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  • Saleh Alkarim added an answer in Exosomes:
    Which passage of MSCs can I use to isolate its exosomes?

    I try to isolate exosomes from MSCs culture media, and i don not know from which passage i can isolates exosomes?

    Also what is the best method to isolate it , Ultracentrifugation or chemical kit?

    My last question is how much the culture media should i collect to isolate exosomes ?


    Saleh Alkarim · King Abdulaziz University


    Monocytes were isolated from human blood using a two-step procedure.
    Firstly, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained by Ficoll-Paque density separation .

    The PBMCs were washed repeatedly with 2 mM EDTA in PBS and then dissolved in 0.5% BSA/2 mM EDTA in PBS.
    Secondly, the monocytes were isolated from the PBMCs by negative isolation using a Monocyte Isolation kit II .

    The purity of the separations ranged between 90% and 95%, as analysed by flow cytometry using antibodies against CD14 and CD45 or isotype-matched controls (BD Biosciences, San Diego, CA, USA) in a BD FACSCalibur (Becton Dickinson, San Diego, CA, USA). The monocytes were cultured for 72 h in a 37°C humidified incubator with 5% CO2, at a concentration of 5×105 cells/ml in Dulbecco’s modified Eagles medium-low glucose (DMEM-LG) (PAA Laboratories GmbH, Pasching, Austria) containing 10 ng/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS; Escherichia coli serotype, Sigma Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA, batch number 126k4101), 1% fetal calf serum (FCS), 100 units/ml penicillin, 100 µg/ml streptomycin and 2 mM L glutamine (all from Sigma-Aldrich). In order to have exosome-free serum for the cultures, FCS was centrifuged at 150,000 g for 2 h using a Ti70 rotor (Beckman Coulter, Brea, CA, USA). Serum depleted of exosomes was used for all cell culture experiments.

    Mesenchymal stem cell uptake of the monocyte exosomes

    MSCs at passage 5–7 (n = 3) were seeded in 24-well plates or chamber slides at a density of 10,000 cells/cm2 and cultured for 24 h.

    for tha passage : Briefly, 1350 µl of Diluent C was added to 150 µl of exosomes or PBS control (no exosomes). Six µl of PKH67 dye was added to 1.5 ml of Diluent C before being added to the exosomes and the control. The samples were mixed gently for 5 min before 3 ml of 1% BSA was added to bind the excess dye. The samples were then transferred to 300 kDa Vivaspin filters and centrifuged at 4000 g . The samples were washed with 5 ml 1% BSA/PBS, transferred to new 300 kDa filters and washed twice with 5 ml 1% BSA/PBS and once with 5 ml DMEM to remove excess dye. After washing, the exosomes and PBS control were diluted in complete monocyte culture medium (DMEM containing 1% depleted FCS, 1% penicillin-streptomycin, 2 mM L-glut and 10 ng/ml LPS). The medium was aspirated and PKH67 stained exosomes or control was added. After 72 h .

    Good Luck 

  • Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.

    Erkki J. Brändas · Uppsala University


    Tegmark is an excellent and pedagogical lecturer. His hypothesis imparts reasonable scenarios, but unfortunately they appear more as wishful or budding outcomes of an undefined emergency principle.

    I lack the physical lawfulness of an evolution paradigm, which goes beyond the concept of physical states and their physical information patterns. In principle Tegmark’s math hypothesis would in principle permit the creation of “life” by simple incorporating a passable particle pattern.

    As an afterthought Tegmark’s math hypothesis and associated “passable particle patterns” will not be immune against Gödel’s paradox.

    Wish you all an interesting and successful 2015!

  • Macho Anani asked a question in Lye:
    Why did the best band gap for solar cell lye close to 1.5 eV ?

    In several papers I found that the optimized band gap for solar cells is close to 1.5 eV. This value corresponds to a wavelength of about 830 nm, in infrared. Is it due to the fact that we use more silicon or silicon-like devices ?

  • David L Morgan added an answer in Likert Scale:
    How can I correlate ordinal variables (attitude Likert scale) with continuous ratio data (years of experience)?

    Currently, I am working on my dissertation which explores learning organisation characteristics at HEIs. One of the predictor demographic variables is the indication of the years of experience. Respondents were asked to fill in the gap the number of years. Should I categorise the responses instead? as for example:

    1. from 1 to 4 years

    2. from 4 to 10

    and so on?

    or is there a better choice/analysis I could apply?

