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  • Warren D. Miller added an answer in Cost Accounting:
    Could fair value accounting be a panacea to the limitations of historical cost accounting?

    The IASB Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting does not seem to prescribe a specific approach to measurement. However, in recent years accounting standards have been released which have shown a movement away from historical costs and a movement towards the use of fair values. What is the intuition for this move? Should the IASB conceptual framework be amended to suggest an alternative to historical costs – such as the use of fair values?

    Warren D. Miller

     @Sandile: I'd bet money--a lot of it--that you've never actually done any fair-value accounting (FVA). If you had, you know that, because FVA is an exit price, there is no way to know whether it's "accurate" or not.

    There is plenty to criticize about accounting for assets and liabilities on the basis of historical cost, but accuracy isn't one of them. With FVA, there are as many ways to go wrong as there are blades of grass in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia where I live.

    In addition, as I have written elsewhere, the incentives in FVA are all wrong. Because it's an exit price, managers are not incented to create annuity cash flows that create actual wealth. Instead, they are incented to trade assets. Unless a company is in the business of trading assets, the incentive in FVA works against the creation of long-term wealth and good-paying jobs. FVA is just such a crock of crap.

  • George A. Lozano added an answer in Marine Organisms:
    Does anybody knows this marine organism?

    It was photographed at very shallow waters (the background algae is a species of Padina) of Mallorca Island (Mediterranean Sea) the body measures about 7 cm long.

  • Béatrice Marianne Ewalds-Kvist added an answer in International Migration:
    What solutions do you propose for the reception of immigration to current Europe ?

    Due to the wave of immigration to Europe that has become more pronounced in recent times, what solutions do you propose for the reception of emigration to Europe ?

    Your answer will be greatly appreciated.


    Béatrice Marianne Ewalds-Kvist

    Dear Helena, 

    When I was thinking about this I believe that educating the women wherever they are - or end up to be - is the most important aspect of the future scenario. 

  • Jingao Liu added an answer in Delamination:
    Based on δ18O values, is it possible to differentiate between various protoliths that give rise to eclogites and processes of their formation?

    For example: Eclogites could represent a range of protoliths such as picritic basalts crystallized in magma chambers within the mantle, subducted ocean floor or delaminated lower crustal material. Any papers/articles?

    Jingao Liu

    Regarding the oxygen isotope fractionation taking place in between mineral pairs, this is a thermodynamic/kinetic issue. Different oxygen isotopes have slightly different sizes/masses, while cations composing mineral crystal lattices have different size too and their capacities of coalescing different oxygen isotopes are not the same. This causes fractionation in between minerals. The extent of fractionation is generally associated with temperatures, so that's why oxygen isotopes can be applied for thermometer. Attached are two papers for your further investigation.


    + 1 more attachment

  • Marc Arakaki asked a question in Civics:
    How can social media help lawmakers receive input from their constituents? What forms of social media can they use?

    Campbell, S., & Kwak, N. (2010). Mobile Communication and Civic Life: Linking Patterns of Use to Civic and Political Engagement. Journal of Communication, 536-555.

  • Sefater Gbashi added an answer in Aflatoxin:
    Why is my percentage recovery of aflatoxin B1 spiked into corn above 100%?

    I am developing a new method for aflatoxin B1 analysis using water and methanol only. I spiked 5g of corn with 25ug of AFB1, after extraction and quantification on HPLC-PDA, I am consistently getting percentage recoveries over 100% despite repeated trials. I will appreciate your kind assistance.

    Sefater Gbashi

    Yes I did. Thanks Chamkasem

  • Mohamed El Naschie added an answer in Quantum Mechanics:
    How much time does an electron need for impressing a photographic plate? Does this datum speak in favor of full/empty waves?

    Consider the following experiment: a source of slow electrons emits in the direction z wave-packets with a group velocity 1000Km/s. The wave-packets are of Gaussian form in all three dimensions, with 0.1cm width. We pass the beam through a beam-splitter with such a small transmission coefficient that there remains on average 1 electron per wave-packet. The transmitted part of the wave-packets illuminates a photographic plate.

