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  • Hemanta K. Baruah added an answer in Mathematics:
    How do you explain mathematically the physical differences between two mango trees or between any two members of any living beings of the same type?

    The physical differences between two mango trees are not random. In what way can we explain such differences mathematically?

    Please note that this question is not about pattern recognition. It is about the possible mathematical explanation of the differences between two living beings of the same type.

    Hemanta K. Baruah · Bodoland University

    But how? That was the question!

  • Reza 67 asked a question in FLUENT:
    Is there any way to don't mesh a solid part in conuction ?

    hi everyone
    i'm silulation an U-pipe which containing a fluid and both of them are in the soil. so there is three part (2 solids and a fluid)

    the pipe has a small thickness. is there anyway to don't mesh the pipe and only assume it's conduction is ansys fluent ?
    i try to use shell conduction but because of conjugate heat transfer and interface boundry condition in fluid and soil's wall  i couldn't use that . is there anyway else ?


  • Isabel Hutan asked a question in TiO2 Nanotubes:
    Mechanical property of anodic TiO2 nanotube?

    Please tell me about the mechanical property of anodic tio2 nanotubes, are they fragile, if they are how can I make them rigid?

  • Any recent research examining the relationship of personality disorder to the therapeutic relationship?

    Any research on patient personality disorder as it impacts patient-therapist interactions or the therapeutic alliance since 2010.

    For example: Tufekclioglu, S., Muran, J.C., Safran, J.D., & Winston, A. (2013). Personality disorder and early therapeutic alliance in two time-limited therapies. Psychotherapy Research. 

    John Christopher Muran · Adelphi University

    Thank you, Adriano.  Yes, I'm not aware of such research, but I do encourage more research on treatment failure - or when things get difficulty - my bias for sure.  Best, Chris

  • Marco Brotto added an answer in MATLAB:
    Does anyone have a matlab function to calculate Dimitrov Indizes to estimate muscular fatigue from dynamic EMG-signals?

    In the article by Dimitrov (2006) new spectral indices are presented to estimat muscular fatigue in dynamic contractions. I´m looking for a matlab function to calculate these indizes.

    Marco Brotto · University of Missouri - Kansas City

    This was a PHD dissertation: Development and validation of a fatigue-modified, EMG-assisted biomechanical model of the lumbar region
    Omid Haddad, Iowa State University

    There might be more info at http://lib.dr.iastate.edu


    Marco Brotto

  • Isabel Hutan asked a question in TiO2 Nanotubes:
    Time for TiO2 anodizing in one step?

    I want to grow TiO2 nanotubes from a foil or plate with 2mm thickness, I want to grow them in one anodizing step, how much time I need to anodize? and will be the nanotubes aligned well? 

  • Is the formation of Myeloid derived suppressor cells a two signal or one signal procession?

    As DI Gabrilovich reviewed before (Nature Reviews Immunology 9, 162–174), it might be a two signal procession to induce functional MDSC (expansion-activation), now I want to ask if someone has any experience to induce MDSC from mice bone marrow cells which only bearing gr1 cd11b markers but has no immuno-suppressive function? And if we can treat these cells as the first phase of MDSC (expansion but not activation)? Thanks.

    Hamid Reza Mirzaei · Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    Hey Hao,

    MDSC by definition are pathologically activated immature myeloid cells. MDSC are either monocytic and close to monocyte (immature mononuclear cells) or granulocyte close to neutrophils but quite distinct from those cells.  In conclusion, immature cells (or immature BM-derived cells) with suppressive activity are called MDSCs otherwise the cells with the same phenotype are either monocytes or precursors of neutrophils without suppressive activity.



  • How do yo determine which small RNA or RNAs are acting on a particular gene?

    I'd like to see if either microRNA or siRNA affects the translation of my gene of interest (protein). I understand that there are kits which detect small RNAs from total RNAs but how can I specifically look at the particular small RNAs which interferes the protein translation of my gene(s) of interest.


