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  • Jae Park added an answer in Social Pedagogy:
    How do teachers deal with mismatch between belief and practice?

    I'm interested in how teachers might articulate a particular 'belief ' about teaching and learning - yet their practice seems to be at odds with this 'belief' ( observed practice) . My interest lies within the teaching of science and the assessment of inquiry skills. 

    Jae Park

    I see. Your research problem could be better stated as "Understanding the gap between pedagogical belief and instructional practice."

    I think nobody is free of a gap between the ideal world and real world. I wonder if there is one teacher in the world who could pompously say that her/his pedagogical ideals are 100% reflected in practice.

    I think, and I include myself, most of the teachers do their best to bridge the gap in different ways, being one of them coping strategies (a topic studied by educational psychologists).

    Some related references

    Fresch, M. J. (2003). A national survey of spelling instruction: Investigating teachers' beliefs and practice. Journal of Literacy Research, 35(3), 819-848.
    Hwang, Y.-S., & Evans, D. (2011). Attitudes towards inclusion: gaps between belief and practice. International journal of special education, 26(1), 136-146.
    Olson, J. R., & Singer, M. (1994). Examining teacher beliefs, reflective change, and the teaching of reading. Literacy Research and Instruction, 34(2), 97-110.
    Schumm, J. S., Vaughn, S., Gordon, J., & Rothlein, L. (1994). General education teachers' beliefs, skills, and practices in planning for mainstreamed students with learning disabilities. Teacher Education and Special Education: The Journal of the Teacher Education Division of the Council for Exceptional Children, 17(1), 22-37.

  • Binrui Xu asked a question in Annealing:
    What is the exact color of the perovskite film, shiny dark blown?

    We just got some brown films and not shiny. I will show the details about our experiment process here.

    We tried two-steps.

    1) PEDOT:PSS-> Annealing -> Preheating 70C on hot plate

    2) PbI2/DMF (1M) 5000(30)->Annaling at 70C 5min and 110C 5min

    3) MAI/IPA (6mg/ml,8mg/ml,10mg/ml,12mg/ml) 4000(30)->Annealing at 110 10min

    After processing, we got brown film but not too much shiny.

    Please give me some suggestions.

  • Jacinta Hope Martin added an answer in Immunofluorescence Staining:
    Which is the best cost-effective mounting medium for Immunofluoresecnce?

    Dear fellow researchers,

    I am looking for some cost-effective suggestions for the mounting medium. We have used the one from Thermo-Fischer Scientific until now and it has been working "OK" till now. However, I have read some articles in which researchers have pointed out the benefit of using the best mounting medium to stop the photo-bleaching for a longer time. Therefore, we have decided to try some other options this time which are more cost effective.

    Any kind of suggestions for cost-effective mounting mediums are highly appreciated.

    Thanks in advance.


    Jacinta Hope Martin

    We also use self made Mowiol containing DABCO. Our 488 secondaries seem to stay benter for longer however we also use 594 and that too seems to last a short while but never to the extent of the green. 488 always seems to hace a little more background in comparison to the red but you can always acocunt for that with secondary only controls :).

  • Gerhard Du Preez asked a question in Contaminant Transport:
    How can contaminant transport in irrigated agroecosystems be modeled?

    How can contaminant (metals, nutrients, etc) transport from rivers to irrigation systems be modeled? The aim is to study the threat posed to soil health/biota (fauna)

  • Hazim Hashim Tahir added an answer in Universe:
    Why is there something instead of nothing ?

     LET US START BY WHAT  Robert Adler  WROTE   ON 6 NOVEMBER 2014--:
    People have wrestled with the mystery of why the universe exists for thousands of years. Pretty much every ancient culture came up with its own creation story - most of them leaving the matter in the hands of the gods - and philosophers have written reams on the subject. But science has had little to say about this ultimate question.

    Hazim Hashim Tahir

    Dear Colleagues,

    Good Day,

    “Nothing is true, everything is permitted.”

                                                                      ~HASSAN-I SABBAH

  • Zhixiang Cheng added an answer in Semiconductor Devices:
    Can anyone suggest a good book on the conduction mechanism in insulators/semiconductors?

    I am searching for a text book with theoretical derivations of different types of conduction mechanism in insulators like Schottky emission, thermionic emission, poole-frenkel emission, Hopping conduction etc. Can anyone suggest me a book? 

    Having theoretical background could help understanding what are the approximations used to derive the theories so further modifications do not interfere with those approximations.

    Zhixiang Cheng

    "A Review on Conduction Mechanisms in Dielectric Films". It is a review article with all kinds of conduction mechanisms.

  • Halleluyah Aworinde asked a question in Cloud Security:
    How to source for secondary sources for research in cloud security?

