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  • Rasool Khan added an answer in Rotary Evaporator:
    What is the max temp. for rotary evaporator in extraction for phenolic comp. and saponins from cosmos caudatus leaves in 50% ethanol?

    you know that boiling point for water is 100C . so can i set temp. on 100C. and my extract will not damage?  

    Rasool Khan · University of Peshawar

    Use Rotary Evaporator and set temperature at 50 C, generally phenolic and saponins do not decompose. 

  • Muhsin Nahoda asked a question in Developing Countries:
    How can I formulate model on impact of Foreign Aids Reduction?

    This question based on developing countries that depend on foreign Aids to support there economic projects.

  • Showkeen Bilal asked a question in Emotion:
    I want to know whether emotions are inborn (transmitted through gene) or acquired in environment by social contacts?

    explainations with example

  • Nitu Chaudhary asked a question in Polytene Chromosome:
    Does polytene chromosomes take acetocarmine stain?

    Which type of stain is required for the polytene chromosomes?

  • After importing .dxf or .gbr file in ADS, how to simulate mimo antennas in ADS software?

    Actually i have designed mimo antenna in cst microwave studio. after importing .dxf file in ADS software it contains only one single layer so how to make layout of this antenna. please explain with some procedure

  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer in Appetite:
    What are the characteristics of Spirituality?

    Authentic spirituality involves an emotional response, what I will call the spiritual response, which can include feelings of significance, unity, awe, joy, acceptance, and consolation. Such feelings are intrinsically rewarding and so are sought out in their own right, but they also help us in dealing with difficult situations involving death, loss, and disappointment. The spiritual response thus helps meet our affective needs for both celebration and reconciliation. As Richard Dawkins puts it in his book Unweaving the Rainbow, we have an "appetite for wonder," an appetite for evoking the positive emotional states that are linked to our deepest existential questions. Your inputs please...

    Krishnan Umachandran · Professor

    Spirituality is not only religious. It is an un-demanded love, affection, devotion, submission and fear towards a higher order. This higher order can be God, Family, Work etc.,

  • Daniel Becker added an answer in Lighting:
    Comparing life histories across studies - can anyone help?

    I have collected a series of papers that describes the yield of a short-day plant relative to the number of days spent in vegetative growth (i.e., under long-day lighting). Every study exposed all plants to a single daylength (no variation within studies for daylength). Is it still valid to perform a quantitative review on this dataset (i.e., meta-analysis)? Or should we only use a qualitative approach?

    Any help would be GREATLY appreciated.

    Daniel Becker · University of Georgia

     It sounds like your data contains studies of the same species with the outcome as yield to growth. it doesn't sound like there was much variation in the study designs, but you could at the very least you could do a random-effects model to ask if 1) there is an overall positive or negative effect of the experiment and if 2) there is significant variation in outcomes between studies. you could also do a test of publication bias (funnel plot, trim and fill). if you find substantial variation between studies, you could consider a mixed-effects model (meta-regression) if you think there are interesting study-level variables to consider. perhaps the latitude of study locations? anything reported about the genetics of the experimental population? other treatments?

    W Viechtbauer (2010) has a very nice paper that reviews these analyses alongside the R code to do so in the metafor R package.


  • S.K. Rasania asked a question in Indoor Air Pollution:
    Any simple tool to use Indoor Air Pollution Level?

    Any simple tool to measure Indoor Air Pollution Level?

  • S.K. Rasania asked a question in Vehicles:
    Can anyone suggest any tool to measure "Vehicle Density' in any area?

    Any tool to measure Vehicular Density?

  • Subodh Sharma asked a question in Migration:
    What is the importance of cell density in migration assay?

    I need to do migratation assay with pc 9 cell. I am getting not consistent result as I used different cell number in the assay.

    If anyone can help me if cell density in the assay does impact in the output of effective result.

  • hu Shixiao asked a question in Abaqus:
    High frequency ultrasound propagated in steel plate attenuate stronger than low frequency, but how to realize this effect in Abaqus?

    Hello, everyone, I module a steel plate, high frequency ultrasound propagated in steel plate attenuate stronger than low frequency, but how to realize this effect in Abaqus?

  • Prabin Pathak asked a question in ANSYS:
    Why is nodal y displacement very less in comparison to experimental result in rc beam ?

