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  • Karim M Ayyad added an answer in Adaptive Reuse:
    What types of problems are engaged in the adaptive reuse process?

    I am doing my research on adaptive reuse in architecture. I would like to know from an expert point of view, what are the problems in adaptive reuse that need more research? I thought about building typology, interior design and landscape in term of adaptive reuse. I also would like to know different ideas in this case. Thank you in advance for all your help.

    Karim M Ayyad

    The main problems regarding adaptive reuse of buildings are:

    1. Deciding which buildings to reuse

    2. Deciding which buildings to reuse first

    3. Addressing the historic value of the building (if any)

    4. Assessing the possible damages that can result from reuse

    I hope that helped.

  • Tabitha Woodman added an answer in Limit of Detection:
    Does anyone know the upper limit of detection for colony counting on blood agar plates?

    Does anyone know the upper limit of detection for colony counting on blood agar plates?

    I know the lower limit of detection is 1x10^3 cfu/mL, just wondering if anyone knows the upper limit?

    Tabitha Woodman

    Thanks all! Very helpful and informative!

  • Sivanandam Kaliannan asked a question in LED:
    Is LED light luminous depend up on supply voltage?

    Is LED light luminous depend up on supply voltage?

    what is relation between current through it, supply voltage and luminous?

  • Sarbesh D. Dangol added an answer in Restriction Digestion:
    Should I go for sequencing?

    I transformed XL1B cells by cloning 16S rDNA gene of a thermophile strain to pTZ57R/T vector. The cloned plasmid vector isolated from white recombinant colonies were quite good in the gel, and the restriction digestion via Sma I also appears to be of the correct band size with the insert. But due to unavailability of other restriction enzymes available in MCS region of the plasmid vector, I wasn't able to isolate the inserted gene to produce it in the gel. Should it go directly for sequencing, or should it be further confirmed by digesting it with the other restriction enzyme?

    Sarbesh D. Dangol

    Thank you for your kind reply. :)

  • Tijjani Imam added an answer in Marine Organisms:
    When trace element can be heavy metal and unsafe for environment in marine organism?

    trace element is need for living organism in very less quantity, how in excess of these element we consider as heavy metal and is unsafe for marine organism, how we can remove them in lab condition using algae or other way let me know

    Tijjani Imam

    Dear Dr. Reza,

    Trace metals can be removed by using hyperaccumulators. In your case there are some species of microalgae that are found to be effective in remediating heavy metals pollution in water. Most of chlorophyceae can be tried for this purpose.


    T. S. Imam

  • Manohari Choudhary added an answer in Bioinformatic Software:
    Any software to remove low quality sequences?

    is there any way to remove low quality sequences.

    Manohari Choudhary

     i have sequenced 16s rRNA gene from a bacterial sample by Sanger sequencing method. i have both forward and reverse sequences of around 1400 bp in length. i have submitted trimmed it with codon code aligner but still i am unable to get accession no. because of bad quality sequences. if there is any way or tool to improve quality of these sequences then please tell me.

  • Ghulam Md Ashraf added an answer in His-Tag:
    How can I prevent degradation of protein?

    I am working on Mus musculus protein of 85 KD which expresses very well but I am getting degradation band so for confirmation I did Mass Spec and western blot so its degrading from the C terminus and I am getting three degradation bands at 85kd, 43 kd and 25 kd. To prevent this I have added a strep tag at the C terminus and his tag at N terminus and purified with double tag but still I am getting same pattern. Please can you suggest some good ideas?

    Ghulam Md Ashraf

    temp. and pH. storage condition should be followed strictly.

  • Ghulam Md Ashraf added an answer in Alzheimer's Disease:
    Could anyone provide me with websites and blogs that discuss recent research activities and inventions about Alzheimer's Disease?
    Ghulam Md Ashraf

    nice link mr alper

  • Ghulam Md Ashraf added an answer in alpha-Synuclein:
    What is your commercial source of alpha-synuclein?

    Where do you get your Alpha-Synuclein from? Until now, we purchase our alpha-synuclein from "rpeptide" but the shipping time is quite long. And we don't want to culture own E.colis. Thanks for your answers.

