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  • What constitutes good quality educational research in evaluating the impact of education for sustainability in higher education?

    My colleagues and I just finished a two year study to investigate the influence of education for sustainability across different disciplines and higher education institutions on tertiary students' views, attitudes, knowledge and behaviour towards sustainability and the natural environment.  Can anyone please advise what constitutes "good quality" scholarly or academic research in this area??

    Longitudinal study before and after graduation, preferrably ending 2-3 years after the first job.

  • Kathleen D Toohey added an answer in Roman History:
    Did veteran colonies founded by Augustus have their own urban militia for self defence?

    I've read much about Augustus' placement of veteran colonies in places like Antioch in Pisidia.  There was clearly an intent to use the placement of these colonies for regional defence and pacification.  I have found much on the social organisation of the colonies, and their role in providing army recruits.

    I can find little on how the colonies were defended.  Were they simply reliant on the nearest Roman army units?  Did they have army cohorts stationed at them?  Or did they also maintain their own militias both for self defence and for the training of young men for later army service?

    Advice on any academic papers on this subject would be appreciated.  Thanks

    Kathleen D Toohey · International Arthurian Society (North American Branch)

    P.S.  Would give your answer a double up vote, Nancy, but the system won't let me, so hopefully someone else will.

  • Does anybody have any research on celastrol as an anticancer agent. Any scientific article feedback??

    Medicinal Chemistry, Drug Discovery and Development

    Mohammed Ali Hussaini Syed · Indian Institute of Chemical Technology

    Dear Mustafa Guzel,

    Hope the attached article will help you in your search.

  • Hanh Hong Nguyen added an answer in FACS Staining:
    Is it okay to keep intracellular-stained- sample for more than 7 days? How to compare Intracellular staining results at different time points?

    1. I want to do Intracellular staining in different time points (day0, 3,5,7,9). Is it possible to keep samples for such long time and check at same time? I stain surface at FITC, PerCP Cy5.5 and APC, intracellular stain at PE.

    2. Do I need one control sample for each day? I usually use non-activated cells as the control without using isotype.

    Is it mandatory to use CS&T beads to set up a baseline on the to the baseline in order to compare results at different time points?

    3.Should I fix for 20 min and then wash, keep sample in FACS buffer? 

    Other information

    Intracellular kit: Foxp3 / Transcription Factor Staining Buffer Set

    Procedure: Surface stain --> Fix/Perm 45min --> Intracellular Stain 45min --> Fix

    Fix buffer: PBS 1% formaldehyde.


    Hanh Hong Nguyen · Chonnam National University

    Hi Stefania,

    Thank you for your comment. It's quite inconvenient if I add control sample every day but it looks like I don't have any choice... I always try to keep the same condition including cell number, Ab amount, voltage...

  • How to increase the adhrence and stability of thin films prepared by doctor blade method?

    After heat treatment at 450 for half an hour..my films were not stick to ITO properly..they easily stick to hand if scretched...i have used PEG 20000 as binder and distl. water for making pastes of Tio2 and ZnO series and then coated films on ITO by doctor blading.

    Amrik Singh · Chaudhary Devi Lal University/Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology

    by adding few drops of TTIP in TiO2 paste

  • Umaramani Mathiventhan added an answer in Fabaceae:
    Somebody knows this flower?

    It is photographed in Marsa El Brega, Lybia in January 2014. It is a kind of succulent (?) Fabaceae (see the leaves)  living in desert-semi desert environment.

    Umaramani Mathiventhan · Eastern University Sri Lanka

    It could be  Lotus cytisoides , follow this URL and compare your photograph.                                                                                                             http://w ww.stridvall.se/flowers/albums/Fabaceae_2/BBBB3312.sized.jpg

  • Why during the extraction of cellulose whiskers by acid hydrolysis the suspension obtained a dark coloration (black)?
    cellulose whiskers are obtained from sape grass (graminea from Brazil)
    Luz Bravo Zamudio · University of Brasília

    It would be possible that it is presented a bioactive compound

  • Premkumar Ganesan asked a question in Subculturing:
    Does removal of basal callus have any negative impact on multiple shoot culture?

    i got multiple shoots from cotyledonary node explants of cotton. basal callus formed at basal part of the explant. i did 2 subcultures along with the basal callus into fresh medium. after 2 subculture, i cut and removed the basal callus and transferred the multiple shoots to fresh medium. after 1 week i observed chlorosis and withering of the transferred shoots. i want to know whether the removal of basal callus is responsible for this or any other reasons?

