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  • Safoura Tatari added an answer in Water:
    What is the best method for the measurement COD of sea water?

    I want to measure COD sea water

    Safoura Tatari · Tarbiat Modares University

    Hi, good evening,

    OK, Thank you for your answer to my question.

    Be successful.

  • Terminologies based on ‘observations’ or ‘interpretations of observations’: any thoughts?

    When scientists describe (natural) phenomena during oral presentations or in publications, they often replace the description of these phenomena by interpretations of what the phenomena are without having sufficient background knowledge of how and why these phenomena exist. Consequently, exactly the same behavioral expression (e.g. birds approached the feeder) can be defined in different ways (e.g. risk-taking, feeding response, boldness or shyness, exploration behavior, etc..). Should science terminology be based on what is observed or the interpretation of what is observed?

    Marvin Kirsh · California State University, Los Angeles

    @Eugene "...the point of view exists, that Socrates is Plato's contrivance."

        Is this an observation? Interpretation of observation? If historically acquired data, i.e. Socrates was Platos' teacher, can be called observation, where does "Socrates Platos' contrivance" fall? as interpretation? or suggesting intuition extended from present day experience with human behavior? I personally find that the addition to accepted description on the relationship of Socrates and Plato to be nothing but 'potential adjective' though it does not seem to be presented this way but as "Socrates is the voice of Plato"...a puppet. Ignored almost exclusively is history, a prominent purpose of the inquiry...in a flat and neutral sense, "Socrates taught Plato" makes Socrates a major seed within the progression of Platos' philosophical development....regardless of how creatively Plato dealt with Socrates, whatever shape he assumed, Socrates birthed the turn that produced what we know of him, Plato is not Plato without his existence as to Socrates' student. If one is seeking facts about history and philosophy I see no purpose in the description given...try to imagine to filter or distill Plato from Socrates..I do not think much, or hardly the same as we assume, would be left to speak of Plato. I see a very similar thing occurring in discussions about Einstein..focus away from his exact words to test what he was saying as it fits with modern lingo and notions. How can Einstein be called a believer in "universal consciousness", the idea did not exist in his texts. The closest approximation I can see to it is "the experimenter is the most important part of the experiment". This is a poor way to discuss ideas of history.  

    @John "The function of rods in daylight conditions (photopic) is not to respond to changes in light intensity, its job is to record noise from which spatial information can be propagated."

         ....Is it correct from your words...it is essential where objects are positioned with respect to noise that noise also has a position.  

    I think that "rods connect brain to signal" entails also "brain connects rods to signal"...i.e. all spaces are diverse and it is disparity that posseses intepretation. The spaces of the brain ultimately register and compare differences within those of the emitting space and those of the receiving space...that cannot be too far away in space (we can 'see' in the order of miles though not very clearly).   

       With regards to my above reflections on Socrates and Plato, teaching as I describe (Socrates a contrivance of Plato) offer less than a flat view, focus is one way, mind to eye in both present and past, Socrates of Platos' mind, eye to mind diminished... perhaps trustworthy measurements require comparisons of path (e.g. past to present, then from there)..since there are no controls for standards and hardly enough time for comparative observation, we should be especially carefull not to create 'bends' in interpretations. I find this is what is both very interesting and confusing in Einstein, he describes "bending" (of light) but it is against a null, bend=zero, he seems almost to speak historically of ideas and paths, but ultimately excludes history altogether (zero bend=no past)....easy to see both the appeal of mathematics and its' flaws. Perhaps it is best that we do not add words to the writing of others though.

  • László Kótai added an answer in Papers:
    How i can get doi?

    Hi dear researchers;

    i have a question. how i can get a free doi (digital object identifier)for my papers?

    do you know a way that i can get it?

    László Kótai · Hungarian Academy of Sciences

    As I know, it is a paying service.  Generally the publishers of the journals request it  for the papers, but I think, it is possible to request it for individual papers as well. But probably after paying for it. 

  • Are any good references available in the field of competing risk models?

    I am looking for a good reference on competing risk model. Kindly suggest any recent review article, lecture notes or texts in this regard.