    David L Morgan · Portland State University

    Twenty-five items are a lot for a single scale, which is what you would get if you simply added all the items together. That is standard practice for creating a continuous variable from a series of ordinal Likert items, but it requires careful attention to whether thee items do indeed form a single scale. Assessing Cronbach's alpha is a first step in that direction.

    Tools such as Mplus are allow you do much more complex analyses, and they are especially useful when you think that set of items measure two or more components of a concept (i.e., there are sub-scales within your measure).

    But since it sound like you are new to the whole idea of creating scales, I would recommend starting with the simplest approach which is to assess the reliability of creating a scale through Cronbach's alpha. If you are using SPSS, you can find that under Analyses: Scales: Reliability.

    One thing you may have to do before to use that command, however, is to make sure that you do not have any "reverse scored" variables. In other words, all the items have to have the same meaning for a higher score, so that they are all positively correlated. I would thus recommend that you examine the correlation matrix among the 25 variables to make sure that they are all coded in the same direction and thus positively correlated.

    Once you have a set of positively correlated items, this site has a useful tutorial on Cronbach's alpha in SPSS:


  • A. V. Uryson added an answer in Quantum Mechanics:
    What are the differences between uncertainty principal for photons and fermions?

    The uncertainty principle is one of the basics of quantum mechanics. I want to know are there any differences in applying it to bosons like photons and fermions like electrons?

    The speed of light in vacuum is well defined, Does this make the uncertainity for photons lesser than electrons because their speeds are not well defined at least in vacuum in comparison with photons?

    A. V. Uryson · Russian Academy of Sciences

    A simple/primitive answer is the following. The uncertainty principle says that we cannot simultaneously know the exact position x and the exact momentum p of a particle. The momentum of a photon equals: p=hv/c, where h is the Planck constant, v is photon frequency, and c is speed of light. So the photon frequency is not defined exactly, though speed of light is constant.

  • Aceil Alkhatib asked a question in Death:
    How significant is the death penalty deterrent effect when those on death row can enjoy their lives for at least 10 years before they are executed?

    After the abolition of the death penalty in some countries, did crime rate increase or decrease in those countries? Which better serves justice: the deterrent effect -if any- of the death penalty or the risk of executing a wrongfully convicted human being?

  • Zeineb Mhamdi asked a question in Criticism:
    They are scientists sites to criticize Articles ?


    I want to know a site where I can see reviews of scientific articles
    thank you

  • Christian Dreger added an answer in Commerce:
    It is worth to publish with International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management (IJECM; ISSN 2348-0386)?

    I need advice if it is worth to publish at this journal because it needs to pay $60 for paper publication. 

    Christian Dreger · German Institute for Economic Research

    In any case, it should be a peer-reviewed journal. If this condition is met it depends on your ambitions. In principle,a published article demonstrates expertise in the respective area. Therefore, it might be easier for you to successfully apply for some research or consulting projects which are third-party funded.

    If you plan an academic career, an additional aspect comes into play, as the quality of the journal might matter. In general, the impact factor / citation frequency should be as high as possible. And the journal should be liisted in the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) / International Scientific Indexing (ISI). 

  • Can somebody explain in detail , when we would say QM and General relativity is unified?

    I know GR talks about macroscopic world and QM speaks about microscopic. Can somebody explain in detail , when we would say QM and General relativity is unified?

    Thank you

  • Mary Latela added an answer in God:
    Accounts attributing to divine sources our codes for interpersonal conduct?

    I'm seeking additional examples to go along with those like (a) the Babylonian king Hammurabi receiving his ‘code’ from Shamash (the god of justice) or (b) the God of the Israelites presenting Moses with the Ten Commandments on Mount Sinai. What are some other historical myths of divinely bequeathed moral codes?

    Mary Latela · Sacred Heart University

    Hi again, Jim. No matter what you write, you are bound to offend someone. However, if your writing comes into the hands or Kindle of people who know World Religions, you will need convincing, not obscure examples. Next, what is your philosophical point vis a vis contemporary ethical practice? Take care here.... there are still those who consider beheading to be an acceptable way to deal with differences. This is very interesting and I hope you realize that I am not being light, but simply asking some of the many questions that come to mind. ML

  • What is a suitable method for screening for mutations?

