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  • Naudy Trujillo Mascia asked a question in Venezuela:
    Anyone Know something about British veterinarians that came to Venezuela with the Bolivar's British Legion at 1819 particularly in Cavalry Regiments?

    I'm trying to get more information about them!!!

  • Hamed Khodayari added an answer in Plant Taxonomy:
    Can anyone identify the attached plant species?

    Semi-Arid region

    Hamed Khodayari

    Hi dear Yogesh

    Although more images are needed for correct identification of this plant species. but it seem Hibiscus tiliaceus.

  • Echrak Hichri added an answer in Patch Clamp:
    The importance of cell morphology in patch clamp ?

    I don't have a biological background but im learning patch clamp technique and i  used to patch easily my current Heck cells, however since the last split ( n 10) they changed their morphology(more visicles and non smooth , irregular membrane shape)  and i was trying for a whole day to just have a giga seal, I need  to know what caused this problem and what can i do to correct it.

    Echrak Hichri

    Thanks Yannick for the answer, 

     i m actually doing all the tips you suggested ,and i used to have the giga seal easily , maybe i should think about thawning new cells ..but what i don t understand is why this change in the cell morphology happens ?

  • Sreeram Udayan asked a question in Intracellular Cytokine Staining:
    Protocol for intracellular cytokine staining in RAW264.7?

    Can anyone provide with a protocol for intracellular staining of cytokines: TNFa, IL-6, IL-12 in RAW264.7 murine macrophages, for flow cytometry?

  • Jean-Pierre Rolland added an answer in Personality Traits:
    Which articles to read about using the five factor-model of personality in clinical settings?

    Dear all. Are there any good (new) review articles and books about clinical use of the five factor model (NEO PI-r / NEO PI-3 or other)?

    I'm looking for articles regarding the application and potential use of the five factor model in clinical settings.

    Jean-Pierre Rolland

    Personal Disord. 2015 Jan;6(1):1-11. doi: 10.1037/per0000092. Epub 2014 Nov 3.
    Associations between changes in normal personality traits and borderline personality disorder symptoms over 16 years.
    Wright AG1, Hopwood CJ2, Zanarini MC3.
    Author information
    There has been significant movement toward conceptualizing borderline personality disorder (BPD) with normal personality traits. However, 1 critical assumption underlying this transition, that longitudinal trajectories of BPD symptoms and normal traits track together, has not been tested. We evaluated the prospective longitudinal associations of changes in Five-Factor Model traits and BPD symptoms over the course of 16 years using parallel process latent growth curve models in 362 patients with BPD (n = 290) or other PDs (n = 72). Moderate to strong cross-sectional and longitudinal associations were observed between BPD symptoms and Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. This study is the first to demonstrate a longitudinal link between changes in BPD symptoms and changes in traits over an extended interval in a clinical sample. These findings imply that changes in BPD symptoms occur in concert with changes in normal traits, and support the proposed transition to conceptualizing BPD, at least in part, with trait dimensions.

  • Melissa Scott asked a question in Mutism:
    I am loking for a conceptual framework that I may be able to utilize for my research project on selective mutism?

    Conceptual framework to look at the above question.  Any thoughts or ideas?

    In a qualitative study looking at clinical interventions being used for children with Selective Mutism, and how the interventions might be able to be used within the school setting in order to support children with this issue, what are some ideas about possible conceptual framework to be used when looking at this issue? 

  • Aby Abraham added an answer in Hermeneutics:
    Has hermeneutics had an impact on the social sciences?

    Back in the 1990s Don Lavoie and I edited two volumes on hermeneutics and economics.  Lavoie published Economics and Hermeneutics (Routledge, 1991) and I published Individuals, Institutions, Interpretations:  Hermeneutics Applied to Economics (Avebury, 1995).  Both had a small methodological impact on our "Austrian" School of economics colleagues.

    My question:  Are any of you aware of works on hermeneutics in the other social sciences -- sociology, political science, etc?  And, if so, have they had any type of impact?

    Aby Abraham

    I think, even the celebrated book of Veblen 'Theory of Leisure Class' can be considered into the category. 

