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Work-family border theory (Clark, 2000)

Work-family border theory (Clark, 2000)

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The advancement of information and communication technologies such as personal computers, the Internet and mobile phones has enabled people to work any time and anywhere. Teleworking, the practice of setting up home offices for employees with appropriate resources for computing and communication, is one example of this new flexibility. Teleworking...

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... However, there is not much of literature that explores how work-life balance can affect self-efficacy among individuals with families who perform telework. In relation to that, other downsides that have been associated with teleworking and personal resources include disruption in the work-life balance (Othman et al., 2009). Grant et al. (2013) found that teleworking resulted in adverse impacts like over-working and worklife conflicts. ...
Thesis
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The organizational environment has been changing rapidly for the past decades. With new and enhanced technology, working anywhere at any time is possible and is becoming more common by every year. While many companies have been adapting telework as a work arrangement, many companies still require their employees to show up at their offices. However, it is reasonable to question these different work arrangements and their usefulness in the organizational setting. One key factor that determines the performance of employees is work engagement. The current study aims to answer whether work engagement and its sub-factors of job resources and personal resources differs between teleworkers, central workers, and workers with mixed arrangement of both. A qualitative interview was conducted with three different groups of office workers: teleworkers, central workers, and mixed arrangement workers. Results indicated that each group differed in the expression of work engagement and its sub-factors of job resources and personal resources. Other findings include that offering a mixed arrangement of both telework and central work might be the most optimal choice for companies. Further implications are discussed and suggestions for future research.
... Struggles in work and family spheres management occur almost daily and have consequences for professional activities and personal life [91]. The usual approach of studying the relationship between these two variables is to explore the nature of interactions between work and family activities [92]. However, researchers highlight the importance of examining how this relationship varies when teleworking is applied outside regular office hours [93,94], when there is a change in its frequency [95], or when dedication is considered [96,97]. ...
Article
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If there is any field that has experienced changes as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is work, primarily due to the implementation of teleworking and the effort made by workers and families to face new responsibilities. In this context, the study aims to analyze the impact of work–family conflict on burnout, considering work overload, in teleworkers during the COVID-19 pandemic. To evaluate the hypotheses, we used data collected during the last week of July 2020 using an online survey. Work–family conflict and burnout were measured using the Gutek et al. (1991) and Shirom (1989) scales. We tested the hypotheses using a structural equation model (SEM). The results indicated, between other findings, that there was a positive relationship between work–family conflict and family–work conflict and all the dimensions of burnout. However, there was no effect of teleworking overload in the work–family conflict and burnout relationship. This article is innovative because it highlights the importance of the economic and regulatory conditions that have surrounded the modality of teleworking during the pandemic, and their influence on wellbeing and psychosocial risks in workers.
... Telecommuting has variously been referred to as telework, home-working, working-at-a-distance, off-site workers, remote workers, virtual working, etc. (Rognes, 2002;Hamilton, 2003). Othman, Yusef & Osman (2009) point out that networking, remote working, flexible working, working from home, electronic home working and e-work are used to denote teleworking or telecommuting. Telecommuting is seen as "a subset of teleworking" (National Transportation Library, 1993). ...
... Nilles (1994) conceives teleworking as a form of substitution of information technologies (such as telecommunications and computers) for work-related travel. Othman, Yusef & Osman (2009) agree that telecommuting is a form of teleworking whereby all telecommuters are teleworkers but not all teleworkers are telecommuters. Hence, Avellino (2005) sees telework as home-workers who use personal computers and/or the internet or mobile phone during their work schedule. ...
Article
This exploratory study provides insights into the utility of telecommuting in times of adversity such as the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic is still active globally, and also locally, as Nigerian institutions were shut down since March 2020, avoiding physical, in person contacts within the campuses. Telecommuting, or Working From Home (WFH) is becoming the new normal in pedagogy, as academic staff in some universities continue to exercise their roles in terms of Teaching, Research and Community Service. Utilising the benefits of Contingency Theory, the paper analysed the nature of telecommuting in the context of the unexpected events, the changing dynamics of the workplace and the new future of work. The paper is largely qualitative, relying largely on secondary sources of data and some primary information for analysis. The difficulties and challenges faced by several Public and Private Universities in Nigeria, like inadequate classroom spaces, hostels, infrastructure can be overcome by the introduction of a hybrid form of learning that incorporates Telecommuting and Virtual Online Learning as part of the pedagogy in the academic activities of Universities.
... Telecommuting has variously been referred to as telework, home-working, working-at-a-distance, off-site workers, remote workers, virtual working, etc. (Rognes, 2002;Hamilton, 2003). Othman, Yusef & Osman (2009) point out that networking, remote working, flexible working, working from home, electronic home working and e-work are used to denote teleworking or telecommuting. Telecommuting is seen as "a subset of teleworking" (National Transportation Library, 1993). ...
