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1. Cider production/consumption and trends by country and region. Total estimated sales value worldwide in 2005 were more than US$ 3 billion.

1. Cider production/consumption and trends by country and region. Total estimated sales value worldwide in 2005 were more than US$ 3 billion.

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Introduction Orchard Systems for Cider Apples National and Regional Cider Cultures and Cultivars Literature Cited

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... off-trade sales of cider and perry were estimated at 873 million l in 2005, valued at U.S. $2.9 billion, and have been increasing (GMID 2006;Mitchell 2006). The United Kingdom, South Africa, France, Ireland, Germany, and Spain currently are the top six countries in cider/perry consumption (Table 6.1). Production and consumption of perry are limited almost exclusively to the United Kingdom and France, and account for less than 1% of the global total. ...
Context 2
... unknown amount of cider is made for home consumption throughout Europe and North America and for distillation into apple ''brandies'' in eastern Europe. Therefore, the total sales volume and value estimates for cider in Table 6.1 are con- servative, and the real market value is probably more than U.S. $3 billion. ...
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... the 1,000 or so cultivars that were collected, characterized, and observed over many years, they have published detailed physical and chemical descriptions of 350 main cultivars (Boré and Fleckinger 1997). About 70 elite culti- vars are now recommended for cider production in France (Table 6.2), differentiated by region based on their high juice yields, tree produc- tivity and reliability, disease and pest tolerance, and the useful qualities they impart to ciders. ...
Context 4
... in France, most of Spain's cider apples are traditional landrace selections that have been grown locally for many cen- turies. A list of the main Asturian cider apples and their characteristics is presented in Table 6.3 ( Sanchez et al. 1991;Fuertes et al. 1996). ...
Context 5
... many small-scale cider-makers also exist in south- west England, with various cider trails, local styles, and regional cultivars (Bruning 2005). Compared with Spain or France, relatively few cider apple cultivars are grown in England, and many of their names suggest that they probably originated in Brittany, Normandy, or the Channel Islands (Table 6.4). A very readable and thorough summary of the traditional English cider apples, with color plates and complete descriptions of 88 cultivars, was published recently by Liz Copas (2001). ...
Context 6
... northwest Washington State, Moulton et al. (2006) have estab- lished research plantings of cider apple cultivars in the Puget Sound region, which has a cool maritime climate similar to that of Brittany and Asturias, and their reports on these cultivars' performance are available online (www.mtvernon.wsu.edu/frt_hort/ciderapples.htm). Based on recent studies and communications with several commercial c06_1 10/08/2007 cider-makers in the United States, a list of recommended domestic cider apples from North America is presented in Table 6.5. Despite some initial concerns about the late-blooming and late-ripening tendencies of many European cultivars, and doubts about their winter hardiness in the colder growing regions of North America, ongoing evaluations in Washington and New York suggest that many of the English and French Bittersweets and Bittersharps are adaptable to colder apple-growing regions and can be successfully grown in North America. ...

Citations

... To support a cider industry that has grown over ten-fold since 2005 in the United States, cider makers report that they need a greater supply of apples with cider-specific quality attributes, particularly high polyphenol concentrations [1,2]. European cider apple orchards have traditionally been planted using larger rootstocks, with wider, more dense canopies [3]. This is in part to accommodate mechanical harvesting [4]. ...
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The environmental factors that influence cider apple fruit quality, particularly bitter and astringent polyphenols, are not well understood. Five experiments were conducted to investigate how sunlight affects fruit and juice quality. In three studies, shade cloth was placed over entire trees or individual branches at different phenological stages, durations, and opacities. Influence of canopy microclimate was investigated by harvesting fruit from different sections of the tree canopy. In a final study, opaque paper bags were placed over fruit three weeks after full bloom (WAFB) until harvest. Polyphenol concentrations increased rapidly during the first five WAFB and were diluted as fruit grew larger. At harvest, fruit from unshaded trees had 32% greater total polyphenol concentrations and were 11% larger than trees shaded 1-5 WAFB. Shading branches later in the growing season reduced yield but had a modest and inconsistent reduction on polyphenol concentrations. Juice from fruit harvested from the top of the tree canopy had 33% greater polyphenol concentrations and 14% greater soluble solid concentrations than juice from the interior of the canopy. Bagging fruit had inconsistent impacts on polyphenol concentrations. We hypothesize that there is a source sink relationship between carbohydrate availability and polyphenol synthesis in apple fruit during the early stages of fruit development when most polyphenols are produced. Additionally, greater carbohydrate availability in canopies with greater sunlight exposure resulted in larger fruit and improved juice quality from a cider making perspective.
