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  • Should 'Environment Education' be made a compulsory module or subject in primary and elementary education?

    Primary education provides a child, foothold and foundations in various subjects like Science, Mathematics, Languages and Social Studies. However, we notice that even today when almost all of us talk about Environmental problems, Pollution, Sustainable Development, etc. we still fail to get such ideas through to our children during their early strides in education.

    Don't you think that children must be taught environment education at a very very early stage, so that they start identifying with their environment and surroundings? Moreover, it is well known that brain development is at a incredibly high rate during the early few years.

    Environment education in the forms of Environment Science and Environment Management as Bachelors or Masters programmes, are taught at a very large number of universities all over the world, debated at almost all international forums, all economic summits, and addressed through various policy initiatives by most cross-border organizations. But still we have failed to create and instill a sense of belonging, and a need for more harmony with the ecosystems that we inhabit. 

    Perhaps the key to Environmental Harmony and our global problems could very well lie in the hands of primary education?

    Would appreciate your thoughts and insights regarding this.


    José Zanon de O. Passavante · Federal University of Pernambuco

    Concordo plenamente com o Sr. e no inicio da nossa vida que podemos aprender mais facilmente sobre o meio ambiente e aplicar os conhecimentos durante toda a vida.

  • What are the best sources for Military Veterinary Medicine?
    Are there many theoretical sources and practical experiences published in the field of Military Veterinary Medicine? Where are they? Can anyone provide any literature of references?
    Emmanuel Dumas · Ministère de la Défense

    Vous trouverez occasionnellement des articles de médecine vétérinaire militaire dans la revue française "Médecine et armées" :


  • Yorgos J. Stephanedes added an answer in Probit:
    Which type of regression model can one use when the predictors are binary and the dependent variable is non-binary?

    If you score a sentence based on the presence or absence of an error, the score is dependent on the error hence the predictor (error) is binary and the score is non-binary. Is it possible to apply some regression model in such a case. As logit and probit regression models apply to cases that are reverse of what I need. Any other method for solving the issue?  

    Yorgos J. Stephanedes · University of Patras

    Ok, it is clearer now. 

    It looks like an interesting experiment. I see that you may have enough data for potential findings.

    I assume that you do not care to find the bias of each sentence as you may already have integrated this in your study. Therefore, i propose that you keep it simple and begin by running 6 main experiments, each including the dataset that is relevant to one error. Please include only sentences with one error.

    FOR EACH EXPERIMENT: Run in 2 steps. Step one runs 45 models (one for each individual) and each dataset includes 100 data for each individual. Step two combines all individuals in one model.

    What do you think?

  • Stefan Born added an answer in Algebra:
    Does anyone know a clear proof for the existence of Clifford algebras?
    The standard proof runs as follows: You start with the tensor algebra of the vector space in question, say V. Then you take the quotient by the ideal generated by elements of the form

    v \otimes v - q(v) 1 , for all v in V

    Here q is the bilinear form on V. That works for me, the problem comes when I try to see that this ideal is not so big (the ideal is proper and non trivial). The standar reference [H.B. Lawson , M.L. Michelson, Spin Geometry] says; well calm down, this is not a big deal. Take an element in the intersection of this ideal with V, then in one hand this element has the standard expresion as a sum of products of elements in the ideal with elements in the tensor algebra. On the other hand, is an element of V, so all the term of maximal degree should be zero, and then comes the obscure trick I can't figure out. He takes a weird contraction with q, and concludes by induction that the previous fact (elements of maximal degree vanish) imply that the element itself is equal to zero.

    Please, if you can clarify this last part (or gave me a fresh reference where I can find another proof scheme) I'll be grateful.
    Stefan Born · Technische Universität Berlin

    I think the 'trick' is just the linearity of the map   a_i \otimes (v_i \otimes v_i) \otimes b_i \mapsto a_i q(v_i) \otimes  b_i.   (A bilinear map on V \times V defines a linear map on V\otimes V by the universal property of the tensor product). Thus a sum that is zero is mapped to a sum that is zero.  The  puzzling effect might  stem from the use of the word 'contraction' that is dear to the tensor people  and which just means a linear map on the tensor product that decreases the degree. In coordinates the 'contraction' of v\otimes v to q(v) is  something like \sum_{ij} v^i  g_{ij} v^j , where g_{ij} would be the matrix elements of a symmetric bilinear form that corresponds to the quadratic form q. The 'tensor people' (especially theoretical physicists and some differential geometers) call this a contraction with respect to the indices i and j.