    We sequence patients DNA in order to detect the different mutations associated with the disorders; if it is simple gene with few exons and small number of patients then it is feasible to use either capillary or next generation sequencing, but if we have a complicated gene with many exons and many patients, it is more feasible to do mutation screening before sequencing. Because there are many mutation screening methods, the question now is, what is a suitable method for doing mutation screening which is accurate, fast and cheap?

    Petre Ianakiev · Beckman Coulter Inc.

    You can use small panel target capture for gene (genes) of your interest, or you may use amplicons for NGS . You will be limited only by the number of indexes you may accommodate on the flow cell and the dept of coverage you may want to achieve. Check IDT web site, they might help with your DOE, 


  • Is the conductivity value obtained by in-situ measurements (electrochemical) should be similar to the one measured by four point measurements?

    If a doped polymer has conductivity of 0.1 S/cm obtained by four point measurements (electrically), will the conductivity of this polymer obtained by in-situ electrochemical measurements be close by?

    Brahim Bessaïs · Reseach and Technology Centre of Energyr

    The conductivity can vary from one technique to another. The four probe can give accurate value for thin and not very resistive films to avoid measuring the contact resistance. Electrical Conductivity fiom electrochemcal measuremements is measured indirectly and should take into account the various interfaces. 

  • Does the increasing of pore pressure by gas migration in the sediments change the ambient temperature?

    Increasing of the gas pressure causes increasing of gas temperature in the closed cups. It is thought that this basic physics rule can also be effective in the marine sediments. Blow outs during some offshore drilling projects point out to high gas pressure below the gas hydrate stability zones. In this context, increasing of gas pressure below the gas hydrate stability zones can cause the change of ambient temperature.

    Christopher C. Sorlien · University of California, Santa Barbara

    Hi Mert,

    You know a lot more about this than I do, as do the people you work with. But, I will mention some things anyway:

    1: When we use European-style camping stoves, the blue metal fuel container gets cold as the pressure drops. Maybe this is dues to changing from liquid to gas (latent heat of vaporization?).

    2: B.P. had a lot of trouble during the Gulf of Mexico blowout a couple of years ago, with, I think, hydrate forming in the box or whatever it was that they were using to try and capture the spilling oil. I wondered at the time if this was the same thing as the camping gas; cooling due to pressure release. Alternatively, the conditions are likely within the hydrate stability field for that deep water blowout, and hydrate would form without ay need for cooling.

    so, now I will take a best guess at an answer: if the pressure increase is enough to cause the methane etc to change from gas to liquid, or liquid to solid, Physics would suggest that the latent heat of vaporization or the latent hear of fusion should cause a release of heat.



  • Beth Robelia added an answer in Teacher Education:
    What topics should be in a specialized course for K-12 educators who teach online?
    I am looking for a research partner for research into methods to educate teachers who work for online institutions.
    Beth Robelia · Walden University

    Kevin, I am only looking for online education expertise in K-12. I also teach online at the university level. There are many issues unique to K-12 online education.  Beth

  • Rivalino Matias Jr. added an answer in Linux:
    Could someone explain more about cache-misses event of Linux perf?

    Hi all,

    As you know, Linux perf is a tool by which you can read performance counters of CPU. I executed a single-thread application on Intel Core 2 Duo. The application consists of a long int array that its size is 260000 elements. Thus, if block size is considered 64 bytes, more than 32000 LLC misses should be occurred (260000*8/64). But, number of counted misses by cache-misses event is about 7000. Could you tell me why number of counted of LLC misses is much less than cold misses assessed by Linux Perf. tool?

    Suppose "t" is the single-threaded application which I mentions before:

    >>sudo perf stat -r 500 -e cache-misses ./t
    Performance counter stats for './t' (500 runs):

    7,507 cache-misses ( +- 0.68% )

    0.004473342 seconds time elapsed ( +- 0.77% )


  • What is your view about Duplicate Publications?
    Duplicate publication refers to publishing the same intellectual material more than once, and unfortunately, this issue is increasing rapidly these days. Do you consider it a form of plagiarism or academic dishonesty or serious academic misbehavior or something else? What is your suggestion for university and research institution leaders on how to deal with "academician" or "researcher" practicing such thing?
    Emeka W. Dumbili · Brunel University

    Duplicate publication is not only plagiarism, it is a  high level dishonesty and universities should punish every academic who does that. I know that a person can publish part of an article as a book chapter, but such would be properly acknowledged. If this is the case, such may not be seen as duplicate publication, but if it is discovered that the person did not follow ethical procedures, both the original and duplicated publications should not be recognized by any university.   

