Q&A

ResearchGate Q&A lets scientists and researchers exchange questions and answers relating to their research expertise, including areas such as techniques and methodologies.

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  • Ved Prakash added an answer in Culture Plates:
    What are ways to give UV radiation to bacterial culture plate for short time?

    I want to study the effect of radiation on bacterial cell, do i need to use some diode.

    Ved Prakash · Madhav Institute of Technology & Science Gwalior

    Thank You Mr. Bigey.

  • Divaker Choubey added an answer in Inflammasomes:
    Do you use FBS free media to study the inflammasome?

    In the literature it is either unclear or not mentioned what people do and if there is a consensus of how to do this.

    From what I have seen, when you prime with LPS, you are in complete media but then you change media for without FBS before adding ATP. Is that correct?

    My second question is: once you're done priming with LPS do you change media before pulsing with ATP (if you are using complete media all the way through)?

    Thanks!

    Divaker Choubey · University of Cincinnati

    We have activated NLRP3 with nigericin or ATP and Aim2 inflammasomes with synthetic DNA in complete medium. See our papers.

  • Does gender play a role in academic achievement or success?

    Do you think that there is a difference in boys and girls when determining academic ability?

    Mary Frank Fox · Georgia Institute of Technology

    The issue is not one of deficit in individual women - but rather, the challenges present in the characteristics of the settings in which academics work.

  • Hao Wu added an answer in Oxidation:
    What could be the reason for multi oxidation and reduction peaks(2or3) in CV for Co3O4? Some CO3O4 gives only one oxidation and reduction peak in CV?

    I know that during oxidation & reduction Co oxidation state changes +2 to +3 to +4 vice versa. Explain why one peak in one case and why more peaks in other case even if material is same i.e Co3O4?

    Hao Wu · Fudan University

    Jason Mann gives very impressive point of view. 

    In addition, I‘m wondering if some peaks are not shown in a relatively fast scan rate?

  • Paul R. Yarnold added an answer in OCD:
    Can anyone help me with a scale to measure the probability estimation in OCD??

    OCD individuals misjudge the probability of a negative event occuring in future. can anyone help me find a scale to measure this particular variable??

    Paul R. Yarnold · Optimal Data Analysis LLC

    Perhaps the Health and Psychosocial Instruments (HaPI) data base will be productive to address your question.

    Available in libraries around the world, the HaPI contains a wide range of records that provide comprehensive, accurate information about measurement instruments across diverse disciplines and professions. The HaPI database identifies measurement tools relevant for investigations and explorations in the fields of medicine, nursing, public health, psychology, social work, communication, sociology, and organizational behavior/human resources.

    This extensive collection of records describes measurement instruments from peer-reviewed scholarly journals, books, technical reports, and test publishers' catalogs. HaPI contains information about a variety of measurement instruments, such as Questionnaires, Surveys, Interviews, Tests, Checklists, Rating Scales, and Coding Schemes. HaPI records provide descriptive information about instruments, such as Title, Acronym, Authors, Language, Index Terms, and References. Some records also include Abstracts, Sample Items, Number of Questions, Subscales, Reliability, and other information.

    The reference librarian at any academic library should be able to tell you how to obtain access to the HaPI. If this is not the case, or if you don't have access to an academic library, here is the link to the website for Behavioral Measurement Database Services (BMDS)--the company which produces HaPI: http://bmdshapi.com/

  • Imran Khan asked a question in Liquids:
    For an x-ray experiment with a liquid, what material (vial or bottle.)should be to avoid not only absorption but scattering

    I need to conduct an experiment using x-rays.The test sample is in the form of a liquid and i need to use a small vial or bottle but what exactly the material should be to avoid not only absorption but scattering from that vial or bottle.In other words , vial is just facilitating to keep my liquid in front of x-ray window.

    For an x-ray experiment with a liquid,what exactly the material (vial or bottle.) should be to avoid not only absorption but scattering from material (vial or bottle)

  • Mohamed Hamdaoui added an answer in Damping:
    How many ways are there to determine damping ratio by the force vibration?

    and can anyone suggest some papers about that?