    From these data there results that the wavelength of the electrons is of the order of 10-7cm=10Å, and that a wave-packet crosses the photographic plate in 10-9s.

    The question is: how much time is needed for an electron of such a velocity to destroy a molecule of the photographic plate? Probably much less by orders of magnitude. Then, could it be that this fact tells us that the wave-packet is mostly ineffective (empty wave) and only a small part inside it (full wave) impresses the plate?

    Mohamed El Naschie




  • Robert Chia added an answer in Organizational Change:
    In the context of organizational change, how can process approaches be better than a planned perspective?

    Thinking more on the line of Tsoukas and Chia reasoning of emerging change rather than on the traditional views of change as exceptional in IO context. 

    Robert Chia

    Hi Sebastian, Kevin and Fernando,

    For me Kevin has articulated very well this process perspective which Hari Tsoukas and I have been keen to elaborate upon for quite a while now. Let me add a little to what he has written.

    Our outlook on process is not so much processes OF change to otherwise stable entities, but process as a fundamental feature of reality; hence the Heraclitean dictum (but of course the ancient Chinese philosophers thought this way as well, hence I Ching or the Book of Change). entities, structures, agencies and other forms of order such as 'organizations' are therefore precariously-held stabilities; like a tightrope walker they are a delicate balance between change and stability. So emergence and becoming is a fundamental feature of reality. Actions therefore are taken more to ARREST and momentarily stabilize this ever-changing substrate and it is the aggregate of these actions that produce relatively stabilized patterns of relations and interactions that we then label 'an organization' or better we call it a 'firm'. But why 'firm', if not because it is the firming-up of actions and practices that give organizations the appearance of solidity (that's why when our bodies become weak and unable to hold together we become INFIRMED and end up in an INFIRMARY!).

    But what does this mean for organizational change, as you rightly ask? First a caveat. to say something is 'Better' than another is to judge according to some criteria, and even more importantly, to judge according to a specifiable time-frame. Better today, may not be better tomorrow. Short-termist thinking may emphasise the immediacy of outcomes and neglect future unintended consequences; the financial crisis is one such example of how easy it is to overlook longer-term unintended consequences. So a 'process outlook' (or worldview) simply recognises that change is always already happening in the ongoing enactment and re-enactment of ordering actions that we call 'organization'. No structuring action is needed for change to happen; it is already happening. Since this is the case, the way to facilitate this change is to 'let change happen' by RELAXING our ordering and Stabilizing  IMPULSES. The changes that are already happening are 'unowned', they are not a consequence of agentic action (indeed agents themselves are 'effects' of stabilizing actions). Our only intervention consists in the TIMELY nudging and channelling of the changes already  taking place along directions that favour us in terms of what we aspire towards ( a bit like training a creeper plant to grow along a trellis). These 'nudges' are more like 'lighting little fires' and fanning them so they become a bonfire. This is ultimately a quieter, less spectacular approach to managing change; almost natural and unnoticed precisely because it is less dramatic and 'heroic' as compared to the 'grand plan' approach. The planned approach very often generates unintended consequences precisely because it intervenes too abruptly into the goings-on of an organization shatters the familiarity and harmony and generates resentment and  resistance because it is too singularly focused on its planned agenda; what the sociologist Robert Merton calls 'the imperious immediacy of interest' that then precipitates the unanticipated consequences that thwart planned initiatives.

    I hope this is not too long-winded and that it is clear enough. I am attaching a piece I wrote which may further expand on what I am saying. In short, the process outlook leads to significant shifts in how we approach organizational problem situations

  • Ronald Fricke added an answer in Descriptive:
    If a species is described from a whole specimen that is split into two or more museum lots, is the holotype both of the lots, or just one?

    Here's a question for the ICZN buffs out there:

    If a species is described from a whole specimen that is split into separate museum lots, is the holotype both of the lots, or just one?

