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  • Omar Mayyas added an answer in Earthquake:
    Is it possible to predict an earthquake?

    Most of the research which I have seen in articles is post earthquake and few pre earthquake anomalies also, but till now no one can forecast or predict earthquake exactly before it happens. My question is, in this regard is it possible for us to predict an earthquake exactly?

    Omar Mayyas · Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources- Jordan

    I started my career after my graduation from the Leningrad Mining Institute in 1990 with the science of earthquake prediction, and I translated the book of “ earthquake prediction “ of Japanese Author “ Kiyoo Mogi “, which translated to Russian by the Famous Russian Professor B, A, Borisova (Moscow, Mir, 1988 ) to Arabic Language, Also briefed on the many books and researches for a long period of time until I arrived to full conviction of futility in continuing in this branch of the science of earthquakes, and I sure that this branch  will be no more useful for  not only for the scientists, but also for the public, it will remain us as a science of atomic bombs and  nuclear reactors, where their results extermination shown in two Japanese cities, followed by the burning of the Chernobil city in USSR. And Allah only knows their future impact in our earth.

    Please note:

    ·        10 years to reach earthquake prediction seems to be 100, 1000, 10000, ..., regards to probability method in mathematics, is it?

    ·         the tremendous fund of the world finance unfortunately spending for such science branches. Is it?

  • What are the advantages and what are the problems of the hypothesis about “retinoid system”?
    Is the hypothesis about “retinoid system” (by Professor Arnold Trehub), as described in “Consciousness and Cognition” 16 (2007) 310–330 and in the other works of Professor Trehub, a plausible hypothesis? What are its advantages and what are its problems?

    Professor Trehub describes it in the following words:
    “Activation of the brainʼs putative retinoid system has been proposed as the
    neuronal substrate for our basic sense of being centered within a volumetric
    surround –- our minimal phenomenal consciousness (Trehub 2007). Here, the
    assumed properties of the self-locus within the retinoid model are shown to
    explain recent experimental findings relating to the out-of-body-experience. In
    addition, selective excursion of the heuristic self-locus is able to explain many
    important functions of consciousness, including the effective internal
    representation of a 3D space on the basis of 2D perspective depictions. Our
    sense of self-agency is shown to be a natural product of the role of the heuristic self-locus in the retinoid mechanism.” (Abstract, from: Where am I? Redux.)

    For the publications of Professor Trehub see:

    The question has been already discussed on the folowing thread:
    Eugene F Kislyakov · Belarusian State University

    Three (number) is simpler, than carrot, Bernd.

  • Costas Drossos added an answer in Formal Logic:
    How can we introduce the idea of infinity?
    How can we introduce the idea of infinity to students? Its properties, relationship with zero etc.?
    Costas Drossos · University of Patras

    Dear Charles,

    Let me remind that "potential infinity" was THE infinity of the ancient Greeks, and it was the only acceptable notion of infinity up to and included Gauss. That is all mathematicians and not philosophy, ware using only "potential infinity". After Cantor the "actual infinity" was prevailing so much as to forget about "potential infinity". 

  • Atif Ikram added an answer in Implementation:
    Do you think that ICT can work to enhance efficiency of ineffective systems and processes, and why?

    Does ICT require the system to be working properly and effectively before ICT can be implemented and utilized?

    Atif Ikram · University of Lahore

    The implementation of ICT will reduce the processing time of activities either those are Value addition or Non-Value addition. But main concern is with the activities, processes and ultimately their sequence to achieve the final objective or goal. We must have to make a thorough analysis of the system before the implementation of ICT to make system more effective and efficient.

  • Gabriele Abbondanza added an answer in Refugees:
    What mechanism should States develop to solve problem of "International Environmental Refugee" without hurting political sovereignty of the states?

    What mechanism should States develop to solve problem of "International Environmental Refugee" without hurting political sovereignty of the states?

    Gabriele Abbondanza · University of Sydney

    That's a good question to a very current problem.

    As usual, countries can either do what they think it's best for them (Australia and New Zealand, in this respect, lead the way in the Pacific) or follow a broader international consuetude. Such a thing - with such a scope - does not exist yet, meaning that, unfortunately, it's up again to the UN or another supranational organization to take the first, surely controversial, step. An ad hoc committee would be something to start with. The introduction of amendments to bi-multilateral agreements, suggested by Jean-Paul Huteau Skeete, would be good too, altough I think it's quite unlikely they would be implemented, as they might reduce the economic benefit on both sides of the agreement.