  • Haider Al-Kanan asked a question in 5G:
    Looking for research topics for my PhD in LTE or 5G mobile systems?

    LTE 4G systems already developed and analyzed in many publications , however  I am looking for interesting topic for research in that field or in next generation mobile system 5G . what are the current researches or problems in LTE 4G?

  • Ishag Adam added an answer in Myoglobin:
    Does malaria parasitaemia have any effect on cardiac metabolism?

    I am working on the effect of malaria parasitaemia on cardiac metabolism in adults, the parameters of interest include Lipid profile, Troponin1,Ck Mb, uric acid, Tibc and myoglobin

    Ishag Adam · University of Khartoum

    Dear  Maria may  be ecocardiography is better yet  it need expertise and it is not a vailablle in  most of the setting

  • David L Morgan added an answer in Likert Scale:
    How can I check the Normality of data using spss?

    kindly guide me how I can check normality of data as I have collected data by using 60 item scale (responses recorded on 5 pt likert  scale) from 350 respondents. now I am confused that I have to check normality of data for each item or not?

    David L Morgan · Portland State University

    I don't think that combining LIkert scored items into a scale using Cronbach's alpha is inherently "naive" any more than it is always the case that using Item Response Theory to form a simple scale is "using a steam shovel to empty a sandbox."

    Instead, the standard I would propose to see what others in your field are doing, and if Cronbach's alpha is the most widely used approach to creating scales, then do what your peer reviewers will understand best. Alternatively, if people expect the full complexity of Item Response Theory, then you will need to master that literature.

  • Adam B Shapiro added an answer in Enzymes:
    BCQ2: What is difference between a synthase and synthetase enzymes?

    BCQs are Biochemical questions for education of the related students.

    Adam B Shapiro · AstraZeneca

    The Wikipedia article on synthases explains it (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synthase#cite_note-1), and here is the text of the reference from that article:

    From the JCBN/NC-IUB Newsletter 1984 [1]

    NC-IUB have received many representations that the words 'synthase' and 'synthetase' are too similar to convey mutually exclusive meanings efficiently. We have therefore changed the usage in Enzyme Nomenclature, though in a way that allows authors who prefer the usage recommended previously to continue to follow it. The word synthase can now be added to the name of any substance to signify an enzyme that catalyses a reaction producing that substance, i.e. its range is extended to include enzymes catalysing reactions that involve hydrolysis of a nucleoside triphosphate, which previously could not be called synthases. Thus previously used names like glycogen synthase and citrate synthase are joined by the new ones glutamine synthase and NAD+ synthase.

    Enzymes that catalyse synthetic reactions with concomitant hydrolysis of a nucleoside triphosphate will now contain 'ligase' rather than 'synthetase' in their Recommended Names when the two reactants that are joined are specified. Thus tyrosine-tRNA ligase and acetate-CoA ligase will replace tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase and acetyl-CoA synthetase as Recommended Names, although the synthetase forms remain acceptable.

    Authors may continue to use the word synthetase to distinguish an enzyme whose reaction involves hydrolysis of a nucleoside triphosphate, but they are more likely to be understood if they use ligase, in view of the large number of biochemists who do not distinguish between the meanings of synthase and synthetase.

    1. IUPAC-IUB Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature (JCBN), and Nomenclature Commission of IUB (NC-IUB),.Newsletter 1984, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 1984, 229, 237-245; Biochem. Internat., 1984, 8, following p 202; Biochem. J., 1984, 217, I-IV; Biosci. Rep., 1984, 4, 177-180; Chem. Internat., 1984(3), 24-25; Eur. J. Biochem., 1984, 138, 5-7; Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem., 1984, 365, I-IV; Trends Biochem. Sci., 1984, 9, various issues.

  • Has there been research to show that increasing education improves ethics in a community?

    'Students often know the right thing to do. How can schools help them to do it?