    Mohamed Hamdaoui · University of Lorraine

    You can just build the FRF of your system then you can estimate the damping ratios and frequencies at peaks. 

  • Mary V. Donohue added an answer in Meta-Analysis:
    What analysis can be used when the subgroup analysis is not able to explain the heterogeneity in a meta-analysis?

    In the subgroup analysis of a meta-analysis no moderator variable is able to explain the high heterogeneity. Is it methodologically correct to proceed to an analysis of sensibility, drawing a study time on each comparison, until homogeneous subgroups?

    Mary V. Donohue · New York University

    Jose, look at www.Social-Profile.com. The Social Profile is available at AOTA Press and has a flashdrive in the back cover, so you can make as many copies as you like.

    If you have any questions, contact me at MaryVDonohue@gmail.com

  • How do you measure social aptitude in children?
    We have examined quality of life in children with cochlear implants for several years. Last year, we started asking questions about friends and bullying. Which measures do you use to assess the quality and quantity of friendships and social aptitude in children and adolescents?
    Mary V. Donohue · New York University

    Andrea, the Social Profile is available at AOTA Press, with a flashdrive in the back cover, to make as many copies of the Profile as you wish. You can analyzed the social skills of individual children in their group or examine the group's social interaction level as a whole. It's based on Mildred Parten's work. Take a look at Social-Profile.com. MaryVDonohue@gmail.com.

  • How can an ELISA kits be used to detect estrogen pollution in a given environment?

    Do the kits have detection limits?

    I would like to know how ELISA kits can be used for detecting environmental pollution, especially by EDC compounds.

    Do ELISA kits provide accurate and reliable data?

    Safia Beshir · National Research Center, Egypt

     Yes, the Elisa kits have  detection limits. Which type of sample will be used to detect  environmental pollution? In each Elisa Kit it was written the type of suitable sample used. Each type of Elisa kit has certain degree of sensitivity and specificity.

  • Usha Barooah added an answer in Calculations:
    Which beam theory is to be used to calculate large deflections?

    Hi, I wanted to know what is meant by large deflections, as to what is the limit beyond which the deflection I get would be termed as large. And also, which theory should be used to calculate large deflections in a beam?

    Usha Barooah · Texas A&M University

    Thank You very much Sir. You made the concept very clear.

  • Imran Rahman added an answer in Conjoint Analysis:
    Can anyone suggest me a good tutorial on conjoint analysis?

    I am very interested to learn how to use Conjoint Analysis. I have been searching for an effective online tutorial.

    Imran Rahman · Auburn University

    Thank you very much :) It is very informative and helpful...

  • Santiago Linares added an answer in Public Space:
    Evaluating the desirability of urban public spaces - can anyone help?

    Are there any new studies on the desirability of urban public spaces from the perspective of specific groups, women and girls?

    Santiago Linares · National University of Central Buenos Aires

    One of the most common uses of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) corresponds to the selection of the most suitable place or places to locate any public facilities. Among the existing methods for this purpose are highlighted Multicriteria evaluation, Optimum Location and Location-allocation.

    Some references: 

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0198971597000100

    http://usj.sagepub.com/content/40/1/161.short

    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1538-4632.1998.tb00396.x/abstract

  • Ke Lin added an answer in TiO2:
    How can I determine concentration of TiO2 in aqueous solution by titration?

    I have TiO2 aqueous suspension (pH3) with unknown concentration. Due to some technical issue, I can’t use UV.VIS spectroscopy for determining the concentration. Can I determine concentration of TiO2 by titration?

    Ke Lin · University of Science and Technology of China

    if the concentration is high enough, maybe you can use Raman spectroscopy

  • Chung Liang Lim added an answer in NMR analysis:
    Recently, I have isolated a novel compound with slight impurity. Shall I purify it or proceed to NMR to disclose its structure prior to purification?

