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  • Guilherme Moura Paredes added an answer in BibTex:
    Do you know of any tool (on Windows) to scan set of Pdf papers and generate BibTeX file?
  • Amit Madhu added an answer in Cotton:
    Suggest suitable method to measure protein content in cotton?

    I want to measure the protein content in cotton to justify the effectiveness of pre-treatment process. So suggest me suitable method for protein content in cotton material.   

    Amit Madhu · The Technological Institute of Textile and Sciences

    majority is of cellulose 95%, protein matter present as impurity which is to be removed during chemical processing

  • Sangram Krishna Nirmale added an answer in Braces:
    Is there any code or reference book available to design bracings?

    Is the design of the bracing elements, required for the analysis of multi-storied building subjected to lateral loading.

    Sangram Krishna Nirmale · Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology

    IS 800: 1984, Page No. 103 

  • Thomas La Cour Jansen added an answer in Diatoms:
    Has the overtone transition probability for diatomic molecules been derived?

    For anharmonic potentials, such as the Morse potential,
    higher order transitions with Dv = ±2, ±3, . . .
    are also observed. Such overtone-transitions are, however,
    much weaker than the fundamental transitions with
    Dv = ±1.

    Thomas La Cour Jansen · University of Groningen

    As the transition dipole is given by d*x you need the matrix elements of the position operator. For the Morse potential that is known (see attached file). This can also be found on wikipedia. If you know the transition dipole for the fundamental transition the overtones, sequence transitions etc. can easily be found using this equation. (Given of course that the Morse potential is a good approximation for your vibrational mode.)

  • Philip Lyons added an answer in Microbial Diversity:
    Is rarefaction essential when examining 16s amplicons from illumina NGS?

    I am examining 16s diversity from intestinal content of fish to look at the microbial diversity in each sample. Looking throught the literature, some papers use rarefaction analysis and some don't. Is it possible to compare diversity without losing so many sequences by rarefying? Is it possible to just report on each individual sample diversity so as to avoid losing so many possibly important sequences?

    Philip Lyons · University of Stirling

    Hi Fang, what if I'm just visualising what otu's are in each environment or anatomical site? Is rarefaction needed then?

  • Muhammad Naveed added an answer in BLAST Analysis:
    How i create a feature table for annotation of sequence submission in NCBI?

    Actually want to correct/edit my sequences which is already submitted to NCBI GenBank database and GenBank team said to do these:

    For sequence updates

    1. new sequence in FASTA format
    2. sequencing technology and assembly program used
    3. properly formatted feature table for new annotation
    4. supporting evidence for new annotation, such as:
    -RID of BLAST analysis
    -multiple sequence alignment
    -pdf of peer-reviewed publication justifying the specific annotation
    in the same or closely related species
    -evidence from wetbench experiments (such as RACE data, in vivo
    expression studies, etc.)

    confused how to create table as well as annotation, anyone help me out in this regards.

    Muhammad Naveed · Quaid-i-Azam University

    thanks dears,

    Dear Abid, Yup i got some point from presentation and searching for the 2nd part of the BankIt Webinar, then may be able to create tables. Actually i got trouble of submitted gene products means protein data.

    ok trying will disturb you bro again if got trouble.

    stay blessed  

  • Imran Khan asked a question in Slope Stability:
    I would like to know what are the recent method for slope stability?

    Please let me know the latest research on slope stability methods and how can we improve it further

  • Can we say " all medicinal plants have phytoncides"?

    What are phytoncides and active substances differences? are they the same? 

  • How do I create a knowledge base for question/answer system on a text ?

    Please let me know how to create a knowledge base for question answer system on a text. 

    I have been trying to understand how to go about it, but I am clueless so far. Please help me . 

    Your suggestions are much appreciated, thanks in advance 

    Abdelrahman Osman Elfaki · University of Tabuk

    This is very nice tool for Prolog


    Try it and I am sure you will enjoy it

  • For residential buildings, what are the key influencing factors of energy use?
    Various factors, including climate, building envelope and energy services systems, operation and maintenance, indoor comfort conditions, and occupant behavior, affect energy use in buildings.
    Vitalis Agati Ndume · University of Dar es Salaam

    All depend, when in Africa  or un developed  area  what matter  is  affordable  land and cost o building.  This might not the case  when you are in Europe  where  coaling  and heating is the important factor.

    But people need service, where available social services and even business services , that area will have highr demand

  • Marie Askholm asked a question in Blood Culture:
    Why is MSCs from blood (peripheral and umbillical) typically cultured in a media with a higher content of serum, than MSCs from other tissues?

