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A-C. Maximum likelihood tree based on 185 ETS sequences; 164 sequences represent the genus Salicornia ; number of character changes above branches, posterior probabilities ( > 75) resulting from the Bayesian analysis below branches.

A-C. Maximum likelihood tree based on 185 ETS sequences; 164 sequences represent the genus Salicornia ; number of character changes above branches, posterior probabilities ( > 75) resulting from the Bayesian analysis below branches.

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Article
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In this study we analysed ETS sequence data of 164 accessions belonging to 31 taxa of Salicornia, a widespread, hygrohalophytic genus of succulent, annual herbs of Chenopodiaceae subfam. Salicornioideae, to investigate phylogenetic and biogeographical patterns and hypothesise about the processes that shaped them. Furthermore, our aim was to underst...

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... Salicornia is an important genus including in Amaranthaceae family. All plant species in this genus are succulent annuals joins from 25 to 30 species present in Eurasia, North America and Africa [1] . Salicornia and Sarcocornia species are excellent investment for saline agriculture due to their high tolerance to salinity [2] . ...
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Terminal shoots of a succulent true halophyte Salicornia europaea was collected from two sites along the Damietta- Port Said coastal road, Egypt during winter and summer, 2019 to determine osmotic potential (op), water content, ash content, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, proline and soluble sugars. Also, associated soil was taken from rhizosphere area to investigate soil physical and chemical characters. Water content, op, Ca, Mg and soluble sugars were reduced in summer, while Na, K, Cl and proline were increased in summer season. All determined parameters were higher in S. europaea growing at site 2 than those growing at site 1 except in water content did not change significantly. A strong negative correlation was detected between EC of soil and both water content and Mg content in shoot of S. europaea. In contrast, strong positive correlations were detected between Na and EC, soil moisture, Cl and ash content. Moreover, strong positive correlations were detected among Ca & op, Mg & water content, proline & K, soluble sugars with soil moisture and Ca. Due to high accumulation of ash content, S. europaea can be invested in saline soil reclamation.
... Salicornia is distributed worldwide in temperate and subtropical habitats, excluding South America and Australia [4]. According to James J. Woods, the species Salicornia ramosissima, popularly known as green samphire, is included in the species aggregate S. europea, being a halophyte widely distributed in the salt marshes of the Iberian Peninsula. ...
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This study aims to validate a new cosmetic ingredient from Salicornia ramosissima S J. Woods through in vitro and ex vivo assays. The halophyte extracts were obtained by subcritical water extraction (SWE) at different temperatures (110, 120, 140, 160 and 180 °C). The antioxidant/radical scavenging activities and the phenolic profile were screened for all extracts. The optimal extract was assessed in keratinocytes and fibroblasts, while permeation assays were performed in Franz cells. The inhibitory activity of hyaluronidase and elastase was also evaluated. The sample extracted at 180 °C presented the highest phenolic content (1739.28 mg/100 g of dry weight (dw)). Despite not being efficient in the sequestration of ABTS•+, this extract scavenged the DPPH• (IC50 = 824.57 µg/mL). The scavenging capacity of superoxide (O2•−) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) was also considerable (respectively, IC50 = 158.87 µg/mL and IC50 = 5.80 µg/mL). The cell viability assays confirmed the absence of negative effects on keratinocytes, while the fibroblasts’ viability slightly decreased. The ex vivo permeation of rutin, quercetin and syringic acid after 24 h was, respectively, 11, 20 and 11%. Additionally, the extract showed a good elastase and hyaluronidase inhibitory activity. The results obtained support the S. ramosissima bioactivity as a cosmetic ingredient.
... often start their life cycles in spring as green plants, gradually become reddish-yellow in autumn and die in winter. In taxonomical terms, the Salicornia genus is complex with several species, aggregates and subspecies [3]. All around the world, Salicornia spp. ...
... Although no consensus about the precise numbers of recognized species has been reached, the Salicornia genus has 25-30 species [3]. A complex taxonomy has resulted from the high physiological adaptability level combined with a very restricted leaf and flower morphology that only provides a few identifying features [3,32]. ...
... Although no consensus about the precise numbers of recognized species has been reached, the Salicornia genus has 25-30 species [3]. A complex taxonomy has resulted from the high physiological adaptability level combined with a very restricted leaf and flower morphology that only provides a few identifying features [3,32]. The names Salicornia europaea L. and Salicornia herbacea L. have been broadly used to refer to a variety of genotypes due to taxonomic definition difficulties, and many names have been given to the same species depending on the area [26,32]. ...