... Cider is a fermented juice of apple or pear (Perry) with ethanol concentration that does not exceed 8% (v/v) [1]. The production of this alcoholic fermented beverage is closely linked to the apples and pears producing countries, such as the United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Germany, Spain and the United States, which show also the highest consumption levels of these products [2,3]. In Italy, the production of Perry is mainly restricted to the northern regions. ...
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This study was aimed to produce pear cider (Perry), using small caliber pears cv Abate Fètel, fermented by Starmerella bacillaris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in co-inoculated (COF) and sequential (SEF) mixed cultures in comparison with S. cerevisiae monoculture fermentation (AXF), evaluating the influence of yeast starter cultures on Perry characteristics. The perries were re-fermented in bottle by S. cerevisiae strain EC1118. During primary fermentation, growth and fermentation kinetics were different in the co-inoculated and sequential fermentations in comparison with pure S. cerevisiae fermentation; however, sugars were depleted, and 6% (v/v) ethanol was produced in all the trials. Glycerol content was significantly higher in mixed fermentations due to Starm. bacillaris metabolism (+ 20% in COF, and + 42% in SEF conditions). After re-fermentation in bottle, higher levels of 3-Methyl-1-butanol, 1-propanol, acetaldehyde and esters were detected in Perry from the mixed fermentations. All the Perries were accepted by the consumers (general liking values from 6.01 to 6.26). Perries’ appearance from mixed fermentations was described as less intense and more clear. The use of small caliber pears cv Abate Fètel and Starm. bacillaris in combination with S. cerevisiae in Perry production might be a suitable tool to obtain novel beverages with distinctive organoleptic features.
... Apples grown for the fresh market ("dessert apples" and may also include culinary cultivars grown for baking, such as 'Bramley's Seedling') or processing (e.g., juice, sauce, and pie filling) typically fall into the "sweet" and "sharp" categories. In traditional European-style ciders, at least 20% of the apple blend contains cider-specific "bittersweet" or "bittersharp" apples, with the remainder consisting of "sweet" and "sharp" cultivars (Merwin et al., 2008). "Bittersharp" apples, such as 'Porter's Perfection', 'Kingston Black', 'Stoke Red', and 'Foxwhelp', are desirable for single cultivar (varietal) ciders because they provide desirable levels of tannins and acidity. ...
... Other articles have focused on various aspects of cider production and related research. Some of them reflect the scientific knowledge known about cider apples 50 years ago (Beech, 1972) or focus more on horticultural and processing practices (Lea & Drilleau, 2003;Merwin et al., 2008;Miles et al., 2020). The present review focuses specifically on the biochemical properties and physiological basis for cider apple fruit quality. ...
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Societal Impact Statement Fermented “hard” cider is currently experiencing a resurgence in popularity. While there is a long history of cultivating apple trees with fruit quality characteristics intended specifically for cider production, there is a dearth of cider-specific apple production in many emerging cider producing regions, such as North America. To help bolster the emerging cider industry and identify topics that warrant further research, this review article describes the biochemistry and physiology of apple fruit quality from a cider producing perspective. Summary The United States and Western Europe have a long history of alcoholic “hard” cider production made from the fermented juice of apples (Malus spp.), especially in regions where cultivation of European grapevines (Vitis vinifera) for wine was climatically limited. While all apples contain fermentable sugars, in many regions, cultivars were selected, named, and propagated specifically for fermentation. This review highlights fruit quality attributes that are important for cider production and that are distinct from fresh-market apple fruit and wine grapes. Polyphenol profiles, yeast assimilable nitrogen composition, carbohydrates, organic acids, pectin, and volatile aroma compounds are discussed as they relate to cider quality.
... The propensity for apples (Malus ×domestica) to bruise has impeded the development and widespread adoption of mechanical harvesters for either processing or fresh-market apples grown in the United States. However, in Europe, which has a long-standing cider (fermented apple juice, also frequently referred to as hard cider) industry, cider apples are mostly harvested mechanically (Merwin et al., 2008). ...