    In general it seems MSCs from blood is cultured in media with 20% and 30% FBS, compared to MSCs from other tissues (bone marrow, adipose tissue etc.) witch is often cultured with 5-15% FBS. 

    why it that? In what way is PB-MSC og UCB-MSC different and require a higher content of serum?

  • Mark Bond asked a question in Heart:
    Does anyone have info on the shear modulus of healthy and fibrotic heart?

    Does anyone have info on the shear modulus of healthy and fibrotic heart? I need values in Shear modulus, not Youngs modulus.

  • Anyone familiar with Buffer Additions to Limit Protein Affinity for Mica Surface to Enable AFM Imaging/Plating at Higher Concentrations?


    I'm attempting to image some transmembrane heterotetramers that have been investigated with X-ray crystallography. We're hoping to verify some of the conformers we predicted with the crystal structure, however this protein has been difficult to work with compared to most proteins. It has a very high affinity for the mica surface, so much so that even at a concentration of 1 nM I am getting near complete coverage of the mica, even with 5-10 second plating times. At such a low concentration, the oligomers are falling apart, and we see mostly monomers and dimers, which is a problem. On the cell membrane, these proteins form receptor units that tend to get very close to each other at high concentration, so the physiological behavior of this protein will only be observable at a higher concentration.

    My question is this: Does anyone know of some tried and proven additions to a buffer that would diminish the affinity for a protein to the mica surface? We know that salts, both monovalent and divalent, have a huge impact on the binding affinity of DNA to mica, but I haven't heard much about proteins, although I would assume that salt concentrations, buffering systems, and the presence and concentration of things such as glycerol will have an impact on a protein's affinity for mica. If anyone on this board has found something to have this effect, even if just anecdotally, it would be a great help to us. My goal is to plate at 10-20 nM if possible, but the higher the better.

    My current buffer is fairly simple: 50 mM Tris pH 7.2, 150 mM NaCl.

    Best regards,

    Navid Paknejad · Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center

    Thanks Willem - this is extremely useful!  I'll post in the future if there is any success.

  • How we can prepare different plant extracts for phytochemical analysis?

    there are different methods available for extraction. Kindly suggest which one is best and why?

    Eshak Mourad El-Hadidy · Agricultural Research Center, Egypt

    by 1- boiling water  2- by ethanol or methanol extract  3- by acetone, the best solvent  4- by hexan when mix solution between polar and non polar solvent (hydrophobic and hydrophelic solvent). 

  • Hengky S H added an answer in Stress:
    What is stress?

    How can stress be measured? What are the health complications which can be directly related to stress?

    Hengky S H · Universiti Utara Malaysia

    The stress response is the body’s way of protecting you. When working properly, it helps you stay focused, energetic, and alert. In emergency situations, stress can save your life—giving you extra strength to defend yourself, for example, or spurring you to slam on the brakes to avoid an accident.

  • Pugazendhi Erusappan added an answer in MDCK Cells:
    Is there a fluorescent streptavidin to visualize Sulfo-NHS-Biotin labelled surface proteins? Company, concentration and protocol would be useful?

    In polarized MDCK cells I am attempting to label proteins on one cell surface and monitor their appearance on other side as a result of endocytosis or transcytosis

    Pugazendhi Erusappan · University of Bergen


    I used Alexa Fluor 350 conjugate of NeutrAvidin biotin-binding protein. I used it for looking at matrix proteins.

  • How can we use Stanford TokensRegex to design patterns within Stanford CoreNLP?
    It will be appreciated if I could have examples with code, tutorial or any other useful resource.
    R.V.s. Lalitha · Sri Sai Aditya Institute Of Science & Technology



  • How much increasing CO2 into the atmosphere affects the global temperature?

    As we all hear recently that CO2 concentration into the atmosphere has increase (as far as I remember) 390 ppm. Keep in mind that the report mentioned that the critical concentration of CO2 must not exceed (as far as I remember) 350 ppm. The question is: how much will this deference (i.e. 350 to 390 ppm) affect the global temperature?

    Harry ten Brink · Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands


    "during LIA is explained by the solar activity minimum in that period; why NOT the current warming can be explained  by increased solar activity"

    The answer is: there is not such a change over the past century to explain it. You can check this everywhere by googling

  • James Varghese added an answer in RG score:
    RG score and impact points should be considered by Universities for selecting faculties?
    It is always a tough task for universities to select the best faculty. RG score and impact points of scholar may reflect underlying talent and potential of the candidate. So, RG score and total impact points may be used as criteria to select the best faculty by universities.
    James Varghese · Universiteit Twente

