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  • What are the surfactants using CaP nanoparticles for bio medical applications?

    i have prepared the CaP/Ag nanoparticles for the biomedical applications in drug delivery,give the suggestion for using surfactants. 

  • Any scientific NGO which I can join?

    any NGO here doing some scientific work, more around bioinformatics, environment etc. It must be involved in research paper writing. I want to join them. One or more wont affect me. I can share my vast and diversified experience, in proposal framing, paper writing. Anticipating response

  • Ljubomir Jacić added an answer in Invention:
    Is forbidden knowledge a myth or a fact?

    For an example:

    "Suppressed Inventions & other Discoveries" - True Stories of Suppression By Jonathan Eisen

    To compile this book, editor Jonathan Eisen traveled the world in search of documented stories of scientific cover-ups, covert operations, and programs of deliberate misinformation, all designed to hide controversial inventions and discoveries, such as anti-gravity devices, limitless energy sources, results of cancer and AIDS research, and more. 40 photos. 30 illustrations. 

    Ljubomir Jacić · Technical College Požarevac

    Dear @Amir, we do about facts, of course.The attached review brings such facts!

  • Subhash C. Juneja asked a question in Universe:
    Why all journals don't follow one universal style of research publication?

    Every journal has different rules of writing style, bibliography style, figures presentation, number of references, number of figures and number of tables, number of pages limit etc. All this is to show a "finding". Can all journal editors meet and come to a common style. It will save a lot of time of researchers when they publish in different journal.

  • Why are people (dis)honest?

    "Rooted in the philosophies of Thomas Hobbes, Adam Smith, and the standard economic model of rational and selfish human behavior (i.e., homo economicus) is the belief that people carry out dishonest acts consciously and deliberatively by trading off the expected external benefits and costs of the dishonest act (Allingham and Sandmo 1972; Becker 1968). According to this perspective, people reach a decision that maximizes their interests and are honest or dishonest only to the extent that the planned trade-off favors a particular action (Hechter 1990; Lewicki 1984).

    From the "The Dishonesty of Honest People" one of the most cited article (see)


    I am interested to know your opinion about

    Dejenie A. Lakew · John Tyler Community College

    Dear Huajiang,

    Good point to indicate what the other meaning of dishonesty can be that is good and imperative in some sense. A psychiatrist should not tell to his/her patient the true mental status but in a way that builds a capacity of recovery and hope of getting better which may not be included in dishonesty behaviors. But the question specifically addresses dishonesty to benefit self at the expense of others through wrong and unethical ways.  

  • hairy root cultures
    Doubt....When we acclimatized an invitro hairy root producing plant to field conditions..,will the next generation from it may produce hairy roots or not?What are the genetic variations and morphological variations that are possible in it??
    Abdullah Makhzoum · The University of Western Ontario

    Hello Mini MS,

    whatever you are using hairy roots regenerated plants or composite plants, the rol genes will start inserted so they will always show the hairy roots phenotype and characteristics as these rol genes became part of the plant genome. If you would, You can read my book chapter for all questions about hairy roots and its applications and charesteristics at molecular and morphological levels.

  • What is the difference between two proteins Sam68 and p68(DDX5) ?

    Also, if they are different what is known about them in spermatogenesis.

  • Kanwal Naqvi added an answer in Knee Osteoarthritis:
    Can I use any established questionnaire for knee osteoarthritis with modification without any legal problem?

    Anybody please suggest can i use any established questionnaire like WOMAC with modification of time frame, addition or deletion of questions according to my population without any problem in publication and with authorities of that questionnaire? Actually it is changed but i am using few of question from there along with their scoring pattern. Will there any problem or anybody who has worked with knee osteoarthritis and developed his own questionnaire guide me?

    Kanwal Naqvi · Quaid-i-Azam University

    Dear Ralph Bright

    thanks. I have read that and i come to know it also contains WOMAC and it is free while womac is not. I am working with primary OA that is not because of any injury. should i still use KOOS? I am interested to relate amount of pain in knee with genetic variation in selected genes or other structural findings? Is KOOS apt for this purpose?KOOS score calculation is difficult. can it be easily used in a research study?

  • Juehui Shi added an answer in Information Systems:
    Is it logical to considered Information Systems and Technology as business administration specialization, or it is an Information Systems Technology?

    Is it logical to considered Information Systems and Technology as business administration specialization, or it is an Information Systems Technology?  


    what is the difference between Information Systems and Technology & Management Information Systems ?

    Juehui Shi · University at Buffalo, The State University of New York

    The difference is in application specifically the scope of deployment and design. For example, IST has much wider usage in other areas such as navigation, aerospace and transportation, compared with MIS built for management. 

  • How to model the nano-pore correctly in molecular Monte Carlo or molecular dynamics simulations?