    While sourcing for secondary sources for research in Cloud Security: Would you rather have the source of the information geographically or culturally related to your research? Would you focus on the formal or popular views of the information? Would you source for information from academic tutors or creators? Expecting your informed responses. Thanks.

  • Md Shafiqul Islam . asked a question in Human Security:
    How do i plan for finding out the relationship between disasters and human security?

    Actually i want to do a research on how disasters effect on human security? what can be the major solutions to protect human security issues regarding disasters ? 

    Please help me to explore some recommendation for me in this regard. Thanks in advance. :)

  • Elena Hadzieva added an answer in Linear Algebra:
    What is the physical meaning/interpretation of a characteristic equation and roots of the characteristic Equation (Eigen Value)?

    Hi all,

    I have a basic doubt in linear algebra. The determinant of a 2x2 matrix can be considered as the area of a parallelogram. Similarly what could be the physical interpretation of a characteristic equation  and roots of the characteristic Equation (Eigen Value)?

    This question is bugging my mind for a long time now. Can any one here enlighten me?



    Elena Hadzieva

    From geometrical point of view, the eigenvector for which Ax=lambda x holds, determines the fixed direction of the linear transformation f defined with f: x-> Ax. (The transformed vector x has the same direction, and its size is |lambda x|.)

  • Colin Oates added an answer in Battery:
    Why is there an increase in terminal voltage of battery in every new cycle of profile while the same current is applied?

    I am currently working on Flooded VRLA battery. I applied a current profile on the battery in which its SOC moves from 50 % to 80 % SOC range in every cycle. Its a constant profile for 440 hours. But in every new cycle terminal voltage is increasing ( or we can say expanding in both upper and lower side ). Also if we notice the OCV after 30 mints of resting , it is also increasing. Now i need to estimate the SOC of this profile. As the current is same in every cycle but OCV and terminal voltage is increasing , so SOC estimation is different for every next cycle while it should be same as current is same. I would be really thankful if someone help me by telling the reason of this phenomenon. 

    P.S. in the current graph , positive current means discharging and negative current means charging. Also capacity of battery is 90 Ah and 4.5A current pulses are used for 1 hour with 30 mints resting between each pulse.

    + 3 more attachments

    Colin Oates

    While I'm not an expert in batteries I have had some experience with them.  From the graphs I would guess that the battery regulation is getting poorer so to maintain a given current flow the terminal voltage variation becomes greater.  On lead acid batteries it is well known that contaminants in the electrolyte can build up layers on the plates, which can be got rid of to some extent by applying a rapid discharge giving a mechanical shock to the plates - so the contaminating layer is shaken off (people refer to it as "bonking the battery".  A quick look on the internet highlights that VRLA batteries need particularly careful maintenance and, for example, tap water should not be used in the electrolyte - only distilled water should be used.

  • Richard L. Shelmerdine added an answer in Species Distribution Modeling:
    Can any one suggest methods or software to convert binary raster (.tiff) into .csv?

    I just generated binary rasters of a species distribution model. Now I need to assess range shifts using SDMToolbox for ArcGIS and one of the requirements is to have these binary files in .CSV format. Unfortunately I don't know how to do this and any suggest is most welcome.

    Richard L. Shelmerdine

    Hi Daniel,

    What SDM are you using?  Is it MaxEnt (based on your other question!)?  If so, it is easy to use the asc file which MaxEnt produces and convert that into a csv file through ArcGIS.  If it is MaxEnt, let me know and I can explain what to do.

    Kind regards,


  • George Dishman added an answer in Stars:
    What conditions were required for Stellar formation pre inflation epoch (as w/ the Pearlman Spiral cosmological redshift hypothesis) ?

    Assume stars formed prior to the inflation epoch as hypothesized in the Pearlman Spiral cosmological redshift hypothesis for various reasons. The stars would have been much more condense (as the universe was moving from the initial singularity) prior to the universe expanding 13B light years +- during the inflation epoch.
    Under what conditions could stars have formed during that span prior to cosmic inflation?

    George Dishman

    "Keep in mind I am not asking you to agree with me, only to help determine if stars preceded inflation as hypothesized by The Pearlman Spiral, how."

    That's fine Roger, but keep in mind that I am simply passing on the information that science provides to us. The means by which stars produce their output is well understood from experiments in particle colliders which tell us how much energy is produced by fusing hydrogen into helium. The brightness and size of the Sun tell us what the total output is so putting them together means that we can easily calculate the lifetime of star of the Sun's proportions and the answer is about a billion years. We see stars that have already burnt all their fuel and the final stage of their life is to produce what are called "planetary nebulae" so the universe is unquestionably older than that.