    I have isolated a novel compound from fraction library and there is a slight impurity which is detected using LC/MS analysis, where a small ion peak is detected besides the molecular ion peak. Thus, I am hoping to get some opinion from RG members for whether purification work should be done now or shall I proceed to NMR analysis for structural disclosure before any further purification? As such minor impurity in the main compound might not have a significant effect on NMR spectra measurement. FYI, the amount of the compound I obtained is less than 2 mg.

    I would greatly appreciate for any advice, suggestions or comments. Thanks in advance. 

    Chung Liang Lim · RIKEN

    Thank you for all the suggestions given by RG professionals. I will consider about my next step to be taken wisely. I am greatly appreciate for all the answers provided.

  • Peter T Breuer added an answer in Authentication:
    Is ssh public private key generation technique for authentication break the security in server environment ?

    Is ssh public private key generation technique for authentication break the security in server environment ?

    Peter T Breuer · Birmingham City University

    Dear Manoj - you have forgotten to use the text below the title to explain what your question means (the grammar has problems, so we need more data to figure it out).

    Are you referring to the fact that session keys are generated on the server, so might be seen by some malfeasant at the server end?

    If so, why do you think that might be a problem? Your pardon please if my guess is off-target.

  • Where from i can get the list of journals with impact factor in the field of Telecommunication/wireless communication?

    Telecommunication journal list

  • What is the most important indicator that reflects the nutritional state of older adults?

    My student and I are now analyzing data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to identify the related factors of sarcopenic obesity in older adults.

    I think that nutrition factors are important. We want to include nutritional factors in our analysis, but we are not sure that what the most appropriate indicator that reflects the nutritional state of older adults is.

    I hope that there are some candidate indicators which can be easily derived from the usual health survey, using the questionnaire. Thank you in advance. 

    Andre Catrice · Department of Health Victoria

    Go to http://www.mna-elderly.com/ You will find handy info and supporting literature. There is a self reporting MNA which may be useful in the context of your work. Info on calf measurements as a simple tool to use. MNA valid to use in oleder people in community setting. Cheers Andre

  • Ramya Chandrasekaran added an answer in CTAB:
    How to coat Gold nanorods by PSS, if they are stabilised by CTAB surfactant

    Gold nano rods are dispersed in a water solution with CTAB and sodium chloride. How can I coat them with PSS polyelectrolytes. 

    Ramya Chandrasekaran · Monash University (Australia)

    You can use "Emulsion method" using Chloroform and GNRs as explained in this following paper. This polyelectrolytes wrapping of GNRs is a very common method and you can find more references from  http://webs.uvigo.es/coloides/nano/publications.html

  • Are there any personality assessment models other than MyersBriggs which have proved accurate or at least close to?

    We are trying to assess employees personalities to understand what kind of personalities work well with other.

    Arthur Poropat · Griffith University

    A few things to consider if you're choosing a personality assessment for a work purpose:

    • If you are selecting people using the assessment, you need to take into account that people will fake their responses. This is less of a problem if you are using personality to help people understand themselves and others, but it can still be a problem in organisations where people feel insecure.
    • The MBTI is inherently wrong for selection purposes - even the publishers will tell you that. There is also considerable criticism of the MBTI's theoretical model, beginning with the idea of 'types'. Despite that, many people find it useful for getting staff to discuss their different approaches to work and life. If that's all you want, the MBTI and similar assessments are OK - just take the results with more than a few grains of salt (mind you, any personality assessment should be treated with scepticism).
    • One of the other models of personality you may want to explore is the Big 5 (Five-Factor Model). This is by far the most widely researched and validated model of personality, even though it has its own limitations. The Big Five Inventory is a good, quick questionnaire that you can get online. Here's a quick guide: http://pages.uoregon.edu/sanjay/bigfive.html#where

    Cheers

    Arthur

  • Is there a way of specifically testing the intrinsic motivation of physicians in primary care/tertiary care using a psychological framework?

    Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are almost inseparable. At times they work dynamically. However, there are many examples of testing out the intrinsic motivation component in other fields, less so in healthcare. So is it possible to specifically isolate factors to measure intrinsic motivation amongst physicians?

