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-6. Four Selected Physical Fitness Components and Examples of Associated Tasks 

-6. Four Selected Physical Fitness Components and Examples of Associated Tasks 

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... Specific military fitness includes being able to carry and transport equipment and ammunition over long distances, being maneuverable and agile regardless of the terrain, and possessing exceptional stamina, power, and coordination (33). More specifically, the following 9 common military tasks are identified: jumping over obstacles, moving with agility, carrying heavy loads, dragging heavy loads, running long distances, moving quickly over short distances, climbing over obstacles, lifting heavy objects, and loading equipment (23,38). The physical qualities of muscular strength, power, and endurance are suggested to be critical in accomplishing these tasks (38). ...
... Internationally, the length of BMTand the total duration of physical training varies between 8 and 39 weeks and 4 hours per week to 2 hours per day, respectively, depending on whether infantry and advanced military skills are also covered in the initial course (16,48,50,51,54). Although there is a variation in the eligibility requirements for general health as well as well-being, baseline physical and mental fitness (e.g., endurance and resiliency) must be demonstrated to be accepted into military training of armed forces (23,42,51). Nevertheless, recruits enter the military with widely varying fitness levels, even within one platoon (3,30). ...
... To optimally monitor internal and external load, staff ought to choose tool(s) capable of detecting changes in physical fitness and measuring the level of stress of each training session (36,51,52). Globally, routine monitoring of internal and external load also in military training is growing (2,3,8,16,19,23,30,36,54,56). Notably, efforts to monitor and quantify load is one thing, effectively converting such data into evidence-informed principles and implementing such principles to manage injury risk in the target population, is another. ...
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Musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs) during basic military training (BMT), frequently resulting in dropout, are wellrecognized as a substantial problem both logistically and financially. Seven key evidence-informed principles of load management to minimize the risk of injury have been proposed in sport. A pertinent question is whether these principles can also be applied to military recruits by reducing the incidence and impact of MSIs and attrition from training. In this review, we address the challenges and possibilities of applying load management principles to BMT and suggest practical applications for military strength and conditioning professionals.
... The current heavy sled pull research may be used as a basis for further research into the biomechanical demands of performing other variations of pulling type exercises such as the backward drag. The backward drag technique is used in firefighting and military physical fitness assessments and service, where service people may be required to drag victims out of danger [50,51]. Further investigation into the biomechanical demands of a vehicle pull may be of benefit to military operations, as soldiers may be faced with instances where they are required to pull/push heavy equipment over short distances [51]. ...
... The backward drag technique is used in firefighting and military physical fitness assessments and service, where service people may be required to drag victims out of danger [50,51]. Further investigation into the biomechanical demands of a vehicle pull may be of benefit to military operations, as soldiers may be faced with instances where they are required to pull/push heavy equipment over short distances [51]. ...
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Background: The sport of strongman is becoming increasingly popular, catering for females, lightweight, and Masters competitors, with strongman exercises also being used by strength and conditioning coaches for a range of athletic groups. Thus, a systematic review was conducted to examine researchers' current understanding of the biomechanics of strongman exercises, with a view to improve strongman athlete performance, provide biomechanical evidence supporting the transferability of strongman exercises to strength and conditioning/rehabilitation programs, and identify gaps in the current knowledge of the biomechanics of strongman exercises. Methods: A two-level search term strategy was used to search five databases for studies relevant to strongman exercises and biomechanics. Results: Eleven articles adherent to the inclusion criteria were returned from the search. The studies provided preliminary biomechanical analysis of various strongman exercises including the key biomechanical performance determinants of the farmer's walk, heavy sled pull, and tire flip. Higher performing athletes in the farmer's walk and heavy sled pull were characterized by a greater stride length and stride rate and reduced ground contact time, while higher performing athletes in the tire flip were characterized by a reduced second pull phase time when compared with lower performing athletes. Qualitative comparison of carrying/walking, pulling and static lifting strongman, traditional weight training exercises (TWTE), and common everyday activities (CEA), like loaded carriage and resisted sprinting, were discussed to further researchers' understanding of the determinants of various strongman exercises and their applications to strength and conditioning practice. A lack of basic quantitative biomechanical data of the yoke walk, unilateral load carriage, vehicle pull, atlas stone lift and tire flip, and biomechanical performance determinants of the log lift were identified. Conclusions: This review has demonstrated the likely applicability and benefit of current and future strongman exercise biomechanics research to strongman athletes and coaches, strength and conditioning coaches considering using strongman exercises in a training program, and tactical operators (e.g., military, army) and other manual labor occupations. Future research may provide a greater understanding of the biomechanical determinants of performance, potential training adaptations, and risks expected when performing and/or incorporating strongman exercises into strength and conditioning or injury rehabilitation programs.