  • Xavier Oudet added an answer in Quantum Mechanics:
    In quantum mechanics, we associate operators with physical observables. Why no operator form for the acceleration has been suggested?

    In Dirac theory the momentum and velocity are not related by the simple relation p=mv. Will it be useful to look for an acceleration operator ? In that case shall we define an inertia for the de Broglie  wave? Shall we than define a quantum force that acts on a matter wave resulting in jittery motion as demonstrated by Schrodinger as evident in Dirac theory?

    Xavier Oudet

    Dear Lothar,

    I can consider the point mass that you use as the grains that I introduce to describe the interaction. See AFLB 36, 135-157, (2011) or Atom and Crystal, memories of research on my researchgate site.

    Einstein in 1905 with his study of relativity showed that there is no absolute space and that physical laws should be independent of the place of observation, which made a giant leap in physics. Yet the difficulties encountered by the corpuscular approach of quantum mechanics are well related to the notion of space. Indeed there is no absolute space and one has to question how the space is built. On the macroscopic scale it is easy to define it in relation to the objects which occupy it, without forgetting the gas that fill volumes between objects, gases that transmit the sound for example. But what about the scale of the atom? Up to now electromagnetic field has allowed us to write the motion of the electron around the nucleus.

    But Einstein has also taught us that the mass is equivalent to an amount of energy by establishing the relationship: E=mc2

    This energy is huge so that it suggests that the electromagnetic field can be described by a discontinuous flow of grains of matter, constituting the mass, between the proton and the electron. More precisely through two fluxes: one from the proton to the electron the other from the electron to proton, these two fluxes not following everywhere the same route in such a way that the resulting action creates the movement. Grains of matter are supposed to be extremely small before the masses of the proton and the electron made of these grains. This approach leads to consider the volume of the electron and proton. This need to consider the volume of the particles is important because it gives physical meaning to the existence of an axis of rotation in the movement.

    Now it seems to me that the properties attributed to the vacuum are the result of the exchanges of grains.

    Now to return to the problem of Arbab it is clear that variable mass introduce force.

  • Bénédict Yanibada asked a question in Extraction:
    Hi, As anybody notice drawbacks using Folch extraction for liquid sample (plasma) study?

    Hi, I have a question about using Folch extraction method, for liquid sample (such as plasma or urine) metabolomic study. Has anybody notice or experiment any drawback by using this method for the data analysis compare to other methods like extraction using ultrafiltration?

  • Dmitri Boulanov added an answer in Desulfurization:
    Is there any commercial technology for Oxidtive Desulfurization (ODS) of Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO)?

    We are trying to retrofit a power plant using HFO as fuel to reduce the SOx emission.  As there is water shortage, we are lookiing for a dry process, either before or after the burner.  Is there any technology provider or equimpent supplier to handle this challenge?

    Dmitri Boulanov

    UOP was developing this technology for diesel fuel (see link). Check with them if they have something ready.

  • Constantine Jeannacopoulos added an answer in Ethics:
    Which norm is more useful to the greatest number of people?

    Ethics is also responsible for determining what can be described as the sense of human existence, the deeper meaning of the ethical and existential life of the individual and the cosmos that includes it. This is also why it is customary to differentiate the terms 'ethics' and 'morality'. Another reason is that, although they are often used interchangeably, it is preferred to use the term 'moral' to indicate the association of values, norms and customs of an individual or a particular group of people. It is preferred to reserve the word 'ethics' to the rational intent (i.e. philosophical) to found the moral as a discipline not subjective.

    The question posed by the meta-ethics on the justification of moral principles, is needed to unravel the tangle of motives and principles that are the foundation of the same moral conflict. The meta-ethics therefore wish to make a conceptual clarification in order to resize the claims camped by particular moral perspectives. It defines the scope of ethics with respect to the various expressions of the ethos.

    The practical philosophy reacts against the claim of neutrality requested by analytical metaethics. In fact, while giving up its own scientific foundation, it can not, according to the practical philosophy, demand ethics the same rigor and the same accuracy that require mathematics. Demonstrations of mathematics are always valid, ethical ones are mostly. So, ethics is not a science for its own sake, but wants to direct the practice.

