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72-story high-rise building (Tower 2). (a) Perspective view; (b) Typical floor plan; (c) Vertical section.

72-story high-rise building (Tower 2). (a) Perspective view; (b) Typical floor plan; (c) Vertical section.

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Article
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The automatic monitoring of shortenings of vertical members in high-rise buildings under construction is a challenging issue in the high-rise building construction field. In this study, a practical system for monitoring column shortening in a high-rise building under construction is presented. The proposed monitoring system comprises the following...

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Context 1
... proposed system was applied to the construction site of actual high-rise buildings to be used for residential purposes as shown in Figure 5. The buildings are composed of two towers (tower 1: 66 stories; tower 2: 72 stories). ...
Context 2
... buildings are composed of two towers (tower 1: 66 stories; tower 2: 72 stories). A typical floor plan for the towers is shown in Figure 5b. Reinforced concrete shear walls, outriggers, and belt trusses were used as the lateral load resisting system for the towers (Figure 5c), and the exterior columns were designed to be steel reinforced concrete columns. ...
Context 3
... typical floor plan for the towers is shown in Figure 5b. Reinforced concrete shear walls, outriggers, and belt trusses were used as the lateral load resisting system for the towers (Figure 5c), and the exterior columns were designed to be steel reinforced concrete columns. ...

