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Shortening of the coastline of the Netherlands over time (Kok et al., 2008).

Shortening of the coastline of the Netherlands over time (Kok et al., 2008).

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Technical Report
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A large and fast-growing part of the world’s population lives in low-lying coastal zones. To sustain economic activities and living in these areas a wide range of coastal defence measures has been constructed. These coastal defence measures reduce the risk to economic values and populations in coastal zones prone to flooding. Coastal defence measur...

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... Also, these nature-based defences are limited to wave heights less than half a metre and are not always cost effective. Based on existing literature it was assumed that breakwater construction costs are uniform across the sites in Europe/USA and ten times lower for the sites in Vietnam [28]. Such regional differences are also reflected in the reported habitat restoration costs in these countries. ...
... Construction costs for breakwaters in Vietnam were assumed to be ten times less than in Europe and the USA due to lower labour and material costs [28] . Since structure costs are critically dependent on water depth we also generated cost curves for breakwater construction at different water depths for a fixed wave height of 0.2 m–the average wave height across all NbD sites, and plotted these together with NbD costs (Fig 3) . ...
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There is great interest in the restoration and conservation of coastal habitats for protection from flooding and erosion. This is evidenced by the growing number of analyses and reviews of the effectiveness of habitats as natural defences and increasing funding world-wide for nature-based defences–i.e. restoration projects aimed at coastal protection; yet, there is no synthetic information on what kinds of projects are effective and cost effective for this purpose. This paper addresses two issues critical for designing restoration projects for coastal protection: (i) a synthesis of the costs and benefits of projects designed for coastal protection (nature-based defences) and (ii) analyses of the effectiveness of coastal habitats (natural defences) in reducing wave heights and the biophysical parameters that influence this effectiveness. We (i) analyse data from sixty-nine field measurements in coastal habitats globally and examine measures of effectiveness of mangroves, salt-marshes, coral reefs and seagrass/kelp beds for wave height reduction; (ii) synthesise the costs and coastal protection benefits of fifty-two nature-based defence projects and; (iii) estimate the benefits of each restoration project by combining information on restoration costs with data from nearby field measurements. The analyses of field measurements show that coastal habitats have significant potential for reducing wave heights that varies by habitat and site. In general, coral reefs and salt-marshes have the highest overall potential. Habitat effectiveness is influenced by: a) the ratios of wave height-to-water depth and habitat width-to-wavelength in coral reefs; and b) the ratio of vegetation height-to-water depth in salt-marshes. The comparison of costs of nature-based defence projects and engineering structures show that salt-marshes and mangroves can be two to five times cheaper than a submerged breakwater for wave heights up to half a metre and, within their limits, become more cost effective at greater depths. Nature-based defence projects also report benefits ranging from reductions in storm damage to reductions in coastal structure costs.
... In Vietnam dike costs vary because of the differing prices of materials, land use, and revetments. The cost of labor is highly variable but constitutes a relatively small percentage of the total cost [10,11]. Because information about the cost of dikes was not available from the local dike management authority, the cost category in this study uses the dike cost calculations given by Mai et al. [11] and by Hillen et al. [10] for a typical sea dike in rural Vietnam. ...
... The cost of labor is highly variable but constitutes a relatively small percentage of the total cost [10,11]. Because information about the cost of dikes was not available from the local dike management authority, the cost category in this study uses the dike cost calculations given by Mai et al. [11] and by Hillen et al. [10] for a typical sea dike in rural Vietnam. Mai et al. [11] determined the cost of dike heightening with a comparable probabilistic approach to ascertain the safety standards of the sea dike system. ...
... Mai et al. [11] determined the cost of dike heightening with a comparable probabilistic approach to ascertain the safety standards of the sea dike system. The safety standards in Mai et al. [11] are comparable to Hillen et al. [10]. The costs of dike heightening in Mai et al. are also comparable with those found by Hillen et al. [10]. ...