    If you want to close your eyes to what we we can prove from objective measurement and instead base your beliefs on religious dogma, that's fine. Most serious religions (with some notable exceptions where "the lunatics have taken over the asylum") provide an excellent philosophy for living your life in a compassionate society, and I'm all for that. However, that doesn't mean that your beliefs make any difference to the way the world really is and reconciling the two generally only works if you study the history of the religion and realise that the vast majority of its literature is metaphorical.

    The inflationary phase produced temperatures so high that not even the protons and neutrons that make up matter could have existed. That and its rapid subsequent cooling are essential in order to explain the existence of the elements we observe in the oldest astronomical material.

    The simple fact is that inflation itself is a hypothesis which has been inferred in order to explain certain observations and the only way it can explain themis if it happened before the elements formed and millions of years before stars could exist. In terms of science, your hypothesis that stars preceded inflation is therefore physically impossible but science should never be seen as a conflict with religious beliefs, only that their metaphorical presentation should not be taken literally.

    "Using your example of dendrochronology is a well known dispute and the case for no trees over 5776 years is just as viable as any case for over that age."

    I can as easily believe that the universe is 63 years old. I've been told by my parents that they and others were alive before me but "I think therefore I am" so I can only be (fairly) sure that the universe has existed since I was born but it was created fully formed at that moment (including my parents with their false memories of their prior existence). Anything before that is heresay, and you cannot prove otherwise.

    On the other hand, if you discard that unprovable hypothesis and accept that the universe is as we measure it to be, then the universe is 13.8 billion years old and the first stars formed after between 32 and 140 million years after the CMB was released. I can't prove the light we observe wasn't created to trick us, already in flight, just 5776 years ago and neither can you prove the universe (including you) wasn't created solely for my benefit at the moment of my own "birth". That is solipsism in it's purest form, but I don't see any value in such a belief, and your hypothesis is no different, just a few years earlier.

  • Vimal Kumar M asked a question in Capacitor:
    Its possible to store lightening using super capacitor ?

    i have read in article that lightening can be stored using super capacitor by keeping dielectric as gel is this possible ?

    using lightening arrester whether we can control the flow of electron ?

  • Mahmoud Omid added an answer in Negative Results:
    Why is there negativity towards publishing negative results?

    Many experimental results never see the light of publication day. For a large number of these, it comes down to the data being “negative”, i.e. the expected and/or wanted effect was not observed. Despite their potential, negative results are repeatedly relegated to the lab books, the drawers and the trash bins. Prof. Dr. Anthony Cerami once said "Many of the biggest discoveries of my career were the results of failure of another research project. ... Failure strikes a negative tone, but it appeared in my personal history that it was an essential experience on the path to important discoveries.".Should researchers publish their negative results?

    Some new journals like "Journal of Negative Results in Biomedicine" or "New Negatives in Plant Science" encouraging researchers to publish their negative results. But as you know, there is a negativity towards negative results. Why negative results not published by journals as freely as positive results? Is it time to publish research “failures”, too?

    + 1 more attachment

    Mahmoud Omid

    Let's face it, we all live in a "publish-or-perish" culture, for better or for worse. Statistics show the total population of researchers and their publications continues to rise every year, and they become increasingly subject to the principles of "publish-or-perish". Further more, research is meant to be a noble and rewarding process. Under such circumstances, peer review is the primary tool we currently have for assessing papers (negative or positive results dont matter) prior to publication. So we should be more concerned of research integrity and standards.

  • Robert Heininger added an answer in Service Level Agreement:
    Is there any tool for the evaluation phase of service level agreement in cloud computing?

    I need a tool for the evaluation phase in cloud computing service level agreement.

    My approach is monitoring approach for dynamic service level agreement. 

    Robert Heininger

    Maybe these papers are useful for your Research



  • Richard L. Shelmerdine added an answer in Species Distribution Modeling:
    How do I calculate areas in continuous raster of species distribution models (5 classes)?

    I just generated continuous models of species distribution models using MaxEnt. Now I would like to calculate the areas (in ha) occupied by each suitability class (5 classes: very low (0 - 0.2), low (0.2 - 0.4), medium (0.4 - 0.6), high (0.6 - 0.8) and very high (0.8 - 1)). Can anyone suggest methods or softwares for that?

    Richard L. Shelmerdine

    Hi Daniel,

    Sorry for the rushed reply to your question.  I hope what I said makes sense.  If not, let me know and I can give you more detail.  I have recently done the same calculation from my MaxEnt models.

    Kind regards,


  • Aisha Hayajneh asked a question in Homeomorphisms:
    Does the coincidence of all centers implies equifacetality of a simplex?

    Does the coincidence of all centers implies equifacetality of a simplex?