    Ibsen Chivatá Cárdenas · Universiteit Twente

    Have a look at:

    E. Zio, G. Apostolakis:"Two Methods for the Structured Assessment of Model Uncertainty by Experts  in  Performance  Assessment  of  Radioactive  Waste  Repositories",  Reliability  Engineering and System Safety, 54, 1996, pp. 225-241.

    Krueger T, Page T, Hubacek K, Smith L, Hiscock K. 2012 The role of expert opinion in environmental modelling. Environmental Modelling & Software. 36:4-18

    Cárdenas I, Al-Jibouri SHS, Halman JIM, van Tol FA. Modeling risk-related knowledge in tunneling projects. Risk Analysis, 2014; 34(2):323–339.

  • Rakesh Kumar Tekade asked a question in Mouse Models:
    How rheumatoid arthritis can be induced in mouse model?

    Please share a protocol to induce rheumatoid arthritis in mouse model...How i can confirm it is rheumatoid arthritis?

    Thank you for your attention!


  • Patrick Roger added an answer in Stock Markets:
    Does anybody have Datastream Professional (Thomson Reuters) data base for world indices data?

    Respected Researchers

    I need Asian Emerging Stock market Indices data of past 12 year for my research. Anybody having these data, kindly help me to do my research in this area.

    Thanks regard


    Patrick Roger · Ecole de Management Strasbourg

    You should try which aggregates data from QUANDL all over the world in a very convenient way. I hope it will help..

  • Maryam Rezaeian asked a question in Frequency:
    Why is the maturation of low frequency in the cochlear faster than high frequency before birth?

    , and the maturation of high frequency faster after birth? i mean why dose the base respond to low frequency before birth?

  • Alexander Tsouknidas added an answer in Mesh:
    How can I preserve the surface mesh in a solid mesh conversion for FEM simulation?

    As shown in the title, I meet some problems in 3D microstructure simulation.

    I am a beginner in using DREAM3D.Now I can get some surface mesh from DREAM3D and can covert them into solid mesh  in ABAQUS. 

    But I find the surface mesh will disapear after this conversion.
    There is not grains boundary in the model!
    I feel the surface mesh should be preserve. In some references the cohesive elements are used, but I don't know how to insert them into ABAQUS.
    Can you give me some suggestions?
    Looking forward to your reply.
    Thank you very much.

    Alexander Tsouknidas · Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

    There are pre-processors for meshing which allow you to literal do anything you want while transitioning from surface to volume meshing. The most common ones are Hypermesh and ANSA. I’ve been working with the latter one and the volume mesh is “build” on top of the surface one, so you maintain the exact surface mesh but you also have a volumetric one.
    If you are working at a University I’m sure the company (BETA CAE Systems) will provide you with an evaluation license for some time…

  • Siddharth S Saxena added an answer in Journalism:
    Did you delete the invitations to publish in an open access journal without checking whether the journal is an ethical or a predatory one ?

    Almost every day letters come from open acces journals to publish papers - with paying of course. Do you read them to decide whether these are from ethical journals or journals which ones only paying (without reviewing) ?

    Siddharth S Saxena · University of Cambridge

    delete if open access is on paid basis

  • Hanno Krieger added an answer in Education Science:
    Why do you think that architecture of constructions varies geographically?

    What do you think are the underlying causes of geographic variation in architecture? Potential causes: spatial variation in intelligence, competence, resource availability, local adaptation, cultural expression, motivation, etc?

    Do you think that the same broad causes are responsible for geographic variation in animal versus human constructions?

    Hanno Krieger · retired from Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen

    Just entered this interested discussion. My further ideas to the matching critrions like climate, materials, money, taste etc is the possibilty adn knowledge of the architects about the static of buildings. Please have a look at the romanesque, gothic, baroque building techniques. Have a look on the Ulmer cathedral. And if you change the time scale, look at empire state building and the modern towers around the world with theses gigantic heights.

    So my facit is: the architect play and try what ever seems to be possible.

  • Any suggestions for researching how architectural design and new technology can be used to remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere?
    I'm looking into how agricultural architectural systems (vertical landscaping and farming) in highly polluted dense urban environments can reduce greenhouse gases within cities. Within this topic I will be looking at the use and growth of algae within facades to capture greenhouse gasses, the impact of vertical landscaping on air quality, and the potential for vegetated pockets within high rise structures to further filter surrounding air within dense urban environments.
    If there are any suggestions as to how I could potentially undertake this topic or publications that you believe might be resourceful, it would be greatly appreciated.

    check literature for hydrophonics

  • Andy Qarri added an answer in qRT-PCR:
    What is the best way to analyse qRT-PCR data statistically?

