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  • Pedro Aravena added an answer in Stomatology:
    What's the anesthetic technique that other dental schools teach for lower molars and premolars?

    Here in Cuba we teach Conductive Technique in three steps with only one puntion. We block in the first the buccal nerve, later the lingual and finally the lower alveolar.

    What do you use in your university?

    Thank you in advance for your answer.

    Pedro Aravena

    Hello! In Chile, we teach a Inferior Alveolar technique block (tecnica de Spix), but the success rate si low for tooth extraction with 1,8ml of anesthesic (75%)
    For this reason, we teach a complementary technique than a buccal nerve block and cervical supperficial nerve block in the angle of mandible (for cervical plexus)

    You can see more details in this research: http://www.joralres.com/index.php/JOR/article/view/28
    Best regards from Chile!

  • Haijun Song added an answer in Thermal Conductivity:
    Is there any material that has high electrical and low thermal conductivity?

    I want to find that of material. Let me know any material you have known.

    Haijun Song

    Conducing polymers, such as PEDOT:PSS, whose electrical conductivity can be 3000 S/cm with an extremely low thermal conductivity about 0.2 W/mK.

  • Rafael Ibarra added an answer in Teaching English as a Foreign Language:
    How do you decide what is good in an essay?

    My university is reviewing its assessment descriptors for EAP writing and speaking assessment. Th current descriptors require moderation and standardisation to ensure fair marking but I have found there is a significant range of interpretation of these descriptors. I would like to hear the thoughts of other practitioners in EAP and if possible examples of other descriptors from institutions that provide EAP courses for non-native English speaking students especially those that provide English medium instruction in non English speaking countries.

    Rafael Ibarra

    To consider the six criteria used in TOEFL IbT may help you: Answer to the question; Comprehensibility; Organization; Fluency; Grammar; Vocabulary. The essays should be from 150 to 250 words in the integrated task modality, when students must read a written passage and listen to a passage. They have to accomplish the task in 20 minutes. The other modality is Independent task, where students should answer in 300 words  a cultural question. They are given 30 minutes.

  • A. Subba Rao added an answer in Manure:
    How can we elevate the crop response efficiency of organic manures?

    Organic manuring is known as  an age old agricultural practice . But ,  its relevance in modern day agriculture is proven beyond doubt in the context of iheir multiple roles, including as nutrient source and cleanser of soil contaminants, besides improving soil physico-chemical and biological properties, with the result, crop performance is holistically improved.In this background, i call upon my learned colleagues to respond to my following querries, which will go a long way in clearing some of the intricate issues related organic manuring:

    * What is the effectiveness of different organic manures,  considering their utility as nutrient source versus soil amendment?.

    * Do we need to evaluate salt index of manures to define the quality of different manures?.

    * Whether the quality criteria of agiven manure differ according to type of substrate undergoing composting/.

    * To what an extent , manures alone are effective as compared to in combination  with mineral fertilizers?.

    * Do we need to load the organic manures with PGPRs to improve their responess?.

    * How effective is organic manures in cleansing the soil contaminants/pollutants ( Sieve function of soil ) ?.

    * Which is the best method of organic manuring in perennial trees?. 

    A. Subba Rao

    Dr.Hepperly,thank you for providing new insights into compost production by fortifying with clay, gypsum and humate.I have two small questions.If clay is 10% ,is there farmers' acceptability?Are you fortifying humate with  micronutrients?Otherwise compost is already containing good amount of humus.

  • A.J. Tang added an answer in Kiwifruit:
    Are there any mean to separate male plants from female one in kiwifruit seedlings one year old in the field?

    I grow Kiwi fruit seedlings from seeds and i know that it  too hard to characterize the male plants from female one in the field

    A.J. Tang

    Ali, you can use two morphological information to differentiate male and female kiwi at the seedling stage. 1)  seeing bud. the bud of males  rise high, and females'bud sunkens. Also, the bud distance is longer in males.