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Excessive sodium (salt) intake in our diet is a main contributor to hypertension and a major risk factor for cardiovascular illnesses. As a result, research has made great efforts to develop salt alternatives, and Salicornia spp. offers a very high potential in the food industry for its promising functional characteristics. This review focuses on the nutritional profile, health effects and commercial potential of three specific species of the Salicornia genus: S. bigelovii, S. brachiata and S. herbacea. It also addresses the methods that are used to produce them as salt substitutes. Owing to the antinutritional and anti-inflammatory effects of its bioactive compounds, Salicornia spp. can serve as an organic biological preservative in foods with better consumer appeal when compared with chemical preservatives that are common in the food industry. Overall, the commercial use of these underutilized species will help to improve food security.
... [11][12][13] Salicornia is a genus of halophyte herbs belonging to the Amatanthaceae family, with species endemic to every continent except South America and Australia. 14 The genus Salicornia includes 117 species, with S. herbacea, S. bigelovii, S. europea, S. prostata, S. ramosissima, and S. verginica being the most widespread. The plants are distributed extensively throughout Europe's shorelines, from the Arctic to the Mediterranean and including the Caspian and Black Sea. 15 Salicornia dolichostachya is a species native to European boreo-temperate biomes, where it acts as a pioneer plant in coastal areas, acquiring most of the nutrients from ooding seawater. ...
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Halophytes are a potential source of lignocellulosic material for biorefinery, as they can be grown in areas unsuitable for the cultivation of crops aimed at food production. To enable the viable use of halophytes in biorefineries, the present study investigated how different organosolv process parameters affected the fractionation of green pressed fibers of Salicornia dolichostachya. We produced pretreated solids characterized by up to 51.3% ± 1.7% cellulose, a significant increase from 25.6% ± 1.3% in untreated fibers. A delignification yield of as high as 60.7%, and hemicellulose removal of as high as 86.1% were also achieved in the current study. The obtained cellulose could be completely converted to glucose via enzymatic hydrolysis within 24 h. The lignin fractions obtained were of high purity, with sugar contamination of only 1.22% w/w and ashes below 1% w/w in most samples. Finally, up to 29.1% ± 0.4% hemicellulose was recovered as a separate product, whose proportion of oligomers to total sugars was 69.9% ± 3.0%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in which Salicornia fibers are shown to be a suitable feedstock for organosolv biomass fractionation. These results expand the portfolio of biomass sources for biorefinery applications.
... The separation between them is based especially on differences in two characters: the inflorescence and the life form (Steffen et al. 2015). In fact, Sarcocornia groups about 16 perennials species with flowers arranged in horizontal row (Kadereit et al. 2007), whereas Salicornia comprises 21 annual species with triangularly arranged flowers (Zhu and Sanderson 2017). Both genera can contribute to the most promising strategies for sustainable agriculture in marginal environment . ...
... This plasticity make very difficult to determine most species, especially within the Salicornia genus based on morphological criteria. The name Salicornia europaea L. is frequently used in broad sense to include most of the species in this genus (Kadereit et al. 2007). Herbarium material is insufficient to characterize the phenotypic variation in Salicornia and Sarcocornia because colors vanish with time and key characters are no longer measurable (Kadereit et al. 2012). ...
... The external transcribed spacer (ETS) region of the rDNA and the atpB-rbcL chloroplast marker were also used to resolve phylogenetic relationships within Salicornioideae (Soltis et al. 2008;Kadereit et al. 2012). Kadereit et al. (2007) assumed that ETS are three times more informative than ITS sequences in phylogenetic analysis of Salicornia. ...
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This work represents a morphological and molecular study of Salicornia and Sarcocornia species growing in the southern dryland of Tunisia. Internal transcribed spacers of the rDNA (ITS) data of six specimens from seven locations are analyzed. Flowers and seeds of Sarcocornia and Salicornia specimens are also compared. The results confirm the presence of Sarcocornia fruticosa (L.) A.J. Scott and two newly recorded species (Sarcocornia alpini (Lag.) Rivas Mart. and Salicornia emerici Duval-Jouve) in Tunisia. Flowers and seeds can be used to discriminate between the different specimens. Sarcocornia flowers have horizontal arrangement while Salicornia ones have triangular arrangement. The rounded and black seeds of S. fruticosa are the biggest. S. emerici seeds are light brown and elongated while those of S. alpini are flattened and dark brown.
... Moreover, ETS has been used in many studies to achieve species-level identification [18,19]. In Salicornia, the ETS has been used more effectively and is found to be informative at the genera level [20]. However, it has a low resolution at the species level [21]. ...