    Ghulam Md Ashraf

    sigma aldrich, its best

  • Ghulam Md Ashraf added an answer in Alzheimer's Disease:
    Dyspraxia (or apraxia) in people with dementia - what do we know so far?

    I would like to make contact with others who are interested in this subject, especially related to the effects on the ability to take part in physical and exercise activities. A lot of the evidence so far seems to be around 'tool-use' type concerns for ADL, or gait or verbal dyspraxia, but not so much about how dyspraxia impacts on the ability to access PA as a health benefit (mental or physical), and how to improve that access.

    I am a research physiotherapist with a special interest in exercise and physical activity as a treatment for a variety of conditions, especially with frail older adults.

    Looking forward to hearing from you!

    Ghulam Md Ashraf

    i am working on the same field. I am collecting CSF samples of dementic patients assaying important parameters.

  • Ghulam Md Ashraf asked a question in Cancer:
    Is surgical error an established cause of cancer?

    Is surgical error an established cause of cancer?

  • Ghulam Md Ashraf added an answer in Dextran Sulfate:
    How can I calculate 4% of Dextran Sulfate Salt (DSS)?


    Please I need to know how to calculate 4% of DSS ? I found in a protocol, that we need 4g ---> 100ml of autoclaved water, and to allow 5ml of this solution for each mice. 

    I found that 4g is too much. Please, does anybody knows how to proceed with this calculation?

    Thank you. 

    Ghulam Md Ashraf

    Nice paper cory

  • Beata Borowska-Beszta added an answer in Fluctuations:
    Could you please tell your point of view on the current situation worldwide ?

    Is it a stable or fluctuating and we are faced to the glabal danger

    Beata Borowska-Beszta

    Dear Marianne, 
    So, from the point of view of European we since beginning of the year are experiencing chaos and crisis. In the world there are many military conflicts, which also include as chain reaction such  activities in Europe. To recap: the annexation of the Crimea, acts of terrorism in the Middle East (IS), Africa (Boko Haram) and Europe. Every military and terrorism  conflicts are indicating the cruelty in breaking of the human rights. This is enormously sad. I usually read or listen to news from BBC, CNN, Reuters infromations as well as local and notice, that some analytics say that are in WW3, which we do not notice because it is distributed and implemented by new various means, as acts of terrorism or eg. even using the "D" - weapon what means the demography. But always I hope that in addition to greed and differently motivated attackers to dominate the parts of current world, another part of the world will begin to really watch for stabilization, solutions and peace. We want to live in this world. I'm sorry for such pathetic voice.

  • Aravind babu Kajjam added an answer in UV Radiation:
    For Aggregate induced emission is there any requirements (Like, in solvent compound should UV inactive and in solid UV active)?

    Actually my compounds are showing green emission in solvent. but in solid it showing yellow. and compound is UV active in both solvent and solid.Is my compound are active for aggregate induced emission. if it is yes please give explanation.

    Aravind babu Kajjam

    Thank you very much for your kind replay...

  • Abbasali Barari added an answer in Graphene Quantum Dots:
    How can i obtain concentration of graphene quantum dot solution?

    i synthesis it by pyrolysis of acid citric 

    Abbasali Barari

    Dear Professor, thank you. but there isn't any something about geraphene quantum dots ,

  • Demetris Christopoulos added an answer in Science, Technology & Society Studies (STS):
    Is there still a gulf between scientists and ‘intellectuals’? Which of them have more influence on people’s worldviews?

    Traditional intellectuals –thinkers, writers, political and social commentators, and artists- have historically played a major role in the diffusion of the ideas that shape the ways people see the world and their own society and lives

    In the prominent book The Third Culture (1995), John Brockman claimed that these kinds of intellectuals have “become increasingly marginalized”. They are being replaced by scientists who, “through their work and expository writing”, communicate directly with the general public. These “third-culture intellectuals” would be represented by the likes of Paul Davies, Martin Rees, Richard Dawkins, Steve Jones, Daniel C. Dennett, Brian Goodwin, W. Daniel Hillis, Nicholas Humphrey and many others.  

