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  • Saraniya Bharathi added an answer in Polymerization:
    What is the best temperature for the polymerization of styrene/DVB in suspension polymerization?

    I want to synthesis polystyrene-co-DVB beads by suspension polymerization. Is there any relation between temperature and process time in suspension polymerization of styrene-co-DVB?

    What starting primary temperature to final temperature (80°C) do we have one path in time-temperature coordinate or there is more than one path? And what is the relationship between temperature and molecular weight of the polymer?

    Saraniya Bharathi · Biozone International

    Increasing temperature from starting to end will give better result and %of PS and DVB also important parameter., monomer change to polymer by suspension polymerization so temp should be need to increase., i agree R.Selva information..

  • Ming Sang added an answer in Autophagy:
    How does the receptor RIG-I modulate the autophagy of macrophage?

     RIG-I is one of the receptors of innate immunity.

    Ming Sang · Wuhan University

    Thanks for your kind answer!

    How does IFN-lambda modulate the autophagy? have some references?

  • How I will get green shoots from callus of rice anther culture?

    During initiation of regeneration of rice shoots from callus of anther culture, I just get white colored shoots. So can you please suggest , how I will get green shoots from the same?

    Yuan-Yeu Yau · Northeastern State University

    Hi Deepak,

    "Lights" may play an important role in transform those white (albino) shoots into green. See attached paper (2011). In the paper, it describes the important factors which can turn the albino shoots, derived from rice anther culture, into green. 

    "Recovery of Green Plantlets from Albino Shoot Primordia Derived from Anther Culture of Indica Rice (Oryza sativa L.)"

  • Saraniya Bharathi added an answer in SELEX:
    How do I perform Peptide synthesis with SELEX?

    I'm going to synthesis of peptide about 30 mer for DNA aptamer SELEX. Is it necessary to design it with peptide design software like something is down about peptide in phage display? 

    Saraniya Bharathi · Biozone International

    Based on peptide properties you may need to design your work., i agree R.Selva..

  • Gudrun Lang added an answer in Stem Cell Markers:
    While working with multiple antibodies in IHC, does it matter to run all antibodies individually or is it OK if they run all together?

    I am currently working on stem cell markers (5 markers) on cervical cancer patient tissue. Some one suggested me to run all the markers together for one tissue then proceed with next tissue sample.


    I can run one whole batch of samples with one antibody then other.

    Will it make any difference?

    Gudrun Lang · Allgemeines Krankenhaus Linz

    I would also recommend to stain one antibody after the other. From technical point of view it is better to know first, that the marker works on all types of tissue. If one of it fails because of the need of a different AB-titer (eg high expression vs low expression), you have to restain all your specimens with the new titer for a valid comparison.

    And there are usually less variations, if you provide one larger amount of working solution instead of serveral times making a small amount.

    Do you work on FFPET? Have in mind, that the prepared sections for IHC should be stained within maximal 2 weeks. Too long storage can influence your antigens.

  • Giulia Amico added an answer in 3' RACE:
    Is it possible to carry out a 3' RACE on DNA sample?

    I carried out MLPA assay on this DNA sample, and I found a deletion which encompass from the middle of the gene to the its end.

    I have to confirm this result with PCR. LONG PCR is complicated because the deletion comprises the end of the gene and the risk to amplify only the wild type allele is very high.

    I think to carry out 3' RACE to discover the deletion breakpoint, I can use a primer in the middle of the gene in order to go on until I will find the deletion.

    Is it correct? Other ideas are well accepted

    Giulia Amico · IRCCS Istituto G. Gaslini

    Dear Michela Barbaro, thank you so much for your answer. It is a great idea!

    Now I am testing this MLPA kit for this gene, but I will consider your solution actually.

  • Saraniya Bharathi added an answer in PAHs:
    Why does Phosphate buffer increase the water solubility of PAHs?

    I am using 20mM phosphate buffer at pH = 7. It increased the solubility of dibenzothiophene and its alkylated homologeous. 

    Saraniya Bharathi · Biozone International

    Phosphate buffer just alter pH so your solubility getting increased, i agree selva chemist

  • Hazim Hashim Tahir added an answer in P Value:
    Dear all .... Anybody have any idia about how to calculate IC50 and p value ?

    Anybody have any idia about how to calculate IC50 and p value?

