Q&A

ResearchGate Q&A lets scientists and researchers exchange questions and answers relating to their research expertise, including areas such as techniques and methodologies.

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  • Giuseppe Cogoni added an answer in Gnuplot:
    How to extract datas of mathematica 3Dplots as three columns.

    I have attatched data file of a mathematica plot. The terms inside the bracket are {time, space, Absolute value of a complex function}. I am trying to plot this data using gnuplot. For that I needed to have this data file in three colums. How can we do that? Is there any format specification? please provide some guidance in this regard.

    Note: I have written the same mathematica program on gedit as xxxx.m   extension file.

  • What is the basic difference in mounting a drive between windows and linux?
    What is the basic difference in mounting a drive between windows and linux?
  • Malgorzata Rogalinska added an answer in Cell Line:
    How long EHEB and NALM-6 cell lines could survive frozen in liquid nitrogen?

    How long cells stay alive without defrost them?

    Malgorzata Rogalinska · University of Lodz

    Thank you very much for your answer. Both cell lines are more than 1 year in liquid nitrogen.  I hope that everythink will be OK with cells. Thanks

  • Jan Gunneweg added an answer in Archaeology:
    What is the future of taking care of our Cultural Heritage?
    Cultural Heritage has grown over the past decades to become one of the most pending questions to mankind. Individuals continue more than ever before to look into the very roots of their existence, which is a good thing to do. However, this root-treatment cannot be established by oral traditions only. One needs bio- and material cultural objects that reflect how our forefathers were living and left behind. Only since the mid 19th century, many of these artifacts are assembled in hundreds of museums where they are treated with good care. However, with the accumulation of artifacts and the restoration and necessary conservation of cultural objects, it will become a burden to pay for this type of work and as the assemblage will only grow, there will come a point in time that there will not be enough budget to pay for all that work. So, how do you see the future of Cultural Heritage?
    Jan Gunneweg · Hebrew University of Jerusalem

    After a short period wherein you probably thought that the original question of "What is the future of our Cultural Heritage" had lost its importance, a new player has appeared, Daesh, ISIS, certainly not IS which stands for Islamic State, whereas the idea of a State is lacking, since there is NO Islamic State up to this moment.

    So, let me rephrase the question in the context of terroriists who roam the Middle Eas, including hundreds of bored Europeans who are out on some actiont: What is now the future of Your and Mine Cultural Heritage in the context of what is taking place in the Middle East?  Answer as UNESCO  will take care of it, or some well-off municipalities and the like are no longer up-to-date.

    Please, do not spend any word of what you think of the political situation because that belongs to the politicians who have all the time in the world to make a decision or not.

    What I suggest is to hear from you some realistic suggestions of what COULD be done in order to loot, steal, buy and sell whatever came to light in the Fertile Crescent and what now seems to end up in private vitrines all over the world.

  • Erivelto Souza added an answer in Malathion:
    Is it possible to remove malathion by magnetic nanoparticles?

    Using batch adsorption process.

    Erivelto Souza · Federal University of São João del-Rei

    My pleasure.

  • Time temperature transformation diagram by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    I would like to obtain time temperature transformation (TTT) diagram by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). would you please help me to found methodology?

    regards

  • Joshua Lelesi Konne added an answer in Perovskites:
    What are the most effective routes in chemical solution processing to avoid carbonate formation in complex oxides?

    It is a known issue in sol-gel processing of complex oxides (e.g. perovskite, and compounds composed of Ba) where the formation of oxocarbonates occurs (Ba2Ti2O5CO3 in BaTiO3-based processing).

    Are metal carboxylates or beta-diketonates more effective? Can you indicate the decomposition paths in both examples?