    For example: I describe a novel species of snail from a specimen, and the description includes a description of the shell, the soft parts, and the radular anatomy. When depositing the specimen, I separate the shell and it gets a dry catalogue number. I separate the radula as well and it gets a separate catalogue number. The soft tissues get their own number and go into the wet collection. Are all of these lots still the holotype? Are they syntypes? They are all parts of the same organism but are obviously separate museum objects if they are prepared this way. 



    Ronald Fricke

    Agreed. The holotype is the complete specimen, i.e. the sum of all of its parts, no matter whether these parts are deposited in one or more museum collections.

  • Amir Borumand asked a question in Mesh:
    How to create multilayer mesh in NetGen?

    Hello all,

    I need to create a multilayer mesh for light propagation modeling.

    I use NetGn. In NetGen I create each layer separately and then merge them together. But when I run simulation it seems that only first layer is recognized and other layers are not considered by the software.

    Does anyone have an idea of what might cause the problem?

    to use my software I need a mesh file in a format containing node coordinates, node indexes of triangles, and node indexes of tetrahedra.

    Thank you.


  • Gwynn Alcorn asked a question in Natural Health:
    Is anyone researching the cause of Polymyalgia Rhementica?

    I was always a very slim yet strong hard worker. Just before I turned 70, I developed this illness, but it took many doctors 3 1/2 months to diagnose. And the only luke warm suggestions to get well are to take the Steroids - Prednisone and Methotrexate. Very disconcerting.

    I did have Fibromyalgia in my early 50s, but this is altogether different.  I managed to use natural health advice, experiment on myself until each symptom was gone.  Finally regained health and strength after 19 months of intense research on self and others with Fibromyalgia.

  • Anthony Rosato added an answer in Green's Function:
    Is there an analytical expression for the Green function of the 2D Klein-Gordon operator $\Delta u-k^2 u$ with Dirichlet conditions on the circle?

    Is there an analytical expression for the Green function of the 2D Klein-Gordon operator $\Delta u-k^2 u$ with Dirichlet conditions on the circle?

    Anthony Rosato

    Dear Prof. Torres:

    Let me refer you to my colleague, Denis Blackmore, in the Dept. of Mathematical Sciences at NJIT. I believe that he will be able to answer your questions. His e-mail address is:  denis.l.blackmore@njit.edu


    Tony Rosato

  • Nikola Stefanovic added an answer in Inappropriate Prescribing:
    Why many Eastern European countries did not establish clinical pharmacy service in the hospitals next to the patients? Who will deal with errors??

    According to the newest evidence more than 10 % of patients are admitted to the hospital, because of inappropriate prescribing and drug-related problems. More than 20 % of patients are treated within the hospital with at least one inappropriate prescribing medicine and between 2-5 % of all patients suffer from adverse events and more than 50 % of polypharmacy is used without any reason. Inappropriate prescribing is also very expensive, according to the newest data this bill costs over billion in many countries. Especially in western-oriented country clinical pharmacy service has been established next to the patients and other healt care proffesionals, however this trend has not been seen in many Eastern and Central European countries. Why these systems are not establish and in many cases patients are not well protected by serious inappropriate prescribing and medication errors? Why they do not reduce this bill for a more than half with clinical pharmacy service within each hospital (patients and payers should say: Don't Pay Another Bill Until You Pay This)?

    Nikola Stefanovic

    Thank you for your suggestions. We are on the way of the implementation. Everybody experience is always welcome.  



  • Joe Graymer added an answer in Cervical Cancer:
    Why certain cancers are not classified as infectious diseases especially in the case of cervical cancer and "some" smokers lung cancers?

    Cancer as of now is not an infectious disease. The Papillomavirus, virtually, causes all cervical cancers and yet cervical cancer is "not considered" as an infectious disease? Some lung cancers of the smokers could, justifiably, be caused by papilloma virus and or other microorganismes, then why at least these cancers are not labeled as infectious diseases?

    + 7 more attachments

    Joe Graymer

    Clusters of ALL have been reported, this pointed to Viral Oncogenesis, however, it seems the Genetic background is important too, not all kids infected with some viruses, eg, EBV, develop a malignancy. Search for viruses in Breast cancer, discovered in rodents, was fruitless, but the doubt remains, the concept of viral Oncogenesis in human Breast ca even arrived to a novel by the Spanish psychiatrist Luis Martin-Santos: 'Tiempo de silencio' (Silence time).