    The culture of traditional intellectuals, says Brockman, “dismisses science”, is “often nonempirical”, uses “its own jargon”, and “is chiefly characterized by comment on comments, the swelling spiral of commentary eventually reaching the point where the real world gets lost”.

    The idea of a Third Culture has its origin in C.P. Snow’s influential “Two Cultures”   essay (1959), in which the British scientist and novelist deplored the “mutual incomprehension” –“sometimes hostility”-- between science and the arts. Scientists shared a “culture” –no matter their political, religious, social class and even disciplinary differences-, with common attitudes, standards, approaches, assumptions and patterns of behavior, At the opposite pole, attitudes were more diverse, but the total incomprehension gave an “unscientific flavor” –often almost “antiscientific”— to the whole “traditional culture”. Moreover, scientists largely overlooked traditional literature, which they perceived as irrelevant to their interests, while most intellectuals were unable to describe something as basic as the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

    Snow saw such disconnection and polarization as a “sheer lose” to society and stressed the need to build bridges between the sides. In a second essay, published in 1963, he suggested that the gap would be closed by a “Third Culture” that would eventually emerge. In his version of this new culture, intellectuals would communicate with scientists.    

    Not long ago, a column in Scientific American stated that Snow’s vision “has gone unrealized” (see Krauss, Lawrence M.: “An Update on C.P. Snow’s ‘Two Cultures’”, August 17, 2009).

    What is your opinion? Is there such a cultural divide? Are intellectuals scientifically illiterate? Do scientists ignore the basics of the humanities? Which of them have more influence on the public? What kind of Third Culture –if any- is emerging?

    + 4 more attachments

    Demetris Christopoulos

    At the very old, ancient years, we had the term:


    which comes from the verb

    Επίσταμαι=Επ-ίσταμαι=Epistame=ίσταμαι επί=Istamai epi = I stand on

    and had the meaning that a scientist = Επιστήμων=Epistemon was somebody that actually was standing above the whole story, ie he/she had an overall view of world under examination.

    Now, due to the damned specialization, we have lost the meaning of Επιστήμη=Episteme and we speak about Science as a technical branch of human knowledge and not as a whole story concept.

    Thus my answer is that the above question is a negative result of the specialization process that has divided the human thinking in so many small parts, such that one fights against the other.

  • Arnold Trehub added an answer in Cognitive Systems:
    Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.

    Arnold Trehub


    Can you give us a succinct statement of what you think Chalmers' "Hard Problem" is ?

  • Dr. Shahid Amin Bhat asked a question in Green Marketing:
    TiMS 2016 (International Conference) @ ITM University Gwalior?


    ITM University, Gwalior is organizing 6th International Conference on “Technology Innovation & Management for Sustainable Development (TiMS-16)” February 11-13, 2016. I extend an invitation to you on behalf of ITM University for oral/poster presentation in a Technical Session on Green Marketing at the Conference on Feb.13 2016.

  • Arshad Mahmood Khan added an answer in Botany:
    What is the basic difference between Datura innoxia and Datura stramonium? How one can identify them in the field?
    Are there morphological differences?
    Arshad Mahmood Khan

    Dear all;

    Capsule erect, dehiscence 4-valved. Leaves sinuately dentate Capsule nodding, dehiscence irregular. Leaves entire, repand to sinuate-wavy: Datura stramonium         Plants subglabrous. Corolla 5-10-lobed, white or purple to yellow suffused. Calyx 1/2 corolla length or less. Capsule tuberculate or spinose with excrescences up to 3 mm long: Datura metel                                                                                                                       Plant parts dense pubescent-villous. Corolla 10(-12)- lobed, white. Calyx 1/2-2/3rd length of corolla. Capsule spiny, the spines 5-11 mm long: Datura innoxia

  • Karim M Ayyad asked a question in Green IT:
    Is there any index yet for measuring a building's potential for green retrofitting?

    I am currently developing an index that can assess buildings' potential for green retrofitting, from the technical and economic point of view. I would like to know if there are any other researchers who are/have been working on the same issue.

  • Jian Hui Lan added an answer in Computational Chemistry:
    Why does water dissociate in AIMD simulation?