    The numbers are in and they don't look good." That was the assessment of the Josephson Institute of Ethics last October, when they conducted a survey about the moral standards of more than 20,000 middle and high school students. Almost half the young people reported stealing something from a store in the previous 12 months. In the same period, seven out of 10 cheated on an exam.
    Should we be worried? Many observers say that we should. We see evidence of more antisocial behavior than ever among our youth—a sort of divorce between personal ethics and everyday behavior.'

    Has there been research to show that with increasing education, there has been improved ethics in a community?  Can you share, give some evidence? Thanks.

    Eugenio Filloy · Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute

    usaré  la cita de Aristòteles para indicarmi USO del tèrmino Ètica. Brevente, llmararè su atenciòn sobre Nuestros trabajos (con Erika Barquera) con el pueblo Otomí (uno Delos casi 70 pueblos Mexicanos que conservan su lengua materna) , dónde quedará de manifesto que el USO  de las manifestaciones de la comunidad, no sòlo potenció Los modelos concertos de ensenanza sino,también , Los values de toda la comunidad. Briefly we drive your attention towards our experimental studies in the Mexican Otomí community

  • Steingrimur Stefansson added an answer in SDS-PAGE:
    Urine Proteomics: what is an efficient way to resuspend proteins post precipitation?

    We use Acetone precipitation to concentrate /clean-up proteins from urine samples. However, it's difficult to fully resuspend samples post precipitation. We've tried many different solubilization buffers including additives such as SDS or Urea but always get left with a cloudy solution which contains significant amount of protein (checked by running pellets on SDS-PAGE). Has anyone experienced this issue? 

    Steingrimur Stefansson · HeMemics Biotechnologies Inc

    Hi Stoyan, I agree with Adam. Urine has serum albumin and other proteins in it that will denature with  acetone treatment. Once denatured, many of these proteins will never be solubilized.

    Try using non-denaturing ultrafiltration instead.

  • Mary Latela added an answer in Polypharmacy:
    What role does physical therapists play in preventing polypharmacy in older adults? Any evidence from the literature?

    Polypharmacy is a common finding among older adults with multiple chronic conditions. Medication interactions could lead to potentially serious adverse drug events. Moreover, adverse drug events could be mistaken for a new disease symptom resulting in additional medication prescription. Since PTs usually see older adults with multiple chronic conditions, it is important to assess for polypharmacy and its associated adverse drug reactions as part of the plan of care. Do you know of any evidence in the primary literature investigating this particular role of PTs and its effect on patient care?

    Mary Latela · Sacred Heart University

    As a PT, you must certainly observe your patient and you send your written report to the physician when you see signs of fatigue, lethargy, hyperanxiety. You cannot suggest (to the patient) that they may be taking too many drugs. Also, the wording of your question seems to put "polypharmacy" into the DSMs. This is not a disorder; the management of pharmaceuticals in adults with multiple illnesses is a very important consideration, not unknown to the medical team back at the hospital. It is a delicate balance, and more effort might be exerted by the drug companies to prevent so many troubling side-effects. 

  • Does a topological group have local absorbing properties?

    Let G be a topological group and U be a fixed neighborhood of identity. For a fixed element g, consider gU=\{gu, u\in U\}. Do we have the following property in an Abelian topological group.

    For each neighborhood V of identity there is a positive integer n such that gU is a subset of V^n?

    Vladimir Kadets · V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University

    In your previous question you asked if every neighborhood of the neutral element is absorbing. You have received a number of answers with various counterexamples. Every such a counterexample works also as a counterexample to your new question: if g is not absorbed by any Vn then gU is not absorbed neither.

    Moreover, for your new question the answer is negative even for locally convex Hausdorff topological vector spaces  (considered as additive groups). Namely, let X be the space. Take U = X, then g+U = X, and surely there is a convex neighborhood of 0 V such that for every n  the set nV is not equal to the whole X.

  • Can anyone help me identify this fruit?

    This fruit is readily sold by the local vendors in Kokrajhar, Assam during winter. The fruits is bitter in taste and has usually eight seed.

    The morphology of the plant is not known to me.

    Please find attached herewith the photograph for you kind perusal.

    Thanking you in anticipation.

    Amílcar Duarte · Universidade do Algarve

    It is a Hodgsonia, and therefore it is a Cucurbitaceae.