    Hazim Hashim Tahir · Ministry of Science and Technology, Iraq

    Dear Colleague,

    first of all try and see the following youtube to calculate EC50 & IC50 using Excel.(link 1 &2).

    Secondly, see this third link, it is very easy to follow.(How to compute EC50/IC50 in Dose Response fitting)

    finally, I want you to read the articles that attached for you.

  • Louis Brassard added an answer in Cognitive Systems:
    Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.

    Dear Simon,

    I greatly appreciate Argre's narrative of his AI studies.  I was doing my AI vision studies in the same years and I also came to totally reject the epistemological basis of the whole AI and computational vision field. Like him I engage into an intense experiential practice of paying attention to my visual experience in parallel with a wide range exploration of all the human knowledge and its history.  The road has been rewarding but like Agre communication with peope entrenched became a nightmare. I had read Agre and Chapman works and I had been impressed at the time.  The problem of comprehension between cultural framework is well described in a paper by Michael Polanyi, ''The Stability of Beliefs''


    ''the continued application of doubt seems to have converted all forms of faith into implicit beliefs, ensconced in our conceptual framework, where they elude the edge of our scepticism.''


  • Helene Sandmark added an answer in Health Promotion:
    How are jobs in Health Promotion classified in other jurisdictions?

    In the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, the job classification of Health Promotion is being downgraded from health care worker to clerical - see http://www.nsgeu.ca/filemanager/pdf/HANSClassificationList.pdf.

    I am looking for evidence to refute this re-classification. Are there any examples of how health promotion is classified elsewhere? Thanks!

    Helene Sandmark · Ramazzini Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden

    Health promotion could not be tranfered to clerical staff unless they are involved in health promotion in work life such as health promotion in the leadership.

  • Saraniya Bharathi added an answer in Lipid Bilayer:
    How can I solve this error in GROMACS while simulating the lipid protein pull?

    I am trying to pull the peptide through the lipid bilayer using GROMACS 4.5.6 double precision but getting the following error while carrying it out. 

    Program mdrun_d, VERSION 4.5.6
    Source code file: pull.c, line: 329

    Fatal error:
    Distance of pull group 1 (5.326382 nm) is larger than 0.49 times the box size (5.435044)

    What could be the probable reason for the same and how can i remove that?

    Kindly help.



    Saraniya Bharathi · Biozone International

    You should change your instrumental input based on your compound requirement, because of this small box size you got this error, i agree selva chemist

  • Suresh Kumar asked a question in Nickel:
    I have deposited SiC on nickel substrate, the coating is evident from SEM images?

    only substrate peaks are coming. What can be the reason. Please suggest any other methods to confirm the coated material composition.

    XRD was carried out at 0.3 deg incident angle

  • Saraniya Bharathi added an answer in UV Radiation:
    Does anyone have a FALGA peptide UV spectrum?

    I am working with FALGPA peptide to evaluate collagenolytic activ ity of an enzyme, but I think it might be degradated. Does anyone have a UV spectrum of FALGPA I could compare mine with? Thank you!

    Saraniya Bharathi · Biozone International

    UV spectrum not give any valuable information of peptides, so go for some other as like selva chemist suggested may helpful for you..

  • Saeed Shanehsazzadeh added an answer in ImageJ:
    How to measure the length & area of an irregular object in a image using image J or by other sofrware?

    I need to trace the length of neuron processes after Golgi cox staining method. What will be the suitable procedure for the measurement with reference to the known scale bar in the image?

    Thank you in Advance.

    Saeed Shanehsazzadeh · Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI)


    go to above website and use Clemex software

  • Teresa Bejarano added an answer in Adaptation:
    What is your view of intentionality and intention understanding in evolution?
    Often intentionality and finding the intentions behind an action is considered a high level brain function. This is evident in TOM (theory of the mind). A rational approach requires however time consuming mental processes, as illustrated by the elaboration of psychological theories. Hence, approximate, even incorrect intention attribution, in a more bayesian perspective, has a heuristic value in behavioral adaptation This relates to the renewed interest for the citation : «ces mystères nous dépassent feignons d'en être les organisateurs» from Jean Cocteau, Les Mariés de la tour Eiffel (1921). Thank you for intuitively as well as theoretically informed comments.
    Teresa Bejarano · Universidad de Sevilla

    This is not an answer. I merely add more questions.

