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A Fitted Line Plot showing the correlation between Hip Fracture rates per 100 000 and Dairy Consumption, using data from 40 countries in Africa, Europe, Latin America, North America, Asia and Oceania.

A Fitted Line Plot showing the correlation between Hip Fracture rates per 100 000 and Dairy Consumption, using data from 40 countries in Africa, Europe, Latin America, North America, Asia and Oceania.

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This ecological correlation study explores the marked differential in osteoporosis susceptibility between East and West Africans. African tsetse belt populations are lactase non-persistent (lactose intolerant) and possess none of the genetic polymorphisms carried by lactase persistent (lactose tolerant) ethnic populations. What appears paradoxical,...

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Background and Aims There have been few reports on lactase deficiency (LD) and lactose intolerance (LI) in Malaysia, which has a peculiar mix of three distinct major Asian races—Malay, Chinese, and Indian. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of LD and LI in a young multiethnic Malaysian population. Methods Lactase activity was me...
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... It has been postulated that TRPV6 sequence variation among populations may have been influenced by domestication of milk-producing animals, beginning $10,000 years ago (27). The dairy farming that swept through Europe, parts of Africa, and much of the rest of the world did not take hold in West Africa due to the tsetse fly, thus calcium consumption in this region remained low ($200-400 mg/day; ref. 28). Surprisingly, West Africans do not develop osteoporosis, as do East Africans and others from dairy farming regions characterized by far higher calcium consumption (29). ...
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It is well established that African Americans exhibit higher incidence, higher mortality, and more aggressive forms of some cancers, including those of breast, prostate, colon, stomach, and cervix. Here we examine the ancestral haplotype of the TRPV6 calcium channel as a putative genomic factor in this racial divide. The minor (ancestral) allele frequency is 60% in people of African ancestry, but between 1 and 11% in all other populations. Research on TRPV6 structure/function, its association with specific cancers, and the evolutionary-ecological conditions which impacted selection of its haplotypes are synthesized to provide evidence for TRPV6 as a germline susceptibility locus in cancer. Recently elucidated mechanisms of TRPV6 channel deactivation are discussed in relation to the location of the allele favored in selection, suggesting a reduced capacity to inactivate the channel in those who have the ancestral haplotype. This could result in an excessively high cellular Ca2+, which has been implicated in cancer, for those in settings where calcium intake is far higher than in their ancestral environment. A recent report associating increasing calcium intake with a pattern of increase in aggressive prostate cancer in African-American but not European-American men may be related. If TRPV6 is found to be associated with cancer, further research would be warranted to improve risk assessment and examine interventions with the aim of improving cancer outcomes for people of African ancestry.
... 50 to prevent osteoporosis. However, some observational evidence suggests that increased milk consumption is associated with increased risk and prevalence for fractures, although the components in milk potentially accountable for this elevated risk have not been identified (Michaelsson et al. 2014;Hilliard 2016). One plausible explanation could be related to the pro-inflammatory effects of A1 betacasein protein fraction in milk (Haq, Kapila, Sharma, et al. 2014;Trivedi et al. 2015;Jianqin et al. 2016). ...
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... Even though 75% of AAs are lactase non-persistent (lactose intolerant), this group still consumes 400% more dietary calcium than its Niger-Kordofanian (NK) West African ancestors. A critical factor that has until now been overlooked is the fact that West Africans are virtually immune to osteoporosis even though their calcium consumption is only 200-400 mg/ day [5]. The calcium homeostatic mechanism is more efficient in this population on account of the TRPV6a variant working in synch with the A563T African variant of the TRPV5 gene, which functions to retain calcium in the body rather than expelling excess amounts in the urine [6]. ...
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... This ethnic population has a high bone mineral density and low rate of osteoporosis. Their bone health had been seen as a medical paradox for decades given the fact that their calcium intake was lower than that of Whites [1]. However, in reality they consume 400% more of this mineral than their African genetic ancestors. ...
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... people with these ethnic backgrounds, dietary calcium needs might not be nearly as high as people of northern European descent. 384 Given these differences, some have even suggested that dietary recommendations emphasizing dairy consumption are racially biased. 385 Beyond dairy products and fortified dairy alternatives, many other foods are good sources of calcium (with varying bioavailability), including leafy green vegetables ad (e.g., collard greens, kale, broccoli, bok choy, and Brussels sprouts), canned fish with bones, calcium-set tofu, black-eyed peas and white beans, sesame seeds, and almonds. ...
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In September 2016, an article in the British Journal of Cancer advised Black females to increase their calcium intake as a means of reducing their susceptibility to the disease. Due to the severity of the cancer among this population and the lack of therapeutic progress in combating it, this research was disseminated widely throughout the United States and given special attention in the African-American media. However, my own work as an applied African historian concludes that Black women should not be encouraged to consume more dietary calcium, as this will increase their risk of ovarian cancer. The reason is that this population carries an ethnic-specific variant of the TRPV6 calcium ion channel (referred to as TRPV6a), which is hypersensitive to carcinogenic-triggering free calcium ions. My work converges with a growing body of research, which identifies free calcium ions in excess of a body's biological setpoint for the mineral triggers metastatic cancers.
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Background Studies have shown wide variation in the prevalence of lactose malabsorption across the world, but no systematic reviews or meta-analyses have recently assessed the prevalence of lactose malabsorption in different geographical areas. We aimed to present an updated systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence of lactose malabsorption in adults, by countries and regions, and to assess the variation between different testing methods. Methods Studies reporting on prevalence of lactose malabsorption and lactase persistence were identified by searching MEDLINE and Embase from database inception to Nov 2, 2016. We evaluated studies presenting lactose malabsorption or lactase persistence prevalence data in adults and children aged 10 years or older, including cross-sectional and prospective studies, using genotyping, hydrogen breath tests, lactose tolerance tests, and other testing methods. We excluded studies in children younger than 10 years, studies using self-reported data, and studies including inpatients and outpatients at gastroenterological wards. Studies were screened by two authors (CLS and SKF) and data values were extracted by two authors (CLS and SKF) independently. The primary outcome was the prevalence of lactose malabsorption. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42017064802. Findings We screened 2665 records, and 306 study populations from 116 full-text articles were included (primary sources); data for 144 additional study populations from 59 articles were obtained from review articles, because full-text primary articles could not be obtained (secondary sources). Of the 450 study populations included, 231 were assessed by genotyping, 83 by hydrogen breath tests, 101 by lactose tolerance tests, and 35 by other methods or methods that were not described sufficiently. The studies included 62 910 participants from 89 countries (covering 84% of the world's population). When standardising for country size, the global prevalence estimate of lactose malabsorption was 68% (95% CI 64–72), ranging from 28% (19–37) in western, southern, and northern Europe to 70% (57–83) in the Middle East. When assessing the global prevalence using genotyping data only, the estimate was 74% (69–80), whereas prevalence was 55% (46–65) using lactose tolerance test data, and 57% (46–67) using hydrogen breath test data. Risk of bias was assessed based on ten indicators; 12 of the articles had a score of ten, indicating low risk of bias, 76 had a score of nine, 26 a score of eight, and two articles a score of seven (indicating higher risk of bias). There was substantial heterogeneity between studies within most of the assessed countries. Interpretation Lactose malabsorption is widespread in most of the world, with wide variation between different regions and an overall frequency of around two-thirds of the world's population. Acknowledging regional patterns of lactose malabsorption is important to guide management of gastrointestinal symptoms. Funding None.