    Carl Alexander Sorensen · University of South Carolina

    What theoretical framework are you thinking of?

  • Edi Yasa added an answer in Exploration:
    What are the systematic processes for searching for mineral deposits by narrowing down areas of promising enhanced mineral potential?
    The objective is to identify a deposit which will be the target for further exploration. Estimates of quantities are inferred based on interpretation of geological, geophysical and geochemical results.
    Edi Yasa · Medan Institute of Technology

    sistematic Exploration Method (Geochemistry, geologica; and geophysics) only tools to help in improving the confidence the presence of mineral potensial 

    Thanks good luck

  • Jon Butler added an answer in Capitalism:
    What are the Marxists standpoints about Nationalism?

    Currently, I am taking a course on Ethnicity and Nationalism. I wounder,what are the prominent Marxists, both Structural and Neo Marxists positions of nationalism ? As the interconnection between class and nationalism, not necessarily explains nationalism or nation-state? from 2nd international,1914 it was clear that the acceptance of capitalism as reality and did they support nation-state ? I am going through these two references, if you have any further suggestions or comments about this issue, please contribute. Thanking you in advance. 

    J.Breuilly (1993) ‘Nationalism and Class’ in his Nationalism and the State.Manchester: Manchester University Press,

    T. Nairn(1977) ‘The Modern Janus’ in his   The break-up of Britain: crisis and neo-nationalism. London: NLB,

    Jon Butler · Liberty University

    The divisions to which you refer --resulting from the dissolution of the 2nd international-- no doubt were brought into stark relief when the German SPD chose to support Germany's declaration of war against the Tzar.  This essentially divorced the SPD from the movement of international socialism to which it had till then pledged solidarity in favor of German nationalism.  It is a crystalline example of culture outweighing principle, and culture defining nationalism, and is an interesting period in socio-political history.  The question concerned, at the surface, what it meant to be German versus what it implied to be socialist.

    What do you suppose would have been the outcome had the SPD chosen to maintain its previous solidarity with the socialist movement?

  • Sadaf Kamdideh added an answer in Power Generation:
    What are some new recycling strategies for the disposal of urban waste?

    Recycling technologies for the processing of urban waste are being continuously improved.

    Currently, more than 30% of MSW generated in the United States is recycled annually. The United States has about 872 operational MSW-fired power generation plants, generating approximately 2500MW, or about 0.3% of total national power generation.

    However, because construction costs of new plants have increased, economic factors have limited new construction.

    Sadaf Kamdideh · Universität Stuttgart

    As I can see the point that Mr. Caniato is making, I must add that importance of incineration is of no doubt. Most of the hazardous wastes destination is incineration plants! I can say incineration plants are one of the important parts of an industrial country, that's why the focus of such countries is on improving the incineration process and flue gas cleaning so it has minimum effect on environment and is economically compatible. On the other hand, Landfills are acting as a threat on environment especially groundwater. That's where aerobic and anaerobic treatment of waste becomes important. In Germany it has been years that landfill of untreated waste is forbidden while there are still countries that don't place required attention to this matter.  

  • What is the corrosion mechanism of Al in an aqueous solution of Li2SO2 in pH=7, (If the positive bias applied to it)?

    My cell is consist of Aluminium foil as one of my electrodes in an aqueous Li2SO2 solution in the neutral pH

    After applying voltage (positive bias), some corrosion spots has been formed on the surface.

    I am so curious about this phenomena, since there is nothing special happens when there is no voltage applying....

    prof V.S Muralidharan · Central Electrochemical Research Institute
    • corrosion is different from dissolution
    • if you apply positive  bias oxide  will grow
    • only at extreme potentials will be break
  • Kevin Ly added an answer in Lentivirus:
    Can anyone recommend using a lentivirus based vector for cloning 5 kb orf and it's expression?

