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  • Wenjia Huang added an answer in Radiation Physics:
    Where do the electrons go after alpha decay?

    In alpha decay process,parent nucleus decays by emitting alpha and daughter nucleus. However, It is the decay that happens in parent atom. Is it correct? If it is correct, which means that the daughter "atom" remains two extract electrons after alpha decay. Where would the two electrons go after alpha decay? It confused me a lot.

    Wenjia Huang · French National Centre for Scientific Research

    What you explained shed light on me. All my confusion is gone.  Thank you very much.

  • Jinqiang Wang added an answer in Building:
    What control applications can be implemented that result in multiple benefits uniquely suited to the campus setting ?

    Energy demand changes from building to building, as a result of extensive variety of building uses on campuses.What control applications can be implemented that result in multiple benefits uniquely suited to the campus setting ? Any contribution is greatly appreciated. 

    Jinqiang Wang · Independent Researcher

    Maybe some places/aspects should be noticed. Housing and the campus central loop, daylighting, submetering campus buildings, HVAC and the classroom. Some companies support such control applications.

  • Paul Yarnold added an answer in Data Analysis:
    Is this interpretation of ODA outputs correct?

    Each FA and AM are groups of variables all analysed in a scale 1 to 4.

    The restricted range of values + violation of multivariate normality make unreliable goodness of fit statistics (ML) and standar errors. Then I aplly optimal data analysis paradigm, instead of FA or PCA.

    Do you agree with the interpretation of ODA outputs and the way I analysed data?

    Thank you


    Paul Yarnold · Optimal Data Analysis LLC

    Sorry, I don't understand clearly what you are asking, and I have many project deadlines to meet. 

    Regarding (2), in the ODA paradigm variables are only categorical or ordered. The concept of "continuous" is irrelevant.

    Regarding (3) I recommend running each analysis individually, and continuing each separate analysis until it is completed correctly, or until the reason underlying the failure is clear. If the analysis does not run, but the UniODA program is correct, then the problem resides in the data. Usually the latter case is the result of having too few or too many class categories given the metric of the attribute. If you come across a specific analysis that fails to run, and there is nothing wrong with the data or the program, then posting a question (and including the program and data) is a good idea.

    Regarding (4), there are many articles on this topic, and many relevant discussions in the ODA book. The search box on the ODA webpage may be useful for finding specific topics.

    Regarding (5), scores of any unidimensional construct measured using a scale ranging from opposite poles (e.g., worst to best) are, by definition, ordered. Here is a brief, open access paper on incorrect treatment of ordered data:


    Regarding (6), if I understand what you are asking, I use SAS to manipulate data sets. So, if I wish to explore sample strata that were identified by ODA models, then I use SAS. There are plenty of software systems available for manipulating and examining subpartitions of samples. ODA (is the only) "mission-specific" software that is specifically designed to identify maximum-accuracy models.

  • Craig Dremann added an answer in Plant Taxonomy:
    Can anyone provide the taxonomic details or common name of this plant?

    Habitat: Shrub

    Having a strong flavor in leaf and fruit

    Craig Dremann · The Reveg Edge

    Gitamani--you may have encountered an ecotype of the species, which is confusing taxonomically because the original species description of any plant, is from a single ecotype of that species to begin with.  

    For example, when I did my ecotype research on one native grass growing in the wild within a 150 miles radius, I found a dozen very distinctive ecotypes that I grew in a common garden experiment, and when compared to the original species description, you would have classified all of the ecotypes as different species.  You can see pictures at http://www.ecoseeds.com/common.html.  

  • Which solvent is suitable to dissolve Copper and Zinc oxide nano particles ?

    I had difficulties while I am using oxide nanoparticles into Algae culture medium. Those are easily settled down in the conical flasks. Can anyone suggest me which solvent is suitable for dissolving oxide nanoparticles?

    Satyavani Kaliamurthi · Istanbul Medeniyet Universitesi

    Yes, Dr. Edward Russak, I am looking dispersing agent.

  • Do different electromagnetic radiations have different mass?

    different electromagnetic radiations are differentiated on the basis of their energy or frequency of photons.characteristic of  Electromagnetic radiations is, all of them travel with a constant speed, that is of light c which is maximum possible velocity in our universe.

    Now I have a confusion here ; since E=mc2 and c is a constant whether photon of higher energy is having higher mass in comparison to a lower energy photon..?