    Joshua Lelesi Konne · Rivers State University of Science and Technology

    Dear Sebastian, Avoiding the carbonate route may not yield purer phase in the shortest time. The carbonate phase may decomposes at temperatures above 700 C. Like  the first two comments have suggested, first monitor the phases with XRD from say 300 C upwards and you'll identify the when the carbonate phase disintegrated. Previous researchers have shown the carbonate route as the most economical sol-gel route. You may read this paper for more info-

  • Jitendra Pant asked a question in Receptor:
    Which of the cancer cell types have opiate receptors on their surface?

    Can any one please tell me the cancer cell type which expresses opiate receptors (any sub-types) .  Please also let me know how  opiate growth factor receptor (OGF receptor) relates to opiate receptor?

    Thanks and regards

    Jitendra

  • In your country what energy source (residential use) is most used:NG or electric energy?Gas network has 100%coverage? What factors determine this?

    In São Paulo, the most important city in Brazil, there is a difference of nearly 100 years between the expansion of the electricity network and natural gas (NG) distribution pipelines.


    The gas only gained momentum since 2000, while the electricity followed the development of neighborhoods.


    The use of electricity Is still the predominant, based on the following factors:
    -The energy matrix based on the use of hydropower and on the electricity that they generated;
    -Electric energy tariff is still lower than gas;
    - Many houses and buildings have no facilities adapted to use gas.


    There are reports / papers on this subject?


    Thank you for helping!

    Behrouz Ahmadi-Nedushan · University of Yazd

    We use both electricity and NG for domestic use. the NG is mostly used in the winter for heating purposes and for coking all year. The coverage of natural gas is not 100% yet but it almost covers all cities .

    Most of Iran’s gas is consumed domestically and has been increasing at an average annual rate of 12% for the past 15 years. Iran is seeking to reach a capacity of one million bpd of GTL-derived gasoline within the next decade.

    Iran has approximately 29.6 trillion cubic meters of proven gas reserves which accounts for 16% of the world’s total reserves. This places Iran behind Russia with the second largest gas reserves worldwide. In 2009, Iran’s natural gas production stood at 116 billion cubic metres. In 2010, this number rose to 138.5 billion cubic metres which shows a 19% increase. Iran plans to boost its natural gas production by 200 million cubic meters until March 2016.

  • Kathy Deriemer asked a question in GATE:
    How do I merge two duplicate profiles of me in Research Gate?

    Kathryn DeRiemer and Kathryn Deriemer are both me. How do I erase or merge content of Kathryn Deriemer with the real me, Kathryn DeRiemer?

  • Detection for ABL-BCR ,PML-RARa fusion protein in plasma or bone marrow spear has not been available,why?

    More than 95% of acute leukemia M3 AND chronic myelocyticc leukemia have fusion gene ,thus having ABL-BCR ,PML-RARa fusion protein.But up to now ,detection for these fusion protein in plasma or bonemarrow smears using immunohistochemistry or ELISA methods has not been availble.Why? Does anyon konw if there is any study on detection of the fusion protein for these two types leukemia?Thank.

    Malgorzata Rogalinska · University of Lodz

    BCR-ABL protein usually appears on cell surface so it might be difficult for detection in plasma. Some proteins occur in soluble version which could transfer to plasma and could be detected in blood serum. ELISA should be OK for such analysis, but you need to check protein concentration in your sample you can analyse protein expression using Western blot technique. If you can prepare cell lysates from bone marrow you can  check  BCR-ABL gene expression on mRNA (real time PCR) and on protein level (Western blot). 

  • Paul Ingram added an answer in Writing:
    When there are two editors-in-chief, how shall one address them in the Cover Letter?

    Shall we just pick one of them to address to? This will not be polite enough, right? But how to write a letter to two persons? Pardon me for this naive question, please.

    Paul Ingram · University of Kansas

    I just direct the letter to Drs. Jane doe and John Doe 

  • This is a review article on the direct insulator-quantum Hall transition. Any comments are welcome.

    1. Is the direct insulator-quantum Hall transition a genuine quantum phase transition?

    2. Do we expect a universal scaling exponent in the direct insulator-quantum Hall transition?

  • How do you choose the optimal laglength in a time series?