... Machines that shake the tree by clasping the trunk may not be appropriate for all orchard designs; trees on dwarf rootstock, with brittle graft unions, or with extensive trellising may not be compatible with shaking. Allowing apples to naturally drop and then harvesting the crop in one or more passes is also commonplace (Merwin et al., 2008). Many cider-specific cultivars are prone to preharvest fruit drop (Peck et al., 2021). ...
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ADDITIONAL INDEX WORDS. labor, machinery, Malus ×domestica, partial budget SUMMARY. Harvesting labor is the largest annual variable operating expense for apple (Malus ×domestica) orchard enterprises and is subject to escalating costs and shortages. In Europe, much of the cider apple harvesting is done with machinery, greatly reducing production costs. However, despite a rapid increase in hard cider production in North America over the past 15 years, mechanical cider apple harvesting has not been widely implemented. In this study, we compared mechanical with hand harvesting costs for model 5-, 15-, and 60-acre cider apple orchards located in New York using a partial budget model. Scale-appropriate harvesters were identified for use at each farm scale. Sensitivity analyses were used to test the cost differential for using each piece of machinery on varying orchard sizes and to model changes in labor costs. Across all orchard scales, we found that mechanically harvesting cider apples was more profitable than hand harvesting, with larger operations breaking even sooner and realizing greater returns than operations using hand harvesting. Mechanical harvesting costs broke even with hand harvesting in years 16, 7, and 5 and by year 30 reduced cumulative harvesting costs by 23%, 52%, and 53% in our 5-, 15-, and 60-acre model orchards, respectively. Increasing the orchard size resulted in greater returns from mechanical harvesting. Using the machinery in the 15-acre orchard scenario on a 30-acre farm resulted in costs breaking even with hand harvesting in year 3; by year 30, the cumulative costs resulted in 66% lower harvesting costs than hand labor. Mechanical harvesting remained profitable when labor wages were decreased and became more profitable in scenarios with increasing wages. For example, in the 60-acre orchard, mechanical harvesting cost 41% less than hand harvesting with a 2% annual compounding decrease in labor wages; with 2% annual compounding increase in labor wages, the mechanical harvesting cost was 63% less than hand harvesting. In addition to the cost savings, mechanical harvesting allows for harvesting cider apples with fewer logistical challenges, such as contracting, housing, and transporting migrant labor.
... This finding presents an opportunity for hard cider producers in blending acidity, bitterness/astringency, and sweetness from one variety. Blending acidic varieties with sweet varieties also allows producers to maintain a low pH to prevent spoilage during fermentation and storage (Merwin et al., 2008 (Guyot et al., 2003). This may be due to the different phenolic profiles of each variety, as different classes of phenolics have different extraction yields (Renard et al., 2001;Verdu et al., 2014). ...
... Malic acid is also influenced by solar radiation and growing degree days of the growing region (Jing et al., 2020;Lakso & Kliewer, 1975). Many heritage cider apple cultivars have biennial bearing characteristics, and the seasonal adjustment in crop load can also affect fruit quality and potentially classification (Merwin et al., 2008;Plotkowski & Cline, 2021b). Ultimately, the establishment of a "vintage" and "terroir" effect in heritage apple varieties could positively influence the hard cider industry in North America by using marketing to justify the production of more traditional ciders. ...