    2) seeing leaf. the leaves of males are narrower, smaller, and thicker, and rounder. In addition, the color of males' leaves is dark green.

    Hope it useful for you.

  • Jeffrey McCormack added an answer in Fibrocartilage:
    Is there a mathematical model for ligament-to-bone attachment regarding the gradation of Young modulus?

    Some sources explain there are 4 areas composing the ligament-to-bone or tendon-to-bone insertion, namely bone- calcified fibrocartilage - uncalcified fibrocartilage- ligament. I would like to know if someone knows about the gradation of the Young modulus across each of these sections and how it behaves under loading

    Jeffrey McCormack

    Hello Kenza,

    The attached pdf may be of assistance.


    Guy M. Genin, Alistair Kent, Victor Birman, Brigitte Wopenka, Jill D. Pasteris, Pablo J. Marquez, and Stavros Thomopoulos.  Functional Grading of Mineral and Collagen in the Attachment of Tendon to Bone, Biophysical Journal Volume 97, Issue 4, 19 August 2009, Pages 976–985

  • Paul K Canavan added an answer in Injury:
    What are good management strategies of ucl injury?

    Just looking for different opinions of management strategies. 

    Paul K Canavan

    As you may know cubital valgus will place stress on the UCL ligament and that is typically related to the forearm supinated position, targeting the pronator teres and pronator quadratus in an eccentric manner to slow the rate and control forearm pronation has been proven successful in my experience along with that comprehensive understanding of the elbow biomechanics. As you may know there are different normal  ROM measurements at different elbow angles. Also eccentric shoulder internal rotator strengthening may also be beneficial. Please look into the literature on normal and pathomechanical arthrokinematics within the elbow and shoulder region.

  • Paul Sevigny added an answer in Applied Linguistics:
    What is the best conference format for a roundtable discussion in applied linguistics or cultural studies? How does it differ from a panel discussion?

    I want to create a roundtable discussion format for a cultural studies conference. I currently have a 150 minute 5-6 person panel discussion standard where there is a general abstract and then individual expert abstracts for their 20 minute presentations with moderated discussion from the audience at the end. I want to create a roundtable alternative to this. What standard roles/rules work best for this?

    Paul Sevigny

    Dear Rafael, I love this plan. Thanks for the suggestion. I will work on that.


  • Bingyao Li added an answer in Mannans:
    Which biofuel feedstock (biomass) has high mannan-content?

    Generally our lab is work on optimization of enzyme mixtures to efficiently convert biomass to  fermentable sugar at lower enzyme loading. We mainly use corn stover as substrate to test enzyme cocktail efficiency, which consists mostly of glucan, xylan and lignin. I want to test whether addtion of my mannases can help increase sugar yield from biomass and was wondering if  there's any research that tests biomass of high mannan content or any paper that analyzes sugar composition of different biofuel feedstocks.

    Bingyao Li

    Thank you all for your suggestions! Good luck with your research!

  • Syed Zahid Ali Shah added an answer in Microglia:
    Why does DAB colour not turn brown?

    i am sorry if my question is stupid but i am very new in the field of IHC...i have brain samples from syrian golden hamsters...i want to detect astrocytes,microglia and neuron in them...when i do IHC for them only with astrocytes i get very clear slides colour change to brown after DAB application and gives very nice slide...while for microglia and neuron my slides colour hardly change to brown and slides very faded...what could be the reason as i tried to change citrate buffer and other stuff many times but no luck...thanks in advance

    Syed Zahid Ali Shah

    thanks jill and i will try these kind suggestions

  • Patrick D. Reagan asked a question in Autobiography:
    Does anyone know of any histories of Catholic social activism between 1890 and 1945 in the United States?

    Does anyone know of any histories of Catholic social activism between 1890 and 1945 in the United States?

    Names and autobiographies/biographies of activists would be helpful in addition to social movement/collective activist histories.