    Harindra Sathkumara · University of Colombo

    Hi Arun, Thanks a lot. But my original Q was how exactly to determine which miRNA or siRNA would possibly bind and repress the the translation. Then I can clone or introduce as you had suggested. Thanks

  • Do you can compensate chromatic dispersion for single mode fiber smf 28 with a photonic crystal fiber whose dispersion slope = 0.05μm-1??

    do you can compensate chromatic dispersion for single mode fiber smf 28 with a photonic crystal fiber whose relative dispersion slope = 0.05nm-1

  • Sajjad Ahmed Memon added an answer in Photons:
    What is the differences of the monitor unit (MU) calculation method between the Report of the AAPM TG 71 and the old method?

    "Monitor Unit Calculation for External photon and electron beams : Report of the AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group No.71"  --> published 26 february 2014.

    Is it the newest method?

    and then is it applicable for cobalt-60 (treatment time calculation) ?

    For each formalism of MUs calc which uses isocentric or PDD formalism, what is the difference in monitor unit (MU) calculation method between Report of the AAPM TG 71 and the old method?

    In last method,field size determinations for Sc,Sp&PDD in SSD technique are same value. But in aapm 71,there are different. How about it?

    Please discuss it here! :))

    Thank you.

    Sajjad Ahmed Memon · Nuclear Institute of Medicine & Radiotherapy (NIMRA)

    AAPM TG 71 can be applicable for cobalt-60 for treatment time calculation but it wholly used for LINAC for MU calculations. in report MU can be replaced by Treatment Time in formalism.

  • Can anyone explain to me how I could use diffusion of innovation theory as a theoretical framework for research on awareness and perception?

    I am conducting a research on awareness and perceptions amongst Nigerian librarians about RDA ( the new library Cataloguing code). I need a theoretical frame work for the study.

    Matt Holland · National Health Service

    Diffusion of innovation is a good model for libraries. I think the role of the model is to help improve innovation takeup by understanding the process of innovation and the tactics to employ to employ to enhance and speed up the process or make it more effective. How information is disseminated and how to make that dissemination better and more effective. I did write about this. There are links below but only one is full text. Sorry about that. Good luck.

  • Saulius Kaciulis added an answer in Graphene Oxide:
    Can the X-Ray beam reduce a Graphene Oxide monolayer in an XPS?

    In an XPS can the Xray beam reduce monolayer of Graphene Oxide? 

    Saulius Kaciulis · National Research Council

    Never saw it on GO samples. We did it on many samples by using old type double anode source and monochromatic Al source focused to 200 - 500 micrometers. The samples never have bee reduced.

  • Marco Brotto added an answer in Muscle:
    What is the most important muscle to resistance exercise in rats?

    In the context of ladder training.

    Marco Brotto · University of Missouri - Kansas City

    Based on a 2003 JEP paper by SUKHO LEE AND ROGER P. FARRAR it was the flexor hallucis longus (FHL). RESISTANCE TRAINING INDUCES MUSCLE-SPECIFIC CHANGES IN MUSCLE MASS AND FUNCTION IN RAT. Sukho Lee, Roger P. Farrar. JEPonline. 2003;6(2):80-87

    Best Wishes,


  • Can we find anti neuronal antibodies ( as Yo) in autoimmune diseases?

    Is anti neuronal antibodies is exclusively found in cancers?

    Maria Jeziorska · The University of Manchester

    Also: neuronal antibodies are present in CSF of patients with encephalitis developed in the course of Hashimoto's thyreoiditis.The most investigated are anti-neuronal antibodies in SLE.

  • Isabel Hutan asked a question in TiO2 Nanotubes:
    Ti Plate or Foil?

    I want to grow well aligned TiO2 nanotubes, so the foil are costly rather than plates, which one of those is better? 

  • Are there any good stimuli sources for a facial attractiveness research?

    For my master thesis purposes I need a couple of standarized photograpies of masculine faces with diverse level of attractiveness. Does anyone know some open source where I could find them, or should I create the stimuli by myself?

    Jakub Klecki · University of Silesia in Katowice

    Thank you very much for all of your replies, they are really useful!

  • Katarzyna Styła added an answer in Azocasein:
    In Protease assay which substrate (Azocasein or casein) and method should be undertaken?