    I am trying to model rc beam in ansys with solid 65 for concrete and link 180 for reinforcement. I am using symmetric boundary condition, so quarter of specimen is modelled.But, when i try to run the solution for the particular load, i always get very less displacement in comparison to experimental result for the converged solution.

  • Sachin James asked a question in Oxides:
    Is there any reference papers available about the synergistic effect of Aluminium Oxide and Cobalt Oxide nanoparticles blended with in Diesel?

    any reference journals regarding the combined effect of Al2Oand Co3O4 nano-particles in Diesel?

  • Claus Janew added an answer in Qualia:
    How to define human consciousness?

    After many years of discussion of the concept of human consciousness, I arrived to the following definition:

    “Conscious processes are qualitative experiences that contain at least four kinds of ingredient:

    a) Sensations and feelings (such as hunger, thirst, happiness, sadness, fear, pain, pleasure);

    b) Perceptual qualities or ‘qualia’ (such as colors, sounds, smells, tastes, etc.);

    c) Cognitive processes grounded on feelings and ‘qualia’, such as attention, thinking, memory formation and recall, etc. and

    d) A spatiotemporal structure, composed of an egocentric spatial framework (according to the work of Arnold Trehub) and a temporal duration of (conscious) episodes of 100 milliseconds to 3 seconds (according to the work of Ernst Poppel)”.

    This definition does not include the controversial concepts of “Self” and “Free Will”.

    I basically agree with David Hume and Thomas Metzinger that the concept of Self is a product of conscious activity, not a metaphysical soul to be considered as a pre-requisite for the definition of consciousness. What is implied by the above definition is the existence of a body that is the bearer of experiences, and also is affected by them. In this sense, the definition is close to the phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty.

    The feeling of will is relevant for conscious activity, but the possibility - raised by Immanuel Kant - of initiating a totally new causal chain in the world, besides probably being an illusion, is not an essential ingredient of the concept of consciousness.

    The effect of conscious activity on the body (and vice-versa) cannot be explained in terms of Aristotelian “efficient causation” (since it violates the “causal closure” of the world, as pointed by Jaegwon Kim – see link below), but can be understood in terms of “formal causation”, in the sense that the form of body activity can affect the form of conscious activity, and the form of conscious activity can affect the form of body activity.

    Claus Janew · Independent Researcher

    We cannot define consciousness if we restrict the question to its human form. Understanding consciousness needs a broader footing on a new concept of what is real. I have spend much time putting such a new concept in proper words. So, for a first impression I suggest to read my paper Omnipresent Consciousness and Free Will linked below. (The original text in German can be found in my profile.)

  • Sharon Primerano asked a question in Blogs:
    How and when do you need permission to quoting or excerpt someone else's work?

    I started a blog and quoted information from articles in databases like the National Institute of Health, Center for Disease Control, ect.. Please remember I am very new at this and my college is not very good as far as how to do this. so, here is my article and do I need to get permission to write and publish things like this?


  • Sasidhar Kantheti asked a question in Sodium Azide:
    Is there any method to separate the mixture of sodium azide and sodium chloride?

    In the synthesis of organic azides, usually alkyl halides were reacted with excess of sodium azide. After the reaction, a mixture of unreacted sodium azide and sodium chloride will be formed. I would like to is there any method to separate this mixture so that we can reuse the sodium azide.

  • Uday M. Basheer added an answer in Calcination:
    What is the difference between sintering and calcination?

    This is related to heating the sample to specific temperature.

    Uday M. Basheer · Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

    Sintering is the process by which a powder compactis transformed to a strong, dense material body upon heating. 

    In an alternate definition given: " Sintering is understood to mean any changes in shape which a small particle or a cluster of particles of uniform composition undergoes when held together at high temperature"

    American Society for metals has defined the sintering as " The bonding of adjacent surfaces of particles in a mass of metal powders or compact, by eating"

    British Standard Association defined it as " A bonding by means of heat of particles in a mass of powder or compact"

    The International Powder Metallurgy Glossary defines sintering as " A thermal treatment of a powder compact for the purpose of increasing strength, also the process which occur between surfaces of powder on heating causing adhesion"

    Other definitions by  Powder Metallurgy Glossary as " Sintering: A process (operation) which increases the cohesion between the particles in a green or presintered compact or a powder, proceeding (performed) at elevated temperature, but not above the melting point of the main component.

    The first three of these definitions refer to some kind of surface effect, the third and fourth definitions are divergent with respect to the mechanism of bonding; adhesion or cohesion.