  • Ken Robinson added an answer in Software Engineering:
    Is there any research on motivating companies who develop software for internal use use appropriate software engineering practices?
    1. Some companies have an "IT" department that develops software for internal use
    2. In my experience, such companies see software development as a secondary function and do not invest in the appropriate setup, processes, etc
    3. Is there any research regarding this?  Do such companies have a term which refers to them?
    Ken Robinson

    You will notice that only the word testing is used.  In many substantial ways this proves that Software Engineering is not being used.  While other engineers also use testing, importantly they use engineering design techniques to ensure that whatever they are designing, bridge, building, etc will not fail.  The classification Software Engineering should be approached cautiously.  It generally isn't engineering.

    • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: The conflict raised by the title of this paper is familiar and may be considered too well worn to continue discussing? On the contrary, the fact that there is no serious resolution of this specific aspect of Software Engineering - despite many advances in software and software tools - suggests to these authors, both from general concern for the implications for the discipline as well as even greater concern for the teaching of software engineering students, that it is worth pursuing. The paper discusses the topic in general and also with particular reference to curricula. Experience in the School of Computer Science and Engineering at UNSW including attempts to address this problem are discussed.
      24th IEEE-CS Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training, CSEE&T 2011, May 22-24, 2011, Waikiki, Honolulu, HI, USA, Proceedings; 01/2011
  • Norma Ivone Peña Galeana added an answer in Electrical Engineering:
    How do I integrate ethical questions into an engineering lecture?

    I would like to integrate ethical questions into a lecture "Transmission Technology" for a Bachelor Course in Electrical Engineering. This part of the lecture should not be a separate session but integrated into the normal curriculum. Are there any experiences with similar approaches?

    Norma Ivone Peña Galeana

    I believe that professionals from any branch of engineering are –basically- creators, and as such they are always faced with ethical dilemmas such as:
    + Will it (what I am creating) be "good" or "bad" ?, what for?, for whom ?, for how long?, under which circumstances?
    + What are the consequences of its operation (positive / negative)? How will it affects the environment in which it operates? (Environment understood as the mechanism / organizational environment / market / physical environment in which what is being created operates)
    + Will it affects positively or negatively to other creators? ( other engineers who are creating similar or related systems)
    + How far you –as a creator- are responsible for the effects / consequences associated with your creation?
    These are the questions that my students and I use to generate a debate, when we study the ethics associated with systems design, and I think it might apply in your area. Usually, I present examples of specific situations where ethical aspects were taken into consideration during the systems design process, and also the problems faced or resultant advantages. There are no "good" or "bad" responses in this debate, because the idea of what is good or bad, changes according with time, location and culture. The important thing here is that this deliberation must be made when they are designing a system, and these designs should take into account the conclusions achieved thru this deliberation.
    I hope my experience will be useful for you. Good luck.

    Greetings from Acapuco, Mexico.

  • Mohamed El Naschie added an answer in Gravitation:
    In GR, can we always choose the local speed of light to be everywhere smaller that the coordinate speed of light? Can this be used in a theory?

    It seems that many, if not all, solutions of Einstein's equations, such as black holes and grav. waves, can be given coordinates x\mu in such a way that the local speed of light is always slower than the coordinate speed of light. Think of gravitational lensing: the index of refraction of a gravitational potential always seems to be >1, in practical examples, so a gravitational potential slows light down, and never speeds it up (if coordinates are chosen carefully). This wouldn't be true for a negative-mass Schwarzschild solution, but that seems to be outlawed in nature.

     Now this was only a conjecture, I have not attempted to prove it. How would a rigorous mathematical theorem be formulated? And did anybody - and here I mean a wise person, not the average blogger - ever try to do something interesting with this observation? Like constructing a “hidden medium” for curved space-time?

    Mohamed El Naschie


  • Nisaa Greenley asked a question in Child Behavior:
    How does child behavior effect parent stress?

    How does child behavior effect parent stress?

  • Kenneth M Towe added an answer in Monsoon:
    Anyone watching the Indian monsoon vs the Arabian-Pakistan Dust Cloud?