  • M. Murali Talkad added an answer in Callosities:
    How to do determine callose and lignin deposition in chilli plants after induction of resistance against anthracnose disease?

    How to do determine callose and lignin deposition in chilli plants after induction of resistance against anthracnose disease?

    M. Murali Talkad · University of Mysore

    thank you one and all.. i will look into all the possibilities.....

  • How do you best incorporate subaltern views to Oral History research projects initially and primarily based on elite interviewing?

    I am currently conducting a series of interviews within research projects on: History of European Integration, Global Governance & EU International Affairs, relations between European institutions and EU Member States and measuring change in identities, mentalities and political cultures after the end of the Cold war. I am looking for the most enriching ways to balance a current focus on elite interviewing and decision-makers with subaltern views, including non-state actors, activists and civil society players. I would be grateful if you could share your experience in this regard, as well as to indicate relevant bibliographical references in the given domain.

    Cristina Blanco Sío-López · European University Institute

    Thank you very much for sharing this impressive and really useful Oral History research experience. Your input on combining elite interviews with management-level ones and on complementing them with the testimonies and perspectives of directly affected persons and sponsors is of great value. Thanks again for this insightful case study illustrating  a truly comprensive approach.

  • Sp Ranju added an answer in Germination:
    Is anyone familiar with rice nurseries ?

    Hi, we are facing a problem in rice nursery growth. The germination is fine but as soon as the nursery turns one and half week or so it starts turning yellow. By three weeks time the nursery gets completely yellow. We carry out lots of spraying of micro nutrients, 0.3% urea, etc on the nursery during this period to save the seedlings but almost 50 to 70% of the seedlings are lost. The sowing of the seeds is usually carried out in plastic trays . Can anyone help me out in this. 

    Sp Ranju · University of Madras

    Hi Gandhi,

    Discolouration of leaves are  due to biological as well as abiological reasons.   In case of biological reason , yellowing of leaves are due to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae.  since this disease is seed borne make sure your seed is healthier one . If the seed harbors the pathogen you will see the symptoms in the earlier stages leading to kresk and soon wilting of crop occurs.    in Avoid using discoloured seeds when you sow or use different seed lot.  What is the seed variety you are using?

  • Gamal M Badawy asked a question in Amphibians:
    Does anyone know the main difference in the mechanism of limb morphogenesis between amphibians and other tetrapods?

    This question is provided to Anatomists, Embryologists, Developmental Biologists and especially who called themselves Evolutionary Biologists.

  • Haifang Yang added an answer in Etching:
    How can I prevent etching of PMMA during RF etching?

    I have done gold deposition on SIO2 substrate by sputtering.After that i have done e beam lithography(PMMA) to make pattern on the gold sample.Now i want to etch those portion of the film that has not been masked by PMMA.but when i am doing RF etching using pure argon,i am seeing that after 3 minutes all PMMA is gone leaving behind thin gold film.PMMA thickness(150 nm).How can i prevent this etching of PMMA,so that i can get a patterned sample?I want to avoid reactive ion etching.

    Haifang Yang · Chinese Academy of Sciences

    The etching rate is per minute.

  • Robert Göstl added an answer in Scaling:
    Will scaling factors effects the absorption spectra?

    I am trying to get the absorption spectra for few molecules but i could not reach the experimental value.

    Can anyone suggest what to do ? (Please provide one or two references)

  • Does infinity exist or it is a product of human mind?
    What is the philosophical explanation of infinity?
    Eugene F Kislyakov · Belarusian State University


    please, define "reality".

  • Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.

    Eugene F Kislyakov · Belarusian State University


    not we create language, but language creates us.



  • How can I measure the bone mineral density from the Computed Tomography scan of a bone?

    What would be the best software for this purpose? What would be the protocol for measuring BMD?

    Michael Sandholzer · Mrc Harwell

    By CT I guess you mean a clinical CT rather than a pqCT/micro-CT etc. There is a quite good review on this topic here: 

  • Yong Shi asked a question in Log Files:
    Why can't I combine log files?

    Dear all,
    I tried to combine log files created by starbeast. However, after combined, the ESS values become very low, most of which are less then 100.
    Does anyone have any ideas on what could have happened or how to solve it?
    Any suggestion would be appreciated.
    Best regards,

  • Mounir Louhaichi asked a question in IT services:
    I am looking for successful examples of payment for environmental services (PES) targetting rangelands/grasslands?

