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A theoretical illustration shows the different types of aquifers, wells and ground surface zones and the relation between water surfaces and wells.

A theoretical illustration shows the different types of aquifers, wells and ground surface zones and the relation between water surfaces and wells.

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Thesis
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The increasing concerns about groundwater resources, makes managing such resources became a must. Monitoring networks are the base of any management process. Therefore, these networks are the main source of informations and have to result a very accurate outputs which needs a huge number of observation wells. Nevertheless, increasing the number of...

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Context 1
... simulation-optimization (S-O) modeling process for applying groundwater management clarified in a few steps. Fig. 2-4 shows these steps are partially represented, as it is out of scope to discuss the topics of some of these text boxes, hence they are blank in the figure. The steps are illustrated as ...
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... is calculated according to the following formula: Fig. 3-2). The sill variance refers to the maximum variance. The distance between the variance and the lag distance is known as the range. Also sometimes, there is a cutoff at the origin, reflecting residual variation below the resolution of the lag. This discontinuity is referred to as a nugget ...
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... could be from rain, nearby stream flow or irrigation. When water reaches the land surface, the space between the soil particles allows water to penetrate it with a known infiltration value depending on type of soil. The surface of the ground is divided into two zones: unsaturated (aeration) zone and saturated zone as shown in Fig. 2 Beside these downward movements from unsaturated to saturated zone, the water also moves laterally. All these movements of the Groundwater flow causes changes in water table level. There is also some misunderstanding for the Groundwater considering it as underground river or lake which is almost untrue, except in some times in underground rocks there is faults where water could be considered flowing as underground ...
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... found in geologic media which called aquifers where it could store, transfer and yield this Groundwater. These aquifers are divided into three main types: unconfined, confined and perched aquifers as shown in Fig. 2-2. Groundwater may flow due to pressure or due to ...
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... are many functions used in order to fit the empirical semi-variogram or the covariance which mainly aim to achieve the best fit as shown in Fig. 3-2, on which the model will be using to get predictions. Semi-variogram or Covariance modeling is a very important step between the spatial data description and spatial data prediction, so choosing it will affect the ...
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... 1.76% of this fresh water is stored in glaciers, permanent snow cover, ground ice and permafrost, and 0.01% is surface fresh water, and 0.76% is stored in Groundwater, as represented in Fig. 2-1. Therefore, almost 98.9% of the available fresh water is below our feet, as Groundwater stored in the ground aquifers. In other words, No matter where we are standing on Earth, assumptions are that, at some depth there below the ground, it is saturated with fresh water. Society has found how groundwater is valuable, precious and useful source of water. There are many reasons; it is, comparing to surface water, a cheap source to use and to deliver to where the water supply is needed, as well as easy to develop, construct and operate. It acts as a good source of fresh water because of the natural purification processes. Besides, some places where groundwater exists have self-protection from contamination. Furthermore, it is a very satisfying source of water as it has an enormous storage capacity, much greater than the largest man-made reservoirs, (Morris, et al., 2003). It also somehow acts as a real "defense storage" against drought due to the ubiquity of different groundwater development ...
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... of the advantages of Kriging is the fact that it calculates the prediction standard error through the study area in the form of a prediction standard error map as in (Fig. ...

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