  • Harish Kolliparat asked a question in Essential Oils:
    Essential oil distillation by solvent?

    can we do essential oil distillation by solvent instead of water? if so, what are the pro's and con's of that process except solvent loss?

  • Adam Hughes added an answer in MATLAB:
    How to detect the cicular-like objects in an image?

    I want to detect circular-like (Blobs) objects in an image.

    1) what are all the possible features which can be used to recognize this objects?

    2) How can I find the eigenvalues for each component in the image  alone??

    Any MATLAB code(s) is really helpful?

    Adam Hughes · George Washington University

    I see several circles in this image, what features of the blob that has the arrow set it apart from the other circles in the image?

  • How can we calculate the smsll signal gain of a laser amplifier?

    there is a formule in koechner that go=Ep/ηl

    Ep= pumping energy

    l=cavity lenghth

    η = ηtηaηSηQηBηStηASE/AES

    but in this formule there isnt any coeficient for dopant density of for example Nd:YAG.

    Aleksandr A. Tarasov · LaserOptek Co. Ltd.

    Nd dopant density is hidden in absorption efficiency. But gain does not depend on dopant density directly: g0 = sigma x N, where sigma is gain cross section and N is inversion population density.

  • I need help with factor analysis?

    Is it okay to include a factor that shows a coefficient alpha below .7 in exploratory factor analysis but shows above .7 in confirmatory factor analysis?

    Arjun Shrestha · Kathmandu University

    Many thanks Gideon.

  • Kusnadi Kusnadi asked a question in Retrieval:
    How to retrieve volcanic SO2 from ASTER TIR?

    I want to analyze the amount of SO2 emitted from volcanic activity. I will use ASTER TIR because they provide multispectral TIR data. I read some journal that give method about that such as Campion et al 2010. But, I don't know how to do it.

  • What are the effects/impacts of financial accounting and/or managerial accounting for Operations Managers in planning and decision making?

    Kindly guide me or send me certain relevant papers . Thanx

    James F. Cox · University of Georgia

    Financial accounting is useful to standardize the presentation of financial data across firms using Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP0.  It is of little value and most times provides the wrong answers in making operations decisions.  Goldratt's Theory of Constraints provides a simple but effective accounting system (throughput or constraint accounting) useful for operations management decisions.  See Goldratt's Haystack Syndrome: Sifting Information out of the Data Ocean provides a couple chapters on throughput accounting.  Traditional managerial accounting provides incorrect decisions based on the allocation of fixed costs to products.  Products do not make profit; organizations make profit.  Product cost and product profit are mirages.  Go back to basic economics which makes decisions based on price and variable cost (this is throughput in TOC terms).  All products taken together must cover the organization's fixed costs.  If total throughput exceeds total fixed costs then the organization makes money.  There are a number of books on throughput accounting. You might also check out the TOCICO (theory of constraints international certification organization) videos under success stories which provides videos on TOC accounting and decision making.  On the TOCICO website there is also a listing of TOC books by topic. 

    Hope this is helpful.

    Jim Cox

  • How do you reproductive toxicity testing in vitro and in vivo?

    I want to evaluate the reproductive toxicity of chemicals. Which guideline should I follow to test reproductive toxicity in vivo and in vitro?

    Muhd Hanis Md Idris · National University of Malaysia

    Thanks for the paper!

  • Zhilian hu added an answer in Hepatic Tuberculosis:
    What are the best soft wares for primer design?

    Polymerase Chain Reaction is widely held as one of the most important inventions of the 20th century in molecular biology. Small amounts of the genetic material can now be amplified to be able to a identify, manipulate DNA, detect infectious organisms, including the viruses that cause AIDS, hepatitis, tuberculosis, detect genetic variations, including mutations, in human genes and numerous other tasks.

    Now I want to design primers for detection of cancer cells apoptosis by myself, and need help to guide me for a good soft ware. TQ

    Zhilian hu · University of Michigan

    I"d prefer the followings:

    primer 3

    Vector NT


    After your get primer pairs, it is always smart to blat your primer and check their specificity.

  • Azimun Nahar asked a question in LB Agar:
    How can I show standard error with mean of triplicate plate count in MS Excel?

    I did triplicate plate count for cfu counting of my bacteria on LB agar plate at 3 days interval until 21 days. Now I want to show every sampling, mean of 3 plate counting and their standard error in one graph in MS excel. I cannot understand how can I do this. If anybody know,please answer me.