    Intentionality and intention understanding, did they arise simultaneously in evolution?

    Intentionality has to do with relatively early evolutionary acquisitions (distal perception and animal consciousness). Yes, I accept this. 

    But, with regard to intention understanding, it must be differentiated (this would be the first, most urgent task) from expectations ('predictions') of events. These expectations would be present early in evolution. What about other type of intention understanding?

  • Amipara Manilal D added an answer in HFSS:
    Are there any companies that design microstrip patch antennae from HFSS?


    Amipara Manilal D · Balaji Institute of Engineering & technology, Junagadh

    I do not know the purpose of the question, but

    Basically, design is a job of engineer/designer. There are antenna manufacturing companies who does this. But, generally company designs for their own requirement/s. Engineers/researchers/students should design their own antenna.

  • Douglas R. Daugherty added an answer in Teaching:
    Could we teach anything else than subject matter anyway?

    Teaching is teaching something: that is mostly subject matter, a disciplinary content or whatever other content. The key word here is content. What else?
    Many people believe this. What’s your opinion?  

    Douglas R. Daugherty · University of New Mexico

    Dear Domenico,

    It sure would appear to be as Kevin and JC state, but is there an argument to made that the the need to have a conditional is conditioned? I am thinking about the human imagination, or the mind. In this sense are we not liminting both potentials?

    For example, someone comes up on something unseen before, is that independent? I would also think that infinity is independent. The first view of randum and formless paint and colors and in a 2d cube. Until someone defined it to be abstract art I would contend it was independent.

    I believe what I am pointing out is if we believe all things are "all ready" contained in a domain then teaching becomes solely just an expression of what has been memorized, and learning is just that memorizing. I think this is false, limiting, and harmful to both teacher and learning.

    I argue that wonderment, imagination, and expression are independent by definition. If not the so to is freedom, thinking, potential, and love are all dependent and determinism wins.


  • Davor Virkes added an answer in Spectrum Analysis:
    Do you have any suggestion on fabricating ultra wideband omni antenna for spectrum measurement ?

    Can you suggest a practical and easy method to fabricate an ultra wideband antenna (~300MHz - 6000 MHz), to be used for spectrum measurement (with a spectrum analyzer of 50 Ohm  input impedance).

    It does not have to have a fixed gain over the entire range. The most important aspect is to know its gain variation w.r.t the mentioned frequency range, with as much stable gain as possible.

    Davor Virkes · University of Zagreb

    As lower as better. Gain is often just an obstacle in surveys. It just adds to signal spatial fading variation.

  • Saraniya Bharathi added an answer in Neuron Culture:
    What's the best amyloid-beta 1-42 to buy whilst being not too expensive?

    What's a good amyloid-beta 1-42 peptide to be used in neuronal cell culture and where can I get it from (whilst not being too expensive)? 

    Many thanks,


    Saraniya Bharathi · Biozone International

    You try GreyMatter Research foundation., they will provide very good support.. i have received some valuable information from them

  • Tejaswi Lakkundi added an answer in Fluoride:
    What are possible sources of Fluoride in Groundwater ?

    Please suggest me details sources  (natural and anthropogenic) of Fluoride in groundwater. Also give me about technique used to know this sources in natural or   anthropogenic?

    Happy Merry Christmas and New Year 2015 to all of you..

    Tejaswi Lakkundi · Karnatak University, Dharwad

    Although there are different sources of groundwater-fluoride, most of dissolved fluoride comes from natural mineral sources. The primary natural mineral sources for dissolved fluoride in groundwater are fluorite, fluorophosphate apatite, micas (biotite, muscovite and fluormica-phlogopite), amphiboles etc. However, it is the dissolution-rate which determines the quantity of fluoride released into the groundwaters - as a result, for example, micas although containing lesser F when compared to fluorite/apatite, release more F into the groundwaters. Anthropogenic sources include some fertilisers and industrial effluents.

    A simple way to identify mineral sources (both, natural minerals and those through secondary sources like fertilisers) for dissolved fluoride in groundwaters is through "Inverse Geochemical Modeling" by using programs like WATEQ4F. However, for this, identification of a source mineral depends on the constituents which have been analysed in groundwaters. For example, if you have not analysed the water sample for silica (SiO2), the program will not identify any silicate source-mineral!

