Table 2 - uploaded by Raphael Grzebieta
Content may be subject to copyright.

Source publication
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There are a number of major motorcycle helmet standards, e.g. AS/NZS 1698, DOT, JIS T 8133, Snell M2010 and UN/ECE 22. With international trade agreements, on-line purchasing, and motorcycling growth there is a need to assess whether there is scope for harmonising motorcycle helmet standards as well as specialising standards for specific environmen...

Similar publications

Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents a set of artificial potential field functions that improves upon, in general, the motion planning and posture control, with theoretically guaranteed point and posture stabilities, convergence and collision avoidance properties of 3-trailer systems in a priori known environment. We basically design and inject two new concepts; gh...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This document provides information on an ongoing Iowa Department of Transportation long line test deck study which is focused on measuring recessed versus surface applied pavement marking performance. The study shows that recessed pavement markings can significantly reduce marking damage due to snow plowing and other winter operations. These result...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study is to recognize the meaning of STEAM program through theoretic consideration and to construct the assessment item and establish standard index of STEAM program, a program to nurture human resources according to the target of fostering people of future convergence with creativity and personality. By reconstructing previou...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bridge deck joints serve an important function for bridge performance by accommodating bridge movement due to thermal expansion & contraction and movement from dynamic loads. In Iowa, the joints typically serve a secondary purpose of preventing the passage of water often containing deicing chemicals and other corrosive chemicals that can cause seve...

Citations

... The objective of a motorcycle helmet standard is to ensure a minimum level of head protection under some specific test conditions. However, methods and requirements vary from one standard to another and, therefore, the performance against impact of motorcyclist helmets is influenced by the requirements included in each standard [9,10]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Regulation ECE-22.05/06 does not require a helmet penetration test. Penetration testing is controversial since it has been shown that it may cause the helmet to behave in a non-desirable stiff way in real-world crashes. This study aimed to assess the effect of the penetration test in the impact performance of helmets. Twenty full-face motorcycle helmets were penetration tested at multiple locations of the helmet shell. Then, 10 helmets were selected and split into two groups (hard shell and soft shell) depending on the results of the penetration tests. These 10 helmets were then drop tested at front, lateral, and top areas at two different impact speeds (5 m/s and 8.2 m/s) to assess their impact performance against head injuries. The statistical analyses did not show any significant difference between the two groups (hard/soft shell) at 5 m/s. Similar results were observed at 8.2 m/s, except for the top area of the helmet in which the peak linear acceleration was significantly higher for the soft shell group than for the hard shell group (230 ± 12 g vs. 211 ± 11 g; p-value = 0.038). The results of this study suggest that a stiffer shell does not necessarily cause helmets to behave in a stiffer way when striking rigid flat surfaces. These experiments also showed that hard shell helmets can provide better protection at higher impact speeds without damaging helmet performance at lower impact speeds.
... However, wearing an MSH while riding a motorcycle is influenced by various factors, such as the existing traffic rules, environmental factors, law enforcement by the police, social norms, and the community's common beliefs (Ghasemzadeh et al. 2017). An Australian report on motorcycle helmet standards mentioned that MSHs were effective in reducing the risk of death by 42% and head injury by 69%; however, mild traumatic brain injury appears to be the prevalent form of injury suffered by helmeted motorcyclists (McIntosh and Grzebieta 2013). The need to investigate the quality of MSHs in terms of compliance with MSH standard regulations was suggested in Indonesia because the study found very little safety consciousness among the riders and a general lack of understanding concerning MSH use (Conrad et al. 1996). ...
... These findings were a preliminary attempt to determine the duration of the years of MSH usage but, remarkably, they also suggest that a more in-depth study should be carried out to determine the optimum number of years an MSH should be used to prevent overuse, which might increase the risk of head injury among occupational motorcyclists. As suggested by McIntosh and Grzebieta (2013), riders of small powered motorcycles in hot and humid climates might have a helmet certified to a different part of a common standard compared to high-powered motorcycle riders because both have different needs. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of motorcycle safety helmets (MSHs) used by postal delivery riders (PDRs) that comply with the Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia’s (SIRIM) MSH standard guidelines and identify factors that contribute toward compliance of used MSHs with the standards. Methods: The presence of SIRIM certification label, the status of MSH, type of chinstrap, MSH crash history, and duration of MSH use were observed. The dependent variable was the results of the SIRIM testing procedures (SIRIM tests). MSHs that passed the SIRIM tests were considered “standard certified” MSHs. Results: The odds of the complimentary MSHs passing all of the SIRIM tests were 3.7 times the odds of the self-purchased MSHs passing the tests. The odds of MSHs with the SIRIM certification label passing all of the SIRIM tests were 24.2 times the odds of MSHs without the SIRIM certification label, and the odds of MSHs used <3 years passing the SIRIM tests were 3.75 times the odds of the MSHs used ≥3.8 years. Conclusion: PDRs provided with complimentary MSHs with the SIRIM certification label by the employer for their daily delivery routines and duration of MSH used for less than 3 years were found to be safe MSHs for male occupational riders in Malaysia.
... Hence, the authors decided to develop their own helmet finite element model. Each helmet on the market must fulfil the regulations, which depends on the territory where the helmet is sold (see McIntosh andGrzebieta, 2013 or Smith andKebschull, 2016). Since the regulations are quite similar, the authors decided to validate the developed helmet model based on the European standard Regulation 22.05 (United Nations, 2002). ...
Article
Motorcycle riders belong to the group of so-called vulnerable road users, for whom protection against an impact is an important issue due to the multi-directional loading and the complex kinematics after the impact. Virtual biomechanical human body models play an important role to assess injuries, especially for such complex scenarios. The major motorcycle riders' personal protective equipment is the helmet. Several authors developed their own helmet model taking into account various helmet details. The presented work concerns a simple finite element helmet model development and validation according to the ECE Regulation 22.05. The helmet is validated in several impact scenarios coupling the headform impactor to the helmet and throwing it to the defined anvils. The advantage of the developed helmet is the low calculation time step by fulfilling the regulation. It can be coupled to the human body model easily without decreasing the global calculation time step.