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The production of hard cider is a burgeoning industry in North America. However, traditional European cider‐specific apples are largely unsuitable for production in modern systems and have not been widely adopted. Evaluation of the biochemical variability in apples can provide a better characterization of varieties for use in hard cider production. Many varieties exhibited extensive variability in biochemical traits. Varieties with high phenolics and acidity displayed greater plasticity of these traits between seasons, which supports the concept of “vintage quality” and opens new marketing opportunities. This study provides valuable insight for apple producers to integrate cider‐specific and nonspecific varieties into their production systems. The North American fermented beverage market has undergone extensive growth in the fermented apple juice (hard cider) sector over the last decade. Traditional hard cider producing regions such as England, France, and Spain have historically utilized cider‐specific apples that have desirable balances between sugar, organic acid, and phenolics. However, in North America, culinary apples (lower acidity and phenolics) are predominantly used, and information distinguishing the varieties with novel use for hard cider production is lacking. In this study, we evaluated variation of four major apple biochemical traits (total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and total phenolics) as they relate to use for hard cider production by using a meta‐analysis approach. We analyzed the variation in cider quality traits across 47 published works and more than 800 unique apple varieties, including an additional analysis of 142 varieties from cider apple germplasms in the United States. The biochemical traits of many varieties exhibited plasticity, and the characterization of a subset of varieties using two cider classification system revealed that most belonged to the “sweet” or “sharp” (acidic) categories rather than “bitter” (high phenolic content). We also compared the classification of a subset of varieties from two US germplasm resources across two seasons and found varieties that have high percent phenolics and/or malic acid experienced greater biochemical plasticity and potential classification change across vintages. Ultimately, this work provides information regarding the variability in apple biochemical traits and also suggests a unique opportunity for producers to market “vintage” quality. The production of hard cider is a burgeoning industry in North America. However, traditional European cider‐specific apples are largely unsuitable for production in modern systems and have not been widely adopted. Evaluation of the biochemical variability in apples can provide a better characterization of varieties for use in hard cider production. Many varieties exhibited extensive variability in biochemical traits. Varieties with high phenolics and acidity displayed greater plasticity of these traits between seasons, which supports the concept of “vintage quality” and opens new marketing opportunities. This study provides valuable insight for apple producers to integrate cider‐specific and nonspecific varieties into their production systems.
... Likewise, the particularities of the local fruit industry must also be considered. While low-chill apple varieties are already available, and global breeding programs are currently working on the development of varieties that are phenotypically adapted to mild winter climates, it is important to note that apples intended for cider-making require particular technological and organoleptic features, and not all kinds of apples are suitable for this purpose (Merwin et al., 2008). Furthermore, the sale of cider under the 'Protected Designation of Origin' label, which implies the use of 100% Asturian apples, has achieved strong growth in the past decade. ...
Article
Winter chill is expected to decrease in many mild-winter regions under future climatic conditions. Reliable estimates of the chill requirements (CR) of fruit trees are essential for assessing the current suitability of cultivars and potential climate change impacts on fruit production. We determined chill and heat requirements of ten apple cultivars in northwestern Spain using a bud-forcing method. CR ranged from 59 (‘Granny Smith’) to 90 (‘Regona’) Chill Portions (CP) according to the Dynamic Model. These results indicate that international dessert apple cultivars such as ‘Elstar’ and ‘Granny Smith’ have clearly lower CR than the studied local cultivars. The agro-climatic needs of the traditional apple cultivars are aligned with the historical climate conditions in the region. To assess future apple cultivation in northwestern Spain, we evaluated winter chill availability over the course of the twenty-first century by applying an ensemble of future climate scenarios. Relative to the past, projected winter chill might decline by between 9 and 12 CP under an intermediate global warming scenario and by between 9 and 24 CP under a pessimistic scenario. Despite relatively minor changes, the viability of some local apple cultivars may be jeopardized by their high CR. Results suggest that even a moderate decline in future winter chill, relative to fairly high levels observed in the past, can threaten the economic sustainability of fruit tree orchards composed of high-chill genotypes. Strategies such as growing low- to moderate-chill cultivars may be critical for sustaining future apple production in the region. Our findings can help guide new breeding strategies aiming to develop climate-resilient cultivars adapted to future environmental conditions.
... Apples grown for cider production have different quality and harvest parameters than those for table fruit because their fruit is grown for their juice and the apple is not meant for fresh market consumption. Cider apples are often characterized by juice attributes like high polyphenol and acid concentrations that may not be appealing in fresh market fruit (Merwin et al. 2008). Visual aspects of the fruit are less important (Provost, 2018) because the cider maker is concerned about the pressed juice rather than fruit aesthetics. ...
... Many contemporary cider orchards are planted in high-density systems, so research that implements these systems is important for advising modern cider apple production (Merwin et al. 2008). ...