    Roy Lisker · Ferment Magazine

    Well, my answer is much like the others. Photons have a "mass equivalent" given by their energy E, which is a function of their frequency. E= mc2 = hf, where f is the frequency. This equivalent mass responds to gravity, which is why the path of a ray of light will warp as it passes close to the sun.

  • What is the best way to extract lignin and hemicellulose from a raw sample in preparation of cellulose nanofibers?

    What is the best way to extract lignin and hemicellulose from a raw sample in preparation of cellulose nanofibers?

    Mustafa Çiçekler · Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University

    • Holocellulose: Wise Chloride method (Wise, 1962).

    • Alpha cellulose: TAPPI T 203 os-71 (Anonim. , 1992).

    You must obtain Holocellulose from extracted samples before obtain Alpha cellulose. 

  • Sujata Sharma added an answer in Splenocytes:
    Hi, I am trying to proliferate T cells using Splenocytes for some reason I am having issues - - Am not sure why I do not see any division peaks?

    1. I am using DMEM+10% FBS+ pen strep to culture the splenocytes.


    1.10ug/ml of anti mouse CD3 (coated); 5mg/mL of  CD28. Or

    2. Dyna mage -2uL per 8*10^4 cells ( as suggested).

    Splenoctes are processed , RBC lysed and CFSE stained before the stimulus is added.1 Million cells per well ; 12 well plate 4 days post incubation used FACS read out.

    Compared both Balb c Mice and Black 6 mice .  - same results no division peaks.Is there any thing I am doing wrong?

    I used 5uM final CFSE conc. as recommended by the kit - Should I reduce this conc.?

  • Do you think fixed point theory can reflect the science from known corners to another new corner in this world?
    As you know fixed point theory has many applications in all sciences.
    Mihai Postolache · Polytechnic University of Bucharest

    It is certain, yes !

  • Tianzhu Xiang asked a question in 3D Reconstruction:
    If I start to research 3D reconstruction from UAV images, what other challenges there are? Or what other research points that are worthy of research?

    Reconstruction of 3D models from aerial images has experienced several years of development, some technology is mature, and there are many open souce tools ,such as SFM, PVMS, VisualSFM etc.

    So if I start to research 3D reconstruction from UAV images, what other challenges there are? Or what other research points that are worthy of research?

    Thank you.

  • Nasseradeen Ashwear added an answer in Tensegrity:
    Does anyone have experience with using Genetic algorithms in tensegrity form finding?

    I would like to apply Genetic algorithm for form finding process of tensegrity structures. There are many publications but none of them explain this explicitly and step by step

    Nasseradeen Ashwear · KTH Royal Institute of Technology

    This code means?

  • What does 'deprotection' mean, with regards to a thiolated probe?

    I want to know how this occurs, I mean the chemical process.

    Prabodh Ranjan · Central University of Gujarat

    For an example suppose you are performing an chemo-selective reaction (where two functional group present suppose one is ketone and another is aldehyde): 

  • Gang Li added an answer in Branch and Bound:
    Which algorithm is fastest in finding the exact solution set of subset sum problem ?

     The problem is this: given a set of integers, is there a non-empty subset whose sum is equal to C. Where  c is integer value. There are too many algorithms developed by backtracking or artificial intelligence, Which of theme has fast solution.

    Gang Li · Bentley University

    Yes, the problem is NP-complete, but weakly NP-complete. The "weakness" means we can have a pseudo-polynomial time algorithm to solve it quickly. More specifically, the problem can be reduced to the famous knapsack problem. Therefore a shortest path algorithm or a dynamic programming algorithm can be applied to solve. 

  • Martin Blasl added an answer in Comsol:
    How can I add mass on a MEMS resonator in COMSOL software?

    I am trying to design an ultra-sensitive bio-sensor based on coupled microelectromechanical systems resonator array. I am studying the effect of mode localization (also called Anderson localization) upon addition of mass. I am working with the MEMS module of COMSOL 4.4.

  • Johannes Kiefer added an answer in IR Spectra:
    Where can I get a detailed analysis of hot water spectrum in the wavenumber range of 4000 to 400 cm(inverse)?

    I am trying to study the IR spectrum of hot water in the waveno. range 4000 to 400 cm (inverse). If any published data is available, that will help me a lot! This is in turn an attempt to study the hot water spectrums obtained from the sun (sunspots).

    Johannes Kiefer · Universität Bremen

    some information (only part of the spectral region mentioned) on hot water can be found in http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2759216

  • Tahir Midhat Lazimov added an answer in Corona:
    Why power loss due to corona is reduced due to the use of bundled conductors ?

    why power loss due to corona is reduced due to the use of bundled conductors ?

