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  • Can anyone suggest different physical methods to develop epilepsy in mice or rats?
    Currently am going to work on epilepsy so am interested to induce epilepsy physically.
    Millie Rincón-Cortés · NYU Langone Medical Center
    As mentioned above, you can use pilocarpine or KA to induce seizures. Scharfman lab at NKI has done extensive work on epilepsy/seizures. Moreover, they have found that you can induce seizures in limbic areas through hippocampal infusion of BDNF.
  • What would you do if you received a report from the reviewer of your paper asking for a major revision, with which you completely disagree?
    What would be your response? Would you appeal to the editor by asking him/her to make the final decision, would you be weak and amend what you believe is right, would you argue back with facts, would you re-submit the paper to another journal?
    Mahfuz Judeh · Applied Science Private University
    The reviewer provides professional constructive comments. A significant percentage of us have both roles; authors for their researches and reviewers of others` researches. We all know that it is better to argue back for facts, but do you think that the reviewer will easily be convinced with the author`s viewpoint.
  • Arthur Morris added an answer in LaTeX
    What is the most effective tool for creating charts and graphs that could be included in Latex?
    What tool do you recommend for creating charts and graphs while writing a large document (a thesis) in Latex. MS Words is a great tool for that but then saving them as bitmap images is a bit downside as they are poor in quality. Vector graphics on the other hand does not have any artifact while stretching.
    Arthur Morris · University of Utah
    I use Stata's esttab to save tables as fully formatted tex files, and export for figures to .png. Very quick and simple.
  • Sukru Tuzmen added an answer in Molecular Cloning
    How to differentiate between insert and vector after restriction digestion when both are of approximate equal size?
    The size of insert in a cloning vector is 2886 bp and size of my insert id 2970 bp. Can they be visualized as separate bands on agarose gel after restriction digestion?
    Sukru Tuzmen · Eastern Mediterranean University
    84 bp of size difference should be big enough to separate the two fragments. If you could run your complete digestion on a 0.8% agarose gel in 1X TAE buffer, this could resolve your bands to distinguish between 2970 bp and 2886 bp fragments should they have been digested completely...Hope this helps!
  • Which came first image or action or emotion?
    As an acting teacher, I have recently decided that images are needed to excite emotion which is needed to strong actions. Does anyone have any opinion and or research on this? I am aware of Damasio, Ramachandran, LeDoux, etc.
    Attila Szabo · Eötvös Loránd University
    It may depend: If you are a creationist or evolutionist:-) In the first case: image (of the/a creator), in the second, I gather - as Domenico said -, action. My formula is: 1) beliefs (learned) - 2) thoughts (influenced by our beliefs) - action (influenced by thoughts).
  • Joining of two energy file (*.edr)
    i run simulation for 5 ns and i get the run.edr file. then i extend the simulation and i get another file ener.edr. i want to combine these two files to get total energy file of whole simulation. How to combine these two files?
    Archana Sonawani · Indian Council of Medical Research
    You can use gromacs tool eneconv.
  • Suresh Merugu added an answer in Machine Vision
    Which parameters are effective for designing a light chamber in hyperspectral/multispectral imaging?
    Light chamber in hyperspectral/multispectral imaging.
    Suresh Merugu · Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
    Hello Rasool, Light chamber means especially it should come in Visible to Near Infra Red Band,SO you required so better used with Multispectral Imaging and this you can work with CIE chromaticity diagram. ok bye
  • What does mean conductivity (nonsuppressed and suppressed)?
    What does mean conductivity (nonsuppressed and suppressed)?
  • What is the Optimum Insulin concentration in cell culture.
    Especially if we are targeting insulin/igf-1 interaction in the absence of insulin receptors on cells
  • Mahak Agarwal asked a question in Article: Fine needle aspiration of a lymph node in an HIV p
    Can anyone let me know how can I get the full article?
    I have sent a request for a full article 3 days back and I have not received my requested article yet.
  • Are multiple sexual progeny (Schmidtea Mediterranea) from one egg capsule genetically identical?
    Regarding the sexual line of Schmidtea Mediterranea, are multiple progeny that hatch from one egg capsule genetically identical, such as monozygotic twins, or do they differ genetically, such as with fraternal twins? I've searched the literature and have found no information on this topic.
    Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado · Stowers Institute for Medical Research
    The progeny are not genetically identical.
