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  • Nguyen Trang added an answer in FRET:
    How can I prove GEF interacts with Rac1, cdc42, and RhoA?

    I found a new GEF and I want to know which small GTPases will be activated by this GEF. I did FRET biosensor assay, I found this GEF interact with Rac1 and cdc42 but not RhoA. I did another experiment to confirm my data. I cotransfected cell with GEF and siRac1 (or siCdc42 or siRhoA). I observed an effect of localization of this GEF in cell transfected with siRac1, siCdc42 but not siRhoA. These data can tell me that this GEF actives Rac1, Cdc42, but not RhoA?

    *Other GEFs can also activate Rac1, Cdc42, RhoA

    Which assay should I do to prove Rac1 and Cdc42 are downstream of my GEF?

    Nguyen Trang · Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology

    @Christophe: I did the experiment as you mentioned. We called MANT GTP/GDP essay but it is very difficult for us to do this experiment. We tried to purify our protein but the protein locates mostly in the pellet. We induced our GEF in 20 Liters of medium to get enough protein. Then, we tried to test one time with MANT GDP/GTP but it didnt work.

  • Rodrigo Nova added an answer in Fasciola:
    Are there any papers on Fasciola incidence, prior to Triclabendazole use?

    I am looking (and struggling) to find basic research on fasciola transmission and incidence rate prior to the global implementation of Triclabendazole. 

    If you have or know of research papers - also of transmission/incidence rate -post- Triclabendazole use, that would be very useful too.

    Many Thanks, :D 

    Rodrigo Nova · University of Nottingham

    What about?:

    Epizootiology of fascioliasis in Montana.S.E. Knapp a, A.M. Dunkel b, K. Han c and L.A. Zimmerman. Veterinary Parasitology, 42 ( 1992 ) 241-246

    A three-year study on seasonal transmission and control of Fasciola hepatica of cattle in Louisiana. J.B. Malone1 A.F. Loyacano, M.E. Hugh-Jones, K.C. Corkum. Volume 3, Issue 2, November 1984, Pages 131–141

    Seasonal transmission of Fasciola hepatica in Montana, USA, with detection of infected intermediate hosts using a DNA-based assay.  Matthew C. Rognlie, Kristi L. Dimke, Robert S. Ports , Stuart E. Knapp. Veterinary Parasitology 65 (1996) 297-305 

    Are these sort of articles what you want? But the way, I am wondering are you looking for data in animals or humans? If in humans maybe Santiago Mas-Coma may have published something as the his lab in Valencia is WHO reference for human fasciolosis.



  • What software can calculate apparent diffusion coefficient in brain images?

    Apparent diffusion coefficient can show water's molecules diffusion.

  • Ayesh07 Nayab asked a question in Markov Modeling:
    How can i find transition probabilities when i know distribution of data set?

    I'm working in Bayesian context. I have two data sets. one data set's distribution is taken as prior and other as sample.now supposing it Markov model of order one, I just want to find predictive probabilities. 

  • Does the speed of the vortex depend on the amount and viscosity the bacterial culture?

    whether the speed and time of vortex depends on amount and viscosity of sample ( bacterial culture) or not. If depend, then  for 5000 and 500 microliter of sample ( bacterial culture in juice )how long and how much speed I can use for my experiment. Could you please give me the idea about that if anybody know?

    Azimun Nahar · Bangladesh Agricultural University

    @Indramohan, Thank you very much for your answer.

  • Can you recommend me universities in the new EU member states that deal with the influence of low-dose on cells?

    It means mutations, genetic damage,  epidemiology, or something related to radiation protection research and risk of stochastic effects at low doses. After the Černobil accident we know the dependence of stochastic effect on high-dose exposure. But  nowadays, there is a new subject - can we experimentally prove a dependence in the range of low-dosage?

    Eva Zemanová · State office for Nuclear Safety, Prague

    Dear Jorge,

    That is ! Thank you very much, I'm reaching them, they could be very useful.

    Kind regards Eva. 

  • Omid Zabeti added an answer in Topological Groups:
    Can an abelian topological group conatain a projection homomorphism?