... These include Ashmead's Kernel, Binet Rouge, Brown's Apple, Dabinett, Kingston Black, Michelin, Stoke Red, and Sweet Alford, which were harvested earlier than historical reports. In contrast, the only cultivar that was harvested later than historical reports was Calville Blanc d'Hiver (Ashridge trees Ltd. 2020 ;Bultitude, 1983;Copas, 2013;Grandpa's Orchard, 2020;Hanson, 2005;Institut Français des Productions Cidricoles, 2009;Jolicoeur, 2013;Khanizadeh andCousineau, 1998, 1998;Merwin et al. 2008;Morgan and Richards, 2003;NSW Department of Primary Industries, 2008;Pôle Fruitier de Bretagne, 2013;Rothwell, 2012Rothwell, , 2012Shelton, 2015;Simmens, 2015; Summerland Varieties Corp. 2020) (Tables 1, 2). ...
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Twenty-eight apple cultivars were selected for their potential for hard cider production in Ontario. An experiment was conducted to evaluate their horticultural potential in the province. After being planted in spring 2015, the trees were evaluated annually for their survival, tree height and spread, trunk growth, flowering dates, flower counts, fruit per tree, pre-harvest drop, crop load, fruit weight, fruit firmness, juicing extraction efficiency, and harvest dates. These horticultural attributes were sufficient to discriminate between cultivars. Additional exploratory analyses indicated a relationship between horticultural attributes and a cultivar’s origin, with British cider cultivars blooming the latest, American cider apples producing the most juice, and French cider cultivars having the highest pre-harvest fruit drop. Cultivars in this study that show promise for continued research in Ontario include Binet Rouge, Bramley’s Seedling, Breakwell, Bulmers Norman, Calville Blanc d’Hiver, Cline Russet, Cox Orange Pippin, Crimson Crisp®, Dabinett, Enterprise, Esopus Spitzenberg, Golden Russet, GoldRush, Medaille d’Or, Porter’s Perfection, and Stoke Red.
... Post-fermentation residual sugar is the source of the perception of sweetness in cider. Measuring sugar in juice by refractometry or specific gravity, a measure of juice density, before fermentation allows cider makers to predict alcohol production, plan how to blend ciders, and make any desired corrections through exogenous sugar addition (Merwin et al. 2008). ...
... Most cultivars for cider production produce juice with low YAN. Cider producers often correct for these low levels by adding nitrogen in the cellar, via the addition of either diammonium phosphate or commercial yeast nutrient formulations (Jolicoeur 2013;Merwin et al. 2008). Horticultural and oenological practices also influence YAN. ...
... Given that any attribute of juice can be balanced by blending, a high-quality juice is one that is rich in a specific attribute, be it an attribute measured in this study or another factor such as aroma (Merwin et al. 2008). Cultivars that are rich in a specific attribute can be added to a more neutral base to create the desired concentration of that attribute. ...
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Twenty-eight apple cultivars were selected for their potential for hard cider production in Ontario and their juice characteristics were measured in 2017 and 2018, beginning two years after planting in 2015. After being harvested and pressed, each juice sample underwent analyses to determine soluble solids concentration (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), pH, yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN), and polyphenolic concentration. SSC ranged from 10.6° Brix in Brown’s Apple to 18.3° Brix in Ashmead’s Kernel. TA ranged from 31 as mg malic acid 100 mL-1 juice in Sweet Alford to 191 as mg malic acid 100 mL-1 juice in Bramley’s Seedling. The pH ranged from 2.88 in Breakwell to 4.76 in Sweet Alford. YAN concentration ranged from 60 mg YAN L-1 juice in Medaille d’Or to 256 mg YAN L-1 juice in Bulmers Norman. Polyphenols in juice ranged from 131 µg gallic acid equivalents mL-1 juice in Tolman Sweet to 1042 µg gallic acid equivalents mL-1 juice in Stoke Red. Firmness ranged from 6.3 kg in Yarlington Mill to 11.7 kg in GoldRush. The relationships between these variables were also analyzed, showing a connection between acidity and juicing efficiency as well as a relationship between polyphenol concentration and fruit weight. Exploratory analyses indicated that juice attributes can be used to distinguish between cultivars and their origins. Cider producers can use these data to determine what to expect in juice from these cultivars.
... The specific varieties used for cider production differ from one region to another. For example, in Spain, among the varieties recommended in cider production are Blanquina, Cristalina, Coloradona, Collaos, Marilena, Perezosa, Regona, Prieta, Raxao, Solarina, Teorica [7,51]. In Spain, Asturian and Basque apples are the most popular for obtaining cider. ...