    Tahir Midhat Lazimov · Azerbaijan Technical University

    Bundled conductor has a greater equivalent radius than single conductor of the same area of conducting part's cross-section. So intensity of electrical field generated by bundled conductor is less in comparison with single one. This leads to decreasing both power losses and interference in the radio frequency band. 

  • Kennedy Onyelowe added an answer in Piles:
    Is there is a relation between soil type and tension capacity of helical steel driven in soil pile?

    is there is a relation between soil type and tension capacity of helical steel driven in soil pile ( density of soil cohesive internal angle of friction, ......)? and if there what is the possibility of using this kind of piles in resistance tension acting on it?

    Kennedy Onyelowe · Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike

    Check these links. They are good literatures to aid you answer your question. http://www.google.com.ng/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=4&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CDAQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.concretenetwork.com%2Fconcrete%2Ffoundation_repair%2Fdesign-helical-piles.pdf&ei=IXRoVc7SBcHB7AbZ0YO4BA&usg=AFQjCNFVJz7-RSswi4LVqKARZlNip7i-4Q&bvm=bv.93990622,d.ZGU,  http://www.google.com.ng/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CDUQFjAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Fs3.amazonaws.com%2Fsuncam%2Fnpdocs%2F132.pdf&ei=IXRoVc7SBcHB7AbZ0YO4BA&usg=AFQjCNGglBIEl3q6wIE3JKujVUgPHPl77Q&bvm=bv.93990622,d.ZGU,  http://www.google.com.ng/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CEYQFjAH&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pile.com%2FReference%2FInternationalGeotechnicalSymposiumonHelicalFoundations%2FHighStrainDynamicLoadTestingonHelicalPiles.pdf&ei=IXRoVc7SBcHB7AbZ0YO4BA&usg=AFQjCNHeB0TazCxROcnoWhbgUD4uQqQeMg&bvm=bv.93990622,d.ZGU,http://www.google.com.ng/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=9&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CE0QFjAI&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.intermountainhelicalpiers.com%2Fdownloads%2FDesignGuide4Rev2.pdf&ei=IXRoVc7SBcHB7AbZ0YO4BA&usg=AFQjCNFZD7572-o-NKFA0eyZ_aTtXzWJFw&bvm=bv.93990622,d.ZGU   

  • Artur Burzynski added an answer in Amplicon:
    Why do I get a smear on the gel after the re-amplification of a PCR amplicon?

    I have observed multiple times that if I use a PCR amplicon (with / without PCR cleanup) as a template for a subsequent PCR with the same primers, I get a smear on agarose gel. The size of the expected amplicon is about 200 bases and the smear appears from about 2kb to 200bp, with the required band often missing or faint. Some of my colleagues have also faced this issue.

    Is this common? Can anyone suggest a way out of this?

  • Behnaz Merikhi added an answer in NS2.:
    How do I Implement a dual stack gateway in NS2?

    I have a scenario in my master thesis that it is part of an smart city project including some mart home. every home have some sensor nodes in it to detect the different level of gases inside. homes are connected to each other via multi hop routing . so I need a dual stack gateway in every home to support both zigbee and wifi protocol and be able to connect to the home nodes with zigbee and connect to the other gateways with Wifi. I don't have any clue please guide me how to implement this dual stack gateway in NS?

    Behnaz Merikhi · Shahid Beheshti University

    Thanks all of you,

    please if you have another idea or you can add some details, let me know


  • How can I establish sex in crustacea with molecular tools?

    I would establish sex in immature amphipods.

    Francesc Mesquita-Joanes · University of Valencia

    Have you checked if there is any information on karyotype morphology differences (rather than DNA or RNA) for males and females in amphipods? Maybe that would be and appropriate tool if there is sex determination related to e.g. X0 or XY systems in their chromosomes. 

  • How does one study, empirically, Organizational behavior?

    OB encompasses several variables: employee behavior, organizational structure, leadership, team work, communication, conflict,...It's difficult to select the relevant variables that best reflect OB.

    Ilfryn Price · Sheffield Hallam University

    I would reccomend Scott-Morgan's Unwritten Rules book


  • Sp Singh added an answer in Mining:
    Does anyone know about literature or Research Classification or types of open pit mining?

    There are two different classifications : the North American and Spanish , but I want some more , maybe Russian , Chinese and South African ...