... Nilles (1994) conceives teleworking as a form of substitution of information technologies (such as telecommunications and computers) for work-related travel. Othman, Yusef & Osman (2009) agree that telecommuting is a form of teleworking whereby all telecommuters are teleworkers but not all teleworkers are telecommuters. Hence, Avellino (2005) sees telework as home-workers who use personal computers and/or the internet or mobile phone during their work schedule. ...
... This finding aligns with studies that argue that long working hours prevent employees from spending time with their families (Ammons and Markham, 2004), thereby fuelling a fierce WLC (Othman et al., 2009) and negatively affecting employees' quality and quantity of sleep (Walter, 2012). Furthermore, the greater the heavy responsibilities of domestic workers' duties, the more likely the occurrence of work-life imbalance. ...
Article
Purpose The trend of domestic employment thrives almost in every society. It is most common in developing countries and Nigeria is no exception. This paper aims to examine the nature of the role of a domestic worker in Nigeria and the work-life conflict issues involved in such work. Design/methodology/approach This study uses a qualitative research approach to examine the nature of the role of domestic workers and the associated work-life conflict issues. Findings The findings show that the nature of the jobs of domestic workers in Nigeria gives rise to a situation of modern-day slavery in which an employee works without a formal employment contract, with little or no rights to private time. Long and unstructured working hours, employers’ perceptions about domestic workers and a huge workload fuel and exacerbate work-life conflict amongst domestic workers in Nigeria. Research limitations/implications The extent to which the findings of this research can be generalised is constrained by the limited and selected sample of the research and the research context. Practical implications The primacy of the employer over the employee in domestic employment means that both time and work-based conflicts continue to buffer work-life conflict if domestic workers’ working hours remain unscheduled and their employers’ perceptions about them remain unchanged. This invariably has a negative impact on the domestic workers’ health and productivity. Therefore, domestic employment should be regulated by law and domestic workers should be treated like other formal employees. Originality/value This study contributes to the debates on the work-life conflict by highlighting the nature of the role of domestic workers in a non-western context, Nigeria and provides a nuanced insight into the work-life conflict issues involved in such work. The findings add conceptual thought and empirical evidence to the debate on work-life conflict.
... Empirical studies have found favorable outcomes of teleworking such as job performance, job satisfaction, lesser work-family imbalance, reduced rates of stress, and lesser turnover intentions (Kossek et al., 2006;Fonner and Rolo , 2010;Coenen and Kok, 2014;Vega et al., 2015). Likewise, Othman et al. (2009) demonstrated the positive e ect of teleworking on employees' work-life balance. Additionally, Azarbouyeh and Naini (2014) stated that teleworking is e ective in enhancing the quality of life, whereas, Kazekami (2020) found that teleworking improves employees' happiness and work satisfaction. ...
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Suddenly, COVID-19 has changed the world and the way people work. Companies had to accelerate something they knew was imminent in the future, but not immediate and extremely humongous. This situation poses a huge challenge for companies to survive and thrive in this complex business environment and for employees, who must adapt to this new way of working. An effective e-leadership, which promotes companies’ adaptability, is needed. This study investigates the existing knowledge on teleworking and e-leadership; and analyzes the supposed challenges. The literature review shows that companies with effective e-leadership can view teleworking as an opportunity. It is advantageous for not only companies’ productivity but also the environment and people who work remotely. However, a traditional or no leadership can result in some risks. Thriving in remote work environments implies that managers must adjust the companies’ structure, making them less hierarchical, and developing new abilities to establish a strong and trustworthy relationship with their employees to maintain their competitiveness, while retaining a genuine concern for their employees’ well-being. Similarly, successful e-leadership must be able to consolidate and lead effective virtual teams to accomplish organizational goals. This study contributes to the literature and leaders during the pandemic.
... Empirical studies have found favorable outcomes of teleworking such as job performance, job satisfaction, lesser work-family imbalance, reduced rates of stress, and lesser turnover intentions (Kossek et al., 2006;Fonner and Roloff, 2010;Coenen and Kok, 2014;Vega et al., 2015). Likewise, Othman et al. (2009) demonstrated the positive effect of teleworking on employees' work-life balance. Additionally, Azarbouyeh and Naini (2014) stated that teleworking is effective in enhancing the quality of life, whereas, Kazekami (2020) found that teleworking improves employees' happiness and work satisfaction. ...
