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1 -Percentage of certified organic utilised agricultural land to total UAA for focus area countries -2014

1 -Percentage of certified organic utilised agricultural land to total UAA for focus area countries -2014

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Thesis
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The combined impacts of climate change, soil erosion, deforestation, pollution, population growth and resource depletion require urgent attention in instituting regenerative agricultural practices worldwide. This is particularly the case in NW Europe where the current farming paradigm is becoming obsolete due to pressures from many fronts. A new wa...

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Context 1
... it must be emphasised that agroforestry systems could be appropriate for all farming systems (conventional/organic and livestock/arable/mixed) in order to establish more resilient and diverse enterprises and its benefits to farmers and the environment would be limited if restricted only to a 'niche' production sector. At the present time the percentage of utilised agricultural land (UAA) that is certified organic is still relatively low in the focus area as indicated by the Table 1.1 below although this has been and is still significantly increasing by up to 500,000 hectares a year over the last decade on an overall EU level (EU, 2013b). The above figures indicate the importance for agroforestry to be adopted especially for conventional farming systems since they presently cover the majority of the agricultural lands but it is expected that organic farmers would lead the way by demonstrating cases of efficient and profitable production systems that could be emulated by conventional farmers as part of the transition process. ...
Context 2
... the leaves of Paulownia have a high nutritive content suitable for ruminants (Bodnár et al., 2014) and can be ensiled as a fodder crop. El-Showk and El-Showk, 2003) This is of significance when referring to a recent study by Luske and van Eekeren (2014) comparing the feeding value of perennial ryegrass with common agroforestry fodder tree species for NW Europe with the following protein contents reported as per Table 1.3. and van Eekeren (2014) In comparison, Paulownia at 22.6% has been recorded the highest value compared to the average protein values all the mentioned species. ...
Context 3
... there exists some variances between species with temperature in particular but also soil type and other factors, Paulownia trees have the following general indicative growing requirements as noted in Table 1.4. Zhao-Hua et al. (1986) summarised that "Paulownia is very adaptable except for places with too clayey, dry or poor soil, too strong wind, highly saline or alkaline soil, bad drainage, excessively high water table (less than 1.5 m deep) and extremely low minimum temperature (below -20°C). ...
Context 4
... focus area of NW Europe had been chosen since it has some of the most productive agricultural land in the world with a mild climate favourable for both agriculture and many native and non-endemic tree species but has undergone severe deforestation over the last centuries resulting in comparative low tree cover today as per Table 1.5 when compared to the overall EU average of 42%. Furthermore, the spread of Dutch elm disease and ash dieback in the focus area in recent decades have created a gap in local hardwood timber species for forestry and supply restrictions due to tropical deforestation also indicate increased importance for finding suitable species for local timber production in the future. ...
Context 5
... reason for selecting this focus area was that in terms of agroforestry systems covering the utilised agricultural area (UAA), NW Europe is far below the EU27 average of 14% as well as from its nearest continental neighbours as indicated in Table 1.6. The topography of the focus area inclines easily towards agroforestry but more efforts need to be undertaken towards its wider adoption using suitable species based on systems that have been proven to work elsewhere in the world in comparable conditions. ...
Context 6
... corresponds with the literature review from experiences abroad ( Barton et al., 2007) where Paulownia have been recorded as a source of livestock feed in China and the agroforestry experts interviewed also confirmed the benefits of using the leaves as fodder. This could be considered a main reason to introduce Paulownia in a silvopastoral system due to their high protein content at 22.6% (El-Showk and El-Showk, 2003) compared to the other common NW European fodder tree species reported by Luske and van Eekeren (2014) as indicated in Table 1.3. ...