  • Thomas Korimort asked a question in Raspberry Pi:
    Wouldn't a WLAN power plug with USB charging capability and fully addressable USB functionality be nice?

    I have currently one problem: I bought a RaspBerry Pi2 B system and this has only mircoUSB for charging and maybe also for connecting to another computer. My current setting is, that the box is connected via WLAN to my local network and it is connected to a 5 V 2 A power supply via microUSB. Now, if i the operating system (currently Debian 8.0 Jessie) crashes or is (accidentially) shutdown without rebooting, how should i get the system from a remote place get up running again. One solution would be to detach it from the power supply and reattach it again. This could be achieved by a WLAN power supply, which is already available in stores, but the more fine and safe solution would be to have an internet connected power supply, that allows to treat the device (my RaspBerry Pi 2 B)  as if it was connected by USB to the remote machine i am currently logged in and trying to manage the system for rebooting. THus i am asking for a "nice and clean hardware hack" to implement remote USB.

  • M.j Rameez asked a question in Ion Torrent:
    How to know if an ion torrent WGS data is normal distributed or skewed? Is there any way to get coverage map for the data?

    I am working with bacterial WGS project with ion torrent data using MIRA for assembly. This data is having >80x coverage which is not permitted by MIRA.Is there any other way around other than trimming the data to solve this issue? If not how to trim data without bias in sampling? Is it possible to view a coverage map of fast data?

  • Umar Farooq added an answer in Stock Pricing:
    How do you estimate synergetic effects resulting from a merger?

    Do you measure these synergies on the stock -market with the run-up of the target company, and the less important move of the acquirer's stock price? do you add some of the mark-up if any? what are on the accounting side the indicators you would  use to estimate synergies?

    Umar Farooq · Leads University

    One can study synergy affect in multiple ways depending upon its objectives. For instance synergy can be to increase efficiencies. Such efficiencies can be checked through efficiency measures such as return on assets as difference in pre post merger time period. Despite this it also increase the market share. It decrease the market competition. So, a part of market performances synergy can also provide these benefits. 

  • Mohamed A. Ismail asked a question in Research Papers:
    Can everyone benifited from reserach papers in langauage other than English?

    There are thousands of good research papers published in languages other than English or French. What is the best way to make everyone in the filed aware of these publications for the betterment of research environment?

  • Hema Ramachandran added an answer in PID Control:
    Why PID control?

    What is a PID controller?What is the advantage of this controller?

    Hema Ramachandran · College of Engineering Trivandrum

    To increase rise time and and remove steady state error we use PID control.

    Advantage is easiness of control compared to proportional and integral controllers

  • Rabiah Shah added an answer in Health Surveys:
    Can we use composite score (for subscales related to physical health) in Rand Health survey-36?

    I have taken Physical (through Rand-36) and psychological health (through DASS-21) as dependent variable , where body image is independent variable in my study.

    Rand-36 consists of 8 subscales where four are measuring physical health and the others 4 measure mental health.  4 scales contribute to RAND-36 physical health (physical functioning, role limitations resulting from physical health, pain, general health percep- tions) and 4 to mental health (emotional well- being, role limitations resulting from emotional problems, social functioning, energy/fatigue).

    Now I have to run different analysis in SPSS but It is getting complicated to measure subscales individually ?

    Would it be considered valid if I take on the whole mean of the the subscales and then use that for my analysis?

    Rabiah Shah · Bahauddin Zakariya University

    @Paul Gardner RAND scale has two main dimensions, measuring psychological and physical health. If I take two composite scores for these two dimensions instead of taking as a whole average, will that work?

    I am actually not very good at spss and statistics and don't know how would I use results and variables that I get after factor analysis. 

  • Vladimir N. Goncharov added an answer in Earthquake:
    The impact of earthquakes on the Tunnel is the largest in saturated soil or in ordinary soil?

    is the water affect or effect by seismic

    Vladimir N. Goncharov · Russian Academy of Sciences

    Yes. The water saturated soils has different spped of seismic wave. This gives kind of resonator on the border of solid soil and saturated.

    Effect depends on thikness of saturated soil. When thikness is (1400m/s) / (1/(2Hz)) you will get resonace.