    Let G be an abelian topological group. For a fixed element g in G, can we find a projection which is homomorphism, too. I mean a homomorphism like P that P^2=P?

    We can add additional hypothesis to G, like locally compact or connected.

    Omid Zabeti · University of Sistan and Baluchestan

    Dear Ulrich,

    I am confused now, you mean we have gxy=  gx . gy, am I mistaken? Could you please explain me how it is?

  • Ciprian Lupu added an answer in Pneumatic:
    How can I identify a hysteresis system ?

    Hi everyone,

    I want to identify linear model for a pneumatic proportional valve that has hysteresis behavior. I split region of system to 9 sub-regions and apply a PRBS as input of system for every sub-region. Input-output data shows that because of hysteresis, upper bound of sub-region does not match on lower bound of next sub-region. for example, for the first sub-region, input PRBS with bounds of [3350 , 4200] is applied that leads to output flow of [7 , 13] as fig. 1.

    for second sub-region, to reaching of output flow in range of  [13 , 20], input PRBS with bounds of [3850 , 4280] is applied as fig. 2.

    As can be seen, these sub-regions have overlap and cause problem for identification. how can i solve this problem ?

    Ciprian Lupu · Polytechnic University of Bucharest

    Dear Coleg,

    Plese view next links, maybe there are usefull:



    As base ideea process imput, is encreased-decreased; there are obtained statig gain or dynamic model.

    Best regards,

    Ciprian Lupu

  • What are the probable effects on results obtained from GC and GC-MS analyses ran separately on different columns?

    Essential oil analysis

  • Alex V Zakharov added an answer in Liquid Crystals:
    Is there any direct relation between entropy and order parameters of a liquid crystal?

    If any one knows any published paper on this?

    the direct mathematical equation, and the related papers on this

    Alex V Zakharov · Russian Academy of Sciences

    Marpliephar Lyndem,

    May I advise you a couple papers where a clear answer on yours question is given:

    first,  A.V. Zakharov and D.E. Sullivan, Phys.Rev.E82,041704 (2010), or A.V. Zakharov and A.A. Vakulenko, Phys.Rev.E86, 031701 (2012).

  • Antoine lefevre scelles added an answer in Children:
    Does anyone use ultrasound to place epidurals in children in everyday practice?

    To see how feasible it is

    Antoine lefevre scelles · Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Rouen


    I don't place many epidurals for children. But I think, it is interessant for children with particular anatomy (scoliosis ...). 



  • What are the most serious/visible unintended (or negative) outcomes of various democratic innovations at the local level?

    In the recent three decades local democracy attracted intensive research activities. Taking into account European context, most of the relevant scholars concluded that the quality of local democracy had been improved since the 1980s in the cases of so called 'Western European countries' and since the beginning of the 1990s in the cases of so called 'Post-Communist European countries'. However, the achieved improvements have been of different nature, and they have been accompanied by various unintended (or even negative) outcomes too.

    Moshe Konstantin Yanovskiy · Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy

    Colleague Oswald Dirwayi just addressed, I believe, the core problem of democratic transition (I mean violence). It is not so important for Slovakia, of course, but it is the key to very possibility of Democratic Development. "Free" elections without due safeguards of personal life, liberty, dignity and property, under tough control of local "roving bandit" deliver only additional instrument for  the bandits oppression, making population's loyalty transparent through the electoral statistics. The only way to avoid reprisal - to comply bandit's will. The latter choice makes election definitely not free. We have the paper (case study of elections in Chechnya - Russian region and Arabian ("Palestine") Autonomy elections) addressing some aspects of mentioned by Oswald problem. See Democracy: A Conflict Extinguisher or a Fuel for Terror? http://ssrn.com/abstract=2458837

  • Kal Breadmore added an answer in Ancient History:
    Accounts attributing to divine sources our codes for interpersonal conduct?

    I'm seeking additional examples to go along with those like (a) the Babylonian king Hammurabi receiving his ‘code’ from Shamash (the god of justice) or (b) the God of the Israelites presenting Moses with the Ten Commandments on Mount Sinai. What are some other historical myths of divinely bequeathed moral codes?

