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1 H NMR spectrum of phosphate buffered saline (PBS, green), commercial bovine serum albumin (BSA, blue) and BSA incubated with ethacrynic acid in a molar ratio of 1:5 (oxBSA, red). (A) Full spectrum. (B) Aliphatic region. (C) Aromatic region.

1 H NMR spectrum of phosphate buffered saline (PBS, green), commercial bovine serum albumin (BSA, blue) and BSA incubated with ethacrynic acid in a molar ratio of 1:5 (oxBSA, red). (A) Full spectrum. (B) Aliphatic region. (C) Aromatic region.

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As a carrier of many biologically active compounds, blood is exposed to oxidants to a greater extent than the intracellular environment. Serum albumin plays a key role in antioxidant defence under both normal and oxidative stress conditions. This review evaluates data published in the literature and from our own research on the mechanisms of the en...

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... our own studies, we have applied the 1 H NMR method to study how the oxidation of BSA with ethacrynic acid (EtAc) affects the conformational characteristics of the protein. Figure 7 shows the spectra of three samples: phosphate buffered saline (PBS) used to prepare BSA solution; commercial BSA of concentration 360 µM; commercial BSA of concentration 360 µM after incubation with EtAc in a molar ratio of 1:5 (oxBSA). Commercial BSA was prepared using the same procedure as in [123]. ...
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... shifts δ were calibrated to tetramethylsilane; the spectra were accumulated for 128 scans using a 4.3 s delay between the first radiofrequency pulses. Figure 7A shows the full spectrum. Both samples of BSA contain the impurities associated with the imperfect purity of the supplied PBS tablets (green spectrum). ...
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... the sample of oxidised BSA contains ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH), which was used to dissolve EtAc. Figure 7B shows the aliphatic region of the spectrum. The change in the shape of the spectrum in the region 3.1-2.8 ...
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... to the literature, Cys34 oxidised to sulfenic or sulfinic acids can form an intramolecular bond with Gln33, while these amino acids do not interact in reduced albumin [87]. Figure 7C shows the aromatic region of the spectrum. The change in the shape of the spectrum in the regions 8.2-7.5 ppm and 7.1-6.9 ...

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... Enzymes ampersand non-enzymatic substances in the body assume the role of scavenging excess reactive oxygen species in the antioxidant defense system. SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px in the enzymatic antioxidant system are essential to maintaining oxidative homeostasis in the body (26). Superoxide anion radicals are turned into hydrogen peroxide by SOD during disproportionation, and then GSH-Px and CAT combine to break down the hydrogen peroxide into non-toxic substances (27). ...
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This study investigated the structural, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory activities of acidic exopolysaccharide (EPS-LP2) isolated from Lactiplantibacillus plantarum DMDL 9010. EPS-LP2 is composed of fucose (Fuc), arabinose (Ara), galactose (Gal), glucose (Glc), mannose (Man), and D-fructose (Fru) with a molar ratio of 0.13: 0.69: 8.32: 27.57: 62.07: 0.58: 0.46, respectively. Structural analysis of EPS-LP2 exhibited a smooth irregular lamellar surface, rod-like structure with swollen ends and slippery surfaces, and good thermal stability. Based on the methylation and NMR analysis, sugar residues including t-Manp, t-Glcp, 2-Manp, 6-Galp, 6-Glcp, and 4-Glcp were found to exist in EPS-LP2. In the 50∼400 μg/ml range, EPS-LP2 showed negligible neurotoxicity to RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, EPS-LP2 could protect RAW264.7 cells from oxidative injury by lowering the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and the secretion of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). In contrast, an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the concentrations of glutathione (GSH) were observed. Immunoreactivity assays showed that EPS-LP2 could suppress the expression of NO, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) and inhibit the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/nuclear factor-κB-gene binding (NF-κB) cell pathway. Conclusively, EPS-LP2 could be a potential natural antioxidant and immunomodulatory agent in functional foods and medicines.
... 6 Considering the above, it is striking that circulating uric acid, ferritin, albumin, parathyroid hormone and gammaglutamyl transferase concentrations are not only routinely assessed by health care providers in CKD patients but also each participate in biochemical reactions that reduce or/and enhance oxidative stress. 5,[7][8][9][10][11][12][13] Uric acid levels are increased in non-dialysis CKD patients 14 whereas hemodialysis effectively removes uric acid from the circulation. 15 Inflammation often increases ferritin concentrations in CKD and this impacts the prediction of ferritin for iron status. ...