... Unlike the British, 42 U.S., 43 Nordic, 44 Canadian, Australian, Israeli, and New Zealand militaries 45 who require potential military applicants to pass a minimum fitness assessment, the SANDF has no set pre-enlistment physical standard. Acceptance for voluntarily military service is only subject to a favorable outcome of basic medical examination to ensure that the recruit is physically healthy. ...
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Introduction: Mixed gender basic military training (BMT) is adopted to integrate the female South African soldier into the military. This study aimed to assess gender differences before, during (12 weeks), and after a 20-week mixed BMT course and determine if BMT significantly reduced these differences. Methods: A total of 186 soldiers (114 male: mean age = 21.0 ± 1.1 year; 72 female: mean age = 20.5 ± 1.2 year) completed the BMT course and all anthropometric, physical fitness, explosive power, and hand grip strength measurements. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to model BMT data with main effects for gender comparison between males and females, and time main effect for evaluation of differences between weeks 1, 12, and 20 of BMT, as well as an interaction effect for differences in changes over time for males and females. Alpha was set at α ≤0.05. Results: Male soldiers were significantly taller (p < 0.001) and scored better in all measurements at the start of BMT, differences ranged from 1.6% to 50% between genders. Differences narrowed by up to 18.5% in aerobic, push-up, abdominal measurements, and to 4.6% in the South African National Defense Force fitness test. Differences in power output and hand grip strength remained unchanged. Conclusion: Large initial anthropometrical and physical fitness differences decreased but were still obvious at the end of BMT. BMT should bridge the physical gap between male and female soldiers to ensure they can all perform the same duties. The enforcing of equal minimum physical fitness requirements for acceptance into BMT; conditional acceptance into the military subject to the successful completion of a bridging course aimed at improving physical fitness in individuals who do not meet the minimum physical fitness requirements for acceptance; and developing a cyclic physical training program with different entry points, dependent on initial physical performance at the start of BMT, ensuring adequate progression and overload for all soldiers are possible avenues to explore to achieve this goal.
... For the push-ups test (78), modified push-ups were permitted whether the individual did not think they could complete standard push-ups at pretest and tested with the same modification at posttest. Rowers tested lower body and core endurance (87) and have low, positive correlations with push-ups (r = 0.337, p , 0.001) and sit-ups (r = 0.266, p , 0.001) for combined male and female data (80). The standing long jump was completed from a simultaneous bilateral takeoff. ...
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The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a novel, 16-week High-Intensity Cardio-Resistance Training (HICRT) program on measures of aerobic fitness, agility, aerobic power, muscular endurance, lower body explosive power, and self-reported activity level. The intervention group (N=129; 63 f, 24.65±5.55 y) had a baseline VO2max of 39.83±9.13. These individuals participated in 26, 70-minute exercise sessions, and 4 fitness testing sessions. Participants were matched with a non-exercise control group, paired by sex, age, and baseline VO2max. Matched controls (N = 129, 63 f, 24.26±5.59 y) had a baseline VO2max of 39.86±8.59 and completed pre- and post-intervention VO2max testing only. The results demonstrate that participants in the fitness intervention group significantly increased their VO2max (2.72±0.31, Mdiff±SE; p<0.001) and reported being more physically active (0.42±0.11, Mdiff±SE; p<0.001) after the intervention. The matched control group showed no significant pre-post intervention changes. Participants in the fitness intervention showed a significant improvement in 3 of 5 components of the fitness field tests. Specifically, significant improvements were observed for the 1-minute rower (5.32±0.505, Mdiff±SE; p<0.001), 1-minute push-up (8.168±0.709, Mdiff±SE; p<0.001), and 1.5-mile run tests (1.79±0.169, Mdiff±SE; p<0.001). No significant improvements were observed for the shuttle run (p=0.173) or standing long jump (p=0.137). These findings demonstrate the efficacy of a novel, HICRT intervention across multiple dimensions of fitness for young and middle aged adults. HICRT affords flexibility for tailoring to meet desired health and fitness outcomes and makes perceivably daunting high-intensity functional training and multimodal sports training more accessible to general, traditionally non-athletic, populations.