  • Vaclav Novotny added an answer in Power Plants:
    Where can I get some help in simulating power plant circuits using CycleTempo?
    CycleTempo - simulation.
    Vaclav Novotny · Czech Technical University in Prague

    Cycle Tempo comes with relatively simple yet comprehensive manuals. If you don't have it, you can find in the link.  For me most useful was book of examples

  • Maolong Chen added an answer in Orbit:
    A coordination complex has one unpaired electron in t2g orbital and two unpaired electron in eg orbital. will it show antiferromagnetism?

    when M-H room temperature study was done, a small curve was obtained. the metal in the complex is cobalt and the ligand is malonate.

    Maolong Chen · Changsha University of Science and Technology

    Yes, I think so.

  • Mohd Sadaf asked a question in Cathodic Protection:
    I need to know if the conventional 'Data Logger' can record any data like temperature veocity & distance?

    we are having Data Loggers for recording 'Cathodic Protection' units(voltage on time axis)?

  • Hema Ramachandran added an answer in Solenoids:
    What is a Solenoid and Solenoid Magnetic Field?

    What is a Solenoid?

    Hema Ramachandran · College of Engineering Trivandrum

    Cylindrical coils having diameter larger than the length. The field of a solenoid depends on the pitch angle

  • Asmi Assis asked a question in MPPT:
    Can anybody help me with the simulation of MPPT using O.C Voltage method?

    I have simulated one using P & O

  • Could anyone help me to recommend any past studies that related to corporate zakat responsibilities?

    I am currently conducting a research on Corporate Zakat Responsibility (CZR), However there are lacking of past studies as far as I know. The main issue for this research is to come out with the appropriate model to use zakat fund for corporate social responsibilities specifically for shariah compliant companies. Your feedback is very much appreciated.


    Umar Farooq · Leads University

    I hope these articles will help you



  • Sanu .edacheri asked a question in ANFIS:
    What is the maximum number of inputs in ANFIS?

    I want to know maximum number of inputs and maximum number of data that can be provided to ANFIS..I have 20 inputs and 245 number of data.it has shown error as out of memory.. can anybody please suggest solution for this..

  • M. A. Ryzhkov added an answer in Martensite:
    How can I calculate the volume fraction of ferrite and martensite in low alloy steel?

    Can anyone tell me, how can I calculate the volume fraction of ferrite and martensite in medium carbon low alloy steel? Is it possible via XRD?

    M. A. Ryzhkov · Ural Federal University

    As far as I know, it is possible to calculate volume fractions of ferrite and martensite in medium carbon low alloy steel using optical metallography and, say, point count method or method of three circles in case image analyser is not available. Named microstructures are clearly defined after nital (4 % HNO3 in C2H5OH) etching. Anyway, for XRD measurements you need to prepare a polished surface on the sample. Try to etch it and examine using simple metallographic microscope.

  • Dean Whitehead added an answer in Empowerment:
    How does the identity of a nurse influence the empowerment of a patient?

    In the public health, the focus is more and more on the empowerment of the patient. What is the influence of the identity of a nurse in the youth care on the empowerment of a patient?

    What different identities are there? How do I find out what the identity of a nurse is?

    Dean Whitehead · Flinders University

    No problem Glenn - and fully agree. We are clear about this - but there is often a misconception in nursing that the activities I allude to represent client empowerment. The publication below on effective 'health education' might clarify my position. Effective 'impowering' health education' is far more than information-giving. It moves far more in the direction of capacity-building and client autonomy.

  • How can I remove a contaminated seed from plant tissue culture bottles so that contamination will not spread further ?

    I have 7 seds in one bottles and only one is fungal contaminated. How can I recover other 6 seeds.

    Jeyarani Nandakumar · University of Jaffna

    Take not contaminated seeds one by one carefully in laminar flow cabinet again surface sterlise using increased concentration of surface sterilizing agent or increase time of surface sterilization and transfer to fresh culture tube,

  • Lakshmi Narayana Lavu added an answer in cDNA:
    RT and qPCR from rare RNA sample?

    I have some RNA samples to do RT and qPCR. They are rare samples, so I can´t isolate more RNA from them.

    In the protocol I have people usually dilute the samples 10 times after the RT reaction, to avoid interference of the RT components in the downstream qPCR. So we take 20 microliters of the RT reaction and dilute to 200 microliters.