    As to whether priority is good or just, there are several theories:

    • ‘liberalism’ recognizes a certain autonomy of the just in respect to the good, so it is a must that action conforms to a right norm and it is necessary to choose based on the principles of justice. This theory sees its birth in Locke and Kant, and a recovery in the twentieth century, due to many authors, for example: John Rawls, Robert Nozick.

    • to communitarianism, justice is not a matter of rules and procedures, but something that concerns people's behavior in relation to their peers; justice is a virtue of the person.

    • Philosopher Charles Taylor, however, believes illusory to imagine that the ‘right’ can disregard the reference to the good. He sees, then, a primacy of the ‘good’ on the right, where for good is not intendent: profit, but "anything that stands out over the other things on the basis of a qualitative distinction." Morality is not only concerned with just obligations and public rules, but first with all qualitative distinctions.

    • Axiology, or the study of the value or quality. The theory of values ​​is mainly the nature of value and goodness in general.

    Utilitarianism holds as the ultimate criterion of the principle of utility, so the moral purpose to be found in all we do is the ‘largest remaining possible of good over evil’. In this case we speak, obviously, of good and evil non-moral. There are three basic types of utilitarianism.

    Utilitarianism of act. The basic principle is always that of the remaining balance of good over evil, and it becomes important to stress particularism, namely that the question to ask is what I should do in this particular situation and not what everyone should do in certain kinds of situations. So the remainder that is searched is referred immediately to the single subject and is not a remnant of the general good.

    General utilitarianism. This is based on two fundamental characteristics:

    • The basic principle of utilitarianism

    • the principle of '' 'universalizability'.

    Then while acting, each one must ask what would happen if everyone acted in such a cases. The idea behind general utilitarianism is related to the fact that, if it is right that a person in a certain situation makes a certain thing, then it is right that that action is made by any other person in similar situations

    Utilitarianism of the rule. It highlights the centrality of rules and says that generally, if not always, we have to determine what to do in particular situations, appealing to the norms. It differs from ‘deontologism’ because it adds to this the fact that we always have to determine our policies wondering which standard will promote the greatest general good for all. So the whole issue, in the utilitarianism of the rule, revolves around the question: which standard is more useful to more people?

    At the base of each conception of ethics is the notion of good and evil, of virtue and a certain vision of man and of human relationships. These ideas are often related to a particular religion, or at least to an ideology.

    Constantine Jeannacopoulos

    Dear Professor Tucci

    I  would like to add the ontological turn to your seminal contribution of norms as human species are "entangled " to them as also their bearers 

    Philosophically wise endurant and perdurant  Ontologies are distinct, this distinction is  introduced in order to discuss whether quality-bearers such as ordinary things, physical material particles, and persons should be regarded as persisting by enduring or by perduring, i.e., whether in their persistence through time they are strictly identical at every moment (endurants), or whether they persist by unfolding in time different parts of themselves (perdurants). Those   who are concerned with top-level ontologies cannot rest content with classifying quality-bearers. Qualities and their ways of persisting in time are of equal importance (ethics).

    Best regards,  


  • Manuchehr Rezaei added an answer in Heterogeneous Catalysis:
    How to control the selectivity of a heterogenous catalyst?

    Is there any specific method which can control the selectivity of heterogenous catalyst?

    Manuchehr Rezaei


    In general, heterogeneous catalysts are complex materials and it is difficult to achieve this goal due to the presence of many different, possibly active sites.

    however, control the selectivity of heterogenous catalyst by modifying the ligands that coordinate a metal center, the chemical composition, structure, and electronic properties of specific surface sites. 

  • Sharaf Malebary added an answer in DDoS Attacks:
    Is anyone interested as expert in DDoS attack detection for a Journal?

    Artificial intelligence

    Network SEcurity

    Intrusion Detection

    Sharaf Malebary

    yes I am very interested.