    I agree with Prof. Pandey's opinion. RG score cannot be a 'barometer' to measure the worth of a person for any faculty position. I have noticed that sometimes people with high RG scores have amassed their scores just based on up-votes via asking and replying to questions and through frequent communications with people who have high scores in return. These so called high scorers do not necessarily have many peer-reviewed publications to their names even though they might be highly rational and knowledgeable people which is reflected in their comments, statements and answers. Although these up-votes and down-votes cannot be compared to 'likes' or 'dislikes' of social networking tendencies, still there is often an element of subjective or personal biases involved. As long as we have other rigorous indexes like the H-index, we may not automatically need less objective alternatives like the RG-score yet. Nevertheless, I have to admit that RG is a great educational and learning resource haven for all who are interested in research, especially for budding researchers who read, study and pick up ideas and thoughts from the works and efforts of established and distinguished researchers. It reminds me of Isaac Newton's letter to Robert Hooke, "if I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants". A very humble statement from a 'giant' himself.

  • Uma Gupta added an answer in Laparoscopic:
    Is there laparoscopic training box especially for laparoscopic Gynaecology now? and do you think that is it useful?

    is there laparoscopic training box especially for laparoscopic Gynaecology now? and do you think that is it useful?

    Uma Gupta · Era's Lucknow Medical College and Hospital

    Pelvitrainers either a box or even innovative models of pumpkin are made. Manual holes for laparoscope and other accessories, to the extent suturing is also practiced.Pelvic models with simulators having uterus and ligaments are also available

  • Is it normal to have a standard deviation value higher than the average value?

    Hi there, this is the second time I calculate the standard deviation value and the number is higher than the average. I wonder if this case is normal and what is the simplest explanation to such result? Thank you in advance...

    Eshak Mourad El-Hadidy · Agricultural Research Center, Egypt

    no, means value larger than SD or SE, if another case the design of experiment may error 

  • Argyrios Zolotas added an answer in Ranking:
    A number of university ranking setups exist. In the (not far) future ResearchGate could be accepted as another legitimate university ranking approach?
    For one, see Times Higher Education or Shanghai ranking. These do steer a number of discussions on university rankings every time the updated lists are published. Hence, university ranking could be seen as an evolving mechanism (?).

    Please note the question reflects the fact that RG is evolving, and what potential it may have.
    Argyrios Zolotas · University of Lincoln

    Thanks for your contribution Abdulghefar.

  • Michael Brückner added an answer in E-Learning:
    Can any one suggest me ontology on education system or for e-learning system?

    i wan an ontology for provide a personalized data to learner from online learning system .i.e e-learning , for that i needed a e-learning ontology data.

    Michael Brückner · Naresuan University

    Thanks, Krishnan for your answer and Gopal for your question. I'm about to create and publish an ontology for 6-12 schools (and maybe beyond = tertiary). So, hopefully, I may benefit from appropriate contributiions here. 

  • R.V.s. Lalitha added an answer in OCR:
    How do you scan a large book to extract the text out of it (specifically, what OCR technique can be most efficiently used.)?

    I have a requirement to scan large documents and extract the text out of them. How should we scan the book and what ways are the most efficient ways of doing this. How can I do this in the most efficient way and be able to get the most accuracy from an OCR program.

    R.V.s. Lalitha · Sri Sai Aditya Institute Of Science & Technology


    This pdf tells survey of OCR techniques. You can use this as existing and modify for the better approach.

  • Eshak Mourad El-Hadidy added an answer in Phenolic:
    How to calculate the total Phenolic content ?

    How to calculate the phenolic content from the values of absorbance? 

    Eshak Mourad El-Hadidy · Agricultural Research Center, Egypt

    phenolic content, absorbed to 730 nm, standard by tannic or catechin or gallic acid. coloremetric method is a simple method (pholin-Dien) or (pholin-coecaltueau). its very important if you need diultion, and very important separate blue solution to precipitate 

  • Mohamed Adel Hammad asked a question in MATLAB:
    Is there any multi-class SVM classifier available in MATLAB?

    I applied SVM classifier for my ECG recognition problem. It works nicely for two classes. But it can not be applied to multi class problem. Is there any approach or matlab code available?

  • Harry ten Brink added an answer in Global Warming:
    Is the green house effect or global warming responsible for climate change?

    What are the main causes of climate change? How do they influence climate change, and in what ratio? 

    Harry ten Brink · Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands

    Pinatubo was a natural phenomenon too

    And who are the everyone who choose(s) 1998 as the reference. Certainly not the climatologists.

  • Dejenie A. Lakew added an answer in Perception:
    Is Extra Sensory Perception (ESP) for real?

    Often times, we hear about para-normal activities such as Extra Sensory Perception (ESP), etc. What does Science about ESP? Can ESP be real?