    Then I take some of this diluted cDNA and put in the qPCR reaction with 20 microliters final volume (SYBR green master mix, machine from applied biosciences)

    My problem is: Even if I put the maximum sample volume that the qPCR reaction suports, the cDNA amount in the reaction is not enough for what I need. So I have this options

    1) concentrate the RNA in a spin column or something before the RT (it is already in 80 microliters. cons: lose part of my RNA that is already few)

    2) Do not dilute or dilute less (1:5? 1:2?) the RT sample before I do the qPCR reaction (cons: I will have salts and other stuff interfering with qPCR).

    3) Increase the volume of SYBR reaction (maybe for 40 microliters) (cons: I don´t know if this could alter the way the machine calculates the reactions, since the standard reaction is 20 microliters).

    So, I don´t know if this "cons" I cited above are more like supertitions or if they make sense. It is my first experience with qPCR. Some experienced user could helpe me solve this?


    Lakshmi Narayana Lavu · Spinco Biotech Pvt Ltd.

    No need to concentrate your sample after RT. Have that as a stock.

    Salts you are considering that interfere your qPCR wont effect the reactions much. But preferably you can dilute it into 1:2. And make this dilutions for the volume needed for required number of reactions (not the entire volume after RT) by calculating the volume of template you put in every reaction. 

    The reaction volume you will have after RT is 20microL

    How much template you need for SYBR reaction? (2 to 5 micro lit for a 20micl rxn)

    And you can always scale up or scale down your reactions (Uniform) with in the range of equipment compatibility. 

    It is always good if you run a preliminary test with one or two reactions (with your template of interest). 

  • Aniqua Jafri added an answer in Internal Standard:
    Can anyone suggest me a list of internal standards use in GC analysis?

    Cholesterol internal standard interfere with alpha-tocopherol

    Aniqua Jafri · Texas Woman's University

    Hello Mr Abdur,

    I used 1 ml of derivatized cholestane (5 mg/ml) instead of cholesterol but there was only one peak for tocopherol. So I had to use 2 ml of cholestane with tocopherol and got peaks for both.

    If I use 2 ml of cholestane (initial and final concentration- 5 mg/ml) in a sample, what will be the concentration of internal standard for calculating the response factor? 5mg? 

    Thank you for all your help.

  • Ramchandra Nittala added an answer in MATLAB:
    What is the advantage of using Park transformation?

    abc to dq0 transform is used frequently while making matlab models for machines?What is the advantage of using it over normal abc?

    Ramchandra Nittala · BITS Pilani, Hyderabad

    I agree with Omar Naifar and simply to put it in one word the complexity of any calculations performed with abc can be reduced with dq transformation. 

  • Yew Meng Chin added an answer in Colonialism:
    From your perspective, have there been successful examples of statebuilding from either colonial takeovers or occupations of a state or region?

    I have been reviewing recently American attempts at state building.  There were the pre-imperial attempts that were part of what Americans refer to Manifest Destiny.  There was full-blown imperial and colonial occupation (named as such) in the period from 1898 through about 1919, in which the USA set out to build new states in what became the Philippines and Caribbean.  Since WWII, such colonialism and Manifest Destiny practices have fallen under the term "statebuilding" and occupation etc.

    From an American perspective, I believe that only in one or two cases did statebuilding (from a retrospective) appear to have been successful in terms of assisting peoples far away from their own lands to establish or re-establish a state that most or a majority of people are happy with.

    Colonialism and statebuilding are an expertise of some of us on RG.  Could we share (1) our gut reactions to the question above and (2) share specifically anecdotes and then (3) links to elaborate on the status of current research in this field are?

    Here is an example of what I have been reading recently: 


    Yew Meng Chin · Open University Malaysia

    The British did a good job by established a good governance and education  system before 1958. Singapore further improve it , and become developing country .

    Malaysia also inherited the same system from the British like Singapore , initially , all the system work fine, until the May 13 , 1969 political riot , those politicians changing the political and economical system , and it slowly downgraded to a third world like country .

  • Charles Simon added an answer in Concrete Expansion:
    How can I tackle shrinkage in concrete casting?

    I am trying to cast a planter which looks like a pot, the material of the mold for prototyping is hard wood. Which gets stuck in the inner cavity due to shrinkage while de-moulding?

    Charles Simon · Symbiosis International University

     @Samuel Chauah thank you so much :) will see if this works out.