    Today there is a storm between India and Arabia, and via the Colorado State website at http://rammb.cira.colostate.edu/products/tc_realtime/archive.asp?product=16kmgwvp&storm_identifier=IO912015 -- you can see the interaction between the storm and the Arabia-Pakistan Dust Cloud, image attached. I am viewing the Metosat 7, "Storm Relative 16 km Geostationary Water Vapor Imagery"  Anyone else watching this interaction between the monsoon moisture and the Dust Cloud?

  • David Chukwuma Izuogu added an answer in PXRD:
    How can I download DASH software used for indexing PXRD pattern, please suggest a link for the free version?

    I currently synthesised a heteronuclear complex which I expected should have same powder XRD pattern with previously reported work. However, the PXRD pattern shows low crystallinity compared to previous work in which they where able to obtain crystal for SXRD.  My sample pattern mimics the reported with little shift in some peaks and drastic reduction in peak intensity which suggest low crystallinity.  So, a colleague told me about DASH software which I could use to index my PXRD pattern and be able to solve the structure of the new compound since I already have a reported crystal similar to my compound. He suggested I get the DASH software from CCDC database, but it's not free, I needed an access to a free version, can anyone help? Thanks.

    David Chukwuma Izuogu

     thanks Dr.  Ivo,  I will do that immediately. 

  • Geng Ouyang added an answer in Hypothesis Testing:
    Should hypotheses always be based on a theory? Can someone refer me to a research paper that emphasizes the need for theory driven hypotheses?

    Should hypotheses always be based on a theory? I will provide an example here without variable names. I am reading a paper where the authors argue that X (an action) should be related to Y (an emotion). In order to support this argument the authors suggest that when individuals engage in X, they are more likely to feel a sense of absorption and thus they should experience Y. There is no theory here to support the relationship between X and Y. They are also not proposing absorption as the mediator. They are just using this variable to explain why X should lead to Y. Would this argument be stronger if I used a theory to support the relationship between X and Y? Can someone refer me to a research paper that emphasizes the need for theory driven hypotheses? Thanks!

    Geng Ouyang

    Hi Fung,

    In my personal view, hypotheses should be conducted by “ideas” and ideas are parts of the “reformed theory or would be new theory”.

    Hypotheses are other names for “ideas”.



  • Sridhar Vadahanambi added an answer in Natural Rubber:
    Can anyone explain to me if Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) should be vulcanized before blending with Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA)?

    The objective of my research is blending Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) with Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) .

    From most of the journals that I had studied that Natural Rubber (NR) need to be vulcanized before blending with Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA). I am eager to know that should Thermoplastic Elastomer (TPE)  such as Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) follow the same methodology as Natural Rubber (NR) because as I have studied Thermoplastic Elastomer (TPE) is already a blended material with polymers. Can anyone clear my doubt? Please,

    Sridhar Vadahanambi

    You can use DCP cure which can crosslink both SBR and EVA...

  • Taher Ahmed Ghaleb added an answer in Science Journalism:
    Are there any lists of Computer Science Journals, Review Speed, Impact Factors, and Open Access Fee from Elsevier, Springer, and Hindawi?

    Dear All, 

    Recently, I did a little research on Computer Science Journals List, Review Speed, Impact Factors, and Open Access Fee from Elsevier, Springer, and Hindawi. Please find them at the attached links.

    Are there any similar lists to add into my repository? Recently, I found this one which is made in 2013,


    but it only lists the Impact Factors. Also, the list is not specific only Computer Science journals.


    + 2 more attachments

    Taher Ahmed Ghaleb

     Very thanks, dear Mohamad.

  • Michael P. Weinstein added an answer in Global Sustainability:
    Will there ever be effective international agreements to tackle the climate change challenge?

    We are well aware that the complexity of the earth system and increasingly global social and economic systems severely limit the prospects for controllability of the earth system at the global scale. I am wondering whether individual sustainability does/can “add up” to global sustainability.