  • Liar Manager!

    Dear All, what would you do if you discover that your direct manager is a big liar; and lying on you? My question seems weird, a bit; but it happens. Please share your experience and thought. Thanks.  

    Ra'ed (Moh'd Taisir) Masa'deh · University of Jordan

    Dear All Respected Professors, thank you so much for your contributions, I appreciated you all so much.

  • Osman Doluca added an answer in FITC:
    Does anyone have a protocol for labelling DNA oligonucleotide with FITC (Fluorescent dye)?

    We have FITC in our lab and we don't want to use any kit for labeling, if possible. I am not able to find any protocol online for labeling.

    Osman Doluca · Massey University

    you need to order a oligonucleotide with an amine modification, and react with FTIC to produce thiourea.
    R1NCS + R2NH → R2NC(S)NHR1

  • Microorganisms limits

    what is the microorganisms limits on the medical product? or İs there a regulation for microorganisms limit?  especially this products are using heart surgical operations.

    Hi Vildan

    Please see the attached articles

    Best regards

  • Crimea, Syria, Turkey, Egypt and many more, can someone help me to connect the dots?
    For a couple of years, we have been experiencing lots of turmoil in Middle East as well as in Eastern Europe. We seem to be experiencing "power-shifts" and there might be a bigger picture than the individual unrest and upheavals. I was wondering what the "big picture" might be ? In other words, I need a political "binocular" if possible.
    James Matthew Stewart · Tiffin University

    It's intriguing when you study the history of U.S-Russian relations and how each perceives each other's interests and actions. It's amazing how misperception and assumptions cloud rational thought. For example, when Ukraine's former President temporarily cancelled its association agreement with the EU, people protested and the U.S intervened. Russia, feeling threatened by the possible loss of its strategic buffer to the EU and the West, intervened. They annexed Crimea due to its support for the ethnic Russians (ethnic Russian enclave that comprises 60% of Crimea's inhabitants), its naval interests in the Black Sea (Sevastopol), its economic interests (pipelines traversing through Ukraine), and geopolitical ambitions. Thus, the Cold War rivalry was conjured from its crypt once again.

  • Mostafa Azadbakht asked a question in Inductor:
    Inductor Model


    i went to design VCO in CMOS-90nm Technology so i need to accurate model of inductor for simulation in cadence virtuoso.

    i can't design inductor so i must use the Existent inductor.

    can anyone help me for have information about this problem?

  • N.C. Markatos added an answer in Fire:
    Can a fire to spread between two openings of different floors in contiguous and orthogonal facades via an atrium?

    An office building has an atrium in its center. Its top is open.
    The cross section of the atrium is rectangular. There is a sill (spandrel) with 120 cm high separating windows (vertical direction) of the same facade. My question refers to openings in different floors and different facades with right angle to each other.
    Are there bibliographies on this subject? In NFPA 80A I have seen nothing.

    N.C. Markatos · National Technical University of Athens

    5. G.Cox,et al ,Fire Safety Science, Proc. of 1st Int.Symposium, pp159-171, 1986

    6.G.M.Stavrakakis , N.C.Markatos, "Simulation of airflow in one- and two-room enclosures containing a fire source" , Int. J. of Heat Mass Transfer,52(11) pp2690-2703,2009

    7.N.C.Markatos , Asia-Pacific J. of Chem.Engineering ,7, pp182-205 ,2012.In this one you will find a Figure similar to your problem Fig.19, which you can get at www.apjChemEng.com

  • Isn't it true that children in poor countries must work to feed themselves and their families?

    That is an image that has been portrayed and may seem acceptable to some. But the reality is that children wouldn't have to work if employers paid their parents a living wage and if governments made affordable education for all children a priority. And most child weavers are working in debt bondage, which means that they do not even earn a wage. What do you think? 

    Eddie Seva See · Bicol University

    We have laws that protect children. But sadly, very poor families allow their children to work with exploitative employers. Enforcing the laws will just anger these families. This just indicates that such laws must be accompanied by better alternatives livelihood to these families.