    I heard about an ongoing initiatives in China and Portugal but I do not have much details.

  • Nadine A. Gund added an answer in DNA Extraction:
    What are the reasons for pcr failure when DNA is extracted from degraded Feces, conserved in 70 % alcohol?

    Dont Know.please answer 

    Nadine A. Gund · Bayerische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft

    HI, which extraction method did you use? Did your positive control in your PCR showed the expected band? Cheers, Nadine

  • Kelly Chastain asked a question in Murder:
    Is color loss common in human tissue/hair samples after long term exposure to formaldehyde?

    I am writing a paper on convicted murderer Diogo Alves, whose head is currently in a jar in the Anatomy Theater at the University of Lisbon. It was preserved, originally, in formalin in 1841. It is now in a solution of formaldehyde, and has been for 173 years. At his hanging, he was described as having black hair and brown eyes. The preserved head has strawberry blond/reddish hair and faded blue eyes. Is it possible that the difference in color is due to prolonged exposure to formaldehyde? There is a theory that the head doesn't belong to Diogo as claimed.

  • Arun Bhupathi added an answer in Composite Material:
    How can the adhesion between fiber and metal be improved?

    In fiber metal laminates (FML), adhesion between the fiber and the metal is an important problem.

    How this problem can be reduced?

    Arun Bhupathi · Vishnu Dental College

    Selective etching/Surface treatment of the metal surface that leaves a free reactive ions on the surface which are made to bond with the fibers using a crosslinker. This concept  can be made specific depending on the composition of fiber and metal. The diameter of the fiber should be very small, so that the number of molecules on the surface should be more compared to the core molecules, for which nanofibers can be an option. Inorder to maintain the structural equilibrium of the system as a whole depending on the diameter of the fiber the thickness of metal layer should also be customized. 

  • Amipara Manilal D added an answer in Patch Antenna:
    How to find edge impedance of the patch using smith chart?

    Hello sir,

    I am designing a dual semi ring patch. It is not resonating at desired frequency. I thought may be an impedance matching issue so i would like to find edge impedance. After finding ZL it could be normalized to 50 ohm line for co-operative feed .

    Thanks in advance

    sk subhani 

    Amipara Manilal D · Balaji Institute of Engineering & technology, Junagadh

    It is resonating at higher frequency than the desired one. This shows that you have to reduce the width & radius of ring. Keeping the ratio of radius to width same you can try out.

  • Vijay Kumar Jain added an answer in Micro EDM:
    Why is EDM nowadays called conventional machining process?
    Nowadays in many seminars, lectures and other literature, I am finding the use of word "conventional EDM". However in reality EDM itself is an unconventional machining process. Can someone clarify this?
    Vijay Kumar Jain · Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur

    Dear Mr. (Dr.) Bhuvenesh,

    I fully agree with your renaming as " Advanced Machining Processes".


  • Geng Ouyang added an answer in Human Mind:
    What is “infinite”?

    Is it anything other than an idea of the human mind, or something real objectively?

    “Infinite”, “potential infinite”, “actual infinite”, “potential infinitesimal”, “actual infinitesimal”, “potential infinity”, “actual infinity"

    Are they all “infinite”, but with different natures?

    1. How many definitions of “infinite” with different natures in science can we have as ideas of the human mind?

    2. How many definitions of “infinite” with different natures in science can we have as something we can find in the real world?

    3. How many definitions of “infinite” with different natures in science can we have as co-products of human mind and objectivity?

    4. Can we really have many different definitions with different natures for the concept of “infinite” in human science and how can we distinguish them theoretically and practically?

    Geng Ouyang · MinNan Normal University

    @ Ellis,
    So, you use mental models to illustrate all kinds of human knowledge such as the mental models of mathematics, the mental models of English, the mental models of religious…?

    I think this idea is new to many people. Is mental model “a state of the mind”, a “belief”,…?