    In my research I’m investigating 3 genotypes with 11 time points during a process. 8 gens where examinee and 18s served as a reference gene. The methodology of the qRT-PCR based on Michael W. Pfaffl (2001) (A new mathematical model for relative quantification in real-time RT-PCR) article. The data of the experiments analyzed with the software of the device (one step system) and the statistical analysis were conducted with DataAssist V3.01 software. Only a few points during the process are significant (p<0.05) while the majority of the results show a p-value of more than 0.05 (p>0.05). My question is: what’s the best software to analyze the data? This software should take into consideration the "delta delta ct" which is compared to the reference gene (18s).

    Andy Qarri · University of Haifa

    Thank you all... the methods are good  but I'm looking for more methods...

  • Can we use acid catalyst for biodiesel from waste cooking oil?


    I like to know if we can use acid catalyst for biodiesel from waste cooking oil

    thanks a lot  

  • Anand Krishnan asked a question in Amino Acids:
    What dose deleterious mutation means ?

    In case of mutation, if there is change in amino acid residue how does deleterious mutations occurs and what it means actually. 

  • Deepali Pawar added an answer in Glucose Oxidase:
    What are the reaction rates for Glucose oxidase reaction? What is the initial substrate, enzyme, enzyme intermediate and product concentration?

    Simulation of Enfet based on Michalis menten theory.

    Deepali Pawar · PRAJ Industries Ltd

    I guess you are looking for assying the glucose oxidase. GOD-PAP is kit available where you will get glucose oxidase enzyme and it converts glucose and O2 to glucronic acid and H2O2.The released peroxide then produces quinoneimine from 4-aminoantipyrine and phenol under the catalytic action of peroxidase. Quinoneimine can then be measured spectrophotometrically. Basically you are measuring specifically glucose in the reaction mixture e.g used to determine residual sugar in fermentation samples.

  • Tay Jajuana asked a question in Malware:
    What algorithm is the most efficient and least complex for malware detection for android?

    I have a project I am working on, which I am require to write a script which would test if a file log(would be given) was from a malware or a benign application. 

  • What is the possibility of aromatic benzene ring of a certain biomolecule to act as capping agent in synthesis of silver nanoparticles?

    What is the possibility of aromatic benzene ring of a certain bio molecule to act as capping agent in synthesis of silver nanoparticles?

    Mohamed Elsharouny · Plant Pathology Research Institute

    i know this very well ..yeah there is a high probability that the synthesized nanopaticles  converted again to Ag+1.....but i started to work on SEM, TEM analysis after 72 hours after i had  a UV diagram confirming occurrence  the reduction of silver ( at 450 wavelength) but the question here...after 72 hours i obtained spherical silver nanopartices sized 30 nm using TEM & SEM techniques ...so who is the responsible of reserving those nanoparticles at that nanoscale through 72 hrs. after and inhibit their oxidation again.....in fact, i thinking about formation a derived compounds from curvularin (which i used as reducing agent) acting as capping agents...

  • What is depth frame in human activity recognition?


    What is the meaning of Depth frame or image in human activity recognition system?

    James F Peters · University of Manitoba

    This is a good question.

    Depth information is a central part of

    N.D. Thang, Human pose and activity recognition from stereo images using probabilistic parametric inference, Ph.D. thesis, Kyung Hee University, Korea, 2011:


    See page 3 for an explanation of depth information from an image perspective.   Depth information from a human activity recognition perspective starts in Section 2.3.1, starting on page 17.

  • Why do my MTT assay results sometimes show cell viability of more than 100%, or more than the control?

    Generally cell viability of nanoparticle-treated samples should be less than the control one (100%). But sometimes it shows more than 100%. Is it due to some increment or growth in the number of cells? Or is the given dose of polymeric nanoparticles helping cell growth? What are the possible reasons behind this?

    Mahdi Habibpour Fatideh · Amirkabir University of Technology

    how much time after your treatment do you use the MTT assay?

    when the cells are infected the MTT test  will show the viability of more than 100%, but you can see the microorganisms under microscope at least after 48 hours of incubation.