  • Syed Muslim Shah added an answer in Neural Networks:
    How to generate binary samples for two input xor gate to train neural networks in matlab

    to simulate neural network training of xor function, two input signals with 32 binary samples

    Syed Muslim Shah · Mohammad Ali Jinnah University


    NumInputs = 2;

    Bits=rand(NumInputs ,N)>=0.5;


  • Jason Bruck added an answer in Ethics:
    Could the concept that mammals other than humans have ethics be investigated?
    There has been a long-running discussion on RG in answer to the question "In what way does animal ethics differ from human ethics?" posed by M. Ramachandra Mohan. From the answers it is clear that there is disagreement over whether any species other than Homo spp. are (or have been) capable of thinking ethically. I have suggested that a whale species might be selected as a "model for the experimental investigation of animal ethics" and also "that this can be done by learning how to decode whale conversations." I know that there have been attempts to decode the meaning of the complex sounds that whales exchange, but as far as I know the question of there being an ethical content has not been considered. Is it feasible to do this in the long term?
    Jason Bruck · Oklahoma State University - Stillwater

    To your point Barry, I think Hawking said something to the effect: "It is not clear that intelligence has any long-term survival value". 

  • Osman Doluca added an answer in Transcription:
    Do eRNAs remain attached with the template DNA or are detached and float around?

    The last couple years have seen several reports of enhancer RNAs (eRNAs and similar transcripts) that aid enhancer- and activator-dependent transcription. Arguably, a chunk of 5' end of the eRNA can remain attached with the template DNA and stick out; or can float around after being detached from the template; or can exist as a long tract of triplex along with the template. I would like to exclude the third possibility. Nonetheless, does anyone know what is the most prevalent scenario of the eRNAs inside the cell? Any theoretical arguments in support or against these possibilities?

    Osman Doluca · Massey University

    triplex formation is strongly sequence dependent, so I would say, even if a triplex formation is occurring, it would be only partial, and the rest of the eRNA would have to be sticking out. But triplex formation is possible given that the circumstances are met. 

  • Eddie Seva See added an answer in Mutualism:
    Is it time to do research on bargaining failures that lead to war? How can the bargaining process be successful?

    In times of global awareness and desire for global prosperity, why should we have war at all?  Have we not learned lessons from two large scale world wars?  Can the gains from the conflict ever outweigh the human lives lost?  We know that we don't want wars.

    'In an important paper, Fearon (1995) points out the criticality of bargaining failure for war. Basically, if rational agents come to the table with mutually consistent beliefs about the potential outcome of a costly war, then they should be able to reach a bargain to avoid it. In such a situation states can agree to split resources as they
    are expected to be split by a war, and then gain the extra surplus of the avoided
    destruction and costs of war.'

    Eddie Seva See · Bicol University

    Wars result from a man's, a family's, a society's desire to be always "number 1". Only when the number 1 decides to be number 2 will diplomacy work.

  • Community Management Journals

    Do you know an international journal where I could publish research works in Community Management?

  • Ginger Moore added an answer in Glycerol:
    Why do my permanent cells have very low activity?

    I usually store my mutants E.coli cells in 50% glycerol at -80. But I found after 2~3 years storage, when I took them out and did a new transformation, the protein activity was pretty low. The cells grow normal on plates and the quality of plasmid miniprep looks good on gel. But it takes longer time for cells growing when I grow them in liquid media for assay. I just wonder whether the plasmid goes bad in the permanents storage? Even the activity of my wildtype from permanents is pretty low.  Please help me figure out this mystery. Thanks

    Ginger Moore · University of Florida

    Yes, that must be it because I have seen this with IMAGE clones from Open Biosystems stored at -80C only for a few years. Glycerol stocks are unreliable for sure. You can even elute  the prepped plasmid with ultrapure ddH2O and store at -80C for many years. 

  • Saeid Safavi added an answer in ANS:
    How to reshape an audio file ?

    i m using wav file 

    [funky ,f]= wavread('funky.wav');


    ans = 

            375061          1

    how to reshape it now becuase i have applied different ideas but all are giving errors

    Saeid Safavi · University of Birmingham

    Hi Amina,

    This example could be helpful:

    Reshape a 3-by-4 matrix into a 2-by-6 matrix.

    A =
    1 4 7 10
    2 5 8 11
    3 6 9 12

    B = reshape(A,2,6)

    B =
    1 3 5 7 9 11
    2 4 6 8 10 12
    B = reshape(A,2,[])

    B =
    1 3 5 7 9 11
    2 4 6 8 10 12

    "Example from matworks.co.uk"

  • Titus Sobisch added an answer in Nanoparticles:
    What about the environmental persistence of engineered nanosilica ?

