ResearchGate Q&A lets scientists and researchers exchange questions and answers relating to their research expertise, including areas such as techniques and methodologies.

Browse by research topic to find out what others in your field are discussing.

Browse Topics

  • Tausif Alam added an answer in Muscle Mass:
    What proportion of leg muscle mass is utilized during max cycling exercise? Any references?

    I am trying to figure out what percentage of leg muscle mass is active during maximal cycling exercise.  I need to normalize leg VO2 for muscle mass, but am not convinced that the entire leg muscle mass is involved in the exercise.  There has to be a paper out there using T2 weighted images, glycogen depletion or even EMG that probes this but I cannot find it.  Any references or insight you could give me would be helpful.  Thanks.

    Tausif Alam · University of Wisconsin–Madison

    Gordon, thank you for informative references. 

  • James Grand added an answer in Encryption:
    Are there any practical application of prediction algorithms to encrypted data?

    I am doing a research on prediction analysis of encrypted data. And would like to find out what latest developments (algorithms, tools, methods, practical applications etc.) have been done in this area.

    James Grand · Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications

    @Sashank Dara  , I agree with you. From the view of engineering, it is possible tdo predictive analysis practically.

  • Marcel Imber added an answer in SDS-PAGE:
    SDS-PAGE: Making freshly myself or buy ready-made?

    Which is better - to make my own SDS-PAGE gels according to the available recipe, or buy the commercialised ready-made SDS-PAGE gels? Will the performance of the ready-made gels be lower than the freshly-made ones?

    Marcel Imber · University of Greifswald

    I was working in a lab where we always used ready-to-use gels and we never had a problem with that. It just depends on the money the lab has. If its possible it safes a lot of time and its more healthy for you because you dont have to work with TEMED and APS. 

  • Hyde Chen added an answer in T Cell Differentiation:
    Can one differentiate T cell from ES or iPS?

    Recently I found the immune cell freeze-drying is available in China by some company. Then I read some papers about T cell differentiation from ES and found most of them are in the mice system. I am confused that in vivo T cell must have the positive and negative selection in the thymus. So does it mean that we can only differentiate T cell if we can have in vitro thymus system?(maybe like the sperm or oocyte the last stage into the host to mature)? 

    Do you think the T cell differentiation is available in the future? What are the challenges now? 

    Hyde Chen · Zhejiang University

    I care about the question that the T cell from HES is polyclonal so it can not been used in clinic. The TCR will action with the patients' cell.

  • Baichhabi Raj Yakami asked a question in Nanowires:
    How do we evaluate Transient Absorption system ?

    We have setup the femtosecond Transient absorption system for nanowires or solution samples. Depending on the sample the pump may be 310 nm, 387 nm or 425 nm and similarly probe may be 350 nm-700 nm or 400 nm-750 nm. 

    How do we know that our setup is working properly and we are getting right time constants? Is there any stable standard samples that we can use? 

  • How can you promote the involvement of people in local decisions?
    The objective of this question is to reflect on the importance of the direct participation of the population in the local power to decide processes. The desired focus is on the common citizen and their possible intervention in the local power to decide processes.
    Andréa Alves Araújo · Federal University of Rio de Janeiro

    Dear Swora:

    Yes, the 'participatory budgeting' is a Brazilian idea, first deployed in southern Brazil, in Porto Alegre, which spread to the rest of the world.
    Thank you for your participation!

  • Dorian Moro added an answer in Tigers:
    Can anyone please help me to calculate survival, maternity, fecundity, growth rate of a small reintroduced Tiger Population?

    I am working on understanding population dynamics of a sucessful reintroduced tiger population at central India. Initially 3 tigers were reintroduced at Panna Tiger Reserve. Later another 3 individuals were reintroduced. They successfully bred and produced  more than 30 cubs during last four years. Among them 11 tigers were radio collared (including founder) and monitored. To understand population projection for PVA, I need to understand few demographic parameters like, survival, maternity, fecundity and growth rate. Is their any tutorial which explain step by step process of calculating those parameters? Or is their any software programme or R package which explain such parameters?

    Dorian Moro · Murdoch University


    Given you know the number of individual tigers i would keep your analyses simple and use basic population life history parameters, no need to over-complicate with CMR programs. Once you are uncertain of how many individuals there are then it would be worth pursuing CMR models using detectiin functions.

  • What is the Big Data Analytic Process on Business Intelligence?

    I'm reviewing the article of Big Data Analytics on Business Intelligence.
    But I still don't understand the related BDA and BI and BDA Process on BI.
    Could you please help me?

