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3 Equivalence Analysis: Comparisons Between CBT and Type of HEP

3 Equivalence Analysis: Comparisons Between CBT and Type of HEP

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Einfluss der psychodynamischen Psychotherapie auf die Hirnaktivierung von Panikpatienten Bislang untersuchten nur wenige Stu-dien psychotherapeutische Behand-lungseffekte auf Hirnfunktionen bei Panikpatienten. Im Rahmen der vor-liegenden Studie wurde der Einfluss von Psychotherapie auf die Interak-tion kognitiver und emotionaler Pro-zesse, die eine...

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... Several studies (Elliott, 2002;Drouin, 2008;Zech, 2008;Elliott et al., 2013;Angus et al., 2015) confirm the effectiveness of humanistic and existential approaches. Meta-analysis by Elliott et al. (2013) and Angus et al. (2015) concluded that, in comparative studies with random groups, clients in humanistic psychotherapy experience change at levels that are as elevated as those of clients undergoing other forms of therapy. ...
... Several studies (Elliott, 2002;Drouin, 2008;Zech, 2008;Elliott et al., 2013;Angus et al., 2015) confirm the effectiveness of humanistic and existential approaches. Meta-analysis by Elliott et al. (2013) and Angus et al. (2015) concluded that, in comparative studies with random groups, clients in humanistic psychotherapy experience change at levels that are as elevated as those of clients undergoing other forms of therapy. So, as other approaches, humanistic therapy in its various forms is an effective means of helping those in distress, and this includes a wide range of mental disorders: depression, anxiety, adjustment, and interpersonal issues (Elliott, 2002;Drouin, 2008). ...
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This article explores the theme of presence of the psychotherapist, a concept that has been of particular interest in humanistic and existential approaches. Presence was first associated with the humanistic attitudes of the practitioner and the way he or she embodies these attitudes in the here and now of the encounter. Since the publication in 2002 of Geller and Greenberg’s model of therapeutic presence, several quantitative studies have explored the relationship between the therapist’s perception of presence and other dimensions of the therapeutic process. However, qualitative explorations still seem necessary to account for the complexity of the therapist’s presence and its role in the therapeutic process. Centered on the therapist’s perspective, we use an idiographic methodology and refer to lived clinical experience to highlight the dimension of sensory contact that, through the body, actualize a connection to a virtual space of the therapeutic relationship. We so describe how a therapist can achieve an embodied processing to clinical material from what we describe as “traces of presence” of the other. From this point of view, the patient’s presence incorporates itself into the therapist’s experience and the therapist can perceive aspects of this presence in a tangible, concrete, and useful way. The therapist’s presence thus takes on a meaning that is not reduced to what the patient will perceive and interpret of his or her attitude. It becomes the main material from which the therapist orients his or her clinical interventions. To view the online publication, please click here: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.783417/full
... Furthermore, as emotions are a central focus within EFT, a further distinction between EFT and other therapeutic approaches is the elicitation and activation of emotionsthat is, the promotion and deepening of client experiencing within therapeutic sessions -to 'change emotions with emotions' (Elliott et al., 2013;Greenberg, 2008;Pascual-Leone, 2017). ...
... Grounded in humanistic models of psychotherapy, EFT is distinct from many other therapeutic approaches due in part to its view of emotions as a source of meaning, direction, and growth (Elliott et al., 2004(Elliott et al., , 2013Rogers, 1961; for a discussion of humanistic models in sport psychology, see Walker, 2010). EFT holds that "learning about emotions is not enough" (Elliott et al., 2004, p. 3) and that it is necessary to evoke and experience emotions in therapeutic sessions in order to develop greater acceptance, awareness, and understanding about one's emotions to facilitate more adaptive emotion regulation of distress (Elliott et al., 2004). ...
... Emotion Focused Therapy holds value as a therapeutic approach for working with athletes, and with injured athletes specifically, as it integrates person-centered and gestalt therapy traditions and it emphasizes the process of eliciting emotions and reflecting on emotions to created new meaning (Elliott et al., 2013). Given that injuries can pose significant distress for athletes and that anxiety is often associated with injuries (Tracey, 2003), EFT is a therapeutic approach that could be used to help athletes manage and process intense emotional difficulties during the injury and rehabilitation period, as well as injuries to their identity as athletes, to support their psychological healing and sport performance. ...