  • Lobarkhon Allaeva asked a question in Azocasein:
    Which substrates are suitable for measure protease activity- casein or azocasein

    Which substrates are suitable for measure protease activity- casein or azocasein?

  • Gaëtan Richard added an answer in FSTAT:
    Where can we read the p-value of the Rst of Goodman in the output files of the population genetic software Fstat?

    I wonder if the p-value given in output by the software Fstat for the Rst is the same than the Fst? Is it possible to have the same p-value for 2 different estimators?

    Thanks a lot for the answers!

    Gaëtan Richard

    Thank you Pablo for your answer.

    Do you know some software which calculate the Rst with a pvalue?

  • Reijo Siltala added an answer in Public Sector:
    What should be the role of new research results in operational public sector management?

    What should be the reaction time? Who's responsible for the acts?

    Reijo Siltala

    This is very interesting dilemma. I used to work as a researcher just 7-8 years ago. Now I'm leading manager in the public sector in Finland. Even I have quite strong scientifical background, it´s really difficult to adopt the new views from the new research results. My feeling that researchers don't understand what really happens in everyday work life is getting stronger and stronger and I don´t like that kind feeling.

  • Prashant Kumar Mishra added an answer in Species:
    Does anyone have a technical definition of biodiversity?

    Is there an equation for a numerical score of biodiversity that captures richness of certain 'types' of species as well as the abundance of such representative species in a given ecosystem?

    Prashant Kumar Mishra

    Biodiversity is a highly dynamic thing and variation is also unlimited. Our knowledge about biodiversity is still in nascent stage. In such a situation a technical definition is still to be proposed. However, you may calculate Importance Value Index to solve your problem.

  • Kassahun Weldemariam asked a question in Everyday Life:
    Can anyone suggest studies on Commercialization and Young Children? Thanks in advance?

    I am looking for studies on Commercialisation and its influence on children's everyday life, their learning, view of the world..etc?

  • Amosy M'Koma added an answer in Avastin:
    Any suggestion for third progression colorectal cancer?

    54 year old male with colorectal cancer, after surgery he received radio chemotherapy with oxaliplatin. First regression treated with FOLFIRI, second regression treated with Irinotecan, thrid regression added Avastin!! what we can do for this third regression?

  • Visalatchi k c asked a question in Internet of Things:
    Can any one suggest a paper for how to predict attacks in Internet of things?

    can any one suggest a paper for how to predict attacks in Internet of things?

  • Robert Clément added an answer in Copolymerization:
    If the percent of third monomer in terpolymer is very low is it possible using copolymerization kinetics?

    Recation follows copolymer kinetic or no?

    Robert Clément

    You can modelise the kinetic with an integration model like Runge-Kutta to see how long the terpolymerisation will go. The level of detection of the low concentration monomer is also a real technical problem. Best regards. RC

  • Krzysztof Korbel added an answer in Hand:
    Does anyone have experience with SaeboFlex?

    Does anyone have experience with SaeboFlex in neurological hand treatment?

    Krzysztof Korbel


  • Shohei Komaki added an answer in Snakes:
    Can anybody recommend papers with the image of Protobothrops tokarensis palatine bone and with the detailed image of Deinagkistrodon acutus skull?

    I am finishing my research on viperid snakes osteology but can't find this information.

    Shohei Komaki

    Studies on the terrestrial snakes in the Ryukyu Archipelago


    There are images of skull of tokarensis.

  • Stefano Falone added an answer in Females:
    When are CD-1 female mice considered "reproductively old"?

    Hi everyone,

    I asked the supplier of my experimental animals about the age when CD-1 female mice may be considered "reproductively old". I was told that "reproductors" undergo replacement when they reach 8 or 9 months old. However, they failed to provide a reference for such a statement.
    Can anyone help me, please?

    Stefano Falone, Ph.D.
    Dept. of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences
    University of L'Aquila

    Stefano Falone

    Hi dear Mohammad,
    my main experiment was focused on how some critical brain endpoints were affected by habitual exercise, but, as a collateral experiment, I have measured also some antioxidative and antiglycative parameters in ovaries from 12- and 14-mo female CD1 mice. I am trying to find some literature claiming that ovaries from mice aged 12/14 months exhibit some early dysfunctions (diminished ovarian reserve, reduced litter number, etc.).

    Thank You very much for Your kind help


  • Eugene F Kislyakov added an answer in Graphene:
    Why the adiabatic Born–Oppenheimer approximation (BOA) is broken down in graphene?

    I want to know is the broken down of BOA in graphene has been solved or not yet,

    See the link


    what are the other cases where the BOA is also broken down in them and Why

    Eugene F Kislyakov


    Sadeem and I want to know if software in this field (containing mirror theorem) exists.

    Thank You in advance.