ResearchGate Q&A lets scientists and researchers exchange questions and answers relating to their research expertise, including areas such as techniques and methodologies.
Browse by research topic to find out what others in your field are discussing.
- How can I identify a genomic DNA sequence from mRNA (Bread wheat)?
I request your kind help, regarding the identification of a genomic sequence from a mRNA sequence. I had identified a mRNA sequence for Ferritin in wheat (EU143671).Now I want to identify the genomic DNA sequence (including both exons and introns) for particular mRNA (query sequence) in wheat. How can I identify it? Please help me in this regard.
Dear All thanks for your kind replies.
Actually I am designing gene specific genomic sequence based marker for metal binding proteins in wheat including ferritin, IRT, FRO, ZIP etc.
Dear Herve, thanks for your kind reply but ferritin is well studied iron storage protein in wheat and I am taking it as control, I have list of more than 25 genes responsible for metal uptake, transport, translocation and storage, where few of them are known in wheat while various are still not full characterized in wheat and there full sequences are not available in NCBI/EBI/URGI/IWGSC.
Dear Ahmad Zaidi, Yes wheat genome raw sequence is available. but various genes are still not mapped in wheat genome. I had tried to design primer from cDNA or mRNA and amplified on wheat genomic DNA through PCR then out of 10 primer pairs only 2 showed amplification. The main reason behind this failure might be due to one of the primer pair contains sequence from the splice junction and unable to bind on genomic DNA sequence.
Dear Ahmad AlFatih, Thanks for your kind reply but I am not working on RNAseq,
In brief my strategy is like that:-
I had identified the sequence of various metal related genes (some are fully characterized in wheat wheat like ferritin while various genes are still not fully characterized in wheat like YS1, but full CDS sequence is available for Zea mays or rice). I had BLAST the sequence of gene (query sequence) with online available wheat genome sequence (raw reads- - Triticum aestivum -Ensembl Plants). From those genomic sequences I am planing to design the primer and amplify in wheat and wild relatives (The whole idea is to design gene specific genomic sequence based polymorphic marker which could be used in marker assisted selection for related to metal binding proteins including biofortification of wheat through molecular breeding). But I think there might be few flaws in my studies like sequence alignment (global) in between gene (query sequence) and raw reads (DNA sequence). Could I use specialized program or tool or any version of BLAST, which could help me.
Dear Rachel, Please tell me that how I can map raw sequencing data to my sequence of interest. Please specify tool, or pipeline or paper which could help me in this regards.
Thanks again and waiting for your kind reply.
Have a nice day
- To what extent negotiations with the non-state actors help in counter-terrorism?
In case of Pakistan, there are factions of society which demand that the government should negotiate with the terrorists and militant groups. To what extent it can be useful in your opinion?
Just sharing some thoughts worth considering;
- Can someone help with Statistics: Likert survey, pre/post interventional comparison, one-time question answering session, multi-dependent variables?
Statistics help request: Likert survey, pre/post interventional comparison,
one-time question answering session, multi-dependent variables.
Questions are asked in the end of this post.
Season's Greetings to all.
My name is Georgios, a Greek-Canadian 4th year general medicine resident in
France, working on a small one year "M.D thesis" (not a typical 4-year PhD)
project, which will involve
a Likert type of survey
as concerns a pre/post interventional comparison
based on a one-time question answering session,
using multi-dependent variables.
As this is my first post in the present forum, I hope not to be repeating
issues that have already been covered in messages that I perhaps did not
I have asked a number of specialists for help on this particular issue, and
they have all directed me towards social science statisticians, which are
quite difficult to find where I am located (small town in France).
It is for this reason that I am asking for a contribution from your generous
Contrarily to American and other Anglophone Medical Institutions that provide
medical students with
Empathic Communication Training
that is usually HETERO-evaluated (by patients or specialists),
such a method has yet to be formally used in France during medical training.
Therefore, in the waiting of such formal empathic communication education, I
have created a protocol using some ACRONYM, whereby each letter refers to
some verbal/non-verbal communication element, which will be refered to as
These "ITEMS" have been "drawn" from a number of PROTOCOLS that have already
been validated in the Anglophone scientific literature. A translation of just
ONE such protocol is not the objective here, and I feel there is no further
need to validate the French terms I have used as "equivalents".