Citations

... Of Asian origin, Paulownia is a fast-growing deciduous tree, with at least nine subspecies [1]. In Europe, in the last decade, is growing interest on Paulownia as regards tree cultivation and agro-forestry plantations for industrial use [2]. Paulownia was also introduced in North America, Australia and Japan [3], and is cultivated worldwide in more than 40 countries [4]. ...
Article
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The aim of this research is the characterization of physical and mechanical properties of Paulownia sawn wood from three plantation sites in Europe, namely Spain, Bulgaria and Serbia. As a fast-growing wood species, Paulownia has a significant positive forecast for the European markets and a wide range of possible applications that still need to be explored. For this purpose, Paulownia tomentosa(Tunb.) x elongata(S.Y. Hu) wood species was investigated. Sorption behaviour, Brinell hardness, 3-point bending strength, flexural modulus of elasticity, tensile strength, compressive strength and screw withdrawal resistance were examined in detail. The samples from Spain have the higher average bulk density (266 kg/m3), 3-point flexural strength (~40 N/mm2), 3-point flexural modulus of elasticity (~4900 N/mm2), compressive strength (~23 N/mm2), tensile strength (~44 N/mm2) and screw withdrawal resistance (~56 N/mm). The plantation wood from Bulgaria has the highest average of annual ring width (46 mm). Paulownia wood has potential in lightweight applications and can replace successfully expensive tropical species as Balsa.
... Milde vintre og høje sommertemperaturer vurderes generelt afgørende for dyrkningssucces. Observationer fra England og Irland har også indikeret, at for lave sommertemperaturer kan vaere årsag til manglende trivsel og tilvaekst (Jensen, 2016). Vanding i etableringsårene 2016-2017 er vist i Polske forsøg med Shan Tong hybrid planter at fremme både etablering og tilvaekst vaesentligt (Langowski et al., 2019). ...
... The most commonly cultivated species are P. tomentosa, P. elongata, P. fortunei, P. taiwaniana, P. fargesii, P. galbrata and P. catalpifolia [15,37]. In the early introduction of paulownias worldwide, pure botanical species were used. ...
... Some of the best-known hybrids are the clones in vitro 112 [10,19,46], Cotevisa 2, Sundsu 11 [47] and Shan Tong [48,49]. Examples of less well-known hybrids include Arctic [37] and the selected genotypes PWCOT-2, PW-105, PWL-1, PWST-33 and PWST-11 [50]. There are also naturally occurring hybrids, such as P. taiwaniana from a cross between P. kawakamii and P. fortunei [51,52]. ...
Article
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This review aimed to determine the current state of research on the growth conditions and use pertaining to paulownia wood, mainly in European countries where paulownia has been introduced only relatively recently. Several studies carried out on Paulownia hybrids have shown significant differences in the growth dynamics of individual clones in their response to local environmental and climatic conditions. For example, dry biomass production yields in the second year of cultivation range from 1.5 t ha−1 to as much as 14 t ha−1. This diversity has manifested itself not only in growth characteristics but also in the properties of the wood and the possibilities for its use. Despite having clear similarities to the genus Paulownia, the cultivation of species and hybrids under different conditions has produced varying results. The best growing conditions for this wood (that make economic sense) are in the Middle East and Southern Europe. These regions have accumulated the most experience because of the earlier establishment of the crop. Today, paulownia cultivation is dominated by hybrids with selected traits that are propagated mainly in vitro. The most commonly planted hybrids include the clones in vitro 112, Cotevisa 2 and Shan Tong. The growth results and production capacity in central European countries are lower compared to Southern Europe. Experiments on paulownia cultivation are still relatively young, mainly consisting of replicating the cultivation of hybrids developed in Asia or Southern Europe. However, agronomic procedures are being developed and reactions to local climatic conditions are being studied. It is likely that, in the next few years, the profitability of growing paulownia in these regions will become apparent.
... Within these systems, the objective is to utilize the same land in multiple ways, obtain food and feed products simultaneously or consecutively, increase the yield from the land, improve the socioeconomic conditions, control illegal logging, and reduce erosion (Turna et al., 2014). These systems are applied as agrisilviculture (agriculture + forestry), silvopastoral (forestry + livestock), agrosilvopastoral (agrisilviculture + silvopastoral), and the production of multipurpose trees (King, 1979;Jensen, 2016). Among these, the leaves of these multipurpose trees are used as fresh and green grass for ruminants during seasonal transitions and when roughage production is insufficient. ...
Article