Article
Full-text available
Suddenly, COVID-19 has changed the world and the way people work. Companies had to accelerate something they knew was imminent in the future, but not immediate and extremely humongous. This situation poses a huge challenge for companies to survive and thrive in this complex business environment and for employees, who must adapt to this new way of working. An effective e-leadership, which promotes companies’ adaptability, is needed. This study investigates the existing knowledge on teleworking and e-leadership; and analyzes the supposed challenges. The literature review shows that companies with effective e-leadership can view teleworking as an opportunity. It is advantageous for not only companies’ productivity but also the environment and people who work remotely. However, a traditional or no leadership can result in some risks. Thriving in remote work environments implies that managers must adjust the companies’ structure, making them less hierarchical, and developing new abilities to establish a strong and trustworthy relationship with their employees to maintain their competitiveness, while retaining a genuine concern for their employees’ well-being. Similarly, successful e-leadership must be able to consolidate and lead effective virtual teams to accomplish organizational goals. This study contributes to the literature and leaders during the pandemic.
... As employees dedicate excess time to work without flexibility, their personal life engagement suffers alongside their family life obligations (Kramar, 1998;Mapedzahama, 2014). Workplace flexibility provides employees with flexible working patterns that promote WLB (Othman et al., 2009). Additionally, the level of support (formal or informal) an employee receives serves as another vital factor in promoting WLB (James, 2017;Adisa et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the numerous existing works of literature on work-life balance (WLB) in Western countries, there are yet to be sufficient studies that explore the countries in the Sub-Saharan African (SSA) region. This paper purposed to explore the dynamic roles of organisational culture (OC) on WLB practices while examining the implications of workplace expectations and workplace support within the Nigerian army. The study employs the use of qualitative data generated from 10 semi-structured interviews and 100 open-ended questionnaire responses extracted from members of the Nigerian army across the country's six geo-political zones aimed at investigating the various roles of OC in the context of WLB. The findings reveal that workplace expectations characterised by long working hours, a required physical presence at work, and deployment and relocation adversely affected the actualisation of WLB, while an unsupportive OC led to work-life conflict (WLC) among the service members. Working for longer hours was revealed to be one of the prevalent organisational culture, likewise workplace inflexibility. The study explores the SSA region, which is yet to be given the needed attention as it pertains to the WLB of employees and specifically the military personnel. It reveals the need for HR to provide effective policies that bolster WLB practices taking into consideration the roles of institutional influences and OC.
... Overall, our results indicate profiles in line with the existing research evidence. With reference to the growing interest on telework and work-life balance in the Malaysian context (e.g., Othman, et al., 2009) and research evidence to indicate that work-life conflicts manifest differently in the West and East (e.g., Hassan, et al., 2010), our findings indicate a need for further research on the roles of women in telecommuting, and their work perceptions and expectations, in the Malaysian employment context. This is especially relevant since the preliminary empirical evidence suggests that women in the western and eastern contexts may have different preferences with regard to telecommuting (Adya, 2008). ...
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By surveying 201 telecommuters in Klang Valley, the study examines the employees’ profiles, beliefs and practices regarding the adoption of telecommuting in Malaysia. While our findings seem generally in line with the existing literature in the western context, we reason that the practice of telecommuting remains nascent in its forms and thus requires further research in the Malaysian context.
... Clarke (2009) observes that this is so due to the fact that there are generally different cultures both at family level and work level which thus means an individual has to transit between these two cultures on a daily basis. Whereas the transition could be slight in cases where acceptable behavior in both cases is more or less similar, there are cases where there is massive contrast between the two spheres of an employee's life (Othman, 2009). This could be due to the fact that individuals are motivated by different things in both spheres like income and accomplishment at work and close relationships and happiness in family (Clark, 2000). ...
... Clark (2000) observes that these borders might be temporal given the differences in time an individual cross to another domain or physical as elaborated by the walls of a workplace or home. Similarly, a border can be psychological in terms of the difference in thoughts, behavior patterns or emotions one has when in a given domain (Othman, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
The business case for the provision of flexible work schedules relies on their ability to enhance recruitment and retention, job satisfaction and commitment and reduction of work-life conflict among employees. It makes intuitive sense that offering work-life balance practices would attract individuals to an organization, and that using these practices would result in improved employee attitudes and behaviours within the organization. However, the critical literature review on flexible work schedule revealed that despite the provision of these schedules, employee take-up may be low due to concerns that using work-life practices will result in reduced advancement opportunities or perceptions of the employee as being less committed to the organization. The need for supportive organizational culture, team work, proper communication and training of managers may be at the fore front in addressing this issue. The article offered a critical review of the literature on flexible work schedules through examining the types of flexible work schedules and supporting theoretical foundations. It also examined the conditions necessary for the success of flexible work schedules and the possible outcomes. There was further evaluation of the challenges involved and recommendation therefore.