    My question is:

    - what is the relationship between the BDA and BI?
    - what is the BDA Process on BI?

    In most case, especially for big firms, BI and BDA can be view as the two sides of the same coin. However, there are different between the two, BI means transforming raw data into useful information which normally involve big data (but not necessary) while BDA, as its name implied, always involve big data.

    For example, if you were an owner of a small seaside shop, you collected data by keeping a list of number of buyers and what they had bought for everyday across a year. You could use BI techniques to increase your profit or reduce your inventory cost by finding out what you should sell in different seasons. You do not need BDA software (such as Microsoft BI or Oracle Big Data Appliance) to do the analysis, an Excel or even paper and pen would do the job perfectly.

    Therefore, in this sense, you can see BDA as a subset of BI.

  • Behnam Farid added an answer in Nanocrystals:
    What is the origin of crystal field effect and phonon coupling process in optical properties of Nanocrystals?

    Dependence on strength of such effects, we may observe some shift in photoluminescence emission peak.

    Briefly, crystal field breaks the otherwise continuous symmetry of space under translation and rotation whereby the momentum of a particle or elementary excitation is no longer a good quantum number. For instance, in a perfect crystal processes of absorption and emission conserve momentum only up to the momenta associated with the underlying reciprocal lattice vectors. This implies, amongst other things, that an incident electric field on such crystal with momentum p gives rise to to an induced electric field with Fourier components at momenta p + Pl, l=1,2,3. ..., with Pl= ɧ Kl, where Kl is a reciprocal lattice vector and ɧ = h-bar. In the same spirit, in a nanocrystal the Fourier spectrum of the induced electric field has a continuous Fourier spectrum.

  • How can I generate the self-shielded cross section?

    I have a set of one group cross sections for different reactions weighted averaged over a particular reactor spectrum.

    Can any one suggest the complete procedure for how can I get self-shielded cross sections from this available set of cross sections? 

    Liem Peng Hong · NAIS Co., Inc.

    It is not clear from your question how the one-group cross section set was generated, so I just give general comments. A good practice in producing reactor spectrum weighted (dependent) one-group cross sections is including the self-shielding effects in the generation process itself since the self-shielding effect is spectrum dependent. Now you stated that you were given a set of one-group cross sections weighted by reactor spectrum, then if the generation process is correct (good practice) you were given self-shielded cross sections already. So you do not need to reconsider self-shielding effect again, however you should confirm that the one-group cross section generation is the one mentioned aboved. However, my comment above may not answer your question. If you have a set of one-group cross sections, in general you would not be able to generate self-shielded cross sections "from these available set of cross sections".

    If you want to produce a set of self-shielded one-group cross sections from original evaluated nuclear data then follow the procedure in my publication here (download directly from Researchgate):


  • Abdelhakim El Ouadih added an answer in HFSS:
    Can HFSS or another EM simulator give the propaged modes on an antenna espacially the PIFA?

    I  want to know the modes propagated given an antenna (espacilly the PIFA). I know it depends also on how you designed the source and the matching and others parameters. I want to know what a simulator can give concerning the modes.

    Abdelhakim El Ouadih · Cadi Ayyad University

    Dear researcher.

    Thank you for the interest  you give to my question. I think we can't apply the cavity model to a PIFA and therefore we can't use the formula because ther are no clear magnetic or electric walls in PIFA and  the cavity interior is not homogenious.

  • How much is useful scientific collaboration???

    Scientific collaboration in the proper meaning of the word, supporting new idea without waiting for material benefits, is it really useful?

    Vivek Kumar Morya · Inha University

    Different opinion on same idea always nourish the idea to bloom and ensure the proper growth. it also accelerate the research pace, now a days the explored science and their horizons are so vast that a team work is being  need to achieve the goal.  However, it is a matter of personal approach to address the Idea. In my opinion Scientific collaboration one of better way to achieve the goal.  

  • Mohammad Nazmul Haque asked a question in Thumb:
    When to Say a Class Distribution is Imbalance?

    Is there any rule of thumb to say whether a class distribution is balance or imbalanced?

    If I have two dataset (A,B) with binary class, class distribution (pos:neg ratio) for A is 50:125 and for B, it is 50:225. Are both of them imbalanced?

    What is the rule to say the data set is class-imbalanced?

  • Kiyohiro Takahasi added an answer in Imidazoles:
    How can I purify his-tagged membrane protein from HEK293S cells?

    I'm trying to purify c-terminus his-tagged membrane protein that is stably expressed in HEK293S cells.

    I extracted membrane protein using detergent and confirmed the presence of the target protein using western blot.

