... Meanwhile, Yin et al. [15] established the dynamics model of landing gear with the limit state equation to analyze the influence of key parameters on the reliability of the retraction system. McClain et al. [16] introduced the improved landing gear system with the efforts involving the design, test and integration of components and the failure investigation. Öström et al. [17] discussed the co-simulation of two models including commercial-off-the-shelf software and low-cost flight simulation model for landing gear. ...
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The emergence extension system (a mechanical system) of nose landing gear (NLG) seriously influences the reliability, safety and airworthiness of civil aircrafts. To efficiently realize the NLG emergence extension, a promising driving plan of emergence extension is proposed in respect of the reliability sensitivity analyses with a mixture of models. The working principle, fault tree analysis and four reliability models are firstly discussed for NLG emergence extension. In respect of the mixture of models, the reliability sensitivity analyses of emergence extension are then performed under different flight speeds (270 Kts, 250 Kts, 220 Kts, and 180 Kts). We find dimpling torque and aerodynamic torques of forward and after doors are the top three failure factors and the start reliability is the most in emergence extension failures. Regarding the results, feasible driving plans of NLG emergence extension are developed by adjusting the aerodynamic torque of NLG forward door, and are validated by the aerodynamic torque experiment of forward door with regard to strut rotational angle under the flight speed 270 Kts. It is indicated that (1) the adverse torque generated by the new driving mechanism obviously reduces by about 24.8% from 1462.8 N·m to 1099.6 N·m, and the transmission ratio of aerodynamic torque (force) is greatly improved when the NLG strut is lowered near to 100°; (2) under different flight speeds (180 Kts, 220 Kts, 250 Kts, and 270 Kts), the new driving mechanism realizes the lower tasks of emergence extension which cannot be completed by the initial driving mechanism; and (3) the lowering time of the new driving mechanism shortens with the increasing flight speed. The proposed new driving mechanism is verified to be reliable for emergence extension of aircraft NLG besides normal extension and to be a promising feasible driving plan with high lowering reliability. The efforts of the paper provide an efficient driving mechanism for the design of NLG in civil and military aircrafts.
... Thus, it is difficult to get the accurate results. 2) With the test method, the accurate results close to the real condition can be acquired [8]. However, this method is time consuming, labor consuming, and costly. ...
In this paper, the fault analysis of an aircraft nose landing gear’s emergency lowering was conducted with a cosimulation method. The simulation was aimed at studying the dynamic response characteristics of landing-gear retraction/extension. Moreover, the equations of the mechanical and hydraulic system were derived and analyzed so as to acquire the boundary condition under which the landing-gear emergency lowering could fail. Based on the simulation platform computer aided engineering, a cosimulation model (including a dynamic system and a hydraulic system) was developed, after which, by comparing the simulation results with the data of the ground test and flight test, the model was further verified. Additionally, the nose landing gear could succeed in emergency lowering with the premise that the critical dampings of different flight cases and temperatures were obtained. After that, a feasible scheme of emergency lowering was put forward. The results showed that, at the end of the landing-gear lowering process, the favorable moment saltation produced by the spring force could lag behind the unfavorable moment saltation of the aerodynamic force of the front and back cabin doors, thus resulting in the fault of emergency lowering and locking. Furthermore, when the method of decreasing the damping force was adopted, the landing gear would succeed in emergency lowering only by adjusting the force down to the critical value. However, due to the reduced damping force, the lowering process could be made so fast that there was a great impact load on the landing gear at the end of the trip. The solution laid in using the original damping value in normal extension and the reduced damping value in emergency lowering by a hydraulic selector valve.