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The purpose of this study is to conduct an economic valuation of creating a concrete sea dike system as an adaptation measure to counter the impacts of a rise in sea level using a risk cost-benefit analysis framework. It uses an ex-ante approach with risk considerations for storms, floods, and salinity by specifying probability distribution functions in a simulation process, in order to incorporate these risk factors into the analysis. The results showed that the benefits of storms and floods avoided dominated the dike options. The benefit of salinity avoided was also valuable, with annual rice and aquaculture productivity losses avoided of USD 331.25 per ha and USD 915 per ha, respectively. This study evaluated a range of dike options to adapt to climate change in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta, showing high levels of benefits compared to costs. The larger in scale the dike system options were, the higher the expected net present values (ENPVs) were. Of the dike alternatives applicable to the Vietnamese Mekong Delta, considering the impacts of sea level rise of storms, floods and raised salinity in soil from flooding, small scale dikes that can subsequently be increased in height should be a priority choice. The sensitivity analyses showed that the ENPVs of dike options were very sensitive with changes in discount rate but were not sensitive with increases in salinized areas at all. The findings provide evidence to support the necessity of the construction of a concrete sea dike system in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta, given the context of global climate change.
... Sea dike is an infrastructure which is built as the barriers from sea water floods and saltwater intrusion. Based on the previous study conducted [17], to build a sea dike with a kilometer long and 2 meters high, it will cost approximately USD 1.157 million and USD 1.182 million based on [18] study. Further study about it which is based on cost-benefit analysis or suitability analysis, needs to be conducted in order to determine whether this option is applicable for this area or it is not. ...
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... The aim of this study is therefore to use project-and systembased estimates to strengthen the empirical foundation of cost estimates at a regional and global level. The present study has been reported in more detail in the research report of Hillen et al. (2010) and was part of a larger study on the costs of adaptation to the effects of climate change in the world's largest port cities (Linham, Green, and Nicholls, 2010). ...
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The cost of upgrading and raising coastal defences is an important consideration in societal response to sea-level rise. Currently available unit cost estimates have a limited empirical basis. This article presents new information on the unit costs of adapting coastal defences for three specific case studies in low-lying delta regions: The Netherlands, New Orleans, and Vietnam. Typical measures include dikes, flood walls, storm surge barriers, and nourishment. These unit cost estimates are significantly higher than earlier estimates that are still the main source of costs for global vulnerability assessments. Factors affecting these unit costs include local economic factors (material and labour costs), design choices related to the alignment of the system, and the types of measures for implementation of the system in an urban or rural environment. On the basis of an example for a Dutch sea dike, it is shown that the material quantities and associated costs are expected to rise linearly, in the case of depth-limited wave breaking, for the range of sea-level rise rates that are expected in the coming century. However, other factors, such as increasing costs for implementation of wider coastal defences in an urban environment and future changes in material and labour costs, could contribute to a nonlinear increase of the costs. Further collection and analysis of project information for coastal defence projects in other regions is recommended to strengthen the empirical basis of the cost estimates that are used for regional and global assessments.
... A complete new 30 ft hurricane levee in water for New Orleans cost between $40 and $85 mln/ km depending on the height of the levee (Dijkman, 2007). Annual dike maintenance costs per linear kilometer of dikes are reported to range from $0.028 mln in Vietnam (Hillen 2008) and $0.14 mln in the Netherlands (Hillen et al., 2010 ). The variability in costs is largely because maintenance in the Netherlands is well organized and has high political priority. ...
... The most recent barriers were installed in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina in 2005 (e.g. Dircke et al., 2011; Hillen et al., 2010). Storm surge barriers have a number of advantages and disadvantages that are important to recognize. ...
... An advantage, for example, is that in the event of a permanent closure of estuaries through constructing a barrier the length of the coastline is reduced. Therefore, the required height of floodwalls behind the barrier can be reduced, which reduces the cost for the heightening or maintenance of the levees behind the barrier (Hillen et al., 2010). Moreover, a barrier system can provide a comprehensive protection of all the buildings and infrastructure in the City, and prevent flood casualties. ...
