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  • Sibnarayan Datta added an answer in Tick-Borne Pathogens:
    What are the recent molecular techniques to detect tick-borne pathogens from the ticks itself?

    Ticks act as vectors to a wide variety of pathogens (zoonotic ones being my field of interest). I would like to know on how to detect the pathogens carried by these arthropods if I collect them from an infested host. Will it be helpful if I collect it from carcass of an infected host? It would be of great help if someone can provide information or links on the present studies in this regards.

    Thanking you in advance

    Sibnarayan Datta

    Dear Debabrata,

    As mentioned by Jonathan, PCR and qPCR methods are the choice if you are looking for known pathogens. However, if you are interested in looking for the unknown pathogens, especially viruses, you have to go for NGS based methods.

    Best wishes,


  • Casey Kzin added an answer in Electrolytes:
    Why is Rct value increased but the ESR value remain same/slightly decreased?

    I've run an electrochemical impendance spectra for my chitosan-Fe3O4 composite and compared it with Fe3O4. As expected the charge transfer resistance (Rct) increased (from 200 ohms to 600 ohms) due to the nonconductive chitosan film in the composite. 

    What I'm unsure is why the equivalent series resistance (ESR) is not increased in the sample but the it is the same and sometimes even slightly decreased for other samples.

    I know that the ESR is attributed to the resistance of the electrolyte; the contact resistance between the electrolyte, current collector, and active material; and the intrinsic resistance of the active material itself. 

    So the increased Rct in the composite means the electron transfer is obstructed due to decreased conductivity in the composite but the unchanged/slight lowered ESR could mean that the intrinsic resistance (or other factors) of the composite remains unchanged. Is that even possible?

    Casey Kzin

     Dear John,

    If I'm not wrong, you are modified Fe3O4 with chitosan and compare the electrochemical properties with Fe3O4. Can I ask the purpose of using chitosan since has very very low conductivity and it can hinder the electrochemical properties of your composite. 

    Best Regards,

  • Ubong Ekerete Josiah added an answer in Qualitative Research:
    Can you use both the Theoretical framework and the Conceptual Framework in the same research study?

      Can you use both the Theoretical framework and the Conceptual Framework in the same research study?

    Ubong Ekerete Josiah

    Bassey, both Gerard Mass and David Morgan are right in their contributions, to a great extent. In a number of cases, scholars view conceptual framework as being subsumed in  theoretical framework. This may not be absolutely correct because, while the former makes provision for hypothetical predictability, the latter appears sacrosanct, serving mostly as an established basis for anchoring research analysis. However, conceptual clarifications appears, to a few scholars, as a substitute for  conceptual framework in an attempt to avoid a duplication of analytical notions that may seem conflicting and confusing to new entrants into analytical research.

  • Sibnarayan Datta added an answer in Restriction Enzyme:
    What is the difference between fast digest and conventional restriction enzymes?

    The difference between fast digest enzymes and conventional ones is just in their buffers or the enzymes are different too?

    Sibnarayan Datta

    Dear Farzani,

    We have seen in our laboratory that for smaller amounts of DNA digestion (<1 ug), many commonly used conventional and fast acting REs work with similar efficiency and complete digestion could be obtained in 10-15 mins. You can check this  by setting parallel reactions with similar amounts of template and same units of conventional & fast digest REs. 


  • Abdul Ghafoor asked a question in Air Pollution:
    Children will bear the brunt of climate change tomorrow; what present generation need to accomplish in this regard?

    Climate change is a fact as we witness unusual droughts and heavy rain storms, temperature increase and air pollution. We need strategies to save our future generations not to suffer?

  • Vijay Kumar added an answer in ANSYS:
    Why have I received an error message in ANSYS: "Degree of freedom limit exceeded".?

    Hello everyone,

    I am trying to model and analyze a Chiral Graphene Nanosheet in ANSYS MAPDL. I am done with the modeling and boundary conditions part. But when I go for solution, I am stuck with this error message which says "Degree of freedom limit exceeded. Then value of ROTZ at a particular node has exceeded the limit". I checked for all constraints and loading conditions, but everyting seems to be ok. Any kind of clue that might rectify the problem would be of great help. Thanks in advance.