    I am currently working on solving jamming problem in Vehicular ad-hoc network. which is a wireless ad-hoc network. please email me at sharaf_m2002@yahoo.com if you still interested in doing some collaborated work.

    thank you

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) has attracted today's research efforts. Despite the attention that VANET research got, current solutions to achieve secure VANET still undergoing to protect the network from adversary and attacks. The need for a reliable VANET networks is strongly tied to the security and privacy features. This paper provides a detailed study on wireless networks and focuses on undergoing research solutions to secure VANET. In particular, this paper provides intensive information regarding jamming problems in wireless network and shows the seriousness of this type of attack. Moreover, a various types of security problems and challenges of VANET been analyzed and discussed; we also surveyed different set of solutions that research has proposed to help securing wireless networks. 1. Introduction Traffic fatalities have been increasing all over the world. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) statistics shows that in 2012, there were over 30 thousand fatal crashes in which, passengers, drivers and even pedestrians were affected. The number is still increasing due to continually issuing driving licenses and more vehicles being purchased. In 1994, there was over 190 thousand vehicles registered and 175 thousand licensed drivers. These numbers jumped in 2012 to more than 265 thousand registered vehicles and 211 thousand licensed drivers [15]. These numbers have showed a direct relation with the number of fatalities. As a result, the need to have safer roads started to arise to reduce money and lives losses. Integrating cars with computers was the first step toward reducing fatalities. Equipping vehicles with computers to monitor and control car's components helps drivers to identify problems in their cars, e.g., engine failures and improve safety by providing an early warning of cars malfunction. Computers in cars first appeared by Chevrolet in 1975. Soon after that, many cars' manufacturers started adopting the technology and integrating new systems to vehicles. Doing so, allowed many systems to be standardized such as Electronic Control Unit (ECU). ECU consists of different modules that control different electrical systems or subsystems in motor vehicles: engine control module (ECM), Transmission Control Module
  • Naudy Trujillo Mascia added an answer in Veterinary History:
    Is anyone on here interested in Veterinary History?
    I'm a veterinary historian who specialises in early modern England (roughly 1450 - 1750). Is that of interest to anyone on here?
    Naudy Trujillo Mascia

    I'm interested about British veterinarians that came to Venezuela with the Bolivar's British Legion at 1819 particulary in the Cavalry Regiment

  • Sergey Shevchenko added an answer in Consciousness:
    Is consciousness giving human beings an evolutionary advantage?
    While having the concept of Self as opposed to others or to the environment seems good for focusing the organism functions on survivability and on DNA spreading, is there any evidence that consciousness has an evolutionary advantage?

    To elaborate further, here I'm talking about consciousness as the first person experience. And for "first person experience" I'm not talking about "experience OF first person": conversly, I'm specifically addressing the "experience IN first person MODALITY" (as a corollary to this question, I'm proposing that the word "consciousness" refers to too many concepts). In this view, I consider self-consciousness "experience of first person in first person modality".
    If we embrace the assumption that consciousness is always consciousness of something, we still lack an explanation for the nature and the purpose ("what is/what's for" rather than "how is it") of the first person experience, and as such why evolution favored it.

    In a lot of other Q/A about self and consciousness people are talking about consctructs that may function even without consciousness. Two examples:
    -self: a neural network comprising semantic concepts about the world could very well include the concept of self as a non-other or non-environment, or even a concept of self as an independent organism with such and such features; why do we need consciousness to conceptualize it? Would a machine decoding all the concepts coming across the node of (or the distributed knowledge about) self be considered conscious? We do not have to attribute consciousness to the machine to explain the machine processing its concept of self.
    -thinking: processing is certainly different from consciously elaborate something, as all the studies on automatic and subconscious processing show. On the other hand, this point address the free will problem: when we consciously elaborate something, does it mean we are voluntarly doing so? Or are we just experiencing a first person "show" of something already happened subconsciously (as Libet's studies suggest)? Without touching upon the ad infinitum regression problems, this poses the question if consciousness is useful without free will: if the conscious experience is just a screen on which things are projected, no free will is needed and thus what's the whole point of consciousness? As such, do we also need free will for accepting consciousness? If we are working with the least number of assumptions, it seems unlikely the we can accept consciousness.

    It seems to me that the general attitude of cognitive theories in a biological information processing/computational theory of mind framework is to try to explain everything without putting consciousness in the equation. And indeed it seems to me that no one is actually putting consciousness in the equation, when explaining cognition or behaviour (at least in modern times).