    Michael P. Weinstein


    I'm with you all the way.  I can be equally critical on ecological issues that have direct influence on our well being.  There are many in my community of scientists that, as I said earlier, are trying to wrap the issues around the general thesis of having people better understand the consequences of their actions (including decision makers!). I know this sounds polyanna, but it is a critical path if we are to be successful.  I attached a keynote I gave at Chalmers University in Gothenburg (as well as other seminars at many places and times) that lays out the issues.  If we can't be optimistic that we can make a difference, we'll have little chance of survival.  We are a very young species and the story is still out on us!


  • Sujoy Sarkar added an answer in Vanadium:
    Charging discharging cycle of VRB(vanadium flow battery), could not discharge, can someone tell me why?

    I try to charge the flow(VRB) battery under 10mA,once it is fully charged up to 1.6V then I run the discharge cycle with -10mA(minimum voltage is 0.8V),but the immediately the voltage drop to 0.8V and could not discharge at all. Then the cycle goes back to charge again very quickly....

    the charging and discharging profile is in the attachment

    + 1 more attachment

    Sujoy Sarkar

    I don't know the exact reason behind this phenomena, but you could try to discharge first, then charge the cell, because after charging the cell, there might some structural changes occur which could not let the cell discharge further.

  • Jeffrey McCormack added an answer in Pdf:
    Where on your site is there an option to upload a full-text article?

    I have  full text article on Schizophrenic speech that I want to upload to Research Gate. I have uploaded a lot of other articles last year, but I can't find where to upload a new article. It's a PDF text,

    Elaine Ostrach Chaika

    Jeffrey McCormack

    Under publications then select 'Manual Entry' or link from a site such as academia.edu

  • Samy Yousef added an answer in Hydrophilicity:
    Which is the best hydrophilic polymer like PVA, PVB etc for pure iron powder particles to coat via solution mixing

    In order to reduce the surface tension, hydrophilic polymers were frequently used for such purpose. Therefore, i am in search of any suitable hydrophilic polymer which easily coat on iron powder particles (size 10 microns) by using stirring mixing in D I water.

    Samy Yousef

    Please check the following paper

  • Sujoy Sarkar added an answer in Indium:
    Is indium sulfide an indirect bandgap material or direct bandgap material? or both?

    The bandgap reported for indium sulfide whether it is direct or indirect is still controversial. Anybody shed some light upon it?

    Sujoy Sarkar

    You can go through this article where they have concluded from experimentally and theoretically that In2S3 is an indirect band gap material (band gap 2.01 eV) .

    Thin Solid Films, Volume 517, Issue 7, 2 February 2009, Pages 2316–2319

    "Bandgap properties of the indium sulfide thin-films grown by co-evaporation"

  • Louis Brassard added an answer in Cognitive Systems:
    Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.

    Louis Brassard


    What is a music composer doing?  Is the music composer consciously composing music? And when you listen to music and that you are emotionally moved by it then all kind of emotion rise into your consciousness.  Understanding what is musis is central to understanding consciousness.  All vertebrate nervous system developed primarily to move bodies and music is the art that this movement.

  • Marlonni Araujo added an answer in Callus Culture:
    I was using 9uM of BAP and 4,5uM of ANA in my C. papaya callus culture, but they still growing like a callus and not proliferate shoots, why?

    someone can help-me?

    They are in this conditions:

    16/8h photoperiod

    0,5% phytagel

    sucrose  6%

    1x MS vitamins

    MS fullstrength

    Marlonni Araujo


  • Jeffrey McCormack added an answer in World War II:
    Does anyone know any publications that deal with the local residents experiences of the Holocaust?

    Looking to see how the social life of the local residents near camps such as Auschwitz were impacted by the activities of the extermination camps. 

    Jeffrey McCormack

    The universal ignorance feigned by the post war German populace will make this a challenging research topic.  I'll see what i can find this weekend.

    + 2 more attachments