(A) Example of the shoreline change sampling set-up showing cross-shore transects at 50 m spacing

(A) Example of the shoreline change sampling set-up showing cross-shore transects at 50 m spacing

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After New Zealand's 7.8 Mw Kaikōura earthquake in late 2016 an unexpected anthropogenic effect involved increased motorised vehicle access to beaches. We show how these effects were generated by landscape reconfiguration associated with coastal uplift and widening of high-tide beaches, and present analyses of the distribution of natural environment...

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Context 1
... A set of 720 cross-shore (perpendicular to the shoreline) transects were generated at 50 m intervals 148 along a smoothed baseline prepared from the pre-quake high tide line using the ambur package in R 149 (Jackson et al. 2012). Intersection analyses in a GIS environment were used to compute cross-shore 150 beach width and shoreline changes in relation to the timing of the earthquake (Figure 2). To examine 151 spatial co-occurrence patterns, a complementary set of belt transects, each 50 m wide at the 152 baseline, was generated in a northward direction from the first transect origin at Waima River in the 153 south. ...
Context 2
... provide a more direct test of the risk of vehicle strikes, an artificial nest experiment was 193 conducted at two sites after the breeding season. These experiments used quail eggs which are very 194 similar to banded dotterel eggs in size and colouration and were deployed in shallow scrapes to 195 provide a close representation of banded dotterel nests (Supplementary Material, Figure S2 All nests were monitored weekly for nest failures which were classified according to five 209 classes of threats (vehicle strike, trampling by horses, avian predation, small mammal predation, and 210 . CC-BY-NC 4.0 International license perpetuity. ...
Context 3
... strikes were readily identifiable from 211 recent tracking and the observation of crushed nests, as was the single example of trampling by 212 horses. Avian predation was evidenced by the observation of peck marks with the egg shell being 213 typically crushed inwards (Supplementary Material, Figure S2). Small mammal predation was 214 recorded at a few nests where it was associated with partially eaten eggs. ...

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