  • How you can distinguish an ethical or a predatory journal if you have no more information about them only a letter to invite you to publish a paper ?

    When you get an invitation to publish paper, how you can decide the value of the invitating journal?  How you can decide whether it is a peer-reviewed journal or a predatory journal who wants only payment ?

    László Kótai · Hungarian Academy of Sciences

    Thank you for lists. I checked and that was surprising me that I could find some journals which were not believed to be predatory journals.

  • Michael Laaß added an answer in Ground Motion:
    How do you construct 2-Dimentional and 3-Dimentional models of a basin?

    To understand the response of a deep basin subjected long-period ground motion, we can construct 2D or 3D model. From that we can study the basin effect on response spectrum. What are the method to construct these models? And what software we can use?

    Michael Laaß · Universität Heidelberg

    I recommend you to use for 3D modeling of a basin the GOCAD software (http://www.gocad.org/w4/). It seems to be well suited for your task. It has a reasonable price and is frequently used by German universities. You can include all available data such as elevation models as well as bore hole data.

  • Robert Clarke asked a question in Transcriptome:
    Does anyone have tools that can map Affy and/or other transcriptome chip data across other chip-based platforms and with RNAseq transcriptome data?

    We would like to be able to download and compare outcomes from several tools  using the same in-put datasets (initially Affy datasets then Illumina and Agilent chip and finally RNAseq data). Publicly accessible, open source tools would be most useful. Thanks...Bob

  • Muhammad Umair Ali added an answer in LCR Meters:
    What are possible reasons of change in LCR measurements ?

    We are using IET 7600 Plus Precision LCR meter in our lab for LCR measurements of different nanostructures (in pallet form). When we perform any measurement and repeat it within minutes, we get results with some changes. Is it due to some polarization which is induced in the sample when we apply electric field and it takes some time to be vanished after which we may get same results? Can any body please suggest me some reasons of this change ? Why can't we get same results? 

    Muhammad Umair Ali · International Islamic University, Islamabad

    Thank you very much Sir for your guidance.

  • Beng-Jin Chee added an answer in Medicinal Plants:
    Please provide list of some most impotent medicinal plant which conservation or more study?

    for the research and study.

    Beng-Jin Chee · Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)

    Conservation of Medicinal Plants is important indeed. However it will be case by case or area specific or country relation matters. Some plants are rare or near extinct in a country and therefore, need urgent conservation attention. However, in another region or country that same particular plant species maybe in abundant and common. You have to specify or determine the scope of your interest.

  • Do You think the concept of "urban planning" is still valid in great cities? Or are we in the era of "urban development"?

    Is there is still what "plan" as new in big cities or only take measures to "develop" more orderly and remediate problems?

    An example of this exchange concept is the municipal office of the city of São Paulo (Brazil), which changed its name from "Department of Urban Planning" to "Department of Urban Development".

    Thank You for your cooperation. (Please, don't forget to tell in which city /or metropolitan area you are based).

    Vanessa Meloni Massara · University of São Paulo

    Dear Dr. Mohammad,

    In part I agree with your definition, but it doen't adapt to large areas such as São Paulo and its metropolitan region where "plan fully occupied and consolidated areas" is impossible! What remains is to remedy and prevent its development.

    Thank You very much! This is precisely the point I wanted to discuss!
    Best Regards,

  • What is the legal liability in PCR methods for food allergen detection?

    A complicated question, but even partial answers are wellcome:

    What is the legal liability for people, who are developing or commercially resp. non-commercially administering the analytical methods for the detection of food allergens? I mean the analytical methods, which are used to enforce the existing worldwide law on listing the food allergens on food packages. I am most interested in DNA-based methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), ligation-dependent probe amplification or biochip DNA hybridisation, although the information on immunological methods (e.g. ELISA) also has some value for me. If an analytical method is not good or has a flaw, who takes legal responsibility for potential problems? The producer of problem-causing food, the inventor of the method, or the facility which does the testing? If there are standards (norms) published by ISO or CEN or other institutions, are they actually a law, or just expert recommendations? There is a European standard "EN 15842:2010 Foodstuffs - Detection of food allergens - General considerations and validation of methods (European Commitee on Standardization, 2010)". If I develop / want to commercially perform a new method for use in EU, must I validate it according to this European standard, or is it only a voluntary enterprise, which I can brag about, but am not obligated to do? Is there a review article on these issues? Partial answers (e.g. only your country outside EU, anecdotal experiences at the legal court etc) are also appreciated.