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Athletes’ emotional responses to injuries may include feeling sad, angry, anxious, frustrated, helpless, irritated, and confused about their identity as athletes. Emotions are central in athletes’ sport injury experiences, yet most therapeutic approaches described in the sport psychology literature are grounded in cognitive-behavioural traditions and strategies may tend to emphasize controlling or suppressing emotions. Emotion Focused Therapy (EFT) is a robust, empirically-supported therapeutic approach grounded in experiential therapy and emotion theory that can be used to help athletes deal with injury-related difficulties. This position paper presents a rationale for using EFT in working with injured athletes. We review foundational principles of EFT and the conceptualization of emotions, emotion regulation, and dysregulation from an EFT perspective. Drawing on EFT theory, we present a conceptualization of five challenges and conflicts that arise within athletes’ injury experiences: (a) attending to the body and listening to the body; (b) tending to the pain versus pushing through pain; (c) interpersonal challenges and conflicts with others; (d) injuries as a challenge to athlete identity; and (e) concerns about time left in career and falling behind. Examples of ‘in vivo’ interactions between therapists and athletes are also presented to bring to life the use of EFT strategies and techniques, and we conclude with directions for future research and suggestions for practitioners to advance the use of EFT within the field of sport psychology. Lay summary: Emotion Focused Therapy (EFT) is a process-experiential, person-centered therapeutic approach that holds promise for clinicians and therapists working with injured athletes. EFT could be used to evoke and experience emotions in therapeutic sessions in order to develop greater acceptance, awareness, and understanding about one’s emotions to facilitate healing and support athletes’ ongoing performance and sport careers.
... Tato studie se však soustředila pouze na studie věnující se párové formě EFT. Dřívější metaanalýza (Elliott et al., 2013) sice zahrnovala individuální formu EFT, nicméně hodnotila účinnost humanistických psychoterapeutických přístupů jako celek a při detailní analýze sloučila individuální a párovou formu do jednoho klastru. ...
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Objective: The methodology of a systematic review of studies verifying the efficacy of intervention in the treatment of mental disorders helps to reduce bias by using explicit and rigorous methods for literature search and critical evaluation of previous studies. Up to now, no systematic review has been conducted on the efficacy of individual emotion focused therapy (EFT), despite the growing number of research findings examining the efficacy of EFT. The aim of this systematic review is therefore to evaluate the efficacy of an individual form of EFT in the treatment of mental problems and disorders. Method: In this study, the authors followed the PRISMA methodological manual. A systematic literature search was performed in the EBSCO, PubMed and Web of Science databases. The analysis was focused on assessing the magnitude of the effect of pre-post therapeutic changes, the sustainability of change within follow-up, or comparing the effect of change with another psychotherapeutic approach by evaluating the statistical and material significance of changes (effect size). Results: The authors identified seven studies that used a (quasi) experimental method to investigate the efficacy of EFT. The results support the efficacy of EFT as well as the sustainability of change in the treatment of depression. There is preliminary support for the efficacy of EFT in the treatment of social anxiety, trauma and eating disorders. So far, in the case of the above-mentioned disorders and difficulties, it is possible to consider EFT as probably effective. Limitations: Only studies written in English were selected in this systematic review. Case studies were not included. Key words: Emotion Focused Therapy, psychotherapy, systematic review, efficacy, effectiveness
... A medida que avanzaban los encuentros, comenzamos a notar claros efectos de transformación en los pacientes, lo que nos llevó a investigar el impacto que este proceso estaba teniendo en ellos. Consideramos que la mejor manera de demostrar esto, más allá de nuestra opinión, fue investigando sus propias percepciones y particularmente su propio registro de los factores o eventos significativos que influyeron en sus procesos de cambio (Elliott et al., 2013). Por tanto, la pregunta era: ¿Cuáles son los eventos útiles y obstaculizadores percibidos por los participantes de un grupo de psicodrama virtual con fines terapéuticos? ...
... La complejidad de este campo ha llevado a los investigadores a interesarse por estudiar episodios o eventos relevantes en las sesiones de psicoterapia (Krause et al., 2006), analizando tanto aquellos que son productivos como aquellos que pueden resultar problemáticos u obstructivos para el proceso (Timulak, 2010). El estudio de episodios relevantes se origina en el contexto de las psicoterapias experienciales (dentro de las cuales se encuentra el psicodrama), aunque rápidamente trascendió y comenzó a ser utilizado en diferentes investigaciones empíricas (Elliott et al., 2013). Tiene una larga tradición en investigación que ha acumulado numerosos estudios bajo la noción general de "evento significativo". ...
