reveal social roles, unsafe practices, mobility and movement and temporal changes in livelihoods. Together with longer-term dynamics of change in societies and ecologies, all can be important in explaining disease transmission, and provide important complementary insights to other modelling efforts. An integrative modelling approach therefore can offer help to improve disease control efforts and public health responses. This article is part of the themed issue ‘One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being’.
... [8,49]), pathogen richness (e.g. [6,50]) or aggregated prevalence (e.g. bins of endemic, sporadic or not endemic summed across pathogens with different health impacts and ecologies [6]). ...
Article
Full-text available
Infectious disease burdens vary from country to country and year to year due to ecological and economic drivers. Recently, Murray et al. (Murray CJ et al. 2012 Lancet 380, 2197–2223. (doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61689-4)) estimated country-level morbidity and mortality associated with a variety of factors, including infectious diseases, for the years 1990 and 2010. Unlike other databases that report disease prevalence or count outbreaks per country, Murray et al. report health impacts in per-person disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), allowing comparison across diseases with lethal and sublethal health effects.We investigated the spatial and temporal relationships between DALYs lost to infectious disease and potential demographic, economic, environmental and biotic drivers, for the 60 intermediate-sized countries where data were available and comparable. Most drivers had unique associations with each disease. For example, temperature was positively associated with some diseases and negatively associated with others, perhaps due to differences in disease agent thermal optima, transmission modes and host species identities. Biodiverse countries tended to have high disease burdens, consistent with the expectation that high diversity of potential hosts should support high disease transmission. Contrary to the dilution effect hypothesis, increases in biodiversity over time were not correlated with improvements in human health, and increases in forestation over time were actually associated with increased disease burden. Urbanization andwealthwere associated with lower burdens for many diseases, a pattern that could arise from increased access to sanitation and healthcare in cities and increased investment in healthcare. The importance of urbanization and wealth helps to explain why most infectious diseases have become less burdensome over the past three decades, and points to possible levers for further progress in improving global public health.
... Harkins & Stone, 2015;Houldcroft & Underdown, 2016;Trueba & Dunthorn, 2012;Wolfe et al., 2007) highlight the gaps in our understanding of the origins of diseases, and especially their relationship with human evolution, behaviour and migration in Africa. Besides being the cradle of behaviourally modern Homo sapiens (d'Errico et al., 2012;Henshilwood et al., 2009Henshilwood et al., , 2011Mourre et al., 2010), sub-Saharan Africa also brings together exceptionally rich biodiversity with pathogen abundance (Just et al., 2014). Prehistoric sub-Saharan African populations who inhabited the region over the past 150,000 years are, therefore, believed to characterise the human ancient disease landscape. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The biology of human migration can be observed from the co-evolutionary relationship with infectious diseases. While many pathogens are brief, unpleasant visitors to human bodies, others have the ability to become life-long human passengers. The story of a pathogen's genetic code may, therefore, provide insight into the history of its human host. The evolution and distribution of disease in Africa is of particular interest, because of the deep history of human evolution in Africa, the presence of a variety of non-human primates, and tropical reservoirs of emerging infectious diseases. Methods: This study explores which pathogens leave traces in the archaeological record, and whether there are realistic prospects that these pathogens can be recovered from sub-Saharan African archaeological contexts. Results: Three stories are then presented of germs on a journey. The first is the story of HIV's spread on the back of colonialism and the railway networks over the last 150 years. The second involves the spread of Schistosoma mansoni, a parasite which shares its history with the trans-Atlantic slave trade and the origins of fresh-water fishing. Finally, we discuss the tantalising hints of hominin migration and interaction found in the genome of human herpes simplex virus 2. Conclusions: Evidence from modern African pathogen genomes can provide data on human behaviour and migration in deep time and contribute to the improvement of human quality-of-life and longevity.
... revue transmission de maladies. La validité de ce postulat est d'ailleurs renforcée dans les environnements néotropicaux où la diversité des habitats et des espèces procure une infinité de niches écologiques pour des virus à ARN [6]. En Amérique du Sud, plus de 1300 espèces de mammifères ont été décrites, ce qui représente 23 % de la diversité des mammifères à l'échelle mondiale [7]. ...
... revue transmission de maladies. La validité de ce postulat est d'ailleurs renforcée dans les environnements néotropicaux où la diversité des habitats et des espèces procure une infinité de niches écologiques pour des virus à ARN [6]. En Amérique du Sud, plus de 1300 espèces de mammifères ont été décrites, ce qui représente 23 % de la diversité des mammifères à l'échelle mondiale [7]. ...
Article
Among mammals, rodents play a key role in the emergence of viral diseases. In French Guiana, with 36 rodent species recorded in various ecosystems (pristine forests, savannas, anthropized environments), some natural habitats today encounter anthropogenic perturbations that induce changes in community structure and population dynamics. These modifications are sometimes associated with the circulation and emergence of viral pathogens. For 10 years, investigations on the circulation of two rodent-borne viruses, Hantavirus and Mammarenavirus, are underway in rodent populations as well as in humans for hantavirus. These investigations identified viruses from both genera in their potential reservoirs and allow describing the most favourable habitats for the reservoirs of hantavirus where the risk of viral emergence may be higher. We suggest to investigate how anthropic perturbations in rodent communities can drive the emergence of viruses that are currently confined to a small scale and search for evidence of infection in the human population.