The items will be sent out to various health care personnel, in form of a
"PROTOCOL", so that they may become acquainted with their content, and so as
to try applying them during patient visits for a DURATION of approximately
MAIN HYPOTHESIS and PRIMARY OBJECTIVE (1A)
HYPOTHESIS: Empathic communication has been shown to be in part acquired, by
For those in France with insufficient means for such training, a handy
ACRONYM PROTOCOL, using already validated items, should help
INCREASE awareness and IMPROVE empathic communication with patients.
The PRIMARY OBJECTIVE (1A) will be to test for “change after intervention”
(where nul hypothesis H0 = no change) for each “CONSTANT” variable (“item”)
i.e. reading and applying the Frech Acronym Protocol will eventually lead to
some change in the way the doctor uses the items included therein.
The Survey will have three parts.
Part ONE will ask for general information (age group, status, specialty,
former empathic communication education, willingness to IMPROVE on empathic
Part TWO will determine if candidates are INHERENTLY empathic, using some
well known score (DAVIS' Interpersonnal Reactivity Index (IRI) questionnaire)
Part THREE will be the CORE of the survey,
and will contain quaLItative/ORDINATE data that I would prefer not to convert
to quaNTitative/Numerical data.
I would really like to MAINTAIN the ordinal values/scale in terms of RANK
and to use NON-PARAMETRIC statistics(boxplots, medians, quartiles, ranges,
etc.) for any pre/post comparisons.
Here is an example of just one ITEM, presented firstly in "detailed form",
followed by an "abbreviated" version:
ITEM one (e.g. "eye contact")
----How OFTEN did/do you use Item ONE ("eye contact")?
----- PRE-- (Never//Sporadically//Sometimes//Almost one time out of two//Very
often//Almost Always//Always//I don't know)
----- POST- (Never//Sporadically//Sometimes//Almost one time out of two//Very
often//Almost Always//Always//I don't know)
----(How AWARE were/are you in using Item ONE ("eye contact")?)
----- PRE (Always Unconsciously//Mainly Unconsciously//Equally Consciously-
Unconsciously (willingly)//Mainly Consciously (willingly)//
Always Consciously (willingly)//I don't know)
----- POST (Always Unconsciously//Mainly Unconsciously//Equally Consciously-
Unconsciously (willingly)//Mainly Consciously (willingly)//
Always Consciously (willingly)//I don't know)
--(EFFECT [independent of PRE/POST]):
-- (I have witnessed or feel that this item has an effect on patients)
----- (Always Negative// Mainly Negative// No effect whatsoever// Mainly
Positive// Always Positive// I don't know)
ABBREVIATED version or SURVEY PART III
ITEMS are numbered from n=01 (Items O1) to n=n (last item)
Items 01 to n-1: AUTOEVALUATION
I01 (item 01
-I01-F (for FREQUENCY):
--How OFTEN did/do you use Item ONE ("eye contact")?
---I01-F PRE (i = 1 (Never) to i = 7 (Always), and where i=0 for "I don't
---I01-F POST (j = 1(Never) to j = 7 (Always), and where j=0 for "I don't
-I01-Q (for QUALITY):
--(How AWARE were/are you in using Item ONE ("eye contact")?)
---I01-Q PRE (m = 1 (Always Unconsciously) to m = 5 (Always Consciously
[willingly]) and where m=0 for "I don't know")
---I01-Q POST (n = 1 (Always Unconsciously) to n = 5 (Always Consciously
[willingly]) and where n=0 for "I don't know")
-I01-E (for EFFECT [independent of PRE/POST]):
-- (I have witnessed or feel that this item has an effect on patients)
-I01-E GLOBAL: (q= 1 (Always Negative) to q= 5 (Always Positive) and where
q=0 for "I don't know")
Item n: indirect HETERO (patient) EVALUATION (of doctor)
spontaneous patient appreciation:
+-I n - F (for FREQUENCY):
--How OFTEN did your patients spontaneously express their appreciation
concerning your communication skills?
---I n - F PRE (i = 1 (Never) to i = 7 (Always), and where i=0 for "I don't
---I n -F POST (j = 1(Never) to j = 7 (Always), and where j=0 for "I don't
QUESTIONS to the FORUM
Q01) What would be the best way to compare I01 i to j, so as to obtain some
(non)-parametric statistic along with some "significance score"?