    Your comments are welcome.. Muchas Gracias.. - Dr. Sundar

    Dejenie A. Lakew · John Tyler Community College

    I like string theory for its fancy and mathematical arguments on the existence of extra dimensions the space we live in has, which they call it hidden/curled dimensions.

    Our activities and decision making processes are not due to information we get merely from our senses. For instance we anticipate and make decisions on that anticipation. We imagine and make a reasonable and knowledge based arguments and make a rational/irrational decisions on that.

    Our cognitive power and hyper consciousness on self and things around us make us creatures of  nature with hyper sensual understanding of things and events that are out of our common senses.

  • Harry ten Brink added an answer in Greenhouse Gases:
    Is CO2 increasing in all the levels of troposphere? If yes, in which way the global warming is influenced by the different temperature of CO2 layers?

    In climate change/global warming studies, the Stefan Boltzmann
    formula is often used to estimate the amount of radiant energy which
    escapes outward into outer space from earth. The formula is derived
    under the assumption that the relevant emissivity of the emitter is a
    constant for all wave lengths, and its temperature exponent is 4. However,
    the earth’s greenhouse gases permit radiations to pass through
    the atmosphere freely only in some specific wave length windows. It is
    shown that the wave length dependence of emissivity can change the
    effective temperature exponent of the Stefan Boltzmann formula. (Source: Lam, H. S. (2007). On the Effective Stefan-Boltzmann Temperature Exponent of the Earth).

    Harry ten Brink · Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands


    Increasing CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere means increased surface temperature

    Skeptical meteorologist agree to that too. So why would you be skeptical about that? The actual question is the feed-back of the climate system with respect to the extta water in a warmer climate.

    This climate sensitivity is the key factor where opinions differ between meteorologists

  • Universe is static!!! Yes or no?

    Space of Universe is static! Yes or no?

    Question: Are there any observations that do not fit into the model static space of Universe, are there any theoretical obstacles to the existence of such a model?

    I assume that the Universe is eternal, infinite and static, it is not expanded and not curved, it is possible to construct a preferred inertial frame of reference in which the CMBR is most isotropic. The matter in this space evolves, but the average density of matter and energy (in large enough volumes) fluctuate within a rather broad range.
    The light in this model is "tired", the speed of light depends on the optical density intergalactic medium. Gravity is also "tired" t.i. weakens a little faster R2. The energy of destroying matter goes into the surrounding vacuum. The excess energy from the vacuum give rise to new particles of matter.

    I state that all the observed cosmological effects can be explained in such a Static Model of the Universe.
    See attached "Basic_Cosmological_Formula_1_En.pdf"

    Dear colleagues, I do not ask, what are the problems faced by other theories (though I would be interested in your opinion on that. The General theory of relativity is not applicable to the entire space of the Universe).

    Johan Frans Prins · Sage Wise 66 (Pty) Ltd

    Dear Erkki,

    I have not divided by zero anywhere. This was Einstein's major expertise which is still the major trick being used in cosmology when they model "black holes". But this is another issue.

    An electron has rest-mass m(0): Therefore according to Galileo a free electron's centre-of-mass must be stationary within an inertial refrence frame (IRF). Within all other IRF's it is moving, and to obtain this motion you have to transform its stationary coordinates within the IRF in which it is stationary into the coordinates of the iRF within which it is observed as moving. Asume the electron's centre-of-mass is stationary at O' within K', If the time within K' is t', the moving coordinate of this centre-of-mass within K is x=(gamma)*(vt'). According to an observer at O within K the relativistic speed of the centre-of-mass is x/t'=(gamma)*v, and therefore its momentum is p=m(0)*(x/t')=m(0)*(gamma)*v=m*v where m-(gamma)*m(0).

    Now, transform the coordinates of the stationary diameter d of the electron: I am not going to do all the mathematics since it is in textbooks. But one obtains that the diameter becomes longer to be D=(gamma)*d, and a phase-time difference is present across this increased length. I have done this calculation in two of my manuscripts that are available on ResearchGate as well as a publication in Physics Essays. So I am just going to give th answer: And that is that a free electron moving with a speed v IS a coherent wave with a phase speed v(p)=(c^2)/v so that the wave equation that models it IS a Maxwell-type equation with double time differential.

    Multiply and divide the equation for v(p) with the mass m of the electron: One obtains that v(p)=(m*c^2)/(mv)=E/p=((hbar)*(omega)/((hbar)*k=(omega)/k as one has for a coherent light wave, modelled by Maxwell's equation, but which is moving with a phase speed v(p). One would not obtain this answer if one did not include the mass of the electron, which includes its rest mass: So how can you argue that rest-mass is not included when using thisequation to model a moving electron-wave?