... In Spain, Asturian and Basque apples are the most popular for obtaining cider. There is an old tradition mentioned since the 8 th century [7]. In France, the most popular apple varieties used in cider production are the following: Avrolles, Binet Rouge, Bedan, Bisquet, Cidor, Douce Moen, Douce Coet Ligne [7,52]. ...
... There is an old tradition mentioned since the 8 th century [7]. In France, the most popular apple varieties used in cider production are the following: Avrolles, Binet Rouge, Bedan, Bisquet, Cidor, Douce Moen, Douce Coet Ligne [7,52]. This cider is mainly obtained from bittersweet and bitter-sharp apple varieties. ...
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Given apple, an easily adapted culture, and a large number of apple varieties, the production of apple cider is widespread globally. Through the fermentation process, a series of chemical changes take place depending on the apple juice composition, type of microorganism involved and technology applied. Following both fermentations, alcoholic and malo-lactic, and during maturation, the sensory profile of cider changes. This review summarises the current knowledge about the influence of apple variety and microorganisms involved in cider fermentation on the sensory and volatile profiles of cider. Implications of both Saccharomyces, non-Saccharomyces yeast and lactic acid bacteria, respectively, are discussed. Also are presented the emerging technologies applied to cider processing (pulsed electric field, microwave extraction, enzymatic, ultraviolet and ultrasound treatments, high-pressure and pulsed light processing) and the latest trends for a balanced production in terms of sustainability, authenticity and consumer preferences.
... Many high-acid-and hightannin-concentration cultivars sought after by cider producers for the sensory attributes of their juice are not available in sufficient quantities to meet demand within the United States (Pashow, 2018). However, many of these cultivars possess horticultural traits that pose challenges to their production in commercial orchards, such as biennial bearing and vigorous vegetative growth (Merwin et al., 2008). Growers need information on how horticultural management practices impact economic returns, fruit quality, and the sensory attributes of the finished ciders to remain competitive and continue improving the quality of ciders available in the U.S. market. ...
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The recent growth in the U.S. hard-cider industry has increased the demand for cider apples ( Malus × domestica Borkh.), but little is known about how to manage orchard soil fertility best to optimize horticultural performance and juice characteristics for these cultivars. To assess whether nitrogen fertilizer applied to the soil can improve apple juice and cider quality, calcium nitrate (CaNO 3 ) fertilizer was applied at different rates to the soil beneath ‘Golden Russet’ and ‘Medaille d’Or’ trees over the course of three growing seasons. The experiment started when the trees were in their second leaf. The trees were cropped in their third and fourth leaf. At the end of the first growing season of the experiment, the greatest fertilizer rate increased tree trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA) by 82% relative to the control, but this difference did not persist through to the end of the study. Yield and crop load were unaffected by the nitrogen fertilization treatments. Increasing the nitrogen fertilizer rate correlated positively with more advanced harvest maturity in ‘Golden Russet’ fruit, which resulted in greater soluble solid concentration (SSC). Fruit from the greatest fertilizer rate treatment had an average starch pattern index (SPI) that was 1 U greater than in the control, and an SSC that was 3% greater than the control. The fertilizer treatments did not affect juice pH, titratable acidity (TA), or total polyphenol concentrations. Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) concentrations were increased by nitrogen fertilization for both cultivars in both harvest years. The greatest fertilizer treatment increased juice primary amino nitrogen by 103% relative to the control. Greater nitrogen fertilization rates correlated positively with less hydrogen sulfide production during the fermentation of ‘Golden Russet’ juice from the first, but not the second, harvest. During the first year, cumulative hydrogen sulfide production for the ‘Golden Russet’ control treatment was 29.6 μg·L –1 compared with the ‘Golden Russet’ high treatment, which cumulatively produced 0.1 μg·L –1 . Greater maximum fermentation rates and shorter fermentation durations correlated positively with increased fertilization rate for both cultivars after the second harvest. High treatment fermentations had maximum fermentation rates 110% greater, and fermentation durations 30% shorter than the control. Other horticultural and juice-quality parameters were not affected negatively by the CaNO 3 treatments. In orchards producing apples specifically for the hard-cider industry, nitrogen fertilizer could increase juice YAN, thus reducing the need for exogenous additions during cider production.