Q02) What would be the best way to compare I01 m to n?
In my humble opinion, I can do some sort of "difference", Post minus Pre, and
create "categories", and then show what percentage of ALL candidates
eventually fall in each category (I don't know anwers will be excluded)
- - examples of "change" categories, perhaps 13 in all (ranging from minus 6
to positive 6):
- - - radical negative change: j minus i = minus 6;
- - - no change at all (j minus i = 0);
- - - radical positive change: j minus i = 6;
(Pre-Post Difference Categories
Score +++(-6 )++(-5 )++(-4 )....( 0 ).... ++(+4 )++(+5 )++(+6 )++
Percent++( % )++( % )++( % )...( % ) .... ++( % )++( % )++( % )++
Q03) Although these differences could be expressed graphically (as in the
histogram suggested above), is there some non-parametric statistic that could
Q04) The same questions apply to Item I01-Q (for QUALITY)
Q05) - Remark: I01-E (for EFFECT [independent of PRE/POST]) will determnine
the "usefulness" of various items, so as to perhaps underline the more
Q06) Is there some way to "CONNECT" "i to m" AND "j to n" (i.e. BOTH "pre" to
BOTH "post" subcategories), so as to create a "unique" study statistic, that
will take into account "frequency and quality" of use, in SIMULTANEOUS
Q07) - Remark:
The survey is administered only ONCE, after the INTERVENTION (application of
a protocol) has taken place.
The candidates are asked to answer both, PRE and POST intervention questions
at the same time. One possible bias would be their incapicity to distinguish
If, however, the items had been revealed in an initial phase
(either just before or just after reading the protocol),
it is not certain how "generously" the candidates would auto-evaluate
themeselves, thus rendering a "second, POST-phase" evaluation less
"homogeneous" adnd, by consequence, biase.
Is it a serious methodological problem to inquire on PRE and POST
interventional effects SIMULTANEOUSLY?
Is there some way of encoding categories used
- in part on (empathy score)
- as well as in part two (age, specialty, etc subcategories)
so as to find any corelations with
- categories (subcategories) of part three?
What would be the best/easiest software to use, capable of producing box
plots and histograms from any such correlations?
I wish to thank all those who have read through this long post, and wish
everyone a peaceful and joyous Christmas (and other festivity) season, all in
Dear Dr Patrick S Malone
I wish to thank you off hand for your generous" Boxing Day" response to my "Christmas Day" wish!
As you correctly state, my notation does indeed make my questions harder to understand.
Nevertheless, I maintained this notation in case more "refined" observations/comments would eventually have to be made.
Furthermore, having only some rudiments of statistical knowledge, especially as concerns surveys, I apologize once again for the lack of any specialised terminology in the description of my project.
The study in question could be qualified as a
RETROSPECTIVE pre-test survey,
or as a
INTERVENTIONAL (Experimental) and
Sequential (Self-controlled) study.
Your comments, Patrick, are most useful, and I would really like to analyze a few, if I may, to make sure that I, in turn, have well understood your thought process.
Concerning SAMPLE SIZE:
I am hoping for a large sample size (N = 300), since this will be an internet survey. This may perhaps allow for
ORDINAL => NOMINAL transformation,
but, for the time being, I'd like to think this out using only ORDINAL values.
Q01 to Q04:
If "interest is in whether the distributions are different between pre- and post-".... "I think a Mann-Whitney U test would do the job".
Yes, my analysis will study ISOLATED ITEMS
and their INDIVIDUAL pre vs post EVALUATION
Using the wikipedia definitions
I seem to be in difficulty understanding how to use this test adequately, and thought out two "methods".
Taking "Item ONE" as an example, for "N" candidates:
if my understanding is correct, the rank-order test will require that I
group ALL PRE (Sum of Rank ordered PRE) ="sample 1"
and then ALL POST (Sum of Rank ordered POST) =sample 2"
so as to obtain "U"
Problem: this method does not differentiate INDIVIDUAL candidates, and their "evolution" (either positive, neutral or even negative), but rather, seems to "pool" all results.
Can one use ORDINAL values
to FIRST obtain a POST vs PRE DIFFERENCE
for EACH candidate
and only then do a
Mann-Whitney U test?
Q06: ....What might work is a categorical-data SEM.