    Dear experts,

    What is the correct approach to model a cylindrical nano-pore or a slit-pore in molecular simulations (MC, MD).

    I have seen numerous papers applied the rigid pore (frozen pore) in their work. However, it will create an unrealistic temperature gradient between the pore (zero Kelvin since it is rigid) and the fluid (let's say 300K). I afraid it will influence the subsequent results such as adsorption or heat flux calculation.

    If one does not make the pore to be rigid, the pore will collapse when the thermostat is applied to the pore. In a few case, for example graphite, people keeps 1 graphene layer to be frozen and allow the other 2 layers to be non-rigid. Nonetheless, this semi-rigid approach cannot be applied for all cases. 

  • What is the biggest scientific coincidence that you know?
    For me the two more important are:

    1. The phase transition liquid-solid for the water is that the solid state is less dense.
    2. The dielectric screening in metals is such that the Coulomb interaction among the electrons falls at a distance of the Bohr radius.

    The first one has many important applications as the one of allowing the live in rivers during winter or so on. On the other hand, there are also very interesting electric and thermodynamic phase transitions for this material

    The second, thanks to have a so local electric interaction it allows to have almost free electrons at quite high electronic density in matter and therefore to apply theories so useful as the bands in solids. Over all in metals
    Robin Spivey · Bangor University

    Dear Daniel,

    Precisely - the gravitational compression of gravity would be counterbalanced by the fermionic repulsion arising due to the exclusion principle. I use the word halo because it is common to speak of a dark matter halo enshrouding a galaxy. A neutrino halo would be a quantum degenerate structure, but not a degenerate star. However, some researchers seem to like the term neutrino star - but this may be more in the context of heavier or sterile neutrinos when people propose alternatives to supermassive black holes at the centres of galaxies.

    I was hoping you could help me suggest a mechanism for neutrino production during the decay of dark energy. We clearly have a very different outlook on black holes. Mine is based not on the fashionable view that gravitational collapse produces objects with singularities and event horizons but on the mathematical analysis of Oppenheimer & Snyder of dynamical gravitational collapse. We learnt from this that from the perspective of any external observer the collapse stalls just before the formation of an event horizon. There are no singularities. People have difficulty accepting that this outcome is indefinitely stable, but global constraints ensure that it is. Bearing these things in mind, I don't think I have much to add to what I said in my last message about how dark energy decays when the spatial energy density of a black hole falls below the spatial energy density of dark energy.

    Einstein warned that there are no true black holes in nature. I agree, collapsed objects are just quasi-black holes. I don't feel there is any ambiguity here even if confusion has been rife since Einstein's departure (consider for example all the recent nonsense about the 'information paradox', closed timelike curves that violate causality and energy conservation violating singularities). I suspect these quasi-black holes are metastable and sensitive to the state of the vacuum, awaiting opportunities to become quasi-white holes. Sorry if this proposal comes as a disappointment. As I say, I am trying to close a very big knowledge gap with very little in the way of assistance and fighting against the tide of some bad science. Like everyone else, I am just a fleeting member of a relatively primitive civilisation, so don't expect too much.

  • Do you have any suggestions for an Ancient DNA collaborative project?

    I have fossil ostrich eggshells from Upper Paleolithic sites of India, I am interested in Ancient DNA analysis from these eggshells. Is anyone interested in this collaborative project?

    Amiee Potter · Oregon Health and Science University

    Also - with LCN samples nuclear DNA can be undetectable but there is enough mtDNA. 

  • What is the best antifungal used in isolation of a mix of bacteria and fungi?

    I have some environmental samples that contain both fungi and bacteria and I want to isolate only bacteria

    What is the best way to do that and if I want to add antifungal in the media, what is the best and what is its optimum concentration?

    I will be thankful, if help with papers.

    Best Regards 

    Prakash Hebbar · Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

    Depends on what you want to isolate and their populations. Fungi and gram positive bacteria are usually at lower population levels than gram negatives. I found using simple nutrient agar was efficient in isolating gram negatives and 10 min heating (don't remember exact temp-there is literature out there) of your serial dilutions and then  plating them eliminated most of the gram negatives and non-spore bearers. Acidified PDA is effective in reducing fungi. Focus on the microbe that you want to isolate, if you don't you will have thousands of isolates and trying to keep them alive is a huge task in itself.

  • John Machell added an answer in Water Contamination:
    Is there any possible to remove fluoride from water using carbon as an electrode?

    I want use Carbon as an electrode to remove fluoride from water.

  • Can someone recommend what is the best percent of divided the training data and testing data in neural network 75:25 or 80:20 or 90:10 ?

    Can someone recommend what is the best percent of divided the training data and testing data in neural network 75:25 or 80:20 or 90:10 ?