... various job tasks. 17 Many studies use regression models, but the selection of different tasks and test variables has made it difficult to compare study outcomes. Several studies have also examined the relationship by calculating Pearson correlation coefficients (r values) between measures of individual fitness test and occupational task performance. ...
... Because the project was conducted in response to a directed military initiative, the data collected and analysed were archived in a military technical report. 17 In order to evaluate the data amassed from selected studies, individual fitness tests were organised into the four components of health-related physical fitness activity: cardiovascular endurance (CRe), muscular strength, muscular endurance and FLX (table 1). Since fitness tests for muscular strength and muscular endurance primarily test one region of the body, these two components were also grouped into predominant body regions. ...
... The five-tiered scale was based on a review of guidelines for similar types of relationships found in human performance and social sciences. 17 30 31 For example, r≥0.70 has been described as a very strong or excellent linear relationship, r≥0.50 as a demarcation for large or strong relationships and r≤0.30 or<0.10 as a weak relationship. ...
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Physically demanding occupations (ie, military, firefighter, law enforcement) often use fitness tests for job selection or retention. Despite numerous individual studies, the relationship of these tests to job performance is not always clear. This review examined the relationship by aggregating previously reported correlations between different fitness tests and common occupational tasks. Search criteria were applied to PUBMED, EBSCO, EMBASE and military sources; scoring yielded 27 original studies providing 533 Pearson correlation coefficients (r) between fitness tests and 12 common physical job task categories. Fitness tests were grouped into predominant health-related fitness components and body regions: cardiorespiratory endurance (CRe); upper body, lower body and trunk muscular strength and muscular endurance (UBs, LBs, TRs, UBe, LBe, TRe) and flexibility (FLX). Meta-analyses provided pooled r's between each fitness component and task category. The CRe tests had the strongest pooled correlations with most tasks (eight pooled r values 0.80–0.52). Next were LBs (six pooled r values >0.50) and UBe (four pooled r values >0.50). UBs and LBe correlated strongly to three tasks. TRs, TRe and FLX did not strongly correlate to tasks. Employers can maximise the relevancy of assessing workforce health by using fitness tests with strong correlations between fitness components and job performance, especially those that are also indicators for injury risk. Potentially useful field-expedient tests include timed-runs (CRe), jump tests (LBs) and push-ups (UBe). Impacts of gender and physiological characteristics (eg, lean body mass) should be considered in future study and when implementing tests.
... The incremental dynamic lift was originally developed by the Air Force. Teves et al. reported that the incremental dynamic lift was superior to handgrip strength, isometric 38 cm upright pull strength, body composition, and submaximal prediction of oxygen uptake when predicting job related criterion performance tasks (job requirements involving pulling, pushing, lifting, carrying, and applying torque) (27). Although it was recommended that the Army adopt this test to assess muscle strength before job assignment, the Army did not implement it as a strength test. ...
... Although 1RM strength measures are not routinely evident in generalized military physical fitness tests, tasks involving muscle strength are routinely observed in tier II tests (tests designed to assess occupational or tactical functional performance). Examples include a 20-to 30-kg sand and box lift (Canada, Australia, United Kingdom, Germany, and U.S. Marine Corps) and casualty (50-80 kg) drag (15-30 m) (Canada, United Kingdom, and Germany) (27). ...
... Other approaches to determining the importance of aerobic fitness for military performance include (a) examining the correlations of aerobic fitness with performance of military tasks and (b) determining the risks of injury associated with aerobic fitness and other health-and skillrelated components of physical fitness. A recent systematic review of literature on the correlation of the components of physical fitness with performance of 11 military tasks (e.g., lifting, lifting and lowering, casualty drags, stretcher carrying, road marching with loads, climbing, crawling, and digging) found that aerobic fitness was more highly correlated with more such tasks than muscle strength or muscle endurance (27). Strong and consistent associations of a component of physical fitness with musculoskeletal injury risk suggests that tasks requiring that component of fitness are either common or biomechanically stressful or both. ...