I knew nothing of the method, found the following article
Skrondal, A. and Rabe-Hesketh S. "Structural Equation Modeling: Categorical Variables"
and will definitely try using your advice.
Q07: There is literature on "retrospective pre-testing."
The key words you provide were most ENLIGHTENING!
Indeed, a quick search lead to articles that more accurately express my reasons for choosing such a study method.
Concerning encoding various demographic categories (factors) and determining any interaction on the pre/post relation (of each item).
You suggest a possible "ordinal to nominal" conversion and "extensions of chi-square" with inevitable loss in the advantage of ordinality.
That will have to be looked into.
You suggest "R " or welcome other suggestions.
OK. That will have to be looked into, as well.
All in all, can one consider my survey methodology as something that can be "realised" or should this project be considered "difficult, statistically unsound" (in a few words, "to be rejected")?
Once again, Patrick, I am most obliged for your rapid, generous and very enlightening response.
Oὐ γὰρ πράξην ἀγαθήν, ἀλλὰ καὶ εὖ ποεῖν αὐτήν.
It suffices not to do good (to others), but to do it twell
Il ne suffit pas de faire le bien, mais le bien faire.Following
- How can I formulate a questionnaire on Stock Markets Behaviour?
I am interested in the kind of questions I can ask stock brokers and investment bankers. Most of the research on stock markets behavior is mainly secondary data form but I also want to have some primary data on this. Contributions will be appreciated.
honestly you are about to study something interesting and motivating. I'm sure you understand that stock market is very huge and has complex system. It would be very useful if you could be precise on the objective of your research or perhaps the question(s) you are trying to resolve. Investment banker isn't that simple and complex as well.
Please, what really are you trying to study in these personalities? this would direct my mind to a specific area and method as well as where you must adopt primary data collection. for example, you may like to investigate the impact of their ethical standard on the stock markets or their personality triats on the market or their perceptions on how regulatory framework has positively or negatively impacts investors and markets' performances etc.
Another area you must pay attention to is the geographical circumstances and conditions on stock markets e.g developed countries'markets are well organized and standardised compare to developing cpountries' stock markets. Likewise, in terms of regulatory framework and institutions that implement those regulation can be an intersting area of scientific research.......
finally, kindly be more precise in the definition of your research objective(s) and this would our members specifc greenlight on their inputsFollowing
- How can I improve nuclear localisation of my protein which has 3 nuclear exclusion signals?
My experiment deals with adding a SV40-NLS to my protein of interest but it has already 3 Nuclear Exclusion Signals. I added one NLS signal to the N-terminal of my gene (with a comet-GFP tag), without removing the NESs. But am not able to improve the nuclear localisation [See pic attached of ].
I am thinking of either:
1.Adding one more NLS to the C-terminal, or,
2. Adding one more NLS before the N-terminal NLS
Any ideas or suggestions are helpful.
So I don't know that exact location of NES, just know the regions where they may be. To begin with,I found some lucine-rich regions and I am planning to mutate them first and see if they affect the nuclear localisation? Do you see this approach working? Plz suggest any other ideas that you may have.Following
- Is it possible to know the nlo property of the material through ftir?
ftir is useful tool to know about nlo?
I answered it.
Please see your profileFollowing
- Can the dissolution of Pt be stopped if the Pt surface is passivated by PtO in acidic media?
- We observed that the electrochemical active surface area (ECSA, m2/g) fully disappeared after some cycles of cyclic voltammetry in acidic media.
- The CV measurement was performed after N2 purging (3-electrode system)
- The currents for PtO reduction and proton sorption fully disappeared, resulting in showing only the EDLC area.
- By ex-situ measurement, we found that the Pt electrocatalyst still remained.
- Why was the ECSA diminished even if the Pt was remained?
please, give more details on the experiment (especially, potential limits)Following
- How can I know whether a patent is granted at a national or international level?
I have a research idea, I think this is not have been done by anyone before. How can I confirm it?
I believe that patents are still granted on a national basis only. You need to file for a and receive an award of patent in each country that you want your invention protected. The international treaties and conventions which are beginning to provide multiple country protections or at least coordination for other forms of I/P have not yet extended to patents, but might lead the way. International recognition for patents is overdue and will come. The event of international protection of patent will greatly improve world law.Following
- Is there any open source software that can segment image data (dicom) and then export as volume/mesh data for further FE analysis?