    Kal Breadmore · King's College London

    Two thoughts for you to consider: The point about mythologies is well made and many of the older mythologies, including European fairytales, the beliefs of ancients as studied by Levi-Strauss and the beliefs of tribal societies studied by the early anthropologists are all possibilities to consider if you are anxious to avoid giving inadvertent offence.  However, the Islamic codes of conduct owe their unchanging and unchangeable nature to the fact believers hold them to be the directly given word of God - the Koran is, in this view, the word of God and not the writings of man, and consequently cannot and must not be changed or interpreted.  Examining what effects this has could form an important tranche of your discussion. 

    My second point is that in the study of moral philosophy, there is very great difficulty informing a moral framework that hung together, was not opposed by counter-examples that did not have at its core a conception of God or gods.  Individual examples are easy to counter from a naturalistic framework - we do this or that because it is good for survival, serves our interests or that of the species.  An overall guide to conduct from scratch however, is much much more difficulty to frame from a naturalistic standpoint, because one keeps running into underpinning assumptions which, when rigorously examined, have religious ideas at their base.

    Sounds an interesting study.  Good luck!


  • Isolation of actinomycetes from sponge?

    I would like to isolate actinomycetes from sponge.  It is impossible to work with the collected samples immediately. Is that okay to freeze the sponge samples at -20 C until lab processing.

  • Ankush Kawali added an answer in Retina:
    Can a thermal camera look through the transparent media of a human eye?

    Thermal camera provides only surface temperature of an object, even though the objects are transperent. For example, looking to a hot object through a glass using thermal camera will give the the temperature of the glass surface. Is any modification in the thermal camera optical system possible to eliminate this trasperent barrier?

    It will be useful for examination of retina in the eye taking advantage of its transperent media.

    Ankush Kawali · Narayana Nethralaya

    Because thermal camera lenses captures far infrared waves (thermal waves) emitted from an object. Air can only conduct and cannot produce these waves.

  • Panos V. Petrakis added an answer in Ecosystems:
    Can someone inform me about the 7 aspects and 22 indexes reflecting ecosystem stability, first presented by H.T. Odum in 1970s?

    Pls. provide the relevant full text or aiticle link

    The answer is quite complex. Actually, I understand that only relevant articles on ecosystem strategies are sought and not papers on the properties of indices.

    For this I sent two papers (files) from my library. 

  • K.M. Sudheer added an answer in Nuclear Reactors:
    What is the relation between reactor power and neutron flux?

    If we know the neutron flux value for a given reactor power when we upgrade the reactor for a high level power can we predict the new neutron flux value from the past value

    K.M. Sudheer · Bhabha Atomic Research Centre

    in theory .... yes

    neutron flux is directly proportional to power

  • Noushath Shaffi asked a question in Training:
    What is the difference between validation set and test set?

    I found this confusing when I use the neural network toolbox in Matlab.
    It divided the raw data set into three parts:

    training set
    validation set
    test set
    I notice in many training or learning algorithm, the data is often divided into 2 parts, the training set and the test set.

    My questions are:

    what is the difference between validation set and test set?
    Is the validation set really specific to neural network? Or it is optional.
    To go further, is there a difference between validation and testing in context of machine learning?

  • I need help with factor analysis?

    Is it okay to include a factor that shows a coefficient alpha below .7 in exploratory factor analysis but shows above .7 in confirmatory factor analysis?

    Béatrice Marianne Ewalds-Kvist · Stockholm University

    Hi Reynan,

    I understand that by now you are very confused. If you are creating a scale based on items based on a factor analysis the only thing you have to keep in mind is that your

    alpha should be above .70.  

  • Sourav Roy Choudhury added an answer in SPSS:
    Is there any book for step to step data analysis for SPSS beginners ?

    Many students frequently ask this questions. Students from under developed country have some difficulty to purchase the expensive book. Do you have any idea about the free access of such a book so that PDF copy can be distributed to such a students. Or online access may also be fine.