    There are several criterion for choosing the optimal laglength in a time serie: AIC : Akaike information criterion ; BIC : Schwartcz information criterion ; HQ : Hannan-Quinn criterion ; RMSE : Root Mean Square Error ; MAE : Mean Absolute Error; BP : Bias proportion ; LIK : Log-Likelihood. The discrimination function differs from one to another criterion.

     We can therefore obtain conflicting results.  How to choose the optimal laglength? Are there tests that compare the criteria between them?

    Mounir Belloumi · Najran University

    In general, we use all criteria cited above and after that we take the smallest lag length from them.

  • Rivalino Matias Jr. added an answer in Computer:
    How to compute the MTTF of Weibull distribution

    I would like to know generalised approach to compute MTTF of any distribution.

  • Maysaa Kadhim Al-malkey added an answer in microRNA:
    Someone here have done extraction of miRNAs in human saliva? Can you share a good protocol? Any advises?
    I have some problems with the extraction of miRNAs in human saliva. I can´t standarize my protocol and I can´t find a good one.
    Maysaa Kadhim Al-malkey · Al-Nahrain University

    I Have the same project too. Did do the extraction, please let me know

  • Tom Venetianer added an answer in Truth:
    Does anyone research about Truth and Reconciliation Commissions? What is your theoric references?

    I'm working with the Brazilian case, and I like to know some different theorical perspectives.

    Tom Venetianer · Business School São Paulo (FGV)

    Some literature, enjoy :-)
    BTW, South Africa is a very good case

    The Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa: relation to psychiatric status and forgiveness among survivors of human rights abuses

    http://bib.convdocs.org/docs/39/38115/conv_1/file1.pdf#page=308

    Dilemmas of Transitional Justice: The Case of South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission

    http://center.theparentscircle.org/images/d96de38c44bc4080be6d8ffe2a172ccc.pdf

    Truth and Reconciliation Commission

    http://reference.sabinet.co.za/webx/access/electronic_journals/huma/huma_v8_a11.pdf

    Living with the Legacy of Impunity: Lessons for
    South Africa about truth, justice and crime in Brazil

    http://brandonhamber.com/publications/Journal%20Hamber%20Living%20with%20the%20Legacy%20of%20Impunity.pdf

  • Rob Catlett added an answer in Rwanda:
    Will low labor cost countries in sub-Saharan Africa become the next textile manufacturing hubs?

    There is some Chinese investment in Ethiopia, and newly in Rwanda.

    H&M, Tesco and Ayka Textile also invested into Ethiopia's textile sector.

    What about the future development of Ethiopia, and further low labor cost countries in the region?

    Thanks for your feedback.

    Fredrik.

    Rob Catlett · Emporia State University

    This is an excellent question!  We have had a variety of sub-Saharan African students in our economics program (actually and and econ) over the years and class discussion related to similar topics has been robust.  The personal descriptions are vivid and memorable.  

    I doubt if I will ever forget the communications of one of our best students eager to make a difference in his country after graduation. Months then years past without a job. It was so discouraging.

    Our current students from this region characterize the issue as a relatively small demand for labor since labor is a derived demand (i.e., derived from the demand for the goods or services it produces).  In addition they contend the lack of public education limits investment in human capital.  All of our African students experienced private education in their native country.

    The other limiting factor that all ways seems to arise is corruption. This makes it challenging for both foreign and domestic entrepreneurs to begin and especially sustain operation.

    Infrastructure and climate are issues as well.  For example, it is challenging to envision only having electricity for a few hours a day.  

    In spite of all of these challenges, it is not hopeless for low labor cost countries in sub-Saharan Africa to become the next textile manufacturing hubs. This suggests Joao Brito and Jamal Bouoiyour are on the right track with discussion of political stability, institutions, and human capital are critical. In fact, Biniyam Mekasha Yemane comments about Ethopia are a case in point and Foreign Direct Investment can be significant in jump-starting industries. 