Is there any open source software that can be used to segment image data (dicom) and the segmented data can be exported as volume or mesh data for further FE analysis?
- What happens when you add concentrated sulfuric acid to sodium nitrate?
i wanna to know the saftey points of this method
At elevated temperatures, it is one of the methods to obtain concentrated nitric acid by distillation (ca. 68%).Following
- Reason for the incomplete form of growth hillocks observed in organic crystal surface?
Recently i observed some incomplete form of growth hillocks on the crystal surface. Need valuable reasons. Find the attachment of the observed figure.
I understand You. image from your crystal and its hillocks?
Are you understand me?Following
- Will the scientists over here can share their presentations or write ups to comprahend the theoretical physics and mathematics easily?
Now a days theoretical physics and mathematics have become so much complex to understand the physical concepts clearly. In my view this complexity is due to compactness of equations written with so many unconceivable symbols. Everyone who loves physics and mathematics faces this difficulty. Will the scientists, professors and engineers over here can help in this situation ? As this will be helpful to every one over here.Following
- What is the cheapest and easiest way to obtain periodic soil moisture measurements up to 10m depth without digging big soil pits?
I want to estimate the soil moisture across several plots at one meter interval upto 10 m depth. Any good references are also welcome.
In our lab, we have TDR probe but I am wondering whether I can take periodic measurements across a big plot with that unit. Thanks all for your useful answers and sharing the expertise.Following
- How can I extract a triangle shape from an image?
Suppose I have an image of a geographical region. I want to extract a triangle from that region that covers a certain features (knowing that the image is RGB).
Hough transform is a good solution of the sameFollowing
- How can I confirm that a copolymer formed between two monomers which reacted ?
We need to confirm that a co-polymer is formed and the monomers are reacted. it is not a simple blend of two monomers.
One way is to compare the unreacted monomer mixture of A and B vs the A-B product post reaction.
First I would use GPC or any other MW determination technique to compare the above samples and determine if polymerization has occured. If no, then you are done as no polymer was formed. But if you do see an increase in MW, then proceed with an appropriate NMR technique.
Now you can look for specific chemical shift of the newly created A-B bond that will be there in the post reaction product but will be absent in the unreacted monomer mixture if the copolymer has been formed. Also lookout for chemical shifts from A-A or B-B bonds which are indicative of homopolymerization.
- How can we use the GMRES algorithm for the following system?
I read the article titled 'SINRD Circuits Analysis with WCIP' we can solve the equation system (10) by the GMRES algorithm
So to use the GMRES we must put the system in the form of equation (11) something I've already done that is to say the system is like this we have: A*x = b
my question is how can we write equation (11) in matlab to use the GMRES
- BCQ2: What is difference between a synthase and synthetase enzymes?
BCQs are Biochemical questions for education of the related students.Following
- Changes vitamin C content during drying process in fruits?
why in during fruits drying process vitamin C content at the beginning is increased then decreased. anyone tell me why?
Is your question specific for drying or is it related to stages of fruits with drying being the last stage?
This paper might be helpful.
(Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2005 Feb;56(1):45-51. The effects of ripening stage and processing systems on vitamin C content in sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum L.).
Martínez S1, López M, González-Raurich M, Bernardo Alvarez A. PMID:
The answer for your question is dependent on the environmental factors like moisture, temperature and oxygen. These factors affects the stability of Ascorbic acid.Following
- How I can calculate the electrical conductivity percent from electrical resistevity measured values using LCR8110G (GWINSTEK) micro-ohmmeter?
We have measured the electrical values of our specimens using LCR8110G micro-ohmmeter. Now we want convert these values to specific electrical resistivity. However, we do not have any correction factor data for contribution of specimens shape effects.Following
- Why do bacterial colonies' size become smaller than usual?
we were doing experiment to check the effect of salt on E-coli some plates shows small number of colonies with small size
Salt dehydrates the bacteria, as others have said.Following
- Whats the real behavior of rc circuits?
In series RC circuit with dc power supply the maximum capacitor voltage should be equal to power supply but in my experiments it's less than expected value and it's proportional to resistor, while in theory it's not reasonable. Please tell me your opinions.
Please define your super-neutralization !
Is it just more than 99pct neutralizastion ?
100pct neutralization is a compensation (balance, feed-back, ...)
which of-course may be very sensitive.