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Citations

... Calculation of accurate values of DAS requires knowledge of concrete properties, reinforcement ratio in vertical elements, sequence of construction, and age of structural elements [14]. Previous research concluded that DAS is best estimated using staged-construction analysis (SCA) [7,11,[22][23][24]. ...
... The aforementioned authors strongly recommend creation of a complete analytical model to study the effects of storey-by-storey PT on both slabs and vertical elements. The literature on SCA generally focused on investigating shortening of vertical members [7,11,23,24], but much less focus on behaviour of floors. Effects of SCA on PT slab bending moments, total stresses, and punching stresses are still uncertain. ...
Article
Adopting post-tensioned slabs for high-rise buildings became an efficient solution to achieve thinner slabs, longer spans, and better durability compared to non-PT slabs. Building codes require PT slabs to be designed during both service and ultimate stages. During service stage, accurate analysis of PT slabs is critical as redistribution of moments in continuous flexural members is not allowed. One-step analysis (OSA) is commonly adopted during design of HRB, where gravity and lateral loads are applied on a complete structure at once. However, inadequacy of this approach was proven due to neglecting the sequential nature of loading, time-dependent behaviour of concrete, and leveling of floors during construction. The current paper investigates the impact of using staged-construction analysis (SCA) of HRB on behaviour of PT slabs. Comprehensive finite element models are developed to conduct SCA of 15 different HRBs with PT slabs having various heights and layouts. PT slab analysis is conducted using 3D modelling of a complete building rather than 2D modelling. Comparisons are made between OSA, SCA, and SCA with time-dependent effects. Afterwards, a series of design comparisons are made to evaluate the design of the PT slabs during service and ultimate stages. The results show that the maximum differential axial shortening between vertical members is in the uppermost storyes due to OSA, and the middle storeys due to SCA. A difference between the analysis approaches is found between service moments, service tensile stresses, slab precompression, the demanded punching stress and the demanded ultimate moment.
... Consequently, the elastic strain is about 40% to 49% of measured overall strain. These results are comparable with the outcomes of similar research performed by Glisic et al. (2003Glisic et al. ( , 2005 on the nineteenth story tower of Punggol EC26 in Singapore and Choi et al. (2013) on the Twin Towers (one is 66 stories high and the other is 72 stories). ...
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... Công tác đo quan trắc co ngắn hiện trường được thực hiện ngay sau khi đổ bê tông cột của tầng đầu tiên và theo dõi thường xuyên liên tục trong suốt giai đoạn xây dựng và có thể cả trong quá trình sử dụng. Thu thập dữ liệu đo để đơn vị tư vấn thiết kế phân tích dự báo lại giá trị co ngắn trong giai đoạn xây dựng [12]. ...
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Trong bài báo này tác giả trình bày quy trình bù co cột nhà siêu cao tầng bằng phương pháp bù co di chuyển tối ưu MCO (Moving Compensation Optimization). Phương pháp MCO đã được nghiên cứu, tính toán bằng máy tính và tỏ rõ sự ưu việt khi có lượng nhóm bù co tối thiểu, giá trị bù của mỗi nhóm tối ưu và các giá trị vênh co sau bù được kiểm soát tốt trong giới hạn cho phép của yêu cầu kỹ thuật so với các phương pháp bù co gộp nhóm đều, bù co gộp nhóm di chuyển và bù co gộp nhóm tối ưu. Quy trình bù co theo MCO được áp dụng cho tòa nhà Lotte Center Hanoi cao 70 tầng và chứng tỏ được sự linh hoạt hiệu quả khi điều chỉnh phương án bù trong giai đoạn thi công thực tế, xử lý được các tình huống phát sinh cụ thể do biến động co ngắn cột xảy ra trong tiến trình xây dựng.
... Additionally, in order to enhance the applicability of the dual-purpose outrigger systems, Kim et al. [19] also investigated the amount of stress developed on the outrigger due to the reductions of the lateral displacement and differential axial shortening. On the other hand, Choi et al. [20] performed on-site measurements for determining column shortenings in a highrise building. The monitoring system was applied to actual 66 th floor and 72 nd floor of a 72-storey high-rise building for automatic and real-time measurements of the shortening of vertical members to achieve more precise construction. ...
Article
High-rise reinforced concrete buildings have technical, economic and environmental advantages for high density development and they have become a distinctive feature for densely populated urban areas around the world. For this purpose, structural design of high-rise reinforced concrete buildings have become forward and particularly serviceability requirements gained more interest. Differential shortening of vertical members is one of the serviceability requirements; however, only a limited number of studies exist. In this study, a practical compensation method was proposed for the differential shortening of columns and shear walls in high-rise reinforced concrete buildings. In the proposed compensation method, vertical members were grouped and the total error was aimed to be minimized by penalizing the higher shortening differences in the groups to simplify the process of building construction. In order to validate the proposed method, a 32-storey high-rise building that was built in Izmir Turkey was investigated considering both the construction sequence and time-dependent effects as shrinkage and creep. Vertical shortening of columns and shear walls in the tower part of the building were calculated. Uniform-grouped compensation method and the proposed penalized errors compensation method with using L1-norm and L2-norm were applied for differential shortenings of columns and shear walls with considering different numbers of member groups. The magnitude of errors for each compensation method was presented and evaluated. Results of the numerical study reveal that the proposed penalized errors compensation method was capable of determining the compensation errors by minimizing the maximum errors efficiently.
... Công tác đo quan trắc co ngắn hiện trường được thực hiện ngay sau khi đổ bê tông cột của tầng đầu tiên và theo dõi thường xuyên liên tục trong suốt giai đoạn xây dựng và có thể cả trong quá trình sử dụng. Thu thập dữ liệu đo để đơn vị tư vấn thiết kế phân tích dự báo lại giá trị co ngắn trong giai đoạn xây dựng [12]. ...
... Other than temporary structures, there are cases of monitoring of construction of high-rise buildings. Choi et al. studied column shortening effects of high-rise buildings with wireless strain sensing system in real-time [11]. The sensors are embedded in the column while it is being constructed. ...
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Automated construction involves complex interactions between machines and humans. Unless all possible scenarios involving construction and equipment are carefully evaluated, it may lead to failure of the structure or may cause severe accidents. Hence monitoring of automated construction is very important and sensors should be deployed for obtaining information about the actual state of the structure and the equipment. However, interpreting data from sensors is a great challenge. In this research, a methodology has been developed for monitoring in automated construction. The overall methodology involves a combination of traditional model-based system identification and machine learning techniques. The scope of this paper is limited to the machine learning module of the methodology. The efficacy of this approach is tested and evaluated using experiments involving the construction of a steel structural frame with one storey and one bay. The construction is carried out by a top-to-bottom method. During the construction of the frame, 99 base cases of normal operations are involved. 158 base cases of possible failures have been enumerated. Failure cases involve, for example, certain lifting platforms moving faster than others, improper connections of joints, etc. Strain gauges and accelerometers are installed on the structure and the data from these sensors are used to determine possible failure scenarios. Preliminary results indicate that machine learning has good potential for identifying activities and states in automated construction.