    Sourav Roy Choudhury · IIT Kharagpur

    Plz see if you find these books useful:




  • Olga Zinovieva added an answer in Academic Writing:
    Choosing Reviewers for Paper
    Hi, I'm still new here. Actually I am looking for reviewers for my paper submission. Could you please advice me what I am suppose to do? Thank you in advance.
    Olga Zinovieva · Tomsk State University

    Dear Georgy, I think you have well summarized the main characteristics of a good reviewer. I suppose you can meet such a person at a conference, for example.

    Since I am a second-year PhD student, I have no wide experience in publishing papers in peer-reviewed international journals. Usually I try to find a potential reviewer for my manuscript from papers in the field of my study or propose to the editor scientists I met at conferences.

  • Maurizio Dioli added an answer in Camels:
    Has anybody witnessed trypanosomosis in Bactrian camels in their natural range areas?
    Trypanosomosis (T. evansi) is one of the commonest disease of dromedaries.
    Maurizio Dioli · independent

    I agree with you Alireza that there must be a wealth of knowledge regarding trypanosomosis in Bactrian camel among Russian colleagues and Russian publications. Too bad that language and difficulty in retrieving such articles are such big obstacles. I will be happy to keep you informed but probably for some relevant information I will have to spend some time in bactrian countries. Kind regards     

  • R.C. Chhipa asked a question in Biogas Production:
    Temperature is one of the Parameter to increase the yield of Biogas in Cowdung ?

    Teperature important parameter for Efficient Biogas production.

  • András Bozsik added an answer in ResearchGate:
    Have you done any statistics on your followers as well as on people who follow you at ResearchGate?
    It is very interesting when you immerse yourself in the analysis of people you communicate with on a daily basis on RG portal. You see very different people, scientists from different fields, different continents, different races and religions, etc. Do you have more followers or those who follow you? Very often you meet the same people to participate in discussions and communicate with each other, right? The question of upvoting and endorsements may give some indication also! Did you follow the published papers only in your disciplines and topics? The same can be asked for questions that you follow. What are your experiences about? I was inspired to ask this question by the Research Gate annual report for 2013! Some of these observations may be found under the thread for which the link was provided!
    András Bozsik · University of Debrecen

    Dear Ljubomir,

    If I had time enough, I would do it.

  • Ashwin Raut asked a question in Thermal Analysis:
    Can anybody help me to decide weather to go for experimental approach (hot box method) or mathematical simulation approach for heat transfer in wall?

    I want to analyse heat transfer (thermal performance) in wall. Should I go for mathematical modelling(MATLAB) or whether to go for experimental approach (Hot box method). Also thermal analysis can be done by computer stimulation. I am confused which one to prefer and why? If any research paper comparing this is there, suggest me?

  • Zinal Patel added an answer in Patch Antenna:
    What do I do for defining waveguide ports to design a patch antenna in cstmws with cpw structure?

    In cstmws it is mentioned that we have to use pick points on outward conductor but it shows error. How exactly do you feed this type of antenna structure?

    Zinal Patel · Nirma University


    I think,in the dimensions there is a problem sir


  • Nguyen Trang asked a question in siRNA:
    How can we conclude one protein can enhance cell migration?

    I over-expressed RGL1 in NIH3T3 cell line and measure cell migration. I found over-expressed RGL1 increased cell migration compared to the control cells. I try to knock down the endogenous RGL1 to observe the decrease cell migration. However, I did not observe a significant decrease in cell migration of RGL1 siRNA transfection compare to mock siRNA or NIH3T3 cell line only.

    I interpret this data like this. RGL1 has other family such as RGL2 and RGL3, so if RGL1 was depleted, the role of RGL2 and RGL3 could compensate the role of RGL3, so the cell still migrate normally. Only overexpressed RGL1 will increase cell migration.

    My conclusion is correct or I have to do other experiments to prove RGL1 can enhance cell migration?

  • Huma Qureshi asked a question in Broussonetia:
    How a pulpy plant tissue can be extracted?

    Plant material is normally extracted after shade drying and grinding. Pulverized material is then extracted through different techniques like cold maceration or through soxhlet apparatus. If someone wants to get crude extract of a pulpy plant tissue (e.g., Aloe vera leaf or Broussonetia papyrifera fruit), what will be processing steps as shade drying for such tissues is rather impossible?