    Vijay Kumar

    Dear Emon barua

    i am also getting same error message.did you find any solution?

    Thank you

  • Vediyappan Thirumal asked a question in Mass:
    Supercapacitor - Specific Capacitance calculation - charge-discharge curve ?

    How to calculate specific Capacitance from charge-discharge curve - Supercapacitors,

    The Specific capacitance difficult calculate from  the  from CV Cure, May be to choose better Charge-Discharge using specific capacitance calculations.

    The charge discharge cure equation - Scp = I *delta T /delta v*m

    I - is current (A/g), how to calculate the A/g ( (A/g ) - mean (current (A) / Mass (mg)), please tell me how to set (A/g) correct one ?.

    Another one important, what is exact mass of Active materials in working electrode (milligram (mg)), somebody's using 0.00002, and 0.000001, these wights (micro gram or very low mass of active materials) some researchers was taken active mass (2 milligram to 4 milligram) , Active materials weight is very important because to calculate or set current value (A/g) is important !.  

    The working electrode preparation -

    Active Mass -80%, Binder-10%, Activated carbon 10%

    Which is best/good  working electrode - Glassy carbon electrode (GCE), GC is very low mass (active materials) coating due to low area. May be to good choice of stainless steel Mesh, Metal foils (Ni, Al, Cu, S.S) depend upon the electrolyte solutions. ( i am using S.S Mesh working electrode in 0.5 M H2SO4 Electrolyte). Ni foam (expensive), 

    my doubt is Active mass decreased (inversely proportional to) Specific capacitance increased ?!

    Please give me suggestion,Thank You.

  • Abhinav Nag added an answer in Materials Studio:
    How to dop some materials into a crystal (in program "Materials Studio") ?

    The program I use is Materials Studio.

    I have already built a crystal structure "MgH2", but now I want to dop some other materials "ZrO2".

    The ratio of them is 95:5.

    How should I do to dop ZrO2 into my crystal structure.

    Abhinav Nag

    Construct a supercell and obtain atomic positions for 50 atoms then  replace one of the atomic positions with the doped element.

    But this will need lots of computations if you are using 50 atoms, So you have to compromise with the speed.

  • Hailom Banteyerga added an answer in Health Care Services:
    How can we improve the health care services without big changes in the current system ?

    In most of the societies, small reforms are done to improve the health status of the people, but sometimes results are not up to the mark. Can you suggest some measures to achieve set goals for health?

    Hailom Banteyerga

    Your observation is correct that we are not bringing vivid changes in health care as we  operate as per the paradigms in place in public health. It is essential that the conception of health care should be philosophically addressed. Health care delivery is the duty of everybody. Interventions in public health should aim at instilling this belief  in communities as is being done in Ethiopia currently. Everybody should own and produce Good Health. This can be done both in disease prevention, care and treatment. The duty should no be left to health professionals only. In this sense there is no health provider and receiver. Health professionals primary duty should be to educate people how to be responsible for their health.  The care and treatment that are given at health facilities should be only entry points to enabling people to be responsible for their health. The problem of health care is becoming an issue of power relation between the so called provider and receiver. This has enhanced exploitation of the public by health related  private institutions. If health is perceived as the inalienable right of any human being, the duty should be how to ensure this right and this could be done through empowering the public to assume responsibility and ownership for its health.

  • Gaurav Kumar Singh asked a question in Enzyme Kinetics:
    What do we understand by kinetic hysteretic analysis of enzymes? How can we use it in case of beta-lactamase enzyme kinetics?

    I need to know the purpose of hysteretic analysis in case of enzyme kinetic studies.


  • Sowmya Kariyarthodi asked a question in Open Source Software:
    What are the open source software for Tsunami modeling?

    What are the open source software for Tsunami modeling? 

    thanks and regards


  • Abdul Ghafoor asked a question in Biochar:
    How biochar can help rehabilitate saline-sodic soils, to increase SOC stocks permanently?