  • How can we analyze overlapping in fringes observed in HRTEM of core shell nanostructures structures?
    Here the HRTEM image is enclosed in which at two places a kind overlapping is observed.
    Thomas Walther · The University of Sheffield
    your image shows a number of lattice fringes and actually two examples of moire fringes (the coarser fringes) that are both due to a superposition of lattice fringes from different cystals. They can be explained by multiple diffraction. With g1=1/d1 and g2=1/d2 the moire-fringe spacing in real-space is 1/(g1+g2)=(d1*d2)/(d1+d2) where you should use the corresponding vectors in the above formula.
  • Technical information on Co-60 calibration for gamma spectrometer?
    Out lab has the basics, but we are looking for protocols, background theory, or technical references to using a Co source for calibrations.
    Alan Cresswell · University of Glasgow
    The best place to start in terms of background theory and technical references would be "Radiation Detection and Measurement" by Glenn Knoll. The 1332keV 60Co gamma ray is conventionally used to give relative efficiency values for detectors, Ge detectors in particular, with the efficiency given relative to a 3x3" NaI(Tl) detector with the source at 25cm. Of course, that only gives efficiency for a single energy and geometry. Which will not be particularly useful unless you are going to be measuring the activity of point-like 60Co sources. To produce an energy efficiency curve for a detector a wider range of emission energies is needed, which will require sources other than 60Co. Your calibration will also need to be correct for the measurement geometry - so, if you are measuring samples placed in close proximity to your detector you will need calibration materials which emit energies similar to (preferably the same as) those you will be measuring, in a matrix with similar attenuation coefficients to your samples, and with the activity uniformly dispersed throughout a container identical to those used for your samples. If you are using the detector for remote measurements then measurements could be made by moving the source to create a pseudo-distributed source that would account for air attenuation and detector geometric effects. The options for how you would use a source to calibrate a detector are as diverse as the measurements you are going to be making with that detector. To narrow things down some indication of what you are going to use the detector for would be needed.
  • What does following sentence about hollow cathode lamps mean?
    "A starting voltage of 500 V is useful, but operating voltages are in the range of 150-300 V. In many instruments, the current supplied to the lamp is modulated. Hollow cathode lamps may also be pulsed or run continuously." 2-Hollow-cathode lamps are comparatively free from self -absorption, if run at low current why?
    Lwfhp Yvl · King Saud University
    Thank you
  • In what way does animal ethics differ from human ethics?
    Leyla Tekul · University of British Columbia - Vancouver
    Well, this comment brings clarity to the confusion about the phrase "animal ethics" . Some of us (like me :) interpreted the question as "Do animals have ethics?" and tried to figure out the roots of ethical behaviour from our "caveman times" and how animals might ,even if instinctively, discriminate right form wrong. However, the question might rather be related to 'treating animals ethically' which certainly might bring about clearer and more fruitful discussions.
  • How can I interpret spectral clustering?
    How can we understand spectral clustering algorithm in a more generalized way? The research papers mention it in more mathematical form. What could be a layman's approach to understand it by overlooking mathematical equations?
    Suresh Merugu · Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
    Hello Anupam, Here i have given some Information it may be helpful to you i think so. Algorithms that cluster points using eigenvectors of matrices derived from the data Obtain data representation in the low-dimensional space that can be easily clustered Variety of methods that use the eigenvectors differently Empirically very successful Authors disagree: Which eigenvectors to use How to derive clusters from these eigenvectors Two general methods Partition using only one eigenvector at a time Use procedure recursively Example: Image Segmentation Uses 2nd (smallest) eigenvector to define optimal cut Recursively generates two clusters with each cut
  • Sukru Tuzmen asked a question in Genetics
    How can one combine two RG accounts opened at separate times, or is this at all possible? Thanks...
  • How to discuss results which are not statisically significant in a dissertation?
    Have a P value >0.05 for all my IHC, how can I discuss why this is a relevant result in the broad scheme of things? Thanks!
    Millie Rincón-Cortés · NYU Langone Medical Center
    You can mention that there seems to be a trend (use a different symbol than an asterisk on the graph) and you can mention the effect and add that it approximated but did not reach statistical significance. If your n is low, maybe you could do more animals and see what happens...
  • Paul M.W. Hackett added an answer in Fine Arts
    Arnheim's writing on perception and art
    Arnheim wrote extensively on psychology and art. I would be really interested to hear what people on Researchgate think about his work now as his writing is getting to be rather old? How well do you think this has stood up to the test of time?