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Introduction: Circulating uric acid, ferritin, albumin, intact parathyroid hormone and gamma-glutamyl transferase each participate in biochemical reactions that reduce or/and enhance oxidative stress, which is considered the final common pathway through which pathophysiological mechanisms cause uremic cardiomyopathy. We hypothesized that the respective biomarkers may be involved in the development of uremic cardiomyopathy characteristics and can be useful in their identification among chronic kidney disease patients. Methods: We assessed traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors including biomarker concentrations and determined central systolic blood pressure using SphygmoCor software and cardiac structure and function by echocardiography in 109 (64 non-dialysis and 45 dialysis) patients. Associations were evaluated in multivariate regression models and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: Each biomarker concentration was associated with left ventricular mass beyond stroke work and/or inappropriate left ventricular mass in all, non-dialysis and/or dialysis patients. Ferritin, albumin and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels were additionally associated with E/e' in all, non-dialysis and/or dialysis patients. Dialysis status influenced the relationship of uric acid concentrations with inappropriate left ventricular mass and those of gamma-glutamyl transferase levels with left ventricular mass and inappropriate left ventricular mass. In stratified analysis, low uric acid levels were related to inappropriate left ventricular mass in dialysis but not non-dialysis patients (interaction p=0.001) whereas gamma-glutamyl transferase concentrations were associated with left ventricular mass and inappropriate left ventricular mass in non-dialysis but not dialysis patients (interaction p=0.020 to 0.036). In ROC curve analysis, uric acid (area under the curve (AUC)=0.877), ferritin (AUC=0.703) and albumin (AUC=0.728) concentrations effectively discriminated between dialysis patients with and without inappropriate left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular hypertrophy, and increased E/e,' respectively. Conclusion: Uric acid, ferritin, albumin, parathyroid hormone and gamma-glutamyl transferase were associated with uremic cardiomyopathy characteristics and could be useful in their identification. Our findings merit validation in future longitudinal studies.
... The BSA protein was applied as a model foulant to assess the antifouling coating surfaces performance. BSA is abundant in nature in an extensive number of organisms [27] and has become a common foulant model in many antifouling-related studies due to its inexpensive production cost [1,28,29]. The molecular modeling tools in the current study, mimic a static adsorption experiment, by which the protein is initially positioned on the top of the surfaces. ...
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Antifouling polymer coating surfaces are used in widespread industries applications. Zwitterionic polymers have been identified as promising materials in developing polymer coating surfaces. Importantly, the density of the polymer chains is crucial for acquiring superior antifouling performance. This study introduces two different zwitterionic polymer density surfaces by applying molecular modeling tools. To assess the antifouling performance, we mimic static adsorption test, by placing the foulant model bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the surfaces. Our findings show that not only the density of the polymer chain affect antifouling performance, but also the initial orientation of the BSA on the surface. Moreover, at a high-density surface, the foulant either detaches from the surface or anchor on the surface. At low-density surface, the foulant does not detach from the surface, but either penetrates or anchors on the surface. The anchoring and the penetrating mechanisms are elucidated by the electrostatic interactions between the foulant and the surface. While the positively charged ammonium groups of the polymer play major role in the interactions with the negatively charged amino acids of the BSA, in the penetrating mechanism the ammonium groups play minor role in the interactions with the contact with the foulant. The sulfonate groups of the polymer pull the foulant in the penetrating mechanism. Our work supports the design of a high-density polymer chain surface coating to prevent fouling phenomenon. Our study provides for the first-time insights into the molecular mechanism by probing the interactions between BSA and the zwitterion surface, while testing high- and low-densities polymer chains.
... Furthermore, the ability of calcium ions to influx through the plasma membrane of sperm cells regulates hyperactivation and acrosome reaction is aided by the beneficial effect of BSA as a supplement in semen extenders (Kwon et al., 2013). Belinskaia et al. (2020) recorded that BSA has the ability to bind and eliminate free radicals caused by oxidative stress and protect the membrane integrity of sperm cells, increasing their resistance to the freezing process (Amidi et al., 2016). In our study, BSA was added to the freezing extender at various concentrations as an antioxidant, but it did not affect sperm motility or longevity after thawing. ...