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Physical fitness training of military recruits is an enduring focus of armies. This is important for safe and effective performance of general tasks that anyone may have to perform in a military setting as well as preparation for more specialized training in specific job specialties. Decades of studies on occupationally specific physical requirements have characterized the dual aerobic and strength demands of typical military tasks; however, scientifically founded strategies to prepare recruits with a good mix of these 2 physiologically opposing capabilities have not been well established. High levels of aerobic training can compromise resistance training gains and increase injury rates. Resistance training requires a greater commitment of time and resources as well as a greater understanding of the science to produce true strength gains that may be beneficial to military performance. These are critical issues for modern armies with increased demands for well-prepared soldiers and fewer injury losses. The actual physical requirements tied to metrics of success in military jobs are also under renewed examination as women are increasingly integrated into military jobs previously performed only by men. At the third International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance, a roundtable of 10 physiologists with military expertise presented comparative perspectives on aerobic and strength training. These topics included the physiological basis of training benefits, how to train effectively, how to measure training effectiveness, considerations for the integration of women, and the big perspective. Key discussion points centered on (a) the significance of findings from research on integrated training, (b) strategies for effective strength development, and (c) injury reduction in training as well as the benefits of improved fitness to injury reduction across the force.
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Purpose: Predicting the selection of emerging shot put athletes is important in creating a new champion in International competitions. As in other games, the peripheral velocity and the main mechanical kinematic variables at the moment of firing play an important role in determining the horizontal distance. The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation of the mechanical variables (understudy) and their contribution ratios and also to know its prediction equation in the selection process. Material and method: This study was based on a sample of 9 students from the fourth stage, Division 1, for the academic year 2017/2018 at the Faculty of physical education, University of Maysan. The data obtained in the study were given as arithmetic mean, standard deviation, median, skew coefficient, Pearson correlation coefficient, analysis of variance and linear regression, constant term, standard error. Results: The researchers used the descriptive and analytical approach due to its relevance to the nature of the research, and the most important results were knowledge of the predictive equation, correlational relationships, and their contribution rates in determining the achievement of the novice player in the shot put competition. Conclusion: The basic prediction equation that determines the expected performance in the selection of junior athletes in the shot put is recommended according to the high reliability of the results obtained, and it is advisable to use these characteristics to evaluate novice players and build and create champions in this competition. Keywords: The predictive value, the numerical level, beginners athletes, shot put. Introduction The shot put is a field event in athletics and each of the events has a specific set of features including the characteristics of the implement used (size weight and aerodynamic qualities), space limitations, and technique requirements which influence the sequence of events and make them unique [1,2]. The goal in the throwing events is to maximize the measured distance covered by the implement and this distance is determined by several parameters such as height, velocity, angle of release [3,4], aerodynamic qualities, and environmental factors [5,6], exploitation of the escape space when the equipment is thrown out and temporary foot position [7,8]. The release height is a consequence of the athlete's length of the body, length of arm; body mass and it is a prerequisite for a candidate's selection for shot-putting. [1,9]. The release angle depends on the release height and the release velocity [3,10]. The angle of the release is smaller, the higher the height