    Photographs are insufficient to determine the species.

  • Which bioinformatics tools are usable from comand-line?

    I'm looking for list of bioinformatics tools which are only usable from command-line. No GUI for them is available. 

    Ruhshan Ahmed Abir · Shahjalal University of Science and Technology

    Well I was looking for specific tools, not a package or library of a programming language. Like vina or modeller(I'm not sure it might have a gui developed by third party now).

    Thanks anyway. 

  • Georgios Maliaris added an answer in STL:
    How do you do geometrical operations in .stl file?

    I have generated solid model of human structure by MIMICs software and it was exported to .stl file, but when I am importing these files in CAD software (creo), I am unable to  do geometrical operation (cut, merge) on these .stl file.

    Any suggestion please.

    Georgios Maliaris · Democritus University of Thrace

    If you have access to Rapidform XOR3 (it has been acquired by 3D systems lately) you can try the autosurface module, if you have a fairly simple geometry and acquracy  is not of much importance. I've done it many times in order to import meshes from rhinoceros to ansys.

  • How do I analyse calcium imaging data?

    I recently performed calcium imaging on some cells. I have exported out the time series data of all the cells in the field of view i.e. ~250 cells. Now I want to analyse the time- series calcium imaging data of all the cells in terms of Peak frequency, Peak duration, Peak amplitude. Please tell me how should I go about it. Which software I can use to analyse this data. Please also mention any extra feature I can look into my data. 

    José Everardo Avelino-Cruz · Meritorious Autonomous University of Puebla

    Hi Apurva,

    If they are global calcium transients I usually measure and analyse baseline, peak, decay tau, rising velocity and duration from peak to baseline at several %. Most of the adquisition softwares allow you to export data as ascii or txt.
    In my case, to analyse calcium data I use clampfit, a software used for electrophysiology and available for free at molecular devices website (http://mdc.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/18779).
    Just import the txt data and use the event detection menu to get all measurements in which you are interested.

  • Dorian Aur added an answer in Brain:
    Noninvasive brain-to-brain communication - What does it prove?

    EEG was used to record the information from the sender’s brain, and transcranial
    magnetic stimulation was used to deliver the message to the brains of the receivers. What does it prove?

    Dorian Aur · Stanford University

    The (NED) model shows that the computation in the brain is performed by physical interaction. It is a different kind of computation, far more powerful than the Turing model (digital computation). The computational part (read, write information) can be combined with a physical approach (e.g. waves, interference) to explain the entire phenomenon where the whole brain computes.  see http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/2.1.2286.5608 

    Even one records only the envelope of an action potential, every spike carries imperceptible endogenous waves and nonlinear vibrations generated by molecular structures. As a result, meaningful information embedded within molecular structure (e.g. proteins) is carried out by electrical waves. In this case, the carrier frequency can have a much lower frequency than the ‘modulating’ waveform. An action potential represents the moment of “reading out” meaningful information from molecular structures. During a spike event, meaningful information can also be “written” at a molecular scale in neurons and synapses since subcellular changes in the pattern of gene expression can be easily triggered by external events. The smaller the structure, the higher the generated rhythm of transformation can be.
    The occurrence of meaningful electrical patterns within the cell during an action potential generation can be easily explained as a physical process of contextual wave interference in which at least two waves superpose in space. This kind of interference explains the presence of stronger nonlinear vibrations within certain parts of recorded cells that provide fragments of the engram http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3636996/ A similar phenomenon occurs during synaptic activities when a flow of ions generate molecular vibrations and electric waves. Therefore, meaningful information that was encoded (written) within neurons and synapses at a molecular level is transmitted synaptically and non-synaptically (wirelessly in both cases) during action potential propagation and all this meaningful information is electrically integrated in the brain.

    Physical interaction is critical and without the effect exerted by the electromagnetic field a conscious noninvasive brain-to-brain communication cannot be explained.
    In the last fifty years the myth of stereotyped digital action potentials (easy to make mathematical theories) kept us very far from understanding how real computations are performed in the brain.

  • Younes BOUALLEGUI asked a question in Mytilus:
    Could someone help to find recent references about detailed mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis anatomy?

    I'm trying to find recent references about Mytilus ssp. anatomy but all what i found old referee or not very exact. Any suggessions please?