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In the present study, three experiments were designed to identify the most appropriate technique for freezing rabbit semen. Experiment 1 aimed to determine the optimal levels of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) contents in freezing medium and their effects on individual bucks. Semen ejaculates for each buck (n=15 bucks) were mixed and split into three portions for extension with a freezing medium containing varying concentrations of DMSO (0.75, 1.0, and 1.4 M). Diluted semen samples were packaged in 0.25 mL straws and suspended above liquid nitrogen (LN) for 10 min, then dipped in LN. A few days after freezing, post-thaw semen evaluation was assessed, and according to the results, six bucks and an extender containing 0.75 M of DMSO were used for experiments 2 and 3. In experiment 2, the pooled semen from 6 bucks was divided into two portions for packaging in two straw sizes (0.25 and 0.50 mL). Each straw size was divided into five groups and suspended at different heights above LN (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 cm) for 10 minutes before being preserved in LN. In experiment 3, the pooled semen was divided into four portions for dilution with freezing medium containing different concentrations of bovine serum albumin (BSA; 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mg/mL). Semen samples were packaged in a 0.50 mL straw and suspended 10 min, 4 cm above LN for freezing. Pre-freezing and post-thawing, semen samples were evaluated for semen quality. Results showed that the extender containing 0.75 M DMSO had higher significant values for post-thaw sperm motility, longevity, acrosome integrity and sperm plasma membrane permeability. Bucks’ individuality had significant effects on post-thaw motility, acrosome and sperm plasma membrane integrity. A significant interaction was recorded between DMSO concentrations and bucks’ individuality on sperm longevity. Semen package sizes had no significant effects on the evaluated parameters. Semen was frozen at 2 and 4 cm above LN had significantly better post-thaw quality. BSA at concentrations 5 and 7.5 mg/mL improved recovery rates of acrosome integrity and sperm membrane permeability. DMSO 0.75 M and freezing 4 cm above LN seem to be more adequate for rabbit semen cryopreservation. The appropriate level of DMSO differs between bucks, as the post-thaw sperm longevity is affected. BSA enhanced acrosome and sperm membrane integrity. Results obtained will need further investigation to be confirmed in the field.
... 15,16 HSA, 585 amino acids long, is primarily a helical protein (67% α-helix), having 17 disulfide bonds, 1 free thiol group, and 1 one Trp (Trp-214) residue. 14,17 Structurally, it comprises three physically identical domains (I, II, and III), and each domain is divided into two subdomains (A and B) sharing common structural elements; Trp 214 is present in the domain IIA of HSA. 18 There are many drug-binding sites in HSA, but primarily drugs bind to two sites, one in subdomain IIA, Sudlow site 1, and the other in the subdomain IIIA, Sudlow site 2. 19 Neurodegenerative diseases are connected to the cholinergic system; acetylcholine is the main neurotransmitter broken by acetylcholinesterase (AChE). ...
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Human serum albumin (HSA), an abundant plasma protein, binds to various ligands, acting as a transporter for numerous endogenous and exogenous substances. Galantamine (GAL), an alkaloid, treats cognitive decline in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease and other memory impairments. A vital step in pharmacological profiling involves the interaction of plasma protein with the drugs, and this serves as an essential platform for pharmaceutical industry advancements. This study is carried out to understand the binding mechanism of GAL with HSA using computational and experimental approaches. Molecular docking revealed that GAL preferentially occupies Sudlow’s site I, i.e., binds to subdomain IIIA. The results unveiled that GAL binding does not induce any conformational change in HSA and hence does not compromise the functionality of HSA. Molecular dynamics simulation (250 ns) deciphered the stability of the HSA−GAL complex. We performed the fluorescence binding and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to analyze the actual binding of GAL with HSA. The results suggested that GAL binds to HSA with a significant binding affinity. ITC measurements also delineated thermodynamic parameters associated with the binding of GAL to HSA. Altogether, the present study deciphers the binding mechanism of GAL with HSA.
... no organismo, podendo gerar doenças degenerativas, cardíacas, oculares, disfunções cerebrais, comprometimento do sistema imune e envelhecimento precoce (MELO et al., 2011). Como forma de proteção, as células contam com o sistema antioxidante, que pode ser enzimático ou não enzimático (BELINSKAIA et al., 2020). ...