  • What is the best possible possible methods for the gesture extraction method in the gesture recognition method and why?

    it is about the crane guidance control system using gesture recognition

  • Giovanni B. Piccardo added an answer in Geodynamics:
    How does rift originate in a continental rift basin? Is it due to underplating due to presence of plumes or the stretching of the lithosphere?

    the geodynamics of rift in a continental rift basin

    Giovanni B. Piccardo · giovanni.b.piccardo@gmail.com

    Something more to add to Martin's answer, who defined the main different processes for rifting and rifted continental margins:
    (a) ACTIVE RIFTING : bottom-up processes involving mantle upwelling/plumes;
    (b) PASSIVE RIFTING : top-down processes involving plate motions drive passive rifting & the formation of non-volcanic (continental) margins;
    (c) CONTINUUM - between volcanic and non-volcanic margins and active and passive rifting.
    My experience of the Ligurian Tethys evolution evidence the further case of :
    (d) TRANSITION - from early passive rifting to subsequent active rifting, as described and modelled by Huismans, R.S et al. 2001 (Huismans, R.S., Podladchikov, Y.Y., Cloetingh, S., 2001. Transition from passive to activerifting: relative importance of asthenospheric doming and passive extension of the lithosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 106 (11), 271–291).
    In this case, the PASSIVELY extending mantle lithosphere is destabilized (i.e., rheologically weakened and softened) along the axial zone of extension by concomitant deformation / melt percolation (melt thermal advection) processes, that allow deeper/hotter asthenosphere to upwell ACTIVELY within this zone, inducing transition from passive to active regime.)
    The horizontal stresses caused by the active asthenosphere upwelling may start to compete with the far-field tectonic forces and even drive the system causing a change from passive to active rifting forces (Huismans et al. 2001). The model may explain several key features of intra-continental rift basins, such as the late (post-rift) mantle related volcanism.
    In the case of the Ligurian Tethys, the late post-rifting occurrence of the oceanic MORB volcanism, when the sea-floor was already mostly composed by syn-rifting-exhumed and exposed mantle peridotites, is well consistent with the suggestions of Huismans et al. (2001) of the late (post-rift) mantle-related volcanism. (see: Piccardo G.B., Padovano M. & Guarneri L. 2014, The Ligurian Tethys: Mantle processes and geodynamics ESR, online)
    This model of transition from passive to active regimes seems to be applicable to the early rifting stages of modern major slow spreading oceans (like North Atlantic).

  • Is it possible to make a thin film of conducting polymer up to 2 microns on a silicon wafer?

    Which polymers make a uniform film.

    Bernhard Wessling · BWSI, LaoWei Technology Consulting Inc.

    Nacera, there is no "soluble" fraction. EB is insoluble (you wrote yourself  "colloidal emeraldine base") Whatever you can see and people would say "insoluble is undispersed EB which tells me: the EB powder was not well prepared, the dispersion process not well done, or: concentration too high. Otherwise there is no undispersed fraction.

  • Zaheer Ahmad added an answer in Glioma:
    Where can I purchase the NCI-60 cancer cell lines ?

    I want to purchase the SF539 and SNB75 glioma cell lines from the NCI-60 collection but they are not available from ATC. Any suggestions on how I can get these cell lines ? 

    Zaheer Ahmad · University of Agriculture Faisalabad

    Hi, You can buy from National Institute of health (Bethesda, MD, USA). There are actually two methods to obtain these cells lines, 1) you request them that you want to buy if it is not work  2) then you have a find a reference in NIH which can help you out to get it. Let me know when you have it.

  • Ruslan Kozhemiakin added an answer in MATLAB:
    MATLAB does not support 'imread' function for standalone code generation.Are their any alternatives to the imread function in MATLAB?

    My end purpose is to convert a certain image processing code to verilog.  

    Ruslan Kozhemiakin · KhAI - Aerospace university

    Try to use the  fopen and fread functions.

  • How to avoid fiber post debonding?

    Tooth restoration using fiber post systems became a prior treatment when tooth strenghtdening is needed. But only 90% of treatment is successful. The most common failure is POST DEBONDING.

    How to increase cement and intraradicular dentine adhesion? Which cement or bonding system is highly recommended trying to avoid debonding?

    Literature offers to use 10% sodium ascorbate after NaOHCl, avoid one step self-etch bondng systems, avoid extensive root canal preparation, use oval shaped posts... 

    Priya Rajendran · Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham

    As in most of the cases, case selection is critical. As so rightly pointed out by Dr. Guttman, if there is a likelihood of aberrant or excessive forces on the tooth after restoration, it is necessary to correct this. Else, even strictly followed adhesion protocols can fail. A close match between the post and prepared space can be ensured by using a matching set of preparation drills and posts by the same manufacturer.

  • Mohammad Al-Azawi asked a question in Machine Vision:
    Can you help in answering these easy questions ?

    Dear All,

    I am applying the human attention to machine vision so I would appreciate if you could answer these easy question in the following link, no personal information shall be taken.

    The link is a google form.