    Many literature I followed for protease assay but I am little bit confused about what substrate should be taken for the assay. Yes casein is cheaper than azocasein. But is there any differences among them I mean all the two are universally accepted or not. Kindly suggest as I am new in Protease enzyme. Thank you in advance. :-)

    Katarzyna Styła · Polish Academy of Sciences

    In my analysis of soil in an apple-tree orchard after replantation I was using casein as a substrate for measuring protease activity by the method Ladd and Butler (1972). I have not met with another substrate as azocasein as substrate. Also, it is difficult to tell me what the activity of this enzyme is added casein and azocasein.

    Ladd N., Butler J.H.A. 1972. Short-term assays of soil proteolytic enzyme activities using

    proteins and dipeptide derivatives as substrates. Soil Biol. Biochem., 4, 19-30.

  • Saulius Kaciulis added an answer in XPS:
    How much powder sample is required for XPS analysis?

    I am  going to characterize

    powder sample by using XPS

    Saulius Kaciulis · National Research Council

    Practically, for any type of the instrument is enough to have a few mg of the powder. About 5 - 10 mg is the maximum amount that will be used even for large spot XPS analysis.

  • Boon Chin Tan added an answer in Agrobacterium:
    Which agrobacterium strain is best for transformation of DREB1A gene with 35s CaMV promoter in rice?

    I need to know about best agrobacterium strain for transformation in rice...Thanks in advance 

    Boon Chin Tan · University of Malaya

    Agree...we usually use LBA4404

  • Marco Brotto added an answer in Astrocytes:
    Can you help me designing a calcium imaging experiment?

    I want to design a Live- cell Calcium Imaging experiment on some cells. I have four groups Control, Stimulant, Stimulant+ Drug/ Inhibitor, Inhibitor Alone. Should I perform experiments for each experiment independently and then compare them or I can use combination like: Vehicle will act as baseline control for stimulant (recording in vehicle for 5- 10 min and rest 30 min after addition of stimulant); inhibitor alone as baseline control for stimulant plus inhibitor. But with this strategy I won't be able to compare inhibitor alone and control conditions... Also, the cells have to be treated with inhibitor for 90 minutes.... Please guide me how to design this experiment. 

    Marco Brotto · University of Missouri - Kansas City

    You already received excellent suggestions. One thought for the long duration treatment with inhibitors is to start the treatment during the loading and de-esterification of your calcium dye. Compare with one that you don't have the drug, if your loading and responses are the same, it would save a lot of time and you would get better cells at the end I think

  • Philipp Altmann added an answer in Social Movements:
    What are the recent critical sociological perspectives on social movements?

    The critical theoretical perspectives in sociology of social movements with special reference to the new social movements, the Dalit and Tribal movements in India in the contemporary period. 

    Philipp Altmann · Freie Universität Berlin

    Mauricio, I just checked Nietos page - but it seems he does not work social movements at all (but rather "history" in a more narrow sense) - could you provide us with a reference, please?

  • Yash Punjabi added an answer in Brassica:
    I needed 28- epibrassinolide for my experiment. Can anyone provide me a proper guidance about the purchase of this chemical?

    I have to give hormone treatment on Brassica.

    Yash Punjabi · Somaiya Vidyavihar

    It should be available with Sigma-Aldrich.

  • Where did the Post-Concussive Disorder of DSM-IV end up in DSM-V?

    Like the question says, does anyone know what happened to the Post-Concussive Disorder of Appendix B in DSM-IV, in the DSM-V-revision? Did it end up as the "Major or Mild Neurocognitive Disorder Due to Traumatic Brain injury"? And, does anyone know of good articles that discuss the DSM-IV vs DSM-V diagnoses? Or Discussions of the DSM-V diagnosis and either the WHO, CDC or ACRM consensus definitions of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI)?

    Chandramouli Balasubramanian · National Health Service

    Completely agree with Prof. AG Gordon...Great Q Prof> Einar Tryti.......

    Major or Mild Neurocognitive Disorder Due to Traumatic Brain injury, the term itself is at best a BASKET term. To illustrate i paste 2 articles..