    Lejla Banjanovic-Mehmedovic · University of Tuzla, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    All depends of data set dimension, what is clear. For small data set, it is good to use k-cross validation and  70-15-15 ratio. For big set it is fine to use circa 75-25 or more probs.

    Best Regards


  • Mohamed Benmerikhi asked a question in Dreams:
    Is active optimism combined with determination sufficient ingredients for the realisation of a dream?

    success stories about people who fulfilled their dreams tell us many things that we might think of as common to most people. Yet, it seems that the recipe has many variations

  • Is there a difference between velocities of photons in vacuum and velocity of fermions?

    The velocity of photons is isotropic property in vacuum, while in fermions it's affected by the uncertainty principle. How can we understand this conflict. If there is a velocity transformation between a fermion and a classical observer. Do you think it will be real or imaginary?

    and If there is a velocity transformation between a photon and a classical observer do you think it will be real or imaginary? with the reason please.

    Stam Nicolis · University of Tours

    Massless particles, whether bosons or fermions, travel at the speed of light in vacuum-the sentence quoted was chopped in a way that makes it *wrong*: bosons or fermions DON'T travel at the speed of light in vacuum; MASSLESS particles, whether bosons or fermions, travel at the speed of light in vacuum. 

    And the reason is the energy-momentum relarion E=|p|c, which holds for massless particles.

    It doesn't matter what the observers are: the Lorentz transformations from one inertial frame to another don't depend on the spin of the particle. More precisely, the spin components will transform appropriately and the statement that a particle is a boson or a fermion depends on the corresponding Casimir of the Poincaré group, which is invariant, just like the mass. 

  • What is the best option for manging the environmental problem of seawater intrusion in coastal areas?

    The seawater intrusion is a widespread environmental problem of coastal aquifers where more than two third of the world’s population lives. The indiscriminate and unplanned groundwater withdrawal for fulfilling the growing freshwater needs of coastal regions causes this problem. Seawater intrusion is one of the major causes of groundwater quality degradation because mixing even a small quantity of 2-3% saltwater makes the groundwater unsuitable for domestic, agricultural, and industrial uses. What is the best way of managing this problem?

    Your response is very much appreciated.

    Best regards,

    Krishnan Umachandran · Professor

    With a significant rise in sea level there will be an acceleration of beach erosion in areas already eroding and possibly a start of erosion in areas not previously subject to erosion. There are several reasons for this.
    1. The main reason for increased erosion is simply that the higher water level allows wave and current erosion processes to act farther up on the beach profile and cause a readjustment of that profile, which results in a net erosion of the beach and deposition on the nearshore bottom.
    2.Beach profiles are concave, increasing in steepness nearer to shore. At higher sea levels, waves can get closer to shore before breaking and cause increased erosion.
    3. Deeper water also decreases wave refraction and thus increases the capacity for alongshore transport.
    4. Higher sea level could change the source of sediments, for example, by decreasing river transport to the sea as the mouth is flooded. However, higher sea level can also act to diminish erosion by making more material available to alongshore transport by allowing wave attack on previously untouched erodable cliffs.


  • Juehui Shi added an answer in Statistical Programs:
    What is the best statistical program can be used for multivariate analysis?

    There are many statistical programs produced by software companies, enough to one should decide which software program is more fit to present and analyze the data. If we have data on ages of trees, size, growth rate, vitality, and seeds production. What is the best statistical program can be used for multivariate analysis for these parameters?

    Juehui Shi · University at Buffalo, The State University of New York

    Paul, my advisor quoted one time in class "garbage in garbage out," which reminds me of how important original data is. I bear this warning sign when I collect any kind of data.

  • Ayman EL-Meghawry EL-Kenawy added an answer in Dust:
    How do you induce inhalation of tobacco dust or cement dust in the rats? How do you determine its concentration?

    See above

    Ayman EL-Meghawry EL-Kenawy · Taif University. Sadat city Univeristy,

    Dr Ali

    Thank you very much for your great help.

  • Can Platinum Nano particles do coupling reaction?
    Can Platinum Nano particles do coupling reaction?
  • Gilson Dorneles added an answer in Fatigue:
    Does anyone have any reference about the role of cytokines on fatigue/exercise-induced fatigue ?

    Does anyone have any references or literature about fatigue mechanisms which cytokines are involved in it in none-disease subjects? Does anyone have any references about impact of cytokine on exercise/physical activity-induced fatigue or other immune system components and mechanisms which leads to fatigue delay during exercise/physical activity?

    Gilson Dorneles · Rede Metodista de Educação do Sul

    Mr. Delphan

    see this recent study about the T helper cytokines 


    In adiction, a paper from PlosOne showed a desbalance between Th17 and Regulatory T Cells.