    I took an African History class as a senior in college and it was extremely challenging, especially with the diversity of countries and cultures. Although one size certainly does not fit all here, there is hope!  This was an excellent question with solid answers.

  • What are main causes of riparian vegetation influence on the water quality and macroinvertebrates diversity?

    We have tried to identify the influence of riparian vegetation on water quality and macroinvertebrates diversity. We have tried to correlate the vegetation type with the different variables however this doesn't answer the question. We made CCA using the vegetation species, water and environmental variables along with the sampling sites. We have observed different water quality characteristics along with the vegetation type.

    What better statistical analyses do you recommend?

    Ana Clara Ferreira · Instituto de Limnología "Dr. Raúl A. Ringuelet"

    Hello again. What Alvaro said is so true. In fact, I've found another publication that establishes the influence on habitat characteristics on water and biota quality. I hope it to be usefull too. Kind regards

  • Are consumer education programmes effective in raising the value of a company's products and hence its returns?
    According to Carl Menger, among the things that distinguish a good from a useful thing is that goods possess qualities that render it capable of entering into a causal connection with the satisfaction of wants and also, there must be human knowledge of this possible causal connection. Producers put such properties into a product, but those properties are dormant if consumers are unaware of, or have no knowledge of the causal connection these properties generate with satisfaction of needs. For instance, what use is a smart phone to a consumer if he/she doesn't know about the other functions other than making and receiving telephone calls. This makes the satisfaction derived from that phone to be the same as from any other phone of lower grade which could also function for making and receiving telephone calls, and thus makes their value same (at least to the consumer) though the value of inputs were different. This shows that it is not just the properties or functions of a product that gives it value, but the satisfaction derivable from it which is directly linked with education of the consumers (not of the producers because they are not the ones deriving the satisfaction from their goods).
    Lall B. Ramrattan · University of California, Berkeley

    We know that Carl Menger expounded the subjective theory of value. The consumer will decided the worth of the smart phone. But you are suggesting that the consumer should have full information (or perfect knowledge), without which the consumer cannot rank the alternatives in a way to find the optimum. This is choosing one paradigm over another.

    One solution is to recognize that the consumer lacking education is working with imperfect information. Even if we educate the consumer, we will have problems with how different consumers partition their information. I refer you the discussions in the literature on that subject. (see J. Genakaplos “Common Knowledge,: AER 1992 6(4) 53-82) There is another situation where the consumers will not only need education, but more human capital to make them capable and functional in the market. (See Amarty Sen works)

  • Aiman Eid Al-Rawajfeh asked a question in People:
    Do you think RG is a suitable tool to check the level of a person?

    As I noticed the more questions you ask or answer the more score you get? Is it the right way to distinguish the people who is active in research or not?

  • Gert Nolze asked a question in Databases:
    How I can find the correct (best) phase description in a database if numerous descriptioons exist?

    An essential problem interpreting EBSD patterns is the correct selection of phases, especially when they are not cubic so that the chosen phase affects the hit rate or the accuracy of the pattern interpretation. How I decide best which data base entry e.g. for quartz or calcite  I should select as possible candidate in my phase list? Does the highest hit rate also defines the best phase selection?

  • Are there any personality assessment models other than MyersBriggs which have proved accurate or at least close to?

    We are trying to assess employees personalities to understand what kind of personalities work well with other.

    Sandy Fike · Walden University

    I prefer the MMPI; both the adolescent and adult versions.  They have strong validity and reliability.

  • Mounir Belloumi added an answer in Logit:
    Are log-odds, odds and predictive probabilities are different ways of conveying the same meaning?

    Hi all,

    We have several ways in interpretation of logit results.  Do they really differ in conveying the core message?

    Mounir Belloumi · Najran University

    I agree with Balazs. In all cases, they can be interpreted as some form of odds ratio. 

    For more information, you can consult the attached document.

  • Rita De Vuyst added an answer in Anthropology:
    The Value [of a Person]. What does it depend on? What should it depend on? What about the Value of a Person in Today's World. &/Or: what is a Person?