  • Mahmoud Ali added an answer in Running:
    HPLC: Do I need to change the timing of my buffer gradient with a longer column?

    We are changing the column that we are using on our HPLC from a 50mm column to a 250 mm column to get better peak resolution. I am wondering if I need to change the timing of my buffer gradient along with the increase in run time, or if I just need to increase the run time for each sample? 

    Mahmoud Ali · PhD student in institute of Graduated Studies and Research, Alexandria, Egypt

    Try this file. It is a method transfer. Just write your current column diameter and conditions and the new column diameter and it will calculate the new gradient.

    I hope that will help you.

  • What are the best soft wares for primer design?

    Polymerase Chain Reaction is widely held as one of the most important inventions of the 20th century in molecular biology. Small amounts of the genetic material can now be amplified to be able to a identify, manipulate DNA, detect infectious organisms, including the viruses that cause AIDS, hepatitis, tuberculosis, detect genetic variations, including mutations, in human genes and numerous other tasks.

    Now I want to design primers for detection of cancer cells apoptosis by myself, and need help to guide me for a good soft ware. TQ

  • A. V. Davydenko asked a question in Ultrathin Films:
    What cruicibles should I use to deposite MgO and Al2O3 by E-beam evaporation?

    I want to evaporate MgO and Al2O3 to grow ultrathin films. The thicknesses will be about 2-3 nm. I have high temperature effusion cell (up to 1900 C) and e-beam evaporators EFM 3 and 3T manufactured by Omicron. Will I able to evaporate oxides by effusion cell? Who has experience of doing so? What is cruicible material? And what is the best cruicible material in the case of e-beam evaporation?

  • Ash Hirpa asked a question in Energy Management:
    Is there any difference between energy management and power management in electricity? and if there is how?

    I am wondering if the difference between energy and power is just one is the time rate of change of the other. I wanted to know from the management point of view the difference between them. If there is any economic benefit to the management approach in either of the two quantities.

  • Saraniya Bharathi added an answer in Polysaccharide:
    Is there any reaction to bond Amine (-NH2) group to Hydroxyl (-OH) gorup?

    In our synthesis, the hydroxyl gruop of a polysaccharide should be attached to an Amine group of another molecule which has two amine group in both end of its molecular structure. 

    Is there any mechanism or specified reaction to bond these two functional group together?

    Saraniya Bharathi · Biozone International

    You follow peptide amino acid coupling method and increase little temperature as selva chemist suggested...

  • In what way does animal ethics differ from human ethics?
    Barry Turner · University of Lincoln

    Ethics represent an abstract form of thinking and to date abstract thought has not been observed in any animal apart from Homo Sapien Sapien

    While animals are clearly conscious and possess emotions these are not abstract thoughts.  Emotions are an evolutionary development that facilitate survival of the species.  Motherly love for instance invokes protection for the young and fear, anger and aggression 'fight or flight' when under threat.  Emotions do not need an ethical basis and can be purely selfish.

    For ethics to be developed the animal would have to have a collective conciousness and a sense of shared ideals. These arise out of an ability to not only look back into the past but look forward to the future as a society, not just as an individual.  No animal is aware of the history of its species or concerned about the survival of its species or that of others.  

    Everyone should read the superb book Why Zebras don't get Ulcers by Robert Sapolsky.  Zebras don't get ulcers because they don't spend their lives worrying.  They use their emotions to escape from lions but they don't worry about them unless they are around.  Zebras don't get ulcers because ethical conundrums never bother them.

  • Saraniya Bharathi added an answer in Copper Complex:
    How to calculate the quantum yield form the fluorescence spectrum?

    I have synthesis some of fluorescence copper complexes.  i took fluorescence spectrum. can any suggest me how to calculate the  quantum yield......... 

    Saraniya Bharathi · Biozone International

    Almost selva chemist provided link will give information

  • Mohammad hossein Palizdar added an answer in SAS:
    Does somebody have the SAS formula to analyze the data?

    I have an experiment having 3*3 factorial arrangement plus a control group.

    Mohammad hossein Palizdar · Islamic Azad University-Chalous Branch

    Dear Sir,

    you don't require SAS formula, you can easily analyze your data using Analyst Tab from top menu and then use the GLM procedure for analysis of variance.

    good luck