... Three plastid barcode regions (rbcL, matK, and trnH-psbA) and the nuclear ribosomal barcode regions (Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) and External Transcribed Spacer (ETS)) were amplified via Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) (Biorad, USA and Applied Biosystems Veriti Thermal Cycler, USA) using forward and reverse primers of rbcL [41,42], matK (proposed by Ki-Joong Kim, see [43]), trnH-psbA [44,45], ITS2 [46,47] and ETS [20] (S1 Table). The 25ul PCR reaction using a 5x FIREPol master mix was prepared to amplify the respective barcode region. ...
... The species concept was ultimately challenged within these two by molecular analyses, where S. procumbens, S. persica tend to exhibit monophyla and are hence regarded as cryptic species. Moreover, both phylogenetic [20] and population genetic [61] data could indicate that the difference between their habitats rather than morphology accounts for the observed patterns of genetic variation. ...
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The Salicornia L. has been considered one of the most taxonomically challenging genera due to high morphological plasticity, intergradation between related species, and lack of diagnostic features in preserved herbarium specimens. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), only one species of this genus, Salicornia europaea, has been reported, though investigating its identity at the molecular level has not yet been undertaken. Moreover, based on growth form and morphology variation between the Ras-Al-Khaimah (RAK) population and the Umm-Al-Quwain (UAQ) population, we suspect the presence of different species or morphotypes. The present study aimed to initially perform species identification using multilocus DNA barcode markers from chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA), followed by the genetic divergence between two populations (RAK and UAQ) belonging to two different coastal localities in the UAE. The analysis resulted in high-quality multilocus barcode sequences subjected to species discrimination through the unsupervised OTU picking and supervised learning methods. The ETS sequence data from our study sites had high identity with the previously reported sequences of Salicornia persica using NCBI blast and was further confirmed using OTU picking methods viz., TaxonDNAs Species identifier and Assemble Species by Automatic Partitioning (ASAP). Moreover, matK sequence data showed a non-monophyletic relationship, and significant discrimination between the two populations through alignment-based unsupervised OTU picking, alignment-free Co-Phylog, and alignment & alignment-free supervised learning approaches. Other markers viz., rbcL, trnH-psbA, ITS2, and ETS could not distinguish the two populations individually, though their combination with matK (cpDNA & cpDNA+nrDNA) showed enough population discrimination. However, the ITS2+ETS (nrDNA) exhibited much higher genetic divergence, further splitting both the populations into four haplotypes. Based on the observed morphology, genetic divergence, and the number of haplotypes predicted using the matK marker, it can be suggested that two distinct populations (RAK and UAQ) do exist. Further extensive morpho-taxonomic studies are required to determine the inter-population variability of Salicornia in the UAE. Altogether, our results suggest that S. persica is the species that grow in the present study area in UAE, and do not support previous treatments as S. europaea.
... Salicornia species (glasswort) are succulent annual halophytes, belonging to Amaranthaceae family, and found at the edges of wetlands, marshes, sea shores, and mudflats, actually on most alkaline flats in temperate to subtropical countries with its center of distribution around the Mediterranean, Caspian, and Red Sea (Kadereit et al. 2007). Similar to P. oleracea, Salicornia species has been historically employed for both edible (Ozturk et al. 2018) and medicinal (Biswas et al. 2018) purposes. ...
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Nitrate is a common form of nitrogen fertilizer, and its excess application combined with easy leaching from agricultural fields causes water and soil contamination, hazards on human health, and eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. Compared to other pollutants, the application of phytoremediation technology for nitrate-contaminated sites has received less attention. Nitrophilous halophyte species are suitable candidates for this purpose particularly by application of additional treatments for assisting nitrate accumulation. In this work, two annual halophyte species, Portulaca oleracea and Salicornia europaea were studied for their phytoremediation capacity of nitrate-contaminated water and soils. Plants were treated with three nitrate levels (2, 14, and 50 mM) combined with either selenium (10 µM as Na2SeO4) or salt (100 mM NaCl) in the hydroponics and sand culture medium, respectively. A fast growth and production of higher biomass enables P. oleracea for higher nitrate removal compared with S. europaea in both experiments. In S. europaea, both selenium and salt treatments enhanced nitrate removal competence through increasing the biomass and nitrate uptake or assimilation capacity. Salt treatment, however, reduced these parameters in P. oleracea. Based on data, selenium-assisted phytoremediation of nitrate contamination is a feasible strategy for both species and S. europaea is better suited to nitrate-contaminated saline water and soils. Nitrate accumulation in both species, however, exceeds that of the permitted nitrate level in the forage crops suggesting that the phytoremediation byproducts could not be consumed and other management strategies should be applied to the residual biomass.
