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1: Advantages and disadvantages of different approaches for applying the guidance 15

1: Advantages and disadvantages of different approaches for applying the guidance 15

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... where relevant to assessing sustainable development impacts. Figures and tables adapted from 33 the Policy and Action Standard are cited, but for readability not all text taken directly or adapted from the 34 ...
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... value 3.1. 7 Baseline scenario and policy scenario 1 Assessing the impacts resulting from a given policy or action requires a reference case, or baseline 2 scenario, against which the change is assessed. The baseline scenario represents the events or 3 conditions most likely to occur in the absence of the policy or action being assessed. The baseline 4 scenario is not a historical reference point but is instead an assumption about conditions that would exist 5 over the assessment period if the policy or action assessed were not implemented. The baseline scenario 6 depends on assumptions related to other policies or actions that are also implemented, as well as various ...
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... assessment can be carried out before or during policy implementation, while 27 ex-post assessment can be carried out either during or after policy implementation. 28 9 Distributional impacts 1 In many cases, it may be important to separately assess the impacts of policies or actions on different 2 groups in society, such as men and women, people of different income groups, people of different racial 3 or ethnic groups, people of different education levels, people from various geographic regions, people in 4 urban versus rural locations, among others. This allows users to understand distributional impacts on 5 different groups, manage tradeoffs in cases where policies or actions have positive impacts on some 6 ...
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... policy scenario values for the same impacts (ex-post) (Chapter 10) Assess uncertainty (Chapter 11)  Quantitative impact assessment: Estimate the impacts of a policy or action on selected impact 1 categories relative to a baseline (which includes qualitative impact assessment as a step) 2  Track progress of indicators over time : Monitor trends in key indicators over time relative to 3 historical values, goal values and values at the start of policy implementation to track progress 4 over time 5 ...
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... users can choose to follow 8 only certain steps and approaches depending on their objectives. Table 3.1 outlines advantages and 9 disadvantages of each approach, while Box 3.1 explains provides more information on choosing an 10 approach based on the assessment objectives. 11 ...
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... when choosing which impact categories 22 to assess in Chapter 5. 23 values, as far as can be judged, and that uncertainties are reduced as far as practicable. Achieve 39 sufficient accuracy to enable users and stakeholders to make appropriate and informed decisions 40 with reasonable confidence as to the integrity of the reported information . If accurate data for a 1 given impact category is not currently available, users should strive to improve accuracy over 2 time as better data becomes available. Accuracy should be pursued as far as possible, but once 3 uncertainty can no longer be practically reduced, conservative estimates should be used. Box 3.2 4 provides guidance on conservativeness. ...
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... complete assessment, users should consider a wide range of potential impacts, including positive and 1 negative impacts, intended and unintended impacts, short-term and long-term impacts, and in-jurisdiction 2 and out-of-jurisdiction impacts. These types of impacts are detailed further in the next chapter (in Table 3 6.1). 4 ...
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... example, a 2 single impact may be positive, intended, in-jurisdiction and long-term. Table 6.1 provides users with 3 different lenses to think of impacts in different ways, in order to help identify all potential impacts of the 4 policy or action. However, the list is neither prescriptive nor exhaustive, and not all types of impacts may 5 be relevant to the policy or action being assessed. ...
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... Table 7.4 for an illustrative example of summarising the qualitative assessment results. 3 It is a key recommendation to separately assess the impacts of the policy or action on different groups in 4 society where relevant. If relevant and feasible, user should separately summarise the conclusions for in- ...
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... interactions 1 The policy or action assessed may interact with implemented or adopted policies and actions included in 2 the baseline scenario . To accurately estimate policy scenario values and the impacts of the policy or 3 action, users should determine whether the policy or action assessed interacts with any policies included 4 in the baseline scenario (either in reinforcing or overlapping ways). For example, a new municipal solar 5 PV incentive policy may overlap with an existing national renewable energy mandate and a local energy 6 efficiency policy. ...
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... indicator, which represents the change in the impact category, where feasible 29 5. Repeat the process for each indicator in the assessment boundaryWhen aggregating across impacts, users should address any possible overlaps or interactions between 1 impacts to avoid over-or underestimation of the total net impact of the policy or action. 2 Users should calculate baseline values, policy scenario values and the net impact of the policy or action 3 over defined time periods, such as annually and cumulatively over the quantitative assessment period. 4 ...
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... but they can be evaluated and reported in different ways. model the dispersion and concentration of PM2.5. The test equipment will deliver wind speeds with a 1 certain range of uncertainty. Meanwhile, wind speed may vary every second, but only limited numbers of 2 values (e.g., one value per hour) will be used to model the dispersion of PM2.5 . If parameter uncertainty 3 can be determined, it can typically be represented as a probability distribution of possible values that 4 include the chosen value used in the assessment. Individual parameter uncertainties can be propagated ...
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... uncertainty and sensitivity 1 Reporting information about uncertainty helps users and stakeholders assess the accuracy and 2 uncertainty of the reported results, to inform how the information should be used . It is important to 3 properly communicate the results, since the estimate of policy impact may not be very accurate, 4 depending on what methods, assumptions, and data sources were used to assess the impacts. ...
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... of international organisations. 16 If surveys are used and/or sampling procedures are applied, users should develop a statistically sound 1 sampling plan as part of the monitoring plan. Users should follow internationally recognised standards for 2 sampling. 19 Before including the sampling plan in the monitoring plan, users should familiarise themselves 3 with different standards and required sampling sizes in order to achieve statistically sound results. ...
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... 2: Estimate the effectiveness of each policy for relevant impact categories 1 Users should use the quantitative assessment results from previous chapters for all relevant impact 2 categories as the measure for effectiveness of each policy option. Table 14.3 provides an illustrative 3 example of the effectiveness of each policy option. 4 ...
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... qualitative data collected face-to-face is ideal, in some cases users may not need to collect data 2 directly. Instead, the required information may be found in existing documents . For example, some 3 qualitative data may be available from open-ended questions within a quantitative survey or from key 4 workers' case notes. Similarly, media articles about a particular topic can be useful, or users may want to 5 analyse local strategy documents to show variation in attitudes or services. ...
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... also yields more robust results on 25 the basis of "triangulation"-that different methods should be used, with different sources of data, and 26 from different perspectives to gain the best understanding and produce the most credible results. 27 1 IMPACTS AND ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 2 Table D.1 lists examples of publicly available tools that can be used for assessing social, economic and 3 environmental impacts of policies and actions. Additional resources on the ICAT website provide a list of 4 tools and resources for estimating the impacts of policies and actions, organised by impact category, 5 available at http://www.climateactiontransparency.org/methodological-framework/sustainable- 6 development. ...

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