    Biochar is claimed to be useful in many respects in agriculture provided enough raw material is available for its preparation. Can we get some favourable role in salt stressed soil?

  • Brian Andrew Massie added an answer in Atmospheric Pollution:
    What have we done to promote virtual cars as a sustainable form of transportation?

    Is it possible to reduce the private ownership of cars by promoting the use of virtual cars summoned by cellphone apps? What public policy recommendations have been made worldwide and what government incentives have been offered to achieve this?

    Background information: The use of computer apps to request taxi services has created a new industry, with companies like Uber and Ola growing at an impressive rates. However, Societies have not recognized that this new form of public services can contribute a lot to reduction of atmospheric pollution and traffic jams on the streets. It can also contribute to job creation. Visit

    Brian Andrew Massie

    The only way to discourage private ownership is to make it prohibitively expensive for a private person to get involved as anything other than a consumer. If your primary goals are to reduce pollution and traffic congestion, values I share, I believe the best thing government can do is to not interfere with this type of innovation.

    Consider, this approach to transportation and commerce is on the rise because there are enough market gaps (incentives) to do so. Artificial (government sponsored) incentives are useful when the market gaps do not exist or at least, not yet. Think of eBay; some of the reasons it works so well is that buyers and sellers are accountable for their actions and anyone with initiative and money/product may enter the market. Notice, the government doesn't need to add incentives and the government doesn't need to regulate the market for it to work.

    As far as Prashant's issue, might I suggest that the commute, while on paper inappropriate, affords each professor a bit of quiet time prior to the onslaught of students, administrators, and other interruptions to their day. 

  • Thanesh Bhusal added an answer in Public Management:
    Does anyone know literature/case studies(preferably at country level) about successful privatization & privatization success alongwith the criteria?

    I have gone through some literature that focuses more on privatization failure and failure to privatize but I haven’t found much literature/case studies where privatization process went well (relatively smoothly, without substantive failure and/or reversal) and, privatization goals and objectives are accomplished. I am also curious to know if there are any specific criteria to evaluate privatization success or failure.

    Thanesh Bhusal
    Prof Roger Wettenhall's paper on Privatization in Australia: How Much and What Impacts? captures a greater level of landscapes of privatization in Australia. Though it is relatively an older version, he asked me to suggest this one:
  • Rafik Karaman added an answer in Overdose:
    Is there any published data on Dependence & Toxicity from overdose of drugs?

    Dependence & Toxicity from overdose of drugs .i will be better for me if it is related to Bangladesh.

    Rafik Karaman

    Dear Oby,

    Attached please find two publications that cover the answer to your question.

    You can get the data for Bangladesh from the health ministry of the country.

    Hoping this will be helpful,


    + 1 more attachment

  • Arun Gupta added an answer in Oligomerization:
    How can I calculate Molecular mass from Translational Diffusion Coefficient values determined using PFGSE NMR?

    How  we can predict or determine apparent  molecular mass for globular proteins using pulse field gradient -Stimulated Echo NMR experiments. I am looking forward to characterize the presence of different oligomeric forms of protein using Translational Diffusion Coefficient as a parameter   Can anyone suggest the references in which  similar studies have been discussed

    Arun Gupta

    Hi Matthias

    You might know your lab previous member Michael Kovermann who was here at Umea University

  • Rudy Situmeang added an answer in EDX:
    Is there a difference in the crystal structure for bulk gold and gold nanoparticles such as in X-ray diffraction pattern and position of EDX?

    Is there a difference in the crystal structure for bulk gold and gold nanoparticles such as in X-ray diffraction pattern and position of EDX?

    Rudy Situmeang

    Hi...Mohamed, In fact you can find in various journals'  articles concerning Gold (Bulk and Nanoparticles). The size , of course is so different. You can see from SEM/TEM data Au-spherical nanoparticles and also from UV-Vis spectroscopy (a shift - red). 