... Studies have shown that fluctuations in soil and water salinity lead to physiological and phenotypic changes in the plant. Also, high plant density in a population restricts the number of branches and glaciers formed in the plant [13]. Selfpollination in plants, especially in diploid species, due to the flower's unique structure, leads to the formation of various local populations in Salicornia [5]. ...
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Background: Salicornia is a halophyte plant capable of being irrigated with seawater, which can be used as an alternative food. Given this, it is necessary to study the potentials of this plant's morphological diversity in the natural environment. In this study, 33 wild populations of Salicornia were collected from different geographical areas around Urmia Lake during the flowering stage, and 55 morphological traits and 25 ISSR loci of the plant were analyzed. Based on morphological and molecular traits and the cluster analysis, Salicornia populations were divided into four and two groups, respectively. Results: Overall, the high percentage of polymorphic loci (65.69%), the average number of effective alleles per locus (1.63), and the Shannon data index (0.540) indicate that ISSR markers was used to identify genetic diversity. Molecular data cluster analysis divided the studied populations into two main groups, which included 12.12% and 87.88% of the populations, respectively. Based on the effective analysis of the population's genetic structure and the precise classification of individuals into suitable sub-populations, the value of K=2 was calculated. Conclusions: The research findings indicated that the populations of Salicornia have a considerable diversity in morphological traits. Furthermore, markers UBC823, B, A7, and K, as well as markers with the Shannon index, effective allele, and large heterozygosis values, are the most effective markers in comparison with other markers used in this study. The findings of this study will aid in parental selection studies for breeding programs of Salicornia in future.
... Our findings are supported by the ecology and the evolutionary trends within this lineage of species. In the Mediterranean, the two genera grow in close sympatry but are separated ecologically [16]. Salicornia dominates inland or coastal lagoons which may remain flooded for longer periods after winter rains. ...
... Salicornia dominates inland or coastal lagoons which may remain flooded for longer periods after winter rains. By acquiring an annual life cycle, Salicornia species were able to adapt to more unstable habitats and to expand to colder northern areas [16]. European Sarcorcornia are frost sensitive and grow only in winter-mild Atlantic coasts or drier Mediterranean areas [14]. ...
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Current agricultural problems, such as the decline of freshwater and fertile land, foster saline agriculture development. Salicornia and Sarcocornia species, with a long history of human consumption, are ideal models for developing halophyte crops. A greenhouse experiment was set up to compare the response of the perennial Sarcocornia fruticosa and the two annual Salicornia europaea and S. veneta to 30 days of salt stress (watering with 700 mM NaCl) and water deficit (complete withholding of irrigation) separate treatments, followed by 15 days of recovery. The three species showed high tolerance to salt stress, based on the accumulation of ions (Na+, Cl−, Ca2+) in the shoots and the synthesis of organic osmolytes. These defence mechanisms were partly constitutive, as active ion transport to the shoots and high levels of glycine betaine were also observed in non-stressed plants. The three halophytes were sensitive to water stress, albeit S. fruticosa to a lesser extent. In fact, S. fruticosa showed a lower reduction in shoot fresh weight than S. europaea or S. veneta, no degradation of photosynthetic pigments, a significant increase in glycine betaine contents, and full recovery after the water stress treatment. The observed differences could be due to a better adaptation of S. fruticosa to a drier natural habitat, as compared to the two Salicornia species. However, a more gradual stress-induced senescence in the perennial S. fruticosa may contribute to greater drought tolerance in this species.
... Presence in habitats with changing seasonal and even daily dynamics has led to high physiological plasticity in plants [2]. This results in phenotypic variability and problems with establishing acceptable systematics [3]. Despite the high phenotypic variability, several common features can be distinguished [4,5]. ...
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Salicornia europaea L. grows in areas periodically flooded by salty or brackish water. It has potential economic value, because it can be used as food, forage, or biofuel, and has potential in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Increasing interest in S. europaea is due to its extreme salt tolerance and well growth in marginal saline soils. However, the variation in its functional traits in response to environmental conditions is still poorly studied. There are still questions regarding the optimal level of salinity for different traits. Therefore, we worked to address the question if S. europaea traits from different scales are controlled by salinity level. Based on performed pot experiment, we found that almost all traits are salinity dependent but affected in different ways. We demonstrated that morphological, biomass, and anatomical properties indicate optimum growth between 200 and 400 mM NaCl and growth limitations at 0, 800, and 1000 mM NaCl. Moreover, we found the most affected traits which include photosynthetic pigments and protein content, plant surface area, peroxidase activity, and anatomic traits related to cell shape. Our results significantly expanded the knowledge about S. europaea functional traits variation in response to salinity, which can be important for discovering regulating processes and for possible future agricultural applications.