    I don't fully agree with G Schüpbach, CMV was linked to GBM, and some groups obtained improvements in GBM with Valganciclovir and Cidofovir, anti-CMV agents, the effect on tumors of H pylori eradication, or Macrolide therapy in some MALT Lymphoma is also of current use, I was told about an Spanish rural physician, many decades ago, who presented a publication about: 'gusarapa cancerae', 'cancer worm', because he though having detected worms in a pathology slide from a cancer patient, in the end, it were cotton strands from clothes...

    Thanks, + salut

  • Louise E Sinks added an answer in TCSPC:
    How can I increase start rate while measuring life time with TCSPC ?

    Dear friends, here i have one low emission compound, to measure its life time i have increased its concentration and slit width but there is no much increase in its start rate, here i am using HORIBA SCIENTIFIC TCSPC- FLUOROHUB,please suggest me how to solve this problem

    Louise E Sinks

    The previous suggestions in both threads are very good.  

    I will note that Increasing concentration too high can lead to quenching of emission, and not give the results you want (more signal).

    One other point, which was alluded to in your other thread- TCSPC is the best method of measuring lifetime of emissive species.  It is a pretty terrible method if  your compound isn't actually emissive.  In that case you should use a method like transient absorption to measure the lifetime of the excited state.

    When you start opening slits & using long acquisition time it becomes more likely that you are actually acquiring the emission of an impurity- for example, a student of mine carefully collected TCSPC data of a very, very weak emission showing up in a different wavelength region than our compound.  We eventually found that it was a plasticizer from some plastic syringes we used handle solvent/sample.  Our actual chromophore's emission was quenched due to electron transfer, so this impurity was actually as bright as our desired signal, which is why he thought it was important.

  • Thierry De Mees added an answer in Gravitation:
    Why is the gravity field a "strong field"? Is there any real evidence for this?

    The General Relativity is said to be a gravity theory for "strong fields", and Gravitomagnetism for "weak fields". I find absolutely no evidence for that.

    At the Earth's surface, we get a gravitational energy density of U= g²/(8 pi G) (Jefimenko, "Causality, Electromagnetic Induction and Gravitation") which is an equivalent mass of 0.6 grams/m³ according to the equivalence equation E=mc², and which is negligible compared with the Earth's mass and even with the mass of the air above us.

    Thierry De Mees

    @Michael Lashkevich: Thank you for your contribution. However, as a matter of fact, gravitomagnetism explains the gravitational time shift just as the one with electrmagnetic fields. It is the retardation due to the finite velocity c of the fields. These calculus leads to the correct inertial frame transforms.

    Gravitomagnetism deduces the correct bending of light near the sun, and can demonstrate that the motion of the sun in the Milky Way produces a field that perturbs the Mercury's perihelion with an extra 43"/century. (link to paper upon request)

    The Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) confirms the gravitomagnetic term of Gravitomagnetism to 0.1% and the Gravity Probe B confirms the gravitomagnetic term with a different method to only 1%. However, the GR results are only accurate with 20% (Thirring-Lense effect). (link to explanation upon request)

    Gravitomagnetism also shows that spinning centers (bulge in galaxy, the sun) makes all arbitrary orbits precess untill they become prograde in the equatorial plane of the central object. This results makes the need of "dark matter" superfluous, because the stars' velocities are almost constant in this picture. (link to paper upon request)

    About alleged strong fields: a black hole with 8 solar masses produces a gravitational energy of about the mass of the asteroid Ceres. This is only influencing the 12th significant digit of the field and can be totally neglected. So, even for black holes, the fields are not "strong", but weak. (details upon request)

    An extended study of Anatoli Vankov has shown that GR does not correctly explain the Mercury perihelion shift, because the Schwarzschild solution is not a full solution of GR. Einstein used several approximations that are not negligible and that make the calculated perihelion advance vanish. (link to paper upon request)

  • Marc Arakaki asked a question in Civics:
    With 2016 presidential debates in full swing, what are ways that debate organizers can use mobile devices to get you to engage in discussions?