    I am trying to simulate water by using AIMD simulation with VASP.

    The LDA is used and about 70 water molecules are placed in a box.  The following parameters are my setting in INCAR. However, the results seem abnormal. A few water molecules prefer to dissociate into H and OH after 5ps. Does anyone know how to solve this problem? Thanks in advance!!!

    PREC = low
    ENCUT = 300.000

    IBRION = 0
    NSW = 6000
    POTIM = 0.5
    SMASS = 2
    TEBEG = 300
    TEEND = 300

    ISIF = 2
    ISYM = 0
    ALGO = V
    ISMEAR = -1
    SIGMA = 0.0258
    LREAL= Auto
    NELECT=1392 #1393

    Jian Hui Lan

    YEs,Adam, I have checked all the positions. I feels LDA is not proper for water, is that so?

  • Lukasz Warchol added an answer in PsychoPy:
    Has anyone used Mitsar/WinEEG together with some opensource software for stimuli presentation (e.g. OpenSesame/PsychoPy) and could share some knowhow?

    I'm about to get down to some research and best I can do right now is Mitsar 201, WinEEG and some opensourse for stimuli presentation. So far I have worked only with Psytask, however, I need software that will allow for more complex experiments. If you could provide any kind of knowledge how to tackle Mitsar compatibility with other platform, I would really used it right now. I don't know exactly where to start with it and have no idea whether it's even possible. I could use Matlab as well, I'm a beginner here, though, so please make your answers not to advanced. If you could refer me to some (online) resources, that would help a lot too. 

    Lukasz Warchol

    I have reached out to a Polish supplier of Mitsar equipment and they are developing a synchronizing interface to use Mitsar with PsychoPy. I'm going to test it next month.

  • Kotreshi B H added an answer in Vegetables:
    Can someone provide me experimental procedure for finding the C/N ratio of leaves, vegetable waste?

    i am confused whether procedure for finding C/N ratio for soil and vegetable waste are same.please some one provide me exact procedure to find C/N ratio of vegetable waste.

    Kotreshi B H

    thank you paul

    what type of bedding materials give good result for above said feeedsocks and how long should i keep the precomposting period?

  • Dr. Shahid Amin Bhat asked a question in MDP:
    Management Development Programme?

    MDP on Corporate Valuation (January 30-31, 2016) @ ITM School of Business,ITM University Gwalior.

  • Mohamad Hafiz Ghani asked a question in Material Handling:
    What is the types of power transmission use in design and development of automatic guided vehicles such as Forklift AGV?

    There are many types of AGV use in material handling in manufacturing industries. But, what is the types of power transmission that has been use for lifting and loading of load/product for the AGV such as Forklift AGV.

    What kind of topic should i search and survey to get a full understanding in term of the design and development of lifting and loading mechanism of AGV that has widely use nowadays.

    Thank you for your concern to my question.

  • Irina Pechonkina added an answer in Complicity:
    It is said that ignorance is bliss!

    Is it really a bliss in the complicated complex world.

    Irina Pechonkina

    To Lope de Vega,"How often we were saved by blindness,while foresight let us down"

  • Subhash C. Kundu added an answer in Cultural Politics:
    Is gender equality possible in family life: between siblings and within a married couple, that is between the spouses?