    Regarding crystal structure for bulk and NP's Au, it is clear stated that the nanoparticles possess a well-defined atomic arrangement resembling the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure occurring with bulk gold. The fcc-type features of this arrangement become more prominent with increasing nano-particle size (see ref : Valeri Petkov, Yong Peng, Geoff Williams, Baohua Huang, Donald Tomalia, and Yang Ren
    Phys. Rev. B 72, 195402 – Published 3 November 2005).  In my opinion, the difference which is appeared is the FWHM (representative peaks of XRD pattern) of both bulk and NPs' Au.  Hope this will be useful.

    Rudy Situmeang

  • Ihsan Ates added an answer in Pulmonary Embolism:
    What is the most reliable marker in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and community-acquired pneumonia?

    Because of similar clinical manifestations and laboratory findings, differential diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is generally difficult. 

    Ihsan Ates

    Thanks Mr Bhat,

  • Matthias R. Schaefer added an answer in Group Work:
    Why my Drosophila melanogaster stock have presented swollen abdome and mucus in de medium?

    Please, can somebody help me, our group works with drosophila melanogaster, our stock seems infected, a large amount of mucus is present in the standard medium and the abdomen of flies is swollen, even the locomotion is affected. Has somebody experienced a similar problem? Is there a manner to clean the stock? Thanks 

    Matthias R. Schaefer

    If the problem is the medium, then exchange the medium. If the medium is alright after preparation but becomes sticky after you culture flies on it, then your flies have a bacterial or fungal infection. As long as your flies carry this on their legs you will transfer the contaminant from vial to vial.

    Remedy: Let flies lay eggs on agar plate (=embryo collection plate) for 24 hours. Bleach the eggs (same protocol you would use when performing immunofluorescence experiments), collect bleached eggs/embryos and transfer carefully on fly medium, where they will become larvae and flies, hopefully without the problem you are experiencing.

    Best of luck.


  • Jeannie Wang added an answer in Image Analysis:
    Can anyone help with imaging binarization to detect detailed particles distribution?
    In the image attached, by the default binarization function in matlab im2bw(), only the large and conspicuous particles (the black part) can be detected, however, the smaller particles dispersed in the pores (the white part) was left out. How can I perform the binarization that can retrieve a detailed particles detection? Anyone can provide some code that is specified for my problem?
    Jeannie Wang

    Hi, John,

    Thanks for the assistance you offered. The problem was solved to a satisfactory level quite a while ago. 

    Wish the software will bring great improvement in imaging processing for scientific research!

  • Noureddine Soltani added an answer in Catalase:
    If anyone can tell me the protocol for catalase estimation using KMnO4. Unable to understand the quantities give in papers available?

    concentration of ethanol and triton to be added

    Noureddine Soltani

    Dear colleague,

    CAT was usually determined following the procedure of Aebi (1984). The extract (200 µl)  was incubated (30 mn, 0°C) with 2 µl ethanol 95%. Then 2 µl Triton (1%) were added  to homogenat and centrifugated (5000 g,, 5 mn).

    Aebi, H.E., 1985. Catalase. In Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, Eds., Bergmeyer, H.U., J. Bergmeyer and M. Grabi. Weinheim: Verlag Chimie, pp: 273-286.

    Good luck !

  • Amit Bage asked a question in Waves:
    How can consider 50 ohm Transmission line in waveguide filter?

    In the rectangular wave guide based dual bandstop filter in one paper "Very compact bandstop waveguide filter using SRR and Perturbed quarter wave transformer" They have considered 50 ohm transmission line how it is possible, i think there is more around 500 ohm? if they have considered then why?? and the result is matched how?

  • Donald James added an answer in Genomic DNA Isolation:
    Can anyone suggest why my southern blotting is not working?

    I am trying to perform a Southern blot of mouse genomic DNA extracted from mouse tail.
    This is my protocol
    1. Digested: - (gel picture attached: - firs two lanes with Kpn1 and other 3 with Hind III and last lane is DNA ladder )

    a)      2 samples with Kpn1 ( 1 sample 10 micrograms and 1 with 20 micrograms)

    b)      3 samples with Hind III ( 2 sample 10 micrograms and 1 with 20 micrograms)

    Using 5U per microgram o/n at 37degree.