    But after Ni-NTA purification, there are a lot of nonspecific band by CBB stain.

    I washed the Ni-NTA resin with phosphate buffer containing 150 mM NaCl and 40 mM imidazole and eluted the protein with same buffer containing 500 mM imidazole.

    Target protein was detected by anti his-tag antibody.

    How can I improve the purity of the protein?

    Kiyohiro Takahasi · Gakushuin University

    Thank you all.

    First I forgot to write about detergent.

    I added detergent in all buffers used in this experiment.

    I read several papers that use HA tag or FLAG tag for mammalian protein but the resins are very expensive so difficult for us.

    I think imidazole gradient and ion exchange is good idea I'll try them.

    I still need more idea.

  • Manohar Sehgal added an answer in Corrosion:
    How do you get the equation for corrosion rate: TC = 3.27 x E-3 (icorr / p) EW? How do I get the "3.27 x E-3" constant?

    If possible, provide a bibliography that demonstrates how to get to the equation given in the question.

    Manohar Sehgal · DAV College Jalandhar

    My young friend - you are better informed.

  • Benjamin Teong added an answer in Hyaluronic Acid:
    How do we normally sterilize hyaluronic acid solution?

    Since 1% of this polymeric solution is too viscous to pass through a 0.22 micrometer filter. Anyone else overcome this problem?

    Benjamin Teong · Kaohsiung Medical University

    Thanks Jonathan and Yao for all the advises. However, due to my experiment involving extra modification of  hyaluronic acid (with dialysis process as well), purchasing a clinical grade sterile HA does not preserve the sterility of HA along the way.

  • Juehui Shi added an answer in Co-authorship:
    Will anyone be interested to co-author an upcoming publication? Publications in high impact factor journals is anticipated in this co-authorship?

    The areas of research includes Machine learning, Bioinformatics, Applied statistics, System biology, Recommender systems, Biostatistics. 

    I shall be accomplishing the majority of the work that includes cracking the problem, framing the solution and preparation of the first draft of article. As a co-author, you will be giving your ideas to improve the  solution and relevant correction in the article. The polishing of the article is to be done for grammatical errors and typos.   

    If anyone is interested, then let me know to collaborate with me.

    Thanks in advance.

    Juehui Shi · University at Buffalo, The State University of New York

    Hello Dr. Mandal,

    I will be very interested to collaborate with you on this project. However, your title of the question is a little bit unclear. Do you mean that: 1) you require the candidate to have publications in high-impact journals in order to become your co-author? or 2) the project you are working on is able to be published in high-impact journals?

    You can initiate further contact with me through the message system if you are interested. Thanks.

    Best regards,


  • Vikas V Gite added an answer in DSC:
    Why two heating runs usually do in DSC , what is the difference ?

    Any help please , Also, Why thermal history can removed by hold the polymer for 5 min ?  

    Vikas V Gite · North Maharashtra University

    During preparation of sample, it may have some thermal history. By having first heating, we are removing all thermal history.  In next heating your sample shows real thermal response and it is free from any thermal history.

    If you want to compare number of samples for DSC, we need to analyse them under same conditions.  That case its better to delete all thermal history and compare them under similar condition.

  • Prasanna Waichal added an answer in PCB:
    What is the best method to ground connections on a PCB?

    what is the best method to ground connections on a PCB?

    Prasanna Waichal · Fiji National University

    There is not one specific or defined. But yes, there are some GOOD practices followed by the industry.

    1) Keep your ANALOG and DIGITAL grounds separate and combine (or short) these two only at one point, usually the power entry point.

    2) Provide as much GROUND Plane for Analog sections and if using a multilayer board, use vias (including buried ones) to connect the GROUND Planes.

    3) As far as possible follow a STAR   * type for routing the tracks.

    4) It also equally depends upon the component placements and signal paths.

    Hope this helps you. There may however be better solutions that this! This is just a basic idea that I have given.

    Best luck!

    -Prasanna Waichal

  • How could we measure the research endeavors of developing countries?
    Researchers from some developing countries do not work in same conditions as their colleagues from developed countries. They could suffer from bad running rules, poor political system control, weak educational system, laboratory equipment insufficiency or inadequacy, defective laboratory’s (or institute) administration policy or leadership, etc.
    A researcher from international or developed laboratory could produce much more research papers with good quality than his/her colleague from substandard laboratory.
    Could we measure their research endeavor and effort with same scheme, policy and rules?
    Karim Musálem-Castillejos · El Colegio de la Frontera Sur

    I can only make an opinion from personal experience. When we were looking for a journal to publish an article,  I found out a very similar work as the one I did in Latin America. However, when I submitted the work it was immediately rejected (less than one hour!) because it was too “local”. While our work was similar as another one published in the same journal, ours was taken as “local” and the other one was published. Perhaps it had a European context and therefore represented a more international interest? Or maybe we just failed at putting it in the right context, however, I think this last problem could have been solved with peer-review and a better contextualization.