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ABSTRACT The study aimed to evaluate the potential use of dried or ensiled paulownia (Paulownia spp.) leaves as roughage source for ruminants. Paulownia tree leaves were collected from one-year-old hybrid (C-125, CAR, and TF-33 clones) trees. Dried paulownia leaves of the clones were different in dry matter (DM), crude ash (CA), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fiber (CF), and nitrogen-free extract (NfE) and similar in neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL); however, these values (except EE and ADL) of ensiled leaves were significantly different among the clones. Mean CP, CA, and condensed tannin contents in dried leaves were 15.36, 9.21, and 1.75%, respectively; NDF, ADF, and ADL contents were 38.35, 35.49, and 12.08%, respectively. Mean total volatile fatty acids, in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), and metabolizable energy (ME) value in dried leaves were 95.26 mmol/L, 76.34%, and 10.77 MJ/kg, respectively, whereas, CO2 and CH4 production were 54.66 and 29.78 mmol/L, respectively. Buffering capacity and water-soluble carbohydrates varied among the pre-ensiled paulownia leaves, although their means were 395.66 mEq/kg DM and 86.63 g/kg DM, respectively. In ensiled leaves, the pH, lactic acid ratio, and acetic acid ratio were 4.98, 11.23, and 2.56%, respectively, and butyric acid was not detected in any of the silages. Mean values of IVOMD and ME in ensiled leaves were 72.30% and 9.93 MJ/kg, respectively. Dried paulownia leaves are a high-quality alternative forage and the ensiled form is of medium quality. Therefore, paulownia leaves could be used as an alternative roughage source for ruminants.
... Paulownia, in particular P. tomentosa, has been planted as an ornamental tree in NW Europe since the early 1800's, but has not been considered as a possible commercial species in the region until the last few years. The results of the studies, based on the data gathered from the existing sites, presented by Jensen [3], indicate that Paulownia species and the hybrids could grow successfully as a commercial agroforestry crop in north-western Europe. Paulownia can be propagated by seeds, roots or stem cuttings. ...
... Paulownia, in particular P. tomentosa, has been planted as an ornamental tree in NW Europe since the early 1800`s but has not been considered as a possible commercial species in the region until the last few years. The results of studies, based on data gathered from existing sites, presented by Jensen (2016), indicates that Paulownia species and the hybrids could grow successfully as a commercial agroforestry crop in north-western Europe. Paulownia can be propagated by seeds, roots or stem cuttings. ...
Conference Paper
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The field experiment was carried out in 2016 on sandy soil in the forest nursery Białe-Błota (Bydgoszcz Forest Division, Poland). The effect of sprinkler irrigation on the growth Paulownia Shan Tong trees was investigated. The experiment was established as one factorial. The variability factor was the irrigation: S-sprinkler irrigation and C- without irrigation (control). The process included the controls of growth parameters: tree height, trunk diameter, number and surface of leaves. It was found that the sprinkled seedlings of Paulownia Shan Tong were significantly higher than those growing in the non-irrigated plots. The sprinkler irrigation applied in the experiment resulted in an increase in the number of leaves of the Paulownia and their surface area, which resulted in an increase in biomass yield. By analysing the results of the study on trunk diameter, leaf number and surface, it may be stated that irrigation watering significantly influenced the tested parameters. Irrigation significantly increased the height of Paulownia trees. The positive effect of the usage of sprinkler irrigation may indicate the possibility of effective application of this method in the field cultivation of Paulownia Shan Tong.
Article
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Short-rotation plantations for wood biomass production are systems in which different, fast-growing forest species are grown in intensive agricultural technologies to achieve high biomass yields. The genus paulownia comprises very fast-growing tree species, mainly used in biomass production for energy purposes, but not only. The biomass produced by this plant is used in its entirety; as heating material, industrial, ecological and decorative wood, protection of soil erosion, phytoremediation of polluted soils, air purification, animal feed, pharmaceutical industry, melifer, etc. Among the most promising applications are the production of biopolymers and bioethanol derived from cellulose. The proper cultivation and use of paulownia species contribute to maintaining ecological balance and nature conservation. The main objective of the paper was to carry out a careful and detailed analysis of the specific scientific literature describing their main characteristics and practical applicability to the different species of the genus Paulownia. The paper also examines the importance of cultivating paulownia species under conditions of economic viability while ensuring the maintenance of biodiversity and the protection of ecosystems.