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Virtual psychodrama is a novel device that has gained great relevance throughout the world since the Covid19 pandemic. However, we still find almost no research that accounts for the processes and results of this new way of doing psychodrama. The present work sought to identify and describe the significant events that led to processes of change enunciated by the participants of virtual psychodrama groups with therapeutic purposes. The results indicate that the significant events that were identified as favorable in the responses of the participants indicate two central aspects of the psychodramatic method (dramatization and sharing) and a specific technique (mirror). In relation to the factors of therapeutic change, “universality” and “interpersonal learning” were the most mentioned. Finally, in relation to the events perceived as not useful or hindering, two categories were identified that were foreseen (sharing and dramatization) and two emerging categories (virtuality and group finalization). El psicodrama virtual es un dispositivo novedoso que ha tomado gran relevancia en el mundo entero a partir de la pandemia Covid19. Sin embargo, nos encontramos aún casi sin investigaciones que den cuenta de los procesos y resultados de este nuevo modo de hacer psicodrama. El presente trabajo se buscó identificar y describir los eventos significativos que llevaron a procesos de cambio enunciados por los participantes de grupos de psicodrama virtual con finalidad terapéutica. Los resultados indican que los eventos significativos que fueron identificados como favorecedores en las respuestas de los participantes señalan dos aspectos centrales del método psicodramático (dramatización y compartir) y una técnica específica (espejo). En relación con los factores de cambio terapéutico, la “universalidad” y el “aprendizaje interpersonal” fueron los más mencionados. Finalmente, en el que se refiere a los eventos percibidos como no útiles u obstaculizantes, se identificaron dos categorías que estaban previstas (compartir y dramatización) y dos categorías emergentes (virtualidad y finalización del grupo).
... Consistent with the aforementioned theories, clinicians have increasingly recognised the therapeutic value of experiential interventions. Imagery, behavioural experimentation, and 'chairwork' are now regarded as being amongst the most powerful of therapeutic methods; an assertion which is supported by a growing body of research (Bennett-Levy 2003;Blackwell 2018;Elliott et al. 2013;Giacomucci and Marquit 2020;Orkibi and Feniger-Schaal 2019;Pugh 2019a). ...
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The majority of psychotherapeutic approaches work on the basis that addressing what is “wrong” with individuals will facilitate recovery. Positive therapies adopt a different approach, demonstrating that adaptive change can be achieved by addressing well-being and what is “right”. Unfortunately, research indicates the effectiveness of positive psychotherapeutic interventions is sometimes suboptimal, perhaps due to their reliance on written and talk-based strategies. Drawing on evidence from leading theories of cognition (e.g. Interacting Cognitive Subsystems and Dual Representation theories), the present paper suggests that the therapeutic effects of positive interventions might be augmented through greater use of experiential methods, namely ‘chairwork’. The practice-focused paper sets out the PPIs in their current form and describes how chairwork could be applied in the areas of well-being, including gratitude, personal strengths, forgiveness, benefit-finding, and existential meaning. Research is needed to establish the efficacy of experiential PPIs and to determine whether are advantageous compared to traditional positive interventions.
... The contribution of clients' ability to process their emotions to alleviation of psychopathological symptoms has been widely recognized in psychotherapy research (Baker et al., 2012;Elliott et al., 2013;Foa et al., 2006;Greenberg, 2015;Pinheiro et al., 2020;Whelton, 2004). Difficulties with emotional processing have been associated with the emergence and maintenance of psychopathology (Elliott et al., 2013;Foa et al., 2006;Greenberg, 2015;Whelton, 2004). ...
... The contribution of clients' ability to process their emotions to alleviation of psychopathological symptoms has been widely recognized in psychotherapy research (Baker et al., 2012;Elliott et al., 2013;Foa et al., 2006;Greenberg, 2015;Pinheiro et al., 2020;Whelton, 2004). Difficulties with emotional processing have been associated with the emergence and maintenance of psychopathology (Elliott et al., 2013;Foa et al., 2006;Greenberg, 2015;Whelton, 2004). Improved emotional processing capacity during therapy has been found to relate to better outcomes (Baker et al., 2012;Pascual-Leone, 2018;Pascual-Leone & Yeryomenko, 2017;Pinheiro et al., 2020). ...
... Humanistic-experiential therapies view clinical problems resulting from impaired ability to process painful emotions (Elliott et al., 2013;Greenberg, 2015;Greenberg & Watson, 2006;Pos et al., 2003). These therapies therefore facilitate such ability. ...
Article
Objective: Prior research, mainly conducted on depression, observed that clients' improved capability to process their emotions predicted better therapeutic outcomes. The current comparative study aimed to investigate whether emotional processing was related to therapeutic change in complicated grief. Method: We analyzed two contrasting cases (good or poor outcome) treated with grief constructivist therapy. In both cases we investigated the association of emotional processing (Experiencing Scale) to (1) therapeutic outcome (Inventory of Complicated Grief), and (2) change in the type of grief-related emotions (Emotions Episodes). Results: The session-by-session growth of clients' emotional processing and the change of grief-related emotions were qualitatively explored throughout both cases. Compared with the poor outcome case, the good outcome case achieved more improvement in the ability to process emotions. Such improvement occurred alongside a deeper change in the type of grief-related emotions aroused, from maladaptive to more adaptive responses. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that a higher emotional processing capability may be associated with the transformation of grief-related maladaptive emotions and with the improvement of complicated grief condition.