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O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antioxidante, o teor de compostos fenólicos e flavonoides e a atividade antibacteriana de diferentes extratos de semente de Eugenia involucrata obtidos por extrações sucessivas em Soxhlet e por maceração, utilizando os solventes hexano e álcool etílico. A atividade antioxidante foi fundamentada na medida da absorção do radical 2,2-difenil-1-picril hidrazil (DPPH•) em 515 nm. O teor de compostos fenólicos totais foi avaliado pelo método de Folin Ciocalteu e, os flavonoides, pelo método com nitrato de alumínio e acetato de potássio. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) foi determinada pelo método de microdiluição seriada em meio de cultura. A atividade antioxidante foi maior para os extratos obtidos com álcool etílico, sendo de 0,1390 mg/mL para o extrato macerado e 0,1704 mg/mL para o obtido por soxhlet. Em relação aos compostos fenólicos e flavonoides, o extrato etanólico, obtido por soxhlet, apresentou maior valor, 41,18 mg.EAG/g e 2,76 mg.EQ/g, respectivamente. Quanto à faixa de inibição da CIM, os valores situaram-se entre 25 a 200 mg/mL. A extração das sementes de E. involucrata com a utilização de solventes polares pode gerar extratos com potencial antioxidantes, que podem ser utilizados pela indústria de alimentos e de cosméticos
... The human serum albumin (HSA) molecule is formed by a single polypeptide chain consisting of 585 amino acid residues. In albumin of other species, the polypeptide chain length can vary; in particular, BSA contains 584 amino acid residues, and rat serum albumin (RSA) consists of 583 residues [63]. HSA has a molecular weight of 66,348 Da and consists of three homologous domains numbered I, II, and III [64]. ...
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Organophosphates (OPs) are toxic chemicals produced by an esterification process and some other routes. They are the main components of herbicides, pesticides, and insecticides and are also widely used in the production of plastics and solvents. Acute or chronic exposure to OPs can manifest in various levels of toxicity to humans, animals, plants, and insects. OPs containing insecticides were widely used in many countries during the 20th century, and some of them continue to be used today. In particular, 36 OPs have been registered in the USA, and all of them have the potential to cause acute and sub-acute toxicity. Renal damage and impairment of kidney function after exposure to OPs, accompanied by the development of clinical manifestations of poisoning back in the early 1990s of the last century, was considered a rare manifestation of their toxicity. However, since the beginning of the 21st century, nephrotoxicity of OPs as a manifestation of delayed toxicity is the subject of greater attention of researchers. In this article, we present a modern view on the molecular pathophysiological mechanisms of acute nephrotoxicity of organophosphate compounds.
... sALB plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis and is the main carrier of endogenous and exogenous ligands, thereby contributing to the transport of various biochemical molecules in the body. [12][13][14][15] Hypoalbuminemia may be caused by decreased energy or amino acid supply, impaired hepatic synthesis, increased losses, increased tissue catabolism or distribution problems, and it is a predictor of poor prognosis in many different conditions, not only in the disease setting but also in healthy populations. 16 Patients with lower levels of sALB in our study were associated with the older age and lower BMI, possibly related to the decreased protein intake in frail elderly patients. ...
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Objective: To analyze the associations between serum albumin (sALB) level and diabetic microvascular complications, including diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic kidney disease (DKD), in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: This retrospective study included 951 hospitalized patients with T2DM who had completed screening for DR and DKD during hospitalization. Patients were divided into three groups according to sALB tertiles. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of sALB with microvascular complications. Results: The prevalence of DR, DKD and macroalbuminuria increased with decreasing sALB levels. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that lower levels of sALB (Q1) were associated with higher risk of DR (odds ratio [OR]: 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-2.26), DKD (OR: 3.00, 95% CI: 2.04-4.41) and macroalbuminuria (OR: 9.76, 95% CI: 4.62-20.63) compared with higher levels of sALB (Q3) after adjustment for other risk factors. After stratification by sex and age, the effect of lower levels of sALB (Q1) on DR incidence was more obvious in patients with male (OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.00-2.56), and aged<65 years (OR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.14-2.65) (P < 0.05 for all); the effect of lower levels of sALB (Q1) on the incidence of DKD was significant in both males (OR: 3.78, 95% CI: 2.26-6.32) and females (OR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.26-4.35) (P < 0.05 for all), while only the age <65 years (OR: 3.46, 95% CI: 2.16-5.53) was significant in the age subgroup (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Decreased sALB levels may be an independent risk indicator of DR and DKD in patients with T2DM, and significantly associated with DKD progression. For DR screening, special attention should be paid to men aged <65 years, while screening for DKD should pay attention to people <65 years old.
... Thus, the main factors behind alterations in nutrition and inflammation, mucositis toxicity, and treatment interruption could be substances with antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and metal-ion-chelating effects in the blood. Serum albumin has multiple ligand-binding capacities and free-radical-scavenging properties; thus, it exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions, accounting for over 80% of the antioxidant activity in the blood [80,81]. Compared to other blood proteins, it is primarily exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) because of its free thiol group of the Cys34 residue [80,81]; it is the main extracellular molecule responsible for modulating the plasma redox state, augmenting intracellular glutathione levels, and regulating cell signaling through the ubiquitous transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), which mediates pro-inflammatory stress [82][83][84]. ...