    Sp Singh · Laurentian University

    Open pit mining has been classified in different ways by different people. The most common universally applicable classification is: 

    1. Single bench mining  2. Multi-bench mining  3. Strip mining  4. Quarry mining

    5. Mining of placer deposits.

    The most common type of pen pit mining is Multi-bench mining.

     Good luck!

  • Looking for an cheap secondhand VSM head?

    head or full device, depending on price.

  • Is there any possibility for using home energy management system without wireless communication?

    Thanks in advance for your replies.

    Ismat Aldmour · Al Baha University

    Ok.... home energy management system without wireless communication?... Naturally, the alternative - as incited by the question- would be wired control. But first, let us pause awhile and ask, do we have to have a centralized home energy management system. The answer to this in many cases can be no. Decentralized solutions can do. A sensor and a local controller, e.g. a motion detector, a timer and pre-programmed action/actuator (e.g to dim lights or turn them off) may solve the problem without the need for wired or wireless.

    If we insist on centralized control, wired control of any type, suffers from high installation and maintenance costs and scalability difficulties. It is better be pre-designed in the home or building. Hence, the natural alternative is to make use of the existing powerline wires feeding the light bulbs and the heating/cooling units themselves (as suggested also in the answers before me). This is the power line communication system (PLC) whereby high frequency low power control signals are run together with the high power 50/60Hz loads. PLC signals use OFDM tones but can be using any modulating technique. 

    Alternatively, in the near future, where we will have more support for IOT solutions and more reliance on small cells and indoor based communication as expected by the new 5G era, control can be implemented using these technologies (without the need for extra wires or even extra wireless signals as they will be already abundant). Thanks. @AlDmour.

  • Joseph R. Chidiac added an answer in Strawberry:
    Any suggestions on seed germination on Strawberry fruits? Why did this happen?

    I took these pictures in a greenhouse near Sanandaj, Iran (5/17/2015), Seed germination on strawberry fruits, preharvest! Why did this happen?!

    Joseph R. Chidiac · University of Arkansas

    This symptom is called phyllody, and instead of germination, it is actually the development of somatic leaf tissue in the place of embryos. It can be caused by fluctuations in light, temperature, and nutrients available.

  • Ghanim Al-Khaledi added an answer in Blood Glucose:
    What is the variation in basal blood glucose levels in laboratory mice and rats?

    What is the variation in basal blood glucose levels in laboratory mice and rats?

    Ghanim Al-Khaledi · Kuwait University

    hi Carsten,

    from our experience, we draw normal "human" blood sugar values (between 4.44 - 6.66 mmol/l.) to our lab rats ( SD, WKY, and DIO Model). fasting blood glucose levels in awake rat ( anesthesia causes slight hyperglycaemia) range 117.06±1.96 mg/dl.  but then again we establish the mean value for our control group for each time we pilot an experiment.

    may I suggest :

    http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/2001-02/982242802.Zo.r.html     and 


    hope it is what you are looking for. Best wishes .

  • Natalia Kudriavtseva asked a question in Bilingualism:
    Does anyone know any research on the question of natural bilingualism and identity? Can bilingualism be considered as a case for 'split' identity?

    If one identifies himself/herself with a certain culture, lifestyle, ethnic group through one's native language, how is this correlation represented in natural bilinguals (those who acquired two languages as native)? What culture and more generally what 'type of rationality' (worldview) might they identify themselves with? 

    Proceeding from the problem of language and identity, the next step seems to be to ask what kind of identity bilingualism and multilingualism suggest.

    Thank you!

  • Rudresh Kumbar added an answer in Cataloging:
    Is cataloging still relevant in the web environment?

    Will it remain relevant in the medium to long term?

    In ancient era or modern era we need to do cataloguing for users. Without catalogue no one can findout required documents in stack area. 

    Rudresh Kumbar · National Law School of India University

    concept of catalogue can not change , only format can change,

  • Can anyone recommend canine hip dysplasia articles?
    My final thesis is going to be on canine hip dysplasia in german shepherd. I have already started the bibliography, but in order for me to know how to assess the radiographies I need to see sites on radiographies assessed by expert doctors on this subject. Can anyone help me find articles & Hip dysplasia radiographies that are fully explained on how to put the degree of dysplasia?
    Alexandre Navarro Alves Souza · University of São Paulo

    I performed my MSc evaluating clinical signals of hip dysplastic dogs according with hip dysplasia degree. It is one of my publications. best regards