    All in all, it seems to me that all the above reasonings bring the suggestion that consciousness is not needed and has no evolutionary advantage over automatic non-conscious entities. Or that we should make more and more assumptions (such as accepting free will) to make sense of consciousness.
    I think that asking why we have consciousness could lead us to understand it better.
    Sergey Shevchenko

    Again (see the SS post on 46 page here) – before a discussion about the consciousness is necessary to define – what is the consciousness; and, since this notion is Meta – philosophical  (Meta- biological, Meta- physical, etc.) notion, corresponding definition, which can be used at some scientific discussion, is possible only in framework of the “The Information as Absolute”  conception http://viXra.org/abs/1402.0173  . Where it is, for example, clear, that the consciousness is some specifically organized informational system, which  is capable to obtain and analyze some data about  external material and conscious objects; besides -  govern her material base, i.e. the organism, by using some “non-physical”, i.e., “non-material” forces.

    At that the consciousness principally differs from Matter/ any material structure and so cannot be some product of evolution of any material object; she exists and existed always in parallel with Matter in given Universe. That is an other thing, that given human’s consciousness seems is capable to operate successfully only by using stable material “hardware” – biological organisms. Moreover, her capability depends till now on parameters of the organism, though here seems are no principal difference between consciousnesses of, say, butterfly and a human. (It isn’t impossible that all consciousnesses of all living beings are the same systems – up to the primary system that has built a couple of billion years ago the first specific organic molecules.)  Both use their consciousnesses when behaving in uncertain and unexpected sitautions – in contrast to material objects, which have no uncertain and unexpected problems because of they always operate in accordance with rigorous logical rules.

    At that till now even human’s consciousness very often operates “unconsciously” since is governed mostly by purely material signals – gormones, ferments,  neuro signals about eternal material impacts on [practically purely] material body, etc. Including most of emotions appear as a response on some electrochemical automatical reactions in the body, for example a human’s love is based, first of all, on  a concentration of some gormones that changes depending on – to what extent a partner is a best among others to produce better posterity; in that, say,  a woman, when choosing/ falling in love in a man,  doesn’t differ, as a rule, from, say, a beetle or  monkey female (but differs from a manits, certainly).

    But it seems as very probable that the given consciousness developed the material organisms up to the human’s one, which allows to realize the existence and development of “non-material” functions also – science, social live,  etc. And, though such humans’ acts again mostly are intended for sutisfuction of material needs, though on a next – social – level, there exist an essential part of “purely spiritual” acts/ consciousness’s states; what can be some evidence that the observable trend at the consciousness development  “more and more out Matter” will,  or, at least should be at normal consciousness  development,    continue.


  • John Clarkson added an answer in Frequency Modulation:
    Is it possible to get anywhere pulse raman with time discrimination of fluorescence?

    Elimination of fluorescent background could be made in 4 ways- 1) frequency modulation 2) CARS 3) NIR exitation 4) picosecond pulse and time discrimination of fluorescence. 3-rd way is most reliably realized, but not always usable. At present femto second lasers and detection technique is availabe.  Is it possible to find anywhere 4th way realized solutions which could be received commercially?

    John Clarkson

    These folks may help you :http://www.timegate.fi/

  • Bruno Cabral asked a question in Dialogical:
    The "x" to delete a full text associated with a publication is not shown in the full text sources dialog. Why can't I delete this source?

    I have 2 full text sources associated with a publication. Both of them are incorrect. I want to replace them with the right document but, the system does not allow me to delete them or add a new source. The full text sources dialog does not present the "x" for deleting any of the existent sources and, when I try to add a new source, the page "freezes" in transparent white without showing a dialog/modal. 

  • Blair Sampson added an answer in Wing:
    Does the winter morph of the spotted wing Drosophila have spots on their wings?