    I would like to learn more about the persistence in environement of silicon dioxide nanoparticles. Does someone work on the nanosilica life-cycle ?

    Titus Sobisch · LUM GmbH

    as said this is complex. Further aspect which needs study is how adsorbed contaminants may modify the environmental cycle of silica particles.

  • Eddie Seva See added an answer in Publication:
    If a researcher publishes some results in English, and then a part of them in other language, should it be treated as two publications?

    Is there a rule that a title of the second publication should be ended with something like "Translation of the <Title of the 1st publication>, shortened form"?

    What about full translation?

    What if a couple of new sentences are added in the second publication?

    Eddie Seva See · Bicol University

    I think, in part, this matter goes back to the basic essence of plagiarism. Copied articles even if translated must be properly cited and acknowledged. The point here is not about publishing an English article published in an English journal in translated form to a non-English journal, but whether that article, in the process was properly cited and quoted.

  • Saeid Safavi added an answer in Linguistics:
    What are the main differences between children and adult speech?

    I know that this question is too general, but I want to get opinions on the possible ways to split these differences into several groups, eg. “Acoustic and linguistic differences”.

    Thank you very much in advance.


    Saeid Safavi · University of Birmingham

    Thanks for your explanation, yes i believe that it is one case which they are different from each other. It would be great if you could please provide me references for your answer.

  • Maohong Fan added an answer in Furfural:
    Is it possible for dehydration of xylose to furfural to occur in the absence of heat?

    Based on references I've read, the dehydration of xylose to form furfural requires heating (most of them above 100°C) in the presence of a strong acid. However, I was wondering if it's possible to bypass the heating process.

    Maohong Fan · University of Wyoming

    Ms Ma.Roselette Laserna Alojado,

     The feasibility of the reaction depends on the reaction conditions. Please calculate the change of Gibbs free energy of the reaction UNDER THE CONDITIONS you have for the reaction. 

  • Maohong Fan added an answer in Simple Methods:
    How to calculate the uncertainties of experimental data ?

    I worked in Liquid-Liquid equilibrium of Water + Ethanol + dichloromethane ternary system and I wanna estimate the accuracy of my experimental data.please can anyone  give a simple method to calculate it?. Thanks for your help.

    Maohong Fan · University of Wyoming

    Dr. Bacha,

    Please see the attached file for a method.

  • András Bozsik added an answer in Lighting:
    What conditions are necessary for you to work comfortably?

    This question is not intended to be used to design a work environment.  

    Answers can consider any type of conditions that help your work.  As examples among others, you might focus on sound levels, or you might focus on particular types of illumination, or any other conditions you personally deem good for you to work.

                         Please freely discuss with each other.  

                         Thank you very much for your feedback.  

    András Bozsik · University of Debrecen

    Dear Cecilia,

    You were so afraid of a mantis. Look at it, it is so pretty!

  • What nowadays are the pro's and con's for Cochlea Implants?

    Since the first trials to help deaf people to become "hearing" (whatever they were hearing then) by the aid of a cochlear implant in the 1960ies, as of December 2012, approximately 324,000 people worldwide have received cochlear implants (according to wikipedia).
    Are there recommendations or dissuasions for Cochlea Implants, especially in young (age 1-2 years) and is there strong evidence or are there exclusions to subject babies to such a treatment of (even partial, inner ear, 80-90dB hearing treshold) deafness? Are there other "therapies" or "treatments" (including hearing aid) to support or increase hearing and / or intellectual capabilities? What do you think about the responsibility of parents (and doctors) to do "their best" for deaf-born children?

    Max Stanley Chartrand · Northcentral University

    Anthony, while I worked for Cochlear Americas during the 1990s and conducted and participated in a good deal of their research during that time, I recall that a good 80% of the older CI recipients were acquired cases of deafness as a result of medication ototoxicity, which we dubbed "burned out Meniere's" cases. We also learned that otoscolerosis takes place in the cochlea and its incidence was quite high in older adults with severe and profound losses. So many previous perceptions on how people lose their hearing and the case history mileposts along the way, have been smashed because of what we learned from early recipients of CIs.