    Paul Hackett · Emerson College
    Thank you David.
  • J. Rutkowski added an answer in Blended Learning
    Should the letter ‘e’ in e-learning mean ‘no face to face interaction’?
    There has been a tremendous advancement in computation and communication technology. The concept of e-learning has come into existence. The proponents of this form of education suggest complete automation that is totally to avoid human interaction in the classroom. What is in your opinion, what should be the correct pedagogy which would be compatible to present technological advancement?
    J. Rutkowski · Silesian University of Technology
    Today, term e-learning is used in Academics’ jargon, especially by Academics that are still in their “Classroom Kingdom” with passive students and active teacher, to describe all teaching/learning enhanced by ICT. We may disagree but this is an indisputable fact. Many Academics think that replacement of chalk and blackboard by ppt presentation means e-learning and this is a big misunderstanding. As Lorenzo Garcia-Arieto posted: e-learning fails, when pedagogical principles are ignored, when ICT are put above the pedagogy, when we forget that teachers are still key element also in e-learning. Technology Enhanced Active Learning and Self Directed Learning (Flipped Classroom), instructional methods that engage students in the learning process, is the future of education and all Academics have to accept this, leave their “Classroom Kingdom”. Today, the act of learning itself is no longer seen as simply a matter of information transfer, but rather as a process of dynamic participation in which students cultivate new ways of thinking and doing through active discovery and discussion (Susan Aldrich), they migrate toward SDL experiences on computer and Internet. In 1980 Malcolm Knowles predicted that by year 2020, all learning will be based on principles of AL & SDL and I believe that this prediction will come true.
  • What is the technical way to control oxygen evolution in aqueous Li-batteries?
    I want to use a high voltage cathode in my battery and I also want to suppress oxygen evolution at high voltage. Can you guys give me some reference about understanding how to suppress oxygen evolution in aqueous electrochemical system like batteries.
    Alexey Klyuev · A. N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry
    Good luck!
  • Employees' skills and commitment create a competitive advantage. What about technology? Does it affect competitive advantage?
    Can technology help generate greater sales or increase business efficiency?
    Jalal Moosavi · University of Science and Culture
    It depends how we define technology. If technology is considered synonym to only machines then the answer is no. However if technology is considered machines + skills to use them in an efficient manner, then the answer will be yes.
  • H Chris Ransford added an answer in Relativity
    Is it possible to construct a time machine?
    A hundred years ago, few people believed it possible for humans to travel trough outer space. Time travel, like space travel, was merely science fiction. Today, spaceflight is also commonplace. Might time travel one day become commonplace too?
    H Chris Ransford · Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
    Well, it likely depends on what time machine you have in mind. You could certainly argue that rudimentary time machines already exist - that's in a sense why delayed choice experiments work, for example. Also, the "Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics", for one, embodies a rudimentary time machine. Now if by time machine you are thinking of human bodies travelling backwards or forward in Time and then reverting to where they come from, current calculations show that attempting to pass the slightest amount of mass within a wormhole - towards the future or the past - would lead to immediate collapse of the wormhole walls and hence this wouldn't work. That does not necessarily obviate further developments, but at our current state of the art, building a time machine in the HG Wells sense seems rather unlikely. At the very least, to make it work you'd most likely have to not use wormholes. Alternatively your time machine could be made to work only in higher D universes under certain scenarios - such as a block universe - but definitely wouldn't work with run-of-the-mill 3D, flesh & bones mortals .....
  • Is there any role for hydrotubation following tubal reanastomosis and if so, when should it be done? What constituents are recommended to be used?
    During tubal reanastomosis one cannot achieve exact apposition between mucosal layers of both sides of fallopian tube. Methylene blue is introduced to assess the success of the tubal anastomosis. In case there is no spillage through the fimbrial end, does it always mean that the surgery has not been successful? Is there is any role for repeat surgery in the same sitting in such cases? Are guide wire/ probes encouraged during tubal recanalisation? What postoperative management can be carried out in order to retain tubal patency? Some surgeons advocate hydrotubation to increase the success of the surgery. I would like to see if there are references with regard to this or any other method that helps during and after such kind of surgery.