... Therefore the transient thermal effects cannot be accounted for, making it difficult to do a meaningful comparison between the measurements and the predicted deformation: essentially one is comparing the predicted shortening due to load, creep and shrinkage, with the actual shortening due to all actions including thermal expansion or contraction at the time of measurement. An alternative, or addition, to manual measurements is to have an embedded displacement monitoring system, such as the ones described by Kim & Cho (2005) using vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs), by Choi et al. (2013) using VWSG-based wireless sensor nodes, and by Glisic et al. (2013) using fibre optic long-gauge strain sensors (SOFO). Such embedded systems have thus far used point sensors, and therefore were limited to measuring displacement at just one or a few levels. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The floor-to-floor axial shortening of vertical load-bearing elements is an important factor in the design and construction of high-rise buildings. Contractors need to allow for the expected final compression of columns and walls due to superimposed load, concrete creep and shrinkage, particularly when installing finishes and partitions in lower floors, while the building has not yet been completed. An added complication arises from the differential shortening between elements of different stiffness. This axial shortening is predicted by designers using empirical models, in advance of construction. However, in practice, the shortening at every level cannot be measured continuously using traditional surveying measurement techniques during construction. Therefore, a monitoring system using distributed fibre optic sensors (DFOS) measuring strain and temperature, is being installed during the construction of Principal Tower, a 50-storey reinforced concrete building in London. DFOS sensors are being embedded inside two columns and two walls as the construction progresses. Using the strain and temperature data acquired from this system, the axial deformation relative to the ground level can be calculated along the whole height of the completed elements, at any time during the construction. Thus, the engineers and contractors are able to verify their predictions and adjust their assumptions if necessary. A selection of the data acquired during the construction of the first 17 levels of the building is presented. These data have shown that the amount of shortening experienced by a member is influenced by the member's stiffness and size. The monitoring data have also revealed that thermal movement has a significant effect on the overall axial displacement of the building.
... However, due to the difficulty of installing and maintaining sensors, instrumentation of high-rise buildings to measure axial shortening is far from systematic. Some examples of such monitoring include the use of embedded vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs) at six levels of a 69-storey building [6]; VWSG-based wireless sensor nodes at two levels of a 66-storey and two levels of a 72storey building [7]; and fibre optic long-gauge strain sensors (SOFO) in the ground level of ten columns of a 19-storey building [8]. ...
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A novel approach is being used to measure the progressive axial shortening of key structural elements of Principal Tower, a 50-storey reinforced concrete building in London, as it is being built. Distributed fibre optic sensor (DFOS) cables are embedded inside two columns and two core walls, from which the axial strain profile can be measured along the whole height of the constructed elements. Measurements are being taken regularly throughout the construction process, making it possible to observe the change in strain, and thus the axial shortening, within these elements, at any stage of the construction. This helps the design engineers and contractor verify the predicted differential shortening and adjust the column height presets if necessary. The purpose of this paper is to describe the monitoring system and to present initial data recorded from the first five levels of the building.
... It is considered that a larger number of sensors are needed to be installed and tested. Choi et al. [11] monitored column shortenings of 72 story high-rise building, located in Busan, Korea, with the wireless sensor system. 20 strain sensors were installed in 2 floors and monitored by wireless measurement system. ...
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A comparative field measurement for column shortening of tall buildings is presented in this study, with a focus on the reliability and stability of a wireless sensor network. A wireless sensor network was used for monitoring the column shortenings of a 58-story building under construction. The wireless sensor network, which was composed of sensor and master nodes, employed the ultra-high-frequency band and CDMA communication methods. To evaluate the reliability and stability of the wireless sensor network system, the column shortenings were also measured using a conventional wired monitoring system. Two vibration wire gauges were installed in each of the selected 7 columns and 3 walls. Measurements for selected columns and walls were collected for 270 days after casting of the concrete. The results measured by the wireless sensor network were compared with the results of the conventional method. The strains and column shortenings measured using both methods showed good agreement for all members. It was verified that the column shortenings of tall buildings could be monitored using the wireless sensor network system with its reliability and stability.
... In fact, SHM for building structures has advanced to the point at which it can be applied to actual buildings. Various studies have been carried out on SHM, ranging from SHM for the safety evaluation of members in buildings [1][2][3][4] to SHM of actual large and high-rise buildings [5][6][7][8][9][10]. However, the global behavior and response of a structure cannot be identified by using only the structural responses measured with sensors installed locally in the structure. ...
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Abstract This paper presents a new vision-based system identification (SI) technique for building structures by using a motion capture system (MCS). The MCS with outstanding capabilities for dynamic response measurements can provide gage-free measurements of vibrations through the convenient installation of multiple markers. In this technique, from the dynamic displacement responses measured by MCS, the dynamic characteristics (natural frequency, mode shape, and damping ratio) of building structures are extracted after the processes of converting the displacement from MCS to acceleration and conducting SI by frequency domain decomposition. A free vibration experiment on a three-story shear frame was conducted to validate the proposed technique. The SI results from the conventional accelerometer-based method were compared with those from the proposed technique and showed good agreement, which confirms the validity and applicability of the proposed vision-based SI technique for building structures. Furthermore, SI directly employing MCS measured displacements to FDD was performed and showed identical results to those of conventional SI method.