I agree with Berrie !
Concerning the modeling of the BJT we may use the Maxwell equations and find distributed parameter models which are in better agreement with our measurements. Current control and voltage control are just the same. The mystery first show up when you try to explain your mathematical model by means of analog physical behavior.
Best regards and Happy New Year to all of you, ERIKFollowing
- Is professionalism positively associated with management innovation in family firms?
Experienced and educated managers possess skills for integrating the innovation into ongoing organizational processes, and are more likely to put into practice boundary spanning activities, have great ability to deal with complex change efforts, generate imaginative solutions to complicated problems, and encourage receptivity to new ideas. When professional managers are in charge of a family firm, expertise is likely to be adequate to ensure a high level and quality of management, as nepotism and altruism from family managers are avoided.
Then, is professionalism positively associated with management innovation in family firms?Following
- What are the basic books in input output analysis?
What are the basic books in input output analysis? What are the good books in input output analysis ? Is there any book which explains step by step of doing input output analysis? How can it be applied to public economics, in intergovernmental transfers?
I think that the best and more complete is: Miller and Blair "Input-Output Analysis: Foundations and Extensions," Prentice Hall, 2009. The new edition has some good improvements.Following
- How can I choose the best detection function model in SPACECAP?
I'm working with SECR model SPACECAP. In the graphic interphace of SPACECAP, model definition section, you need to select the detection function between half normal and negative exponential models. How can I identify the best model for my capture history dataset? I should choose the model that maximize detection probability parameter lambda0 or that fit the best (more close to 0,5) bayesian p value?
You could also fit both models in the R library "secr" and select a hazard function based on AIC. Objectively, it's better practice to use the distance function that fits the data most strongly rather than one that maximizes lam0. Subjectively, the SCR book by Royle et al. reiterates what Jose mentioned above: in most cases, the detection function should not dramatically change density estimates.
On the other hand, if you were interested in making statements about home range size or absolute space use, the detection function will make a difference. Unfortunately, estimates of sigma or the equivalent negative exponential parameters are pretty sensitive to formulation, and inference regarding absolute space use is not so robust.Following
- Can anybody that has worked on service/manufacturing systems help me with material on them?
Thanks in advance
what exactly you want? Do you want some references on service/manufacturing systems?
- How can I set y+ for K-epsilon turbulence model in openFOAM?
[This question is a continuation of my previous query]
Good morning all!
As I told earlier about my simulation in a wind tunnel. I am expecting separation in the diffuser region, to get expected separation proper meshing is necessary as I got advices from my friends here. For standard k-e turbulence model I learned from the previous replies that it better to use y+>30. I have found these two sites to calculate y+
Here is my simulation domain:
Straight section height is 200mm which is 630mm long and a diffuser section with 20deg inclination having a length of 250mm.
In the above two y+ calculation site, there is a term boundary layer length and reference length, I am confused with these two term because both sites calculates the same but they mention these terms differently. Shall I use this length as 200mm? But in diffuser section these vertical height is a varying height, as it has 20deg slope in bottom wall.
Dear Nominul... if you are simulating a Venturi type flow, remember that if you have a separated flow k-eps model is not a good choice, as all of RANS models... another thing... I saw your physical domain and I think that will be difficult for you to defina a boundary condition at the outlet, because you don't have a developed flow here.Following
- How can you get the hourly solar irradiance and wind speed and temperature data for a specific location?
it is necessary for modelling renewable energy resources
This is a vast question! There are many possible sources of data, from ground observations to satellite-derived data and reanalysis. What region are you interested in?Following
- Do palladium nanoparticles can be synthesized by dissolving PdCl2 in NH4OH aqueous solution without reducing agents ?
I have read an article which the palladium(ll) solution is reduced without reducing reagent in ammonia solution , whether it is true? Do
Palladium(ll) oxide formed in the ammonia solution ?Following
- In teaching English as a Foreign Language, how much of the class should be about culture?
Most teachers agree that teaching the culture of native speaking countries is valuable, but how MUCH should this be done? Do you have a percentage in mind or other way of saying how much of the course should be about culture?
my answer has been cut for some reason. ...
Otherwise the students are exposed to the culture in any case, through the teacher or the materials presented. For someone who will live in a country where English is the first language, culture will definitely be the top priority.Following