    The Value [of a Person]. What does it depend on? [In your Opinion, &/or within the worldly Reality we live in].

    What should it depend on? [If the Value within the worldly Reality does not correspond to the real Value of a Person].

    &/Or: what is a Person [and therefore, how do we measure his/her Value]?

    Thank you in Advance for your Contribution.

    Happiness inside/outside to Every1.

    Rita De Vuyst · Afkikker/Klimop

    Not enough  persons  think about value, for this it is a good question. Not only the value of persons but also the value of ideas must be stressed. We live in a world of quantity , I would like to promote the return to the values expressed by Plato.

  • Mohammad Javad Razavi asked a question in Fatigue:
    Is there any fixture to do biaxial fatigue test using the uniaxial fatigue test machine?

    Dear researchers, I want to do some biaxial fatigue testing using my uniaxial fatigue machine! Does any body know some fixtures to invert the uniaxial loading to biaxial loading (for cruciform specimen)?

  • Claire MM Gachon added an answer in NCBI:
    How to submit sequences in NCBI?

    Kindly tell me the whole procedure for submitting gene sequences in NCBI. The sequence length is 400-450 bases (Promoter region of MDR 1 gene).

    Claire MM Gachon · Scottish Association for Marine Science

    Hi,

    You need to register in Bankit, and follow the instructions. Go to http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/WebSub/?tool=genbank

    and click on "sign in to use BankIt" on the right-hand side once you've checked the required info. Good luck. Claire

  • Victor Christianto added an answer in Number Theory:
    Is there relation between cosmology and number theory?

    As we know, Pythagoras said that the universe is a great number. In modern terms, does it mean that cosmology has a relation with number theory? What do you think?

    Victor Christianto · University of New Mexico

    @Vladimir: thank your for your answer. P-adic cosmology seems interesting. Best wishes

  • Miguel Ángel Montes added an answer in Human Mind:
    What is “infinitude”, is it anything other than an idea of human mind or something real objectively?

    “Infinitude”, “potential infinitude”, “actual infinitude”, “potential infinitesimal”, “actual infinitesimal”, “potential infinity”, “actual infinity”,…; Are they all “infinitude” but with different natures?
    1, How many definitions of “infinitude” with different natures in science can we have as ideas of human mind?
    2, How many definitions of “infinitude” with different natures in science can we have as something real objectively?
    3,How many definitions of “infinitude” with different natures in science can we have as co-product of human mind and objectivity?
    4, can we really have many different definitions with different natures for the concept of “infinitude” in human science and how can we distinguish them theoretically and practically?

    Miguel Ángel Montes · Universidad de Huelva

    Hi, Geng,

    Looking at your questions, i see, specially in 2 and 3, an emphasis in the objective nature of a object like infinity. Is it possible that you consider that the idea of infinity 'just exists' objectively, but we have not understood it at all yet?

  • Dheerendra Gupta added an answer in RNA-Seq:
    Do anyone knows about which kit is better to use for isolating mRNA from total RNA for RNA-seq between Illumina and NEB?

    I am right now using NEB mRNA oligodT magnetic isolation module and took 5ug total RNA but after following the instructed protocol when I tried to quantify the mRNA I found almost nothing in the read, machine showed very low concentration which was unable to be detected.I don't know where problem exist my all six samples failed? Can anyone help me in this regard?

    Dheerendra Gupta · Institute of Life Sciences

     Thanks for the reply rocco, as you mentioned I already checked the integrity of my RNA before purification,I would also like to mention there is a very slight variation in Illumina and NEB protocol.Illumina says do denaturation of RNA at 65 c without adding beads firstly then at one step with the addition of beads following chilling at 4 c but in case of NEB there is only one step which says do denaturation of  RNA alongwith beads at 65 c following hold at 4 c. One more thing I am using Thermal cycler instead of thermal block..Is all these condition may affect isolation of mRNA??