    2. Run a 0,8% agarose gel in TAE buffer, with Etbr. 50V for 28h.
    3. View the smear
    4.  Depurination by 0.25M HCl for 15 minutes  (the fragments that I want to see have 20kb and 15kb)
    6. Denaturation by 0.4NaOH for 15minutes

    7. Transferred in an alkaline buffer (0.4NaOH) for overnight, to Hybond XL.membrane.

    8. Cross link with UV
    9. Pre-hyb at 65C for 4h in CHRUCH buffer.
    10. Hyb with my DNA probe (200 bp (already tried with 650bp probe) ) labeled by Megaprime DNA labelling system  at 65C o/n.

    11. Washing:- 2X in 2X SSC/0.1 SDS for 20min at room temp.

    12. Overnight exposure in phosphoimager (membrane picture attached)

     I only see the DNA smear from my digests but I can't see a specific band. Already waited 24h for revelation and the smear just intensified!

    Please help me!

    Donald James

    @Hifzur Rahman 

    Dear Sir

    Can you kindly elaborate the last part of your above answer. I recently did a southern and used Hygromycin probe for detecting copy number in rice transgenics. The probe also bound to the ladder which incidentally was not DIG labelled. How is this possible ?

  • Ruining Wu added an answer in Observation:
    How can I study people's activities in a complex environment?

    Hello, I am trying to investigate people's experience of the Bullet train station. And I want to study from people's activity perspective. Here is my question;  

    How can I study people's activities in a complex environment? For example, people's activities in the train station. Can I use observation method? Is there any books about observation method? 

    Thank you so much. 

    Ruining Wu

    @Mary V. Seeman  

    Dear Mary, thank you so much. Very good point.  Cheers:) 

  • Myo Tha added an answer in Social Media Research:
    Which type of risk am I perceiving when using social media as a medical professional?

    To my knowledge, there are different facets of perceived risk on social media, such as physical, financial, social, time, etc.

    When I am using social media, I am concerned that I may violate professional code of conduct as a medical professional. I have concern on privacy, confidentiality, professional image, etc.

    Is there any conceptual definition for such type of perceived risk? Is it appropriate to name it "perceived professional risk"?

    Myo Tha

    According to literature, on social media, professionals are concerned about
    - personal privacy
    - patient confidentiality
    - private-professional boundary
    - self reputation, someone else reputation, organisational reputation and
    - public confidence on medical profession.

    These are the dimensions of professional risk.

    When I read further for conceptualisation and operationalisation of the construct, I became more confused.

    Perceived professional risk I am trying to conceptualise becomes a type of formative construct which is difficult to incorporate into CBSEM I have planned.

    I am thinking of an easiest way ........ to make it a simple unidimensional reflective construct. This will lead to a misspecified measurement model.
    more difficult multidimensional construct with reflective first order and formative second order. This is a new area I have to study.

  • Nisreen Sulayman added an answer in Refugees:
    Has Turkey a rightful place as EU state-member?

    The EU-Turkey summit has just finished and finalized the announced agreement through which the European Union gives 3.2 billions in aid for Turkey to assist the 2.2 million Syrian refugees sheltered in the country and mainly compromises to stem the flow of migrants to Europe. However, much more important for the Turkey prime-minister, Ahmet Davutoglu, was the formal re-opening of the process of negotiations aiming to discuss Turkish full membership of the EU.  Needless to say that the summit took place few days after the Turkish destruction of a Russian fighter jet that seems to have violated during 17 seconds Turkey airspace, although without making any remote hostile action. It is not also worth to stress that the European extreme right wing movements immediately started vibrant protests against the perspective of a future Turkish adhesion to the EU, arguing that the almost 80 million Turks are not really “European” and only want to wider the huge number of foreign emigrants living and working in Europe.

    Nisreen Sulayman

    If there is a chance for Turkey to join EU, it will not be before the end of the war in Syria.