    I am looking for lentivirus based system to clone 5 kb orf gene (membrane protein). From my reading, it appears to me that a lentivirus system with 4kb insert and above is unstable and gives low-titre. Does anybody have experience with cloning a gene of about 5 kb size in lentivirus system? Please provide me information about which lentivirus based vectors should be used. 

    Kevin Ly · University of Otago

    I think you'll be fine with 5 kb, as our lenti vectors is about 8kb, I think max you can got up to is 10 kb. we use pRRL vectors

  • Robin Spivey added an answer in Quantum Gravity:
    Is there a quantum gravity theory that can generate entire table of standard model particles with a single formula?

    A quantum gravity theory based on the equivalence of gravitational and relativistic mass is developed from Newton's inverse square law which assumes a form of Schrodinger like wave equation. Solution of this wave equation generates the entire table of standard model particles.Is there a comparable theory that can do the same thing?

    Robin Spivey · Bangor University

    Matts, I agree that modest changes to the properties of neutrinos might slightly hasten or delay structure formation but stellar lifetimes would not be affected (though the onset of star formation might shift a bit in time). Since the neutrinos produced by stars are ultrarelativitic, it makes virtually no difference to the proton-proton chain reaction or the CNO cycle if neutrinos are massless. In fact, it has been argued by Harnik, Kribs and Perez (Phys. Rev.D74:035006,2006) that the weak interaction could be switched off completely, disabling hydrogen fusion and neutrino production. Life-cultivating stars could then rely on helium fusion, which does not involve the weak interaction at all, rather than hydrogen fusion. Some adjustments would be needed to the initial conditions though (to elevate the primordial abundance of helium).

    There are some distinct parallels between inflation and the current phase of accelerating cosmic expansion. The spatial energy densities are very different, however. Inflation supposedly terminated with the decay of the underlying energy field to matter. The decay of dark energy, in contrast, might be limited to lower energy particles. If it decays predominantly to (low energy) neutrinos, the lowest mass fermions, and does so before the longest-lived life-cultivating (class K) stars have expired, then things get very interesting. Nonrelativistic neutrinos will condense gravitationally until supported by degeneracy pressure. The resulting structures are easily large enough to engulf entire galaxies. We expect some red dwarves to keep shining for at least 10 trillion years but there is not need to think quite so far ahead - comfortable habitats for life could be extremely abundant some 60 billion years from now.

  • Zhigang Wu added an answer in Energy:
    Is there any in-depth consistency between energy and information?

    It is a hot topic in the electrical engineering area called "the energy internet", which aims to incorporate different types of energies together, while managing and utilizing the energy in a macroscopic point of view.

    However, is there any in-depth consistency between energy and information? If it is true, then some of the concepts, methodologies etc of the "information network" can be used to deal with the "energy internet", while a lot of issues in current power network can be explained in a totally different way.

    Zhigang Wu · South China University of Technology

    Dear all,

    In fact I only want to know if I can quantify the electrical energy transfered through the power network "formally" like information. If it is possible, maybe the infrastructure of the grid can be analogized to the internet, and new concepts can be introduced into the electrical engineering area.

    Thank you very much.

    Zhigang Wu

  • I have had some bad experiences, can any one suggest reputable journals that publish work on compost with a reasonably short review time (<3months)?
    The average time taken by some journals to review papers that I have submitted is 7 months. Just wanted some guidance so that I can have a greater turnover. Thanks.
    Victor Hugo Gomes Sales · Instituto Federal Amapa

    Very complicated the evaluation process, very slow.Thanks, the answers were important to me.

    I started a project an scientific journal (Journal of Bioenergy and Food Science), and I'm with this problem. What would sir advise?

  • The future of electric power systems in next 50 years

    I have always wondered, as a general view, how a power system technology will look like in next 50 years?

    For example, will there any commercial wireless high power transmission in next 50 years? what other general ideas do you have?

    It is typical that in an industry where development becomes linked to computer technology, performance improvement becomes exponential. Solar cell and battery chemistry and material science are both being researched to an increasing extent by simulation modelling. I suspect the replacement of the domestic component of the power system load may be quite sudden.