    Campbell, S., & Kwak, N. (2010). Mobile Communication and Civic Life: Linking Patterns of Use to Civic and Political Engagement. Journal of Communication, 536-555.

  • Zaagane Mansour asked a question in Landslides:
    What is the relationship between earthquakes and triggering landslides?

    earthquakes, landslides

  • Imran Iqbal added an answer in Collagen:
    Which primary antibody is better to IHC staining collagen III and collagen I in mouse skin?

    Which primary antibody is better to IHC staining collagen III and collagen I in mouse skin? I need Cat Number.

    Imran Iqbal

    I have used Anti-collagenIII antibody (AB7778). Gives good results! cheers!

  • Behnam Moghtader added an answer in Polyethylene Glycols:
    What is the difference between PEO and PEG ?

    Can anyone tell me what the difference between polyethylene oxide and polyethylene glycol is.

    Behnam Moghtader

    i had a same question
    thank you all for answering

  • Yansong Xue asked a question in Culture Cells:
    Are there any protocols for cAMP extraction in cultured cell lines?

    Are there any protocols for cAMP extraction in cultured cell lines? I want to test the intracellular cAMP level with HPLC. Does anybody know any feasible ways could extract it. Thanks!

  • Jaime Cuauhtemoc Negrete added an answer in Urban Agriculture:
    Could you suggest literature about architectural integration of agriculture into the building envelope?

    I am just starting a research about building-related urban agriculture, and in particular farming practices taking place against/on/within the building envelope (rooftop and facades). is there any literature about architectural and spatial integration of the farming rooms into building or, even better, about buildings' architectural requirements for a proper integration ?

    Thank you in advance!

    Jaime Cuauhtemoc Negrete

    Dear Sivia

    Perhaps these documents online you can help



  • Antonio Bonacaro added an answer in Basic Life Support:
    Does anyone know surveys for assessing knowledge of basic life support in university students (or general population)?

    Anyone know surveys for assessing knowledge of basic life support in university students (or general population)?

    To evaluate the level of knowledge and training needs

    Antonio Bonacaro

    Have look at this article and you will find a questionnaire in it. Good luck with your study 


    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: • Simulation is a teaching method used to facilitate learning of Basic life support and Defibrillation (BlsD) techniques. This study explored the potential of two ways of teaching BlsD techniques in order to understand which one could be the best between Low-Fidelity Simulation and Moderate-Fidelity Simulation. • A sample (N=127) of nursing students was selected for this two group pre- post- test conveniently randomized design with 4-month follow up to compare two methods of simulation teaching. • Students were allocated to Low-Fidelity (LF) (n=64) and Moderate-Fidelity (MF) (n=63) simulation teaching. Early evaluation immediate post intervention demonstrated an increase of knowledge in each group (LF mean pre test score = 44, immediate post test score = 62.18, MF mean pre test score = 42, immediate post test mean score = 62.18). Post-test 2 (4 months later) showed that there are no significant differences between the two groups in terms of knowledge retention (LF mean score = 65.81, MF mean score = 61.45. p=0.721). • Despite the limit of small sample size, the study showed that the two teaching methods are equally effective in acquisition and retention of information on BlsD techniques. However the low-fidelity method was more efficient and less resource intensive.
  • Karolina Pantazatou asked a question in Lakes:
    How do I compare distance-to-water values computed at two different geographic levels?


    It would be great to get your feedback on the following question.

    My data set contains counties and their respective municipalities. I have computed the minimum distance to fresh water (lake or stream or river, etc) for all municipalities in a municipal layer, as the shortest Euclidean distance between the centroid of the municipality polygon and the border of a lake (polygon), stream (poly-line) or river (polyline). I have done the same for every county in a county layer, by calculating the shortest distance from every county's polygon centroid to fresh water (lake, stream, river, etc.).  

