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Circuit diagram for an active-matrix display. 

Circuit diagram for an active-matrix display. 

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In the early nineties, Mark Weiser wrote a series of seminal papers that introduced the concept of Ubiquitous Computing. According to Weiser, computers require too much attention from the user, drawing his focus from the tasks at hand. Instead of being the centre of attention, computers should be so natural that they would vanish into the human env...


... Hence, electrochromic devices include electrochromic materials with electrolyte layers, and electrodes for redox reactions. These devices are typically assembled in a laminate configuration based on a simple two electrode configuration (Fig. 4a) [28]. ...
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Displays play a significant role in delivering information and providing visual data across all media platforms. Among displays, the prominence of reflective displays is increasing, in the form of E-paper, which has features distinct from emissive displays. These unique features include high visibility under daylight conditions, reduced eye strain and low power consumption, which make them highly effective for outdoor use. Furthermore, such characteristics enable reflective displays to achieve high synergy in combination with wearable devices, which are frequently used for outdoor activities. However, as wearable devices must stretch to conform to the dynamic surfaces of the human body, the issue of how to fabricate stretchable reflective displays should be tackled prior to merging them with wearable devices. In this paper, we discuss stretchable and reflective displays. In particular, we focus on reflective displays that can be divided into two types, passive and active, according to their responses to stretching. Passive displays, which consist of dyes or pigments, exhibit consistent colors under stretching, while active displays, which are based on mechanochromic materials, change their color under the same conditions. We will provide a comprehensive overview of the materials and technologies for each display type, and present strategies for stretchable and reflective displays.
This chapter gives a brief overview about flash lamp annealing of non-semiconductor materials, although the line to semiconductors is flexible. The first section is devoted to dielectric thin films with the focus on high-k materials and rare earth doping of silicon dioxide. The next section discusses the use of flash lamp annealing for monocrystalline, polycrystalline and thin film solar cells. The following section deals with transparent conducting oxides including zinc oxide, titanium oxide, and indium tin oxide. Finally, the section about flexible substrates gives a short introduction to the state of the art and discusses the interaction of ink with the environment and the substrate if inkjet printing is combined with intense pulsed light annealing, a synonym for flash lamp annealing.