    Alaa Kareem Niamah · University of Basrah

    you can look in attach file

  • Ghada Chehimi added an answer in Critical Thinking:
    How can I develop critical thinking abilities in my students to maximize learner empowerment and autonomy?

    Please share your expert opinion to help me in this endeavour

    Ghada Chehimi · Lebanese American University

    Excellent inputs. I support Ruth and Carmain's points of view. I also encourage open debates and action learning styles.

  • What is the biggest scientific coincidence that you know?
    For me the two more important are:

    1. The phase transition liquid-solid for the water is that the solid state is less dense.
    2. The dielectric screening in metals is such that the Coulomb interaction among the electrons falls at a distance of the Bohr radius.

    The first one has many important applications as the one of allowing the live in rivers during winter or so on. On the other hand, there are also very interesting electric and thermodynamic phase transitions for this material

    The second, thanks to have a so local electric interaction it allows to have almost free electrons at quite high electronic density in matter and therefore to apply theories so useful as the bands in solids. Over all in metals
    Robin Spivey · Bangor University

    Dear Daniel, please could you clarify what you mean by the two neutrinos "staying in the same state as the electron"? Neutrino annihilation is the time-reversal of the photoneutrino process. Does your question also apply to the photoneutrino process?

    Neutrino annihilation essentially boils down to (i) an antineutrino colliding with an electron (ii) a virtual W boson coupling to these two particles (iii) an opportunity thereby arising for a much more remote neutrino to sense the presence of the W boson and take up the chance to annihilate. In a degenerate halo the wavefunctions of the neutrinos fully permeate space so as soon as the initial collision occurs, annihilation can proceed providing the electron is receptive to the annihilation energy. It is not necessary for the two neutrinos and the electron to simultaneously be in the same place at the same, if that is your concern. Here, there is quite a difference with the photoneutrino process within stars because the de Broglie wavelength of halo neutrinos are enormously larger than those of high energy neutrinos. For a neutrino moving at ~0.1c, the de Broglie wavelength is about 0.2mm. Compare this to the size of an atom and you can appreciate that the second neutrino can be very distant indeed from the mediating electron.

  • Do you know any masterpieces of art which are devoted to anti-war themes?

    One of the main tasks is to cultivate peacemakers. Anti-war arts (painting, sculpture, literature, music, photo) can be helpful in upbringing future generation. Cultivating a culture of peace through awareness of genius message (implicit and explicit) is important in schooling. We are going to research the sources, organize the conference and stage one of the creative works. We will be thankful for every contribution.    

    David Charles Wright-Carr · Universidad de Guanajuato

    Getting back to music, a classic anti-war song from the United States is Creedence Clearwater Revival's "Fortunate son" (1969); in the following version the music has been enhanced with a selection of images:


    Here are the lyrics:

    Some folks are born made to wave the flag
    Ooh, they're red, white and blue
    And when the band plays "Hail to the Chief"
    Oh, they point the cannon at you, Lord

    It ain't me, it ain't me
    I ain't no Senator's son
    It ain't me, it ain't me
    I ain't no fortunate one, no

    Some folks are born silver spoon in hand
    Lord, don't they help themselves, oh
    But when the tax men come to the door
    Lord, the house look a like a rummage sale, yes

    It ain't me, it ain't me
    I ain't no millionaire's son, no, no
    It ain't me, it ain't me
    I ain't no fortunate one, no

    Yeah, some folks inherit star spangled eyes
    Ooh, they send you down to war, Lord
    And when you ask them, "How much should we give?"
    Oh, they only answer, more, more, more, oh

    It ain't me, it ain't me
    I ain't no military son
    It ain't me, it ain't me
    I ain't no fortunate one

    It ain't me, it ain't me
    I ain't no fortunate one, no, no, no
    It ain't me, it ain't me
    I ain't no fortunate son, no, no

    (Source: http://www.metrolyrics.com/fortunate-son-lyrics-creedence-clearwater-revival.html)