    I have been raising "winter morphs" of Drosophila suzukii by exposing larvae at 5 deg. C for 2 - 4 weeks under totally dark conditions. The adults are very dark in pigmentation; however, none of the winter morph males have their usual wing spots. One specimen had just one wing spot on one wing. All other winter morph males were "spotless". The summer morph flies that emerged from the same cultures all had the usual apical wing spots. Is this normal? or does it take longer for "winter morph' flies to develop their wing spots? I included a picture. The winter morph males are in the upper left, summer morph males are in the upper right group. Corresponding females are below  Hope you can help. Thanks in advance. Blair

    Blair Sampson

    Thanks everyone. You help is much appreciated. I believe my male winter morphs were the last to emerge, since they would have received the most chilling, and as such had to develop their spots once released from the cold room. I photographed them only hours after removal from the cold. I suppose they needed more time to develop their spots. Thanks again   Blair

  • Oleksiy (Alex) Chadyuk added an answer in Model Selection:
    How can I refuse some category of questions?

    Now, I check the question about one hours and am very tiered to cancel some categories of questions such as the usage of SPSS, R, Matlab etc. If I need this situation, I ignore the questions. Tell me the good advice. On the other hand, I'd like to accept such as the discriminant analisis, collinearity and model selection.

    Oleksiy (Alex) Chadyuk

    I think, we also must vote down dumb questions before moving on, if RG does not do it for us.

  • Manuel Morales added an answer in Foundations of Physics:
    Do you agree with Stephen Hawking's recent conclusion that black holes don't exist?
    Black holes don't exist. I published this many years ago. Cantor's Universe doesn't allow the concept.

    Stephen Hawking now came up with the same conclusion. Read: http://www.spektrum.de/news/es-gibt-keine-schwarzen-loecher/1222059

    In my opinion he is right this time. What is your opinion? Was he right then or is he correct now?
    Manuel Morales

    "You can start with any form of matter (including of course a color superconductor, if you insist) and have it implode to form a black hole." - Gerard t Hooft

    @ Gerard,

    How can we start anything (calculations, experiments, science) without first making a selection?

    Again I ask you:

    How much does a direct or indirect selection weigh, what are their scales, and where was the mutually exclusive selection variable you used to read these words located when you used it?

    ...and why have you avoided answering this question?

    "It was Einstein's only new assumption that led to GR. Don't want to buy it? Then pay the price." - Gerard t Hooft

    Indeed, we have been paying the price for nearly a century. GR is based on effects causing effects, not cause and effect, thus a violation of a causal reality. Case in point, if energy is conserved then how is it you were born? I wonder how your parents would feel about such logic ... hold on, you did not have parents because energy is conserved and thus you were never born because your existence is conserved not created.

  • Ali Alhayany added an answer in Biofertilizers:
    Are there any research paper about the effect of bio fertilizers application on bud success of fruit trees?

    are there any research paper about the effect of biofertilizers application on bud success of fruit trees?

    Ali Alhayany

    Anoop,I didn,t understood what do u mean by the word dead right,I think that the scientific field differ than any other one because peoples who work in have open minds to assist each other .You are one of these peoples who provide me with a very  useful review  concerning the use of bio fertilizers in fruit trees ,but really i suffer from the lack of works in this line.

    Best Regards

  • Nisansala Muthunayake asked a question in Storage:
    What is the storage condition for EmGFP protein?

    I store it in 50% glycerol and keep in -80 .I just want to know whether it is ok for long term storage without degradation

  • Trygve Johnsen added an answer in Axiom:
    Can we have any logical definition of infinite matroids and related defined codes?

    recently, some researchers work on infinite structure of matroids.

    independent axiom of matroids  have a first role in definition of codes on GF(q) that we can see this point in representable matroids. now , can we have any logical definition  of this point for related codes of infinite matroids?

    Trygve Johnsen

    Hi Hossein.

    I haven't thought much about this issue, but I found the attached paper on the archive.

    Section 2.6 seems to touch on the issue of infinite matroids being representable over a field.

    If that field is GF(q), one is close to your question, I assume.

  • Christopher Foster added an answer in Environmental Processes:
    From a spatial view: What can be considered the "landscape scale" ?

    Something I always asked myself: In the field of Landscape ecology. How do we define and parametrize the "landscape scale" from a spatial view? What counts as a landscape and what is just the minimal covering area of all field sites? Are landscapes intrinsically defined by the social-ecological boundaries of humans that interact within them or is there sth. like a general theorem that defines the spatial scale (per ecological or environmental process) that a landscape can operate on?