    Now I want to statistically compare the results from both layers to estimate how much the distance-to-water results differ from one layer to another. For example, what is the average difference in meters when calculating distance-to-water on a county-level rather than on a municipality-level? How much can the results differ depending on which layer is used? Does anyone know which statistical method is most suitable to solve this problem?

    Thank you in advance.

  • Cristina Goenechea added an answer in Migration Studies:
    Does anybody know some good references about young Spaniards living abroad?

    It would be useful for me to meet some survey about the labour situation of qualified spanish migrants

    Cristina Goenechea

    Thank you very much, Maryi!! 

    I´ll read it with interest

  • Neil J Calkin added an answer in Graph Τheory:
    Is it possible to reconstruct the adjacency matrix of a graph using the diagonals of its powers?

    Let G=(V,E) be a simple undirected graph with n vertices, and let A be the adjacency matrix representing G.

    It is a known property that in A^k (i.e., the kth power of A), the element at row i column j has a value equal to the number of k-length paths from vertex i to vertex j. Thus, the ith diagonal entry of A^k is the number of k-length paths from vertex i to itself.

    Does anyone know if it is possible to reconstruct the adjacency matrix A, i.e., determine all the values at every row and column, if the diagonals from a sufficient number of powers of A is known?

    Why this may be possible: 

    - The graph reconstruction is equivalent to solving for the values of a_(i,j), for all i < j in the adjacency matrix A. (Since the graph is simple and undirected, then a_(j,i)=a_(i,j) and a_(i,i)=0).  Thus there are n(n-1)/2 variables to be computed, each of which is either 0 or 1

    - Each element in the diagonal of A^k corresponds to an equation involving the the a_(i,j) variables.  This is because each of the powers of A^k can be expressed as dot products from A.

    - Thus in principle, if m powers of the adjacency matrix A is known, where m=ceiling( (n-1)/2 ), then there would be at least n(n-1)/2 equations from which all the unknown variables can be computed.

    Why this may be not possible: It is not obvious however (to me, at least) if the n(n-1)/2 equations stated above are sufficient. This is because it may be possible (unless proven otherwise) that some equation can be derived from other equations, e.g., a linear combination of some other equations. 

    I would appreciate any help, either an answer to this question, or at least  some directions that I may explore.  Thanks!

    Neil J Calkin

    One thing that you can recover is the degree sequence of the graph: for each vertex, this is the diagonal entry in A^2, since it's the number of walks from x to x of length 2.

    So you do get more than just algebraic information.  But I think that my example above shows that for general graphs, you can't do much better than that.

  • Douglas B. Sims added an answer in STELLA:
    Does anyone know any software for modeling lead and lead shot in soils at a shooting range?

    Hi everyone

    I've different soils from an abandoned shooting range, with two depths (0-15 cm and 15-30 cm). I'm seeking a software for modeling the lead behavior in these soils with these depths, specially the weathering of lead bullets and your fate in soils (years to complete lead bullet weathering, etc.)

    I've data of soil parameters [pH, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, lead content (total, CaCl2 extracted and DTPA)] and climatic conditions (precipitation and temperature).

    Also I have the migration rate of Pb in natural and polluted soils, approximate amount of pellets that were added to soil each year and number of pellets in each soil and at each depth.

    I've seen some works that use WHAM or STELLA, but these software are privative.

    Any know a free software, equation or a R package for simulate these conditions or weathering of lead bullet at these soil conditions?


    Douglas B. Sims

    Here is one more:  http://www.mass.gov/eea/docs/dep/toxics/stypes/lsersk.pdf

  • Robert Walker added an answer in Indigenous People:
    How do we explain the origin of private property in land?

    Demsetz bases his theory of private property formation on the anthropology of Canadian indigenes near Quebec during the fur trade.  He claims that soaring prices for furs stimulated the local indigenous peoples to form territories so they could more effectively husband their fur resources (mostly beaver populations).  My question is twofold:  (1) Did contact with the French devastate the indigenous populations as was the case further south, in both North and South American; and (2) did the privatization of the resource (in landed property) lead to local animal extinctions due to intense market pressure for furs?

    Robert Walker

    Very useful reflections and responses.  I thank all of you.