    Admittedly, though, some of the data may have changed since the criteria for candidacy has changed so much, bringing many less profound and severe losses into the CI population. Perhaps someone closer to the more recent data can enlighten us on this. But I suspect the newer data has only confirmed what we were learning in the early days, and that the need for avoidance of toxicity and other other assaults on the hearing mechanisms has only increased as more and more people need the cochlear implant.  

  • Luke Paul Crocker added an answer in Martial Arts:
    What would be an effective way to get connected with researchers who are interested in martial arts research?
    I am interested in martial arts and physical abilities, but not excluding other points of views.
    Luke Paul Crocker · Classical Martial Arts Research Academy (CMARA)

    My experience has been simply to be active in many different places, both online and offline. Through this I have a massed a few key researchers and many mediocre participants. My main tip would be to search and interact on Facebook pages and groups,  as well as academia.edu and LinkedIn. No shortcuts here it seems.

  • Eddie Seva See added an answer in Curriculum:
    What is your opinion on the combined Masters/PhD programs in some universities?

    Some universities offered combined Masters/PhD programs with a modified curriculum plan.

    Eddie Seva See · Bicol University

    I have not experienced it, but I have friends who told me about it, it is like a masters degree continued to a doctorate degree. Once a student has hurdled the longer, very rigorous masters level, he can proceed to a "shorter" doctorate. I think it has some advantages, like a shorter total duration.

  • Amina Dilawar asked a question in Audio:
    I need a code for embedding audio file inside a grayscale image ? if anyone knows any link which helps me please mention it here

    code for embedding audio inside image

  • Stefan Born added an answer in Optimization:
    What is the role of alpha (In combining regularisation terms)?
    This may be a stupid question, but I was just wondering why you guys use a convex combination of the two regularisers? This isn't necessary to maintain convexity. Am I correct in saying that any linear combination of the regularizers will still form a convex problem?

    I can see that the alpha effectively weighs in group sparsity or more general sparsity, but what if we want to look at a case where we have high group sparsity and high general sparsity? Did you consider treating the regularizers with different lambdas?

    I have seen the convex combination (1-alpha) R1 +alpha*R2 used for regularization in other papers also, so perhaps there is something obvious I am missing.

    Nice paper though!
    Stefan Born · Technische Universität Berlin

    To write an abritrary nonnegative combination    a_1 R_1 + a_2 R_2 as
    \lambda (\alpha R_1 + (1-\alpha) R_2)  happens to give a nice interpretation to the coefficients:  \alpha as the 'mixing parameter' of the two regularisers and \lambda as the overall regularisation.  Of course, it doesn't really matter how you write it as long as there are two parameters...

  • Tomi Dahlberg added an answer in Startups:
    What Small Business can learn from Startups ?

    There are many articles distinguishing between Small Businesses Vs Startups . Apart from major differences such as access to resources and scale at they desire to operate, I believe there are many common areas of business that each can learn from the other. Though the goals of Small Business could be very different from a typical Start-Up, are there any lessons and or key takeaways for a small Business owners from Tech Startups?  For Eg: What a local gourmet-Cup Cake maker can learn from any of the Food Startups ? 

    Tomi Dahlberg · Turku School of Economics at University of Turku, Finland

    There are many kinds of start-ups and SMEs. Therefore it is difficult to provide a generic answer to this question. I focus on start-ups, which aspire to grow rapidly in their domestic markets or internationally. The latter group includes so called born-global companies. These companies are that small minority of start-ups, which interest venture capital. Mentioned type of start-ups typically struggle with the triangle of growth, profitability and funding (cash-flow). SMEs could learn from them how to handle this difficult issue. Another typical feature of these start-ups is their drive, flexibility and focus on innovations. Due to drive  and flexibility start-ups are quick to learn and adapt their offering to the feedback they get from their (prospective) clients. This is something that SMEs, who seek to grow, could learn and benefit from since they already have a  client base.

    As the markets and customer relations of start-ups are often poorly understood, that may lead to side tracks, which could be hazardous in the worst case. Avoiding that is another issue that SMEs could learn if they want to grow rapidly. Finally, key questions in the analysis of start-ups questions such as: (1) What is the unique product or service with related value offering that makes the start-up unique and valuable to its customers are those ideas protected with relevant IPRs? (2) does the start-up have a competent team to execute business? and (3) Does the start-up have a clear understanding about its markets, market penetration and resulting cash-flow (business model, realistic understanding of markets, competitors, etc with sufficient contingencies)? A SME or any company could learn from this by answering these questions