... The effect sizes are similar to those found for other types of humanistic and relational therapies (Angus et al., 2014;Elliott et al., 2013). Evaluation of counselling clinics in the UK, which included community clinics (Barkham et al., 2001) and university counselling (Connell et al., 2008), also suggested similar effectiveness of such therapies in routine practice. ...
Aims This study describes the outcomes of clients treated by therapists in their first placement who were undergoing training in a range of humanistic and other relational approaches: Transactional Analysis, Gestalt, Integrative, Humanistic, Person Centred and Counselling Psychology. Method All clients seen by 179 trainee therapists over a 2-year period in a community clinic were asked to complete standard outcome measures including the General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-10 (CORE-10) and Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) before each session. Findings Clients (N = 558) showed large, statistically significant improvement on all of these outcome measures, indicating substantial improvement in symptoms of depression, anxiety, general symptom intensity and post-traumatic stress, respectively (all p < .01). Across the outcome measures, the following percentages of clients with scores in the clinical range at baseline experienced reliable improvement/reliable and clinically significant improvement: 79.9%/38.9% PHQ-9, 61.6%/54.8% GAD-7, 59.1%/48.9% CORE-10 and 41.6%/33.3% IES. There were no differences between therapeutic approaches. Discussion Trainee therapists in this community clinic tended to have large, statistically reliable and clinically significant effects on their clients. The sizes of effects were similar to those achieved by therapists in the British National Health Service (NHS), albeit involving therapies and client populations that were not fully comparable.
... Some studies on CBT have shown that behavioral activation strategies alone, such as roleplay exercises, result in the same outcome as the full cognitive therapy package, especially in client populations with cognitive limitations (Cuijpers et al., 2007;Didden, 2007). This is in line with reviews from psychotherapy research, phenomenology, and cognitive science that have also reported the benefits of actionand experience-based interventions (e.g., Elliott et al., 2013;Fuchs and Koch, 2014;Koch, 2017). ...
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Empirical studies in the creative arts therapies (CATs; i.e., art therapy, dance/movement therapy, drama therapy, music therapy, psychodrama, and poetry/bibliotherapy) have grown rapidly in the last 10 years, documenting their positive impact on a wide range of psychological and physiological outcomes (e.g., stress, trauma, depression, anxiety, and pain). However, it remains unclear how and why the CATs have positive effects, and which therapeutic factors account for these changes. Research that specifically focuses on the therapeutic factors and/or mechanisms of change in CATs is only beginning to emerge. To gain more insight into how and why the CATs influence outcomes, we conducted a scoping review ( N studies = 67) to pinpoint therapeutic factors specific to each CATs discipline, joint factors of CATs, and more generic common factors across all psychotherapy approaches. This review therefore provides an overview of empirical CATs studies dealing with therapeutic factors and/or mechanisms of change, and a detailed analysis of these therapeutic factors which are grouped into domains. A framework of 19 domains of CATs therapeutic factors is proposed, of which the three domains are composed solely of factors unique to the CATs: “embodiment,” “concretization,” and “symbolism and metaphors.” The terminology used in change process research is clarified, and the implications for future research, clinical practice, and CATs education are discussed.
... Y así de peligroso para quien queda en una posición de inferioridad. Un ejemplo: Elliott et al. (2013) encontraron, contra la creencia generalizada de que las terapias humanistas no eran investigadas en su eficacia, un número sorprendentemente alto de estudios que comparaban la eficacia de terapias cognitivo-conductuales con terapias humanistico-existenciales: 76 estudios, que quedaron reducidos a 65 para mantener sólo los diseños más rigurosos. El resultado, traduciendo el tamaño del efecto al porcentaje de éxito relativo dio un resultado de 54% para pacientes tratados con TCC y de 46% para pacientes tratados con terapias humanistas. ...
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El artículo revisa las polémicas que se han dado en el campo de la psicoterapia. Se enmarcan estas polémicas tanto en los puntos de vista científicos como en la perspectiva de los intereses materiales que afectan a la práctica de la psicoterapia. Se revisan los temas de las eficacia absoluta y diferencial, los hallazgos y los sesgos en la investigación, los factores comunes, la situación de la enseñanza de la psicoterapia y se concluye con algunas recomendaciones para la práctica de la psicoterapia basadas en la investigación.
... Given the client's expressed frustration with the dialogue strategy, the therapist introduced the option of assimilating a different strategy in what remained a broadly CBT approach. Further, there is accumulating evidence for the effectiveness of EFT for social anxiety (Elliott et al., 2013). The experiential quality of the two-chair work fit well within the broader CBT approach, and the client was able to engage relatively seamlessly. ...