... Serum albumin has multiple ligand-binding capacities and free-radical-scavenging properties; thus, it exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions, accounting for over 80% of the antioxidant activity in the blood [80,81]. Compared to other blood proteins, it is primarily exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) because of its free thiol group of the Cys34 residue [80,81]; it is the main extracellular molecule responsible for modulating the plasma redox state, augmenting intracellular glutathione levels, and regulating cell signaling through the ubiquitous transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), which mediates pro-inflammatory stress [82][83][84]. The antioxidative and anti-inflammatory functions of serum albumin explain the pathological process, and the albumin supply improves the clinical condition in certain critical and chronically ill patients [84][85][86][87][88][89][90]. ...
... The antioxidative and anti-inflammatory functions of serum albumin explain the pathological process, and the albumin supply improves the clinical condition in certain critical and chronically ill patients [84][85][86][87][88][89][90]. Ishizuka et al. also reported a strong correlation between serum levels and neutropenia toxicity in patients with HNC receiving cisplatin-based CCRT, and emphasized that decreased binding activity of albumin to metal ions at low serum albumin concentrations could result in increased cisplatin-related toxicity [6,81]. Furthermore, serum uric acid could serve as a free radical scavenger in the blood and perform normal-range antioxidative functions to protect erythrocytes and immune cells [91]. ...
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We investigated risk factors for treatment interruption (TI) in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (LAHNSCC) following concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), under the provision of recommended calorie and protein intake; we also evaluated the associations between clinicopathological variables, calorie and protein supply, nutrition–inflammation biomarkers (NIBs), total body composition change (TBC), and a four-serum-amino-acid metabolite panel (histidine, leucine, ornithine, and phenylalanine) among these patients. Patients with LAHNSCC who completed the entire planned CCRT course and received at least 25 kcal/kg/day and 1 g of protein/kg/day during CCRT were prospectively recruited. Clinicopathological variables, anthropometric data, blood NIBs, CCRT-related factors, TBC data, and metabolite panels before and after treatment were collected; 44 patients with LAHNSCC were enrolled. Nine patients (20.4%) experienced TIs. Patients with TIs experienced greater reductions in hemoglobin, serum levels of albumin, uric acid, histidine, and appendicular skeletal mass, and suffered from more grade 3/4 toxicities than those with no TI. Neither increased daily calorie supply (≥30 kcal/kg/day) nor feeding tube placement was correlated with TI. Multivariate analysis showed that treatment-interval changes in serum albumin and histidine levels, but not treatment toxicity, were independently associated with TI. Thus, changes in serum levels of albumin and histidine over the treatment course could cause TI in patients with LAHNSCC following CCRT.
... Protein glycation causes several structural modifications and alters the function of many proteins, especially albumin. This process affects the affinity of the albumin-binding activity of drugs, hormones, fatty acids, and other substances [172]. In addition, albumin-derived GEPs have been shown to trigger the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, which leads to inhibition of glucose uptake and oxidative changes in intracellular proteins [173,174]. ...
... The Schiff base and fructosamines are called early glycation products. These adducts can undergo subsequent oxidation, rearrangement, dehydration, and cyclization to form stable agents called GEP [172]. It has been demonstrated that GEP inhibitors can prevent the formation of reactive dicarbonyls and oxygen species [169]. ...
... It has been found that a higher concentration of each extract will result in greater inhibition of albumin glycation. Thus, it has been proven that the antioxidant capacity of plants and the ability to antiglycate are due to the concentration of phenols and flavonoids [172]. ...
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Maintaining quality of life with an increase in life expectancy is considered one of the global problems of our time. This review explores the possibility of using natural plant compounds with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-glycation, and anti-neurodegenerative properties to slow down the onset of age-related changes. Age-related changes such as a decrease in mental abilities, the development of inflammatory processes, and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes have a significant impact on maintaining quality of life. Herbal preparations can play an essential role in preventing and treating neurodegenerative diseases that accompany age-related changes, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Medicinal plants have known sedative, muscle relaxant, neuroprotective, nootropic, and antiparkinsonian properties. The secondary metabolites, mainly polyphenolic compounds, are valuable substances for the development of new anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic agents. Understanding how mixtures of plants and their biologically active substances work together to achieve a specific biological effect can help develop targeted drugs to prevent diseases associated with aging and age-related changes. Understanding the mechanisms of the biological activity of plant complexes and mixtures determines the prospects for using metabolomic and biochemical methods to prolong active longevity.