... A complete new 30 ft hurricane levee in water for New Orleans cost between $40 and $85 mln/ km depending on the height of the levee (Dijkman, 2007). Annual dike maintenance costs per linear kilometer of dikes are reported to range from $0.028 mln in Vietnam (Hillen 2008) and $0.14 mln in the Netherlands (Hillen et al., 2010 ). The variability in costs is largely because maintenance in the Netherlands is well organized and has high political priority. ...
... The most recent barriers were installed in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina in 2005 (e.g. Dircke et al., 2011; Hillen et al., 2010). Storm surge barriers have a number of advantages and disadvantages that are important to recognize. ...
... An advantage, for example, is that in the event of a permanent closure of estuaries through constructing a barrier the length of the coastline is reduced. Therefore, the required height of floodwalls behind the barrier can be reduced, which reduces the cost for the heightening or maintenance of the levees behind the barrier (Hillen et al., 2010). Moreover, a barrier system can provide a comprehensive protection of all the buildings and infrastructure in the City, and prevent flood casualties. ...
... A complete new 30 ft hurricane levee in water for New Orleans cost between $40 and $85 mln/ km depending on the height of the levee (Dijkman, 2007). Annual dike maintenance costs per linear kilometer of dikes are reported to range from $0.028 mln in Vietnam (Hillen 2008) and $0.14 mln in the Netherlands (Hillen et al., 2010 ). The variability in costs is largely because maintenance in the Netherlands is well organized and has high political priority. ...
... The most recent barriers were installed in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina in 2005 (e.g. Dircke et al., 2011; Hillen et al., 2010). Storm surge barriers have a number of advantages and disadvantages that are important to recognize. ...
... An advantage, for example, is that in the event of a permanent closure of estuaries through constructing a barrier the length of the coastline is reduced. Therefore, the required height of floodwalls behind the barrier can be reduced, which reduces the cost for the heightening or maintenance of the levees behind the barrier (Hillen et al., 2010). Moreover, a barrier system can provide a comprehensive protection of all the buildings and infrastructure in the City, and prevent flood casualties. ...
... A complete new 30 ft hurricane levee in water for New Orleans cost between $40 and $85 mln/ km depending on the height of the levee (Dijkman, 2007). Annual dike maintenance costs per linear kilometer of dikes are reported to range from $0.028 mln in Vietnam (Hillen 2008) and $0.14 mln in the Netherlands (Hillen et al., 2010 ). The variability in costs is largely because maintenance in the Netherlands is well organized and has high political priority. ...
... The most recent barriers were installed in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina in 2005 (e.g. Dircke et al., 2011; Hillen et al., 2010). Storm surge barriers have a number of advantages and disadvantages that are important to recognize. ...
... An advantage, for example, is that in the event of a permanent closure of estuaries through constructing a barrier the length of the coastline is reduced. Therefore, the required height of floodwalls behind the barrier can be reduced, which reduces the cost for the heightening or maintenance of the levees behind the barrier (Hillen et al., 2010). Moreover, a barrier system can provide a comprehensive protection of all the buildings and infrastructure in the City, and prevent flood casualties. ...
... The increasing popularity of beach nourishment worldwide may cause sediment availability constraints (Linham and Nicholls, 2010). In The Netherlands, a limited availability of contractors, coupled with an increase in demand for nourishment projects, has already caused cost increases for nourishment projects (Hillen et al., 2010). In the United States, debates have emerged about the appropriate federal role in beach nourishment activities and who should pay for the high costs (Trembanis, Pilkey, and Valverde, 1999). ...
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... The traditional approach to protecting towns and cities has been to 'harden' shorelines. Although engineered solutions are necessary and desirable in some contexts, they can be expensive to build and maintain 7,8 , and construction may impair recreation, enhance erosion, degrade water quality and reduce the production of fisheries 9,10 . Over the past decade, efforts to protect people and property have broadened 11 to consider conservation and restoration of marshes, seagrass beds, coastal and kelp forests, and oyster and coral reefs that buffer coastlines from waves and storm surge [12][13][14] and provide collateral benefits to people 15 . ...