and the speed of the throw [11]. It is relatively constant for an individual athlete and cannot be changed to improve the result. The release velocity is by far the most important of all the release parameters in determining the distance achieved because the distance is proportional to the square of the release velocity [6,12]. The shot put competition is one of the athletics activities that is included in the international competitions like the Olympic Games, World Track & Field competitions, and continental Sports meet. Its skill performance is based on the same as other competitions due to mechanical conditions in its performance, despite the difference in the method or style of performing the movement before the final release of the shot. The analysis is the sorting and tabulation of the many data with its main elements, then logically treating them with a balance, with an appropriate standard and axis to shift from their precise quantitative formulas to others with meaningful explanations to solve the problem addressed by the researcher [13]. Biomechanical Knowledge is a "Must" for Coaching, and all movements of men and animals are determined by the laws of mechanics. It is the first task of science is to understand the movements of athletes; therefore it is an indispensable base for coaching. In the throwing events, the factors influencing the performance are governed by the physical laws of the flight phases of the implement and the biomechanical laws of the movement of the system, putter, and implement' before release [14]. Projectiles obey constant acceleration, making them easier to describe and understand (Galileo's equations). Three factors determine trajectory, including horizontal displacement, of a projectile speed of release, angle of release, the height of release. Positive height of release, the optimal angle should be slightly lower than 45°. Theoretically, the optimal angle is about 40-41°, skilled shot-putters use angles of 35-37° [3]. Shot-putting requires great explosive strength, together with the
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Sammendrag Bakgrunn for arbeidet Forsvarets høgskole-Norges idrettshøgskole/Forsvarets institutt (FHS-NIH/F) er blitt bedt om å anbefale en revidert generell fysiske testordning for Forsvaret, herunder å utarbeide et helhetlig og differensiert seleksjon, - og testsystem, som sikrer økt kompetansemangfold i Forsvaret (FSJ VP 2013 og 2014). Oppdraget er gitt av Forsvarsstaben/Personellavdelingen (FST/P). For å løse oppdraget har FHS-NIH/F nedsatt et internt arbeidsutvalg (kalt Testutvalget). Arbeidet har omfattet en gjennomgang av testordningen for sesjon, vernepliktige under førstegangstjeneste, søkere til (og elever ved) grunnleggende befals/krigsskoleutdanning, stadig tjenestegjørende befal, samt vervede. Spesielle fagtjenester (røykdykkere, spesialsoldater, redningsmenn etc.) og sivilt personell er ikke inkludert i vårt arbeid. Utfordringer med dagens fysiske testordning Den gjeldende fysiske testordningen for Forsvaret har flere svakheter. Ordningen har stort sett vært uforandret de siste 20-30 år, til tross for at Forsvaret for øvrig har endret seg mye i dette tidsrommet. Testordningen bygger således på foreldete og mangelfulle arbeidskravsanalyser samt at enkelte tester ikke gir valide mål på utholdenhet og styrke. Testkravene er dessuten lite differensiert i forhold til ulike stillingers fysiske jobbkrav. Problemstillinger I arbeidet med denne innstillingen har utvalget først og fremst vurdert sentrale spørsmål knyttet til 1) Arbeidskrav: hvilke og hvor høye fysiske krav opplever dagens soldater? 2) Testmetodikk: hvilke tester bør benyttes for å måle sentrale fysiske egenskaper? 3) Testkrav: hvordan og hvor høyt er det hensiktsmessig at de fysiske testkravene settes? Grundige vurderinger av ovennevnte spørsmål er avgjørende for å klare å utvikle en testordning som fungerer hensiktsmessig. 2 Metode Vårt hovedmål har vært å gi beslutningstaker et best mulig faglig grunnlag før beslutning om ny testordning skal fattes. Vi har gått bredt ut og ulike metoder er benyttet i arbeidet med denne innstillingen; litteraturstudier, spørreundersøkelser, intervjuer, arbeidsmøter med idrettsinspektører, innhenting av scenariobeskrivelser, avdelingsbesøk, pilottesting og workshop med nordiske fagkollegaer, samt samtaler med ledende forskere på temaet fysisk test. Anbefaling I spørreundersøkelsen som Testutvalget gjennomførte i 2013 svarte majoriteten av norsk befal og vervede at Forsvaret fortsatt bør ha en fysisk testordning der alt militært personell gjennomfører regelmessige fysiske tester. Testutvalget anbefaler også