  • Gurudeeban Selvaraj added an answer in Diabetes:
    How can I determine the Bio availability of anti diabetic tablets by Computational Method?

    I have formulated anti diabetic tablets from Plant active constituent. I want to check the bio availability of tablets with computational model, can anyone suggest me some software in this issue?

    Gurudeeban Selvaraj · Istanbul Medeniyet Universitesi

    Thank you sir!

  • Seyyed Morteza Hoseini added an answer in Pyridines:
    How can I detect taurine amino acid in human and rat serum?

    deproteinization of plasma with acetonitrile then it dries

    pyridine and MSTFA is add and shake well for 30 sec

    MSTFA + 1% TMCS 

    pyridine is anhydrous

    incubation condition 

    temperature  60 c

    time 45 min

    Seyyed Morteza Hoseini · Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources


    Your question is not clear! However, I used HPLC with fluorescent detection and Dancyl chloride derivitization to assay taurine. It worked well.

  • Can any one help me in identifying structural states using XRD?

    Can any one help me in analyzing albite, orthoclase and microcline for identification of their structural state?

    Aniket Chakrabarty · Durgapur Government College

    Not much......may be five to six samples are enough to solve my purpose. Yes the feldspar contents are high. This is basically a nepheline syenite with pure Ab and Or with rare microcline as found in the thin section. I have EPMA data which shows pure nature of the feldspars. I am thankful for your concern in my work. 

  • Are solid characterization factors available for particulate matter to CO2 equivalent (Global Warmining Potential) ?

    I would like to convert Particulate Matter from vehicle emissions into CO2 equivalent, but I am not able to find solid characterization factors for Italy (or Southern Europe at least...).

    John D Bachmann · Vision Air Consulting, LLC


    Thank you and I of course agree - as I noted a few posts back -  this thread has departed far from Alessandro's original question.  It is relevant only to some of the subsequent questions raised regarding aerosol effects both present and past.  Perhaps it is time to close of the discussion in this thread unless it is specific to GWPs for vehicle emissions.   I believe your response above was the most definitive with respect to guidance on that issue.

    John B.

  • Siva Prasad M added an answer in Steel:
    What may be the reason for the porosity in the HAZ of mild steel portion of the stainless steel-mild steel dissimilar weldment?

    I have observed porosity at the HAZ of mild steel side of AISI 304 stainless steel and mild steel dissimilar weld. Welding technique was SMAW and the electrode used was E308L. What may be the reason for the porosity?

    Siva Prasad M · Amal Jyothi College of Engineering

    No sir, i didnt,actually i was doing repair welding on SS-MS repair welding. 

  • Alexander Julianov added an answer in Mesylates:
    How do I assess and judge that the best response has been achieved during neoadjuvant imatinib mesylate treatment for a bulky gastric cardiac GIST?

    A young woman with gastric cardiac malignant GIST involving lower esophagus underwent neoadjuvant imatinib mesylate. When can we say it is the best time for the surgeon to operate: by duration of treatment just like the TPF neoadjuvant chemotherapy for hypopharyngeal cancer? or by achieving the best response? In the latter, how may one evaluate the best response?

    Alexander Julianov · Trakia University

    In a case of GIST I am preferring volume reduction as a response criterion. After initiation of TKI treatment most GISTs demonstrated reduced activity at PET-CT which not correlates with pathological response.   

  • Palani Manasa added an answer in Polyploidy:
    How long can colchicine be stored in an aqueous solution?

    I've been trying to find information about how long colchicine can remain as an effective inducer of polyploidy in plants while suspended in an aqueous solution containing less than 5% colchicine.

    I've found information concerning the safe storage of powered colchicine, and that it reacts with light, but nothing about this in particular.

    On the Cayman Chemical product information sheet it says that when stored properly Colchicine (In the powdered form) can remain stable for up to 2 years. They also say "We do not recommend storing the aqueous solution for more than one days".

    If anyone could point me towards some research on the long-term viability of colchicine in an aqueous solution, or has any personal experience in trying to use and reuse colchicine I'd appreciate it.


    Palani Manasa · Genewin Biotech

    Maximum you can store in fridge for 2 months.  But to reduce any precipitate formation you can add 10-15%DMSO in DM water. Also DMSO might interact with plant growth in tissue culture. Few reports have been published on this

  • YOGESH CHANDRA TRIPATHI added an answer in Academia:
    Do you have experience with caste employment at Universities in spite of the law?
    There are many examples of illegal employment of children of professors. It is an ethical issue. It is about nepotism. Rectors of the University of Novi Pazar, in Serbia, hired several members of their closest family, although there were better candidates for the academic places. Do you have experience with such phenomena?