    I am interested in exploring questions pertaining to the possibility of realizing gender equality within marital relationships and happy family life of couples in the age range of 20 to 55 years. I am thinking of gender here as the socially constructed roles, behaviors, feelings and attitudes expected of girls and boys, women and men, in a given society. I am also thinking of it in terms of the rights, power and privileges accorded or denied as well as the restrictions and taboos imposed on any sex. I make a distinction between sex (the condition of being male or female) which is biological, natural and fairly constant, and gender which is social, cultural, human-made, learned and therefore changeable. Furthermore, I think of gender equality as a situation where girls and boys, women and men, have equal opportunities for participation and enjoyment of rights, responsibilities and privileges in their society without any legal, cultural, political, economic, religious, or social hindrance on the basis of their sex. How is gender equality expressed in terms of distribution of roles, responsibilities and opportunities among family members? What role do educational attainment, religious beliefs and attitudes or the lack thereof, play in influencing such distribution in matters of: participation in family leadership/decision-making (about finance, recreation/vacation, child-bearing/rearing/caring, child-spacing, keeping a job or letting a job go, etc); who calls the shots? participation in home-making, cooking, serving, cleaning, etc; cultural/social symbolizations and ritualizations: that is who does what, why, when, where and how, based on whether they are boy or girl, woman or man? Who leads the family devotion for example? E.g who drives the car when the couple travels together? Who sits where at table? Who speaks and who must be silent? How are these symbolizations and ritualizations justified? Are the gendered practices around participation in roles, responsibilities and opportunities in family settings contributing to the overall wellbeing of humanity in light of the United Nations sustainable development goals? The questions raised here are not concerned with LGBT issues. Rather they are concerned with gender issues that are a matter of life and death for many women and girls in many world contexts. So please if anyone knows of real life examples of couples and families, anywhere the world, who are living on a basis of gender equality or if someone has any literature related to the subject of this research interest, I will be very grateful if they can share with me.

    Subhash C. Kundu

    Yes, equality starts from home!

  • Demetris Christopoulos added an answer in Plato:
    Please, help.What is English for the name of Plato's primary school - /didacsaleon/?

    Please, help.What is English for the name of Plato's primary school - /didacsaleon/?

    Demetris Christopoulos

    Dear Natalia,

    The word is Didaskal-eion Διδασκαλείον in Greek

    The verb is: Didask-o=Teach somebody (Διδάσκω in Greek)

    The substantive is: Didaskal-os=Teacher =Διδάσκαλ-ος (the person who teaches)

    Thus the first part means that a teacher's act is being done.

    The second part is common in Greek language and means the place where the first part is actually perforemed.

    Another word:

    Ωδείον= Ωδ-είον = conservatory = the place where Ωδές=odes are created = Od-eion

    So, finally (thanks for your patient!):

    Didaskal-eion = The place where we receive a teaching (Didach-i = Διδαχ-ή) from somebody (Didaskal-os)

    PS Ian, please let it to Greeks and forget machine translators, they simply create 'monsters'!

    James you lost the root!


  • Metin Gunduz added an answer in Rock Art:
    What do you believe is the most reliable and valid means to date rock drawings (petroglyphs)?

    Do you believe in portable XRF dating of desert varnish?

    Do you think that associated dates for single component sites spatially associated with the rock art are reasonable?

    What techniques have you used?

    How have you attempted to obtain chronological controls?

    Metin Gunduz

    The abstract and the literature link for the Laser Ablation IRMS technique  is http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/rcm.4985/abstract

  • Mark Christopher Perry added an answer in SPSS:
    Do I include the baseline value of the outcome variable as one of the repeated outcome measures in a Generalised Estimating Equation analysis?

    I am doing a Generalised Linear Model analysis(GEE)  and need some advice. I am comparing two well-randomised groups for an outcome measured at 5 follow up points, and the only real difference between groups at baseline is the baseline value of the outcome variable. I want to know if I should include the baseline measure of this outcome as one of the 'repeated measures' or just use it as a covariate.  I suppose my lack of understanding of how GEEs work is the issue here. If it works by comparing the regression lines (over time)  between the two groups (and thus the comparison is simply of the gradient of the lines) then it makes perfect sense to include the baseline measure in with the 5 follow up measures. But if there is also some comparison of the absolute magnitudes of the outcome variable at each time point  in each group then including the baseline in the repeated measures would surely be a source of bias: the baseline difference could potentially contribute to any conclusion of a difference at follow up (or might eradicate any true difference). So do I include the baseline measure in the 'repeated measures' or do I just include it as a covariate? I'm using SPSS by the way. Thanks in advance!

    Mark Christopher Perry

    Thanks Manoochehr! I think I've got it sorted out now. I realised you can work out the group, time and group x time effects, and so the group x time effects won't be affected by the baseline difference, though the group effect would. However the group x time effects are what we would look at. It makes sense to include the baseline variable if the test is mainly to compare gradients, as otherwise the change up to the first follow up is lost (if you don't include zero then the changes from zero to first follow up don't get considered).