    Although not specifically addressing the DSM 4/5  Q,


    Mild traumatic brain injury (i.e., concussion) occurring among soldiers deployed in Iraq is strongly associated with PTSD and physical health problems 3 to 4 months after the soldiers return home. says this article:




    Some people may have a specific genetic variation in their brains that increases their risks for developing major neurocognitive disorder due to traumatic brain injury (TBI dementia), the Alzheimer’s Association reports. In addition, current research shows that Alzheimer’s disease and traumatic brain injury may both produce similar neurocognitive disorder-promoting changes in basic brain chemistry. Generally speaking, the nature of the treatment used to combat TBI-related neurocognitive disorder varies according to the specific dementia-producing condition present in any given individual.


  • Amin Khajeh added an answer in CFRP:
    How can I model CFRP sheet with it's epoxy material in Abaqus?

    I have composite steel-concrete girder and I want to bond CFRP sheets to the top of concrete slab. CFRP sheets have also epoxy material with different properties, how can I model it and what the type of element and features shall I use?

    Amin Khajeh · Putra University, Malaysia

    Dear Darwish,

    Please find this link "http://www.simulia.com/download/Webinars/Central_Composite_Series/"



  • Marco Brotto added an answer in Amphotericin B:
    Is beta-escin the best option for perforated patch recordings?

    Although I think most people use amphotericin B in perforated patch recordings, I find everybody say good things about using beta-escin in perforated patch.

    Is there any disadvantage for beta-escin?

    Marco Brotto · University of Missouri - Kansas City

    I agree with Kozak. Has anyone ever tried alpha-toxin?

  • Saulius Kaciulis added an answer in XPS Peak:
    What is the relevance of C correction in XPS analysis?

    I have taken the XPS of Ti3SiC2 and after deconvoluting the peaks, it shows the following peaks without any correction.

    for C1s at B.E.  281.1eV ( very small),  288.3eV ( medium intensity ) and 293.4eV ( high intensity)

    for Ti2p at 462eV, 466eV (high intensity), 472eV

    fro O1S at 539 eV ( intense) and 535eV ( less intense and broad)

    What may be the reason for the peak shift?

    whether the C correction is mandatory in XPS analysis? while doing the Correction which peak in C1s spectrum have to be considered? The one which is more close to the reference value or the most intense peak?

    I will be happy and thankful if anyone can help me to solve these questions.

    Saulius Kaciulis · National Research Council

    Usually, almost on any kind of sample is present the contamination of aliphatic carbon at the BE = 285.0 eV. However, for the start it is necessary to know if your X-ray source (Al or Mg?) is monochromatic. If not, you can have the contribution to all photoelectron peaks from X-ray satellites.

  • Aron Roland added an answer in Unstructured Grids:
    Can anybody give some good reference howto compute 3rd and 4th order spatial derivatives on unstructured triangular grids?

    For the higher order extended wave action equation we need to computer higher order derivatives on unstructured grids, any hints suggestions are welcome.

    Aron Roland · Technical University Darmstadt and BGS IT&E GMBH

    Many thanks,

    we are seeking something for arbitrary irregular grids, since we are using a priori error estimates and in future even adaptive grids, there is no chance for exploring grid regularities, however, many thanks for the hint! 



  • Marco Brotto added an answer in Purkinje Cells:
    Does anyone know how to maintain whole-cell condition with the antibody in your glass pipette?

    Hi, nowadays i am trying to apply channel antibody into cerebellar Purkinje cell.

    However, every time I tried, whole cell condition went bad in 10 minutes (even initial condition was quite good).

    Cerebellar Purkinje cell, especially its dendrites, is rather larger than other cells, so I should wait at least 20 minutes until the internal solution spread out enough.

    I can see the common problems in Rs configuration; decreasing holding current, increasing leak current by time.

    If you know any know-how, please let me know

    thank you 

    Marco Brotto · University of Missouri - Kansas City

    Have you tried manipulating levels of cations, since especially calcium and magnesium will significantly stabilize the cell membrane. Also, you could try adding a 0.1 or even 0.05% albumin to increase the survival of your cells