  • What are individual characteristics that may impact action propensity (other than this paper)?

    I am going to do some further research on this paper "Thinking Before Acting’ or ‘Acting Before Thinking’: Antecedents of Individual Action Propensity in Work Situations". Can anyone suggest some useful ideas which may help me?

    Upananda Witta Arachchilage · Wayamba University of Sri lanka

    Dear Hamid,

    Please consult Ajzan (1958) papers on Planned behavior.  It has recommended by scholars (e.g., Wiklund, 1998; Wiklund and Shepherd, 2003).

    Upananda (Sri Lanka).

  • Josephine Schmid asked a question in Thermal Comfort:
    What are the challenges of retrofitting a heritage Victorian terrace house with enviro sustainable design-Can it be done without losing its integrity?

    I am interested in this for a research topic and I am looking for examples of this being done or articles relating to this, especially in Melbourne, Australia.

    Since ESD is very broad, I was leaning towards Indoor Environment Quality – daylighting, thermal comfort, natural ventilation or something around energy efficiency.

    I would like to look at how this could be integrated/implemented into an existing heritage terrace house to improve its performance whilst still keeping the heritage ideas/elements intact that make it what it is.

  • Juehui Shi added an answer in Oil and Gas:
    What should be kept in your mind when sample size is small?

    I have chosen the Oil and Gas KSE listed firms of Pakistan. The sample is very small due to availability of data. What are the factors that must be considered while treating with such small sample.

    Juehui Shi · University at Buffalo, The State University of New York

    Small sample size might keep you from getting robust results. You might face issues in hypothesis tests.

  • What are the most significant variables that impact the dynamics of an ecosystem of innovation in a populated area with environmental problems?

    I would be greatful if someone could give ideas on the most important issues regarding the dynamics of an ecosystem of innovation in developing countries.

    Upananda Witta Arachchilage · Wayamba University of Sri lanka

    Dear Rosane,

    Your question has two dynamics. Dynamics of ecosystem and dynamics of innovation.  May I put your question in this way.

    'What are the determinants of ecosystem dynamics in urban environments? What are the determinant that influence (enhance/ reduction) those ecosystem  dynamics.

    Have I clarified your question or complicated it?

    Upananda (Sri Lanka)

  • Uduak Ukekpe asked a question in Triterpenoids:
    Why is GC-MS not suitable for triterpenoid saponins?

    I want to know the reason why GC-MS experiment cannot give good result for triterpenoid saponins.

  • What is the right strategy for collecting thermoeconomic data from thermal power plant for research work?

    what is the right strategy for collecting thermoeconomic data from thermal power plant for research work?

    Maddali V S Murali Krishna · Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology

    The topic is related to thermo-economics

    cost of power per kw, that thermal power station can supply is one of the important criteria in this strategy. It depends on so many paramters like availability of fuel, fuel cost, quality of fuel, transportation cost  of fuel and other materials, overall efficiency of power plant, number of system breakdowns, fuel inventory cost, Govt policies, flutuations in demand and supply of power, transmission losses, etc. This is work coordinated by by an engineer, an economist and ulimately the customer (Govt), who purchases power.    .  

  • Prasanna Waichal added an answer in Actuators:
    How I can get the digital/analog output from TMS320C6713?


    I want to get the output voltage from TMS320C6713, so the output signal can be processed by an actuator to generate a movement. Is there any port to get the digital or analog output?


    Prasanna Waichal · Fiji National University

    Alternately you can consider connecting a DAC chip on your own. For this you need the Serial Port of the DSP. There are many DAC chips manufactured by TI which are targeted to directly talk to DS-Processors.

    Best luck!

  • Yujun Zhao added an answer in Applied Chemistry:
    If you can make dry ethanol/methanol by refluxing them over Mg turnings, can we use the same procedure to purify ethylene glycol and glycerol?

    I want to purify ethylene glycol such a way that it is completely free from water (dry solvent).

    Yujun Zhao · University of Michigan

     I am suspicious about some of above suggestions:  CaH2 and sodium should readily react with any hydroxyl groups. Do they really work as dry reagents for Ethylene Glycol as it has two hydroxy groups!!!