    Johan Nel · University of the Free State
    With experience and using an operating microscope, muscularis approximation results in exact mucosa to mucosa approximation. Sutures should not be placed through mucosa, since this may result in ectopic pregnancy. I agree with Dr. Bakul Leuva - 10x magnification is sufficient. Loupes have the disadvantage that the surgeon has to move his/her head during the operation, in contrast to an operating microscope which can be focused and tilted by foot pedals. Constant movement of head and neck can be very tiresome. Kind regards, Johan (JT) Nel.
  • Vijai Kumar asked a question in Fluid Mechanics
    What is the best workflow for developing a good cfd code?
    I will be more specific here. I am trying to simulate a two dimensional mhd flow through an MPD thruster. I have the euler equations with coupled electric and magnetic field. I prefer using opensource products and i am comfortable with python and fortran. I want to know if a mesh from gmsh or netgen could be directly used for the code. I have written codes only using basic fdm. I haven't even written any complex fvm codes. But i am planning to develop three codes using mhd, DSMC and PIC methods. And i am not an expert in any of these. I am conducting experiment too although i don't need any help in that part. I would really like some experts input on the problem that i have in my hand. Expecting some good answers.
  • Gudrun Lang added an answer in Tumor Immunology
    Whatare the availablemethods for removingadequate tissue in colon/liver cancer for histological examinationand whatarethe most suitable in both cases?
    And what technique is the most suitable in either case?
    Gudrun Lang · Allgemeines Krankenhaus Linz
    Tissue for histological examination is usually got through biopsies or surgery. Please tell us more details about your problem.
  • Attila Szabo added an answer in Teaching Methods
    What are best methods to design online interactive learning activities?
    I would like to develop some synchronized and asynchronous activities for an online learning environment. However, my internet searches have all ended with products to purchase.
    Attila Szabo · Eötvös Loránd University
    You are on the right track! Self-learning is the best and the "deepest"!:-) Good luck to your project!
  • Lech Pawlowski added an answer in Energy
    What do you think are the most important personal characteristics of a successful researcher?
    Is there in your opinion some personal characteristics that are recurrent in successful researchers? What is opinion about the following personality traits? 1. Intellectual curiosity, 2. determination, 3. self-motivation, 4. competitiveness, 5. team-work capabilities, 6. humbleness, etc. Are there other relevant issues that I have not mentioned? Do you feel there is a logical importance ranking among the above mentioned characteristics? Do you think the ranking depends on the specific research field or on other issues?
    Lech Pawlowski · University of Limoges
    Many important characteristics were already given. I would add honesty and fairness being necessary to inteprete the data and collaborate with others. The researcher must also be smart. I think quite often that there is a similarity of the job of a researcher with that of a detective: they try to find the truth which is often hidden. Finally, the curiosity seems to me the most important characteristic.
  • Dragan Pavlovic added an answer:
    Is mathematics a human contrivance or is it innate to nature?
    Do we invent mathematical forms as we need them and then merely discover their emergent properties later? Or are those mathematical forms innate to nature, and are hence discovered rather than invented? Does it really matter to science, which way around we view this? Is it just philosophy or could there be real consequences? https://www.researchgate.net/publication/256838918 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/derek-abbott/is-mathematics-invented-o_b_3895622.html
    Dragan Pavlovic · Université Paris 7, Paris, France; Greifswald University, Greifswald, Germany; European University, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Dear Bernd I complained that I did not understand you and you answered: "... dosn't matter, don't worry! It would take time." I asked you then either to try to be clear (the first possibility), or to chose one of the other two possibilities (second and third possibility!). I think the offered choice was fair, as the first possibility that I offered was quite friendly possibility, which was, more or less, this: Sir Bernd, please explain. Now you say that I was not fair?! Please accept my apologies. But let me, please, explain. One philosopher - who was probably even your neighbour (Sir Karl) was fighting for clarity all his life and was facing bitter opposition. He also believed that to be relatively clear, in our thoughts and in our writings, was possible. He attacked then even really one of the greatest intellectuals of his time - Gadamer. I am certainly not "Sir Karl", but you may be "Gadamer" - I really do not know this -since you are not permitting me to understand you! And yet - Sir Karl offered to Professor Gadamer just a single possibility: to try to be clear! So I think, by offering you 3 possibilities, I was quite fair, in any case!. So please help me understand you. Please.
  • Mohsen Sepahi asked a question in Electrical
    I want journals about influence of electrical vehicle on power quality