    My current view is that landscapes as such seem to be limited (in terms of spatial scale) by the question a researcher intends to address. Some processes (such as dispersal) act on a greater landscape scale including the surrounding, while others require a much finer focus towards the studysites. But this is obviously inherently biased by my (or others) perception as a human and other species might "perceive" a landscape not (only) in terms of processes.

    Appreciate any cool references to seminal or review papers that investigated this.

    Christopher Foster

    This is a really important question, and one I also ask myself! In terms of ecological scales of operation, I don't think there is a fixed spatial definition of a landscape. 

    One way of looking at it that I find helpful is to consider what constitutes a landscape-scale study. For a typical non-spatial ecology study, your sampling unit is a single patch of habitat, i,e, in your model each row of data corresponds to a patch of habitat encompassing for example a single home range for your study organism. A landscape study considering the same organism would for each data point be considering multiple home ranges and their spatial characteristics, or at the very least one home range plus some information on the make-up of the surrounding landscape. So the landscape scale varies in this way from e.g. a matter of square meters for springtails to hundreds of square kilometres for a large, mobile mammalian or avian predator. What constitutes a landscape depends on what species you are!

    Lenore Fahrig explains this really well this essay, I can't think of a published reference off the top of my head but if I come up with anything I'll post it here. Almo Farina's various textbooks are also helpful. 

    Of course, human or sociological perceptions of landscape tend to be more fixed and landscape conservation operates at the human-landscape scale. So whilst spatial processes might operate down to quite fine scales, it might make sense to address problems at the scale at which management actions will tend to take place, if that makes sense. 

  • Hasan Mansour added an answer in Urbanism:
    What are the differences between theories of urban planning and the practice in private companies?

    How private urban projects led by companies differ from the projects in scientific institutions and what are the effects of these urban projects on the social and physical environment of the city. It is known that economy and human requirements are main concepts in urban planning field and we most balance them but what is really happening is a struggle between them.

    I am doing a master thesis about this subject and I would like to get any help by giving ideas, references or telling the new concepts on this debate. 

    Thank you in advance.    

    Hasan Mansour

    Dear Eleni, I don't really know if there is a planning framework. I contacted the municipality but I didn't get any response yet. 

  • Abhishek Dubey added an answer in Bacterial Genome:
    Rescue Cloning of Bacterial Genomic DNA using the EZ::TN™ <R6Kγori /KAN-2>Tnp Transposome ?

    Hello everyone,I have been trying rescue cloning experiments as per the protocol suggested by http://www.epibio.com/docs/default-source/protocols/ez-tn5-lt-r6k%CE%B3ori-kan-2-gt-tnp-transposome-kit.pdf?sfvrsn=8

    but inspite of trying multiple times I am not able to get any colony on the plate.

    Can anyone help me with this ?

    Abhishek Dubey

    Thanks a lot Henk-jan 

  • Douglas D. Gransberg added an answer in Geotechnics:
    Is anyone aware of recent research regarding the quantification of geotechnical risk in design and build (design-build) projects?

    The question is really about how much subsurface investigation should an owner/client do before advertising the design-build contract.

    Douglas D. Gransberg

    Thanks Patrick. Sounds like a great excuse to visit Rotterdam.

    Cheers, Doug

  • Lutz von Wangenheim added an answer in Filters:
    Can anyone help me to make a elliptical or Cauer Filter (LC Filter)?

    i want to make a Cauer Filter using LC circuit. i mean i want both High pass and Low pass filters. Someone please help me to design those kind of filters.

    i dont have a cut to cut requirement,but i want to make one.

    Also i need the basic implementations of chebyshev or butterworth etc.

    Thanks in Advance



    Lutz von Wangenheim

    Arun, if you are really interested in the subject you should give us some more information:

    * What do you mean writing "make a filter"? Hardware or simulation or both?

    * Bandpass/lowpass/highpass?

    * What are your technical specification? At first you did mention Cauer and somewhat later Butterworth response. What is your final decision? Which order? Pole resp. cut-off frequencies?

  • Paromita Sarbadhikary asked a question in Cancer Cell Line:
    4451 and NT8e cells?

    i just want to know that which lab in india are working with human oral cancer cell lines specially 4451 and NT8e?