dette. En videreføring av en fysisk testordning vil gi Forsvaret mulighet til å måle og registrere soldatenes fysiske kapasitet. Hensikten er å sikre at den enkelte soldat innehar nødvendig fysiske kapasitet for å løse sine arbeidsoppgaver, samt at vedkommende er i stand til å gjennomføre nødvendig opplæring og utdanning i Forsvaret. I tillegg kan testordningen legitimeres på bakgrunn av helse, aktiv livsstil, militær identitet og tradisjon. Hvem skal testes? Revidert testordning bør gjelde for alt militært personell (unntatt spesielle fagtjenester). Det vil si at de over 50 år også skal gjennomføre obligatorisk årlig fysisk test på lik linje med yngre personell. Vi anbefaler ikke at sivilt personell omfattes av ordningen. Testing av fysiske egenskaper Testutvalget mener at aerob kapasitet og muskelstyrke er de to viktigste faktorene å teste på militært personell. Disse to fysiske egenskapene bør betraktes som like viktige (dagens ordning prioriterer aerob kapasitet). Anaerob kapasitet er også viktig, men dette er noe vanskeligere å teste. Kroppssammensetning kunne også vært ønskelig å måle, men anses for tid- og ressurskrevende. Hurtighet, agility og koordinasjon er også potensielt viktige fysiske egenskaper, men Testutvalget anser disse egenskapene til å ha noe lavere prediktiv evne enn utholdenhet og styrke. Vi anbefaler at Forsvarets testordning består av generelle tester som måler bestemte fysiologiske faktorer som har vist seg å være relatert til prestasjonsevnen i flere former for fysisk krevende arbeid. 3 Våre vurderinger og anbefalinger av utholdenhets- og styrketester for bruk i Forsvaret (og ved ulike anledninger) er primært fundert på testenes validitet og reliabilitet, i tillegg til praktiske hensyn slik som ressurser, tidsbruk, behov for utstyr, enkelhet for testleder/de som testes, skaderisiko etc. De konkrete anbefalingene er som følger: Aerob utholdenhet:  3000 meter bør bestå som Forsvarets primære utholdenhetstest  20 m shuttle run kan benyttes som alternativ til 3000 meter løp  Pakningsløp kan benyttes som et alternativ for personell som er godt tilvendt denne bevegelsesformen og som har relativt høye aerobe utholdenhetskrav i sin stilling  Som alternative tester for befal og vervede anbefales det at 20 km sykling, 10 km langrenn, samt 500 meter svømming (fri/bryst) består. Dette gjelder kun for personell i stillinger med lave fysiske krav (testene ansees som mindre valide enn løpstestene)  Gangtesten, samt de militære og sivile ferdighetsmerketestene er foreslått fjernet  På sesjon opprettholdes tredemølletesten Muskelstyrke:  Pull-ups videreføres, men med kjønnsnøytral utførelse (starter med vertikal utførelse, men går over til horisontal utførelse dersom man ikke klarer én repetisjon av den vertikale)  Medisinballstøt og stille lengde anbefales som mål på eksplosiv styrke (og indirekte mål på maksimal styrke)  Dagens push-ups, sit-ups og pull-ups (med kjønnsulik utførelse) anbefales fjernet da de totalt sett ikke gir valide nok mål på muskelstyrke for militært personell (gir for ensidig bilde av muskulær utholdenhet for overkroppen). Kravsetting: De fysiske arbeidskravene vil kunne variere mye fra tjenestestilling til tjenestestilling og differensiering er derfor sentralt i den nye testordningen. Det bør være stillingens antatte fysiske arbeidskrav som skal være bestemmende for om testkravene skal være kjønns- og aldersnøytrale eller ikke. I stillinger som anses svært fysisk krevende anbefales like krav for alle menn og kvinner uavhengig av alder. For stillinger med lave fysiske krav justeres kravene basert på kjønn og alder i henhold til de fysiologiske forskjellene vi finner i normalbefolkningen. 4 Testutvalget anbefaler å benytte en 9-delt skala på bakgrunn av, og i overenstemmelse med, at øvrige tester i Forsvaret også benytter en slik inndeling (bl.a. de medisinske og psykologiske testene). I denne innstillingen har ikke Testutvalget fastsatt de konkrete testkravene, og kravtabellene er således foreløpig ikke fylt ut. For de nye testene må det samles inn referansemateriale på mest mulig representative utvalg av personell i Forsvaret. Disse tallene bør ligge til grunn for utarbeiding av minimumskravene, sammen med hva vi vet fra sivile studier om forskjeller i fysisk form ut fra alder og kjønn. Oppsummering og videre arbeid Arbeidet med å revidere testordningen har vært krevende og omfangsrikt. Fysisk test og seleksjon er et komplekst saksfelt og det har vært en relativ kort tidsfrist ut fra temaets omfang. Testutvalget påpeker at det også er et stort arbeid som gjenstår før ny bestemmelse kan fastsettes og den reviderte testordningen kan implementeres i Forsvaret.