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  • How does one study neutrino nucleus interaction?

    neutrino physics

    Mohammad Ayaz Ahmad · University of Tabuk

    The study of neutrino oscillations has necessitated a new generation of neutrino experiments that are exploring neutrino-nuclear scattering processes.

  • Adil Hussain added an answer in Rice Transformation:
    What are the common agrobacterium strains used in rice transformation studies for better transformation efficiency?

    Role of agrobacterium strains in gene transformation studies.

    Adil Hussain · International Islamic University, Islamabad

    For the effective and successful transformation in dicots, agrobacterium GV3101-pMP90RK and EHA105 strains are best while For  monocots AGL1 and LBA4404 may be useful.

  • What (recent) accounts on language evolution would you identify as 'alternatives' outside of the nativist-v-emergentist dichotomy—if any?

    The pervasive polarization over the emergence and evolution of language—cf. nativism vs. emergentism—persists because it reflects a very relevant distinction at the core of language. So, this is hard question I'm asking but, if we were to identify alternative accounts falling a bit further from the large dichotomy—with a novel theory or method—, could you think of any? 

    Thank you

    Marc Verhaegen · Study Center Anthropology

    Magnus, inform properly (i.e. read the recent literature) instead of refusing to read our papers, and think a bit for yourself instead of blindly following the conservative clique who still believes that our Pleistocene ancestors ran after antelopes on the African plains.

    As for Langdon (a very nice man, I met him a few times), see the attachment of Mario Vaneechoutte (I co-authored, but I a minor role in it).  Algis Kuliukas also has written an answer to Langdon's papers IIRC.

  • Hani Elzaiat asked a question in Protozoa:
    Can anyone send me some photos for rumen protozoa ?

    Can anyone send me some photos for rumen protozoa ?

  • Mohammad Ayaz Ahmad added an answer in Gamma Rays:
    What is the highest gamma ray frequency that can currently be technically detected and observed?

    High energy astrophysicsts  and Nuclear Physicists

    Mohammad Ayaz Ahmad · University of Tabuk

    Astronomers seeking to study the gamma-ray universe are faced with two major difficulties. First, gamma rays do not penetrate Earth's atmosphere, and therefore cannot easily be studied from the ground. GRO will overcome this difficulty by its location above our atmosphere, in Earth orbit. Second, because of their high energies, gamma rays cannot be reflected or focused like other forms of light. Thus, although the instruments of GRO are essentially telescopes for seeing gamma-ray light, they do not look at all like ordinary telescopes. Instead, the GRO instruments observe gamma rays indirectly, by monitoring flashes of visible light, called scintillations, that occur when gamma rays strike the detectors (made of liquid or crystal materials) built into the instruments.

    The Gamma Ray Observatory Spacecraft

    The gamma rays emitted from celestial objects span a wide range of energies; the most energetic gamma rays to be studied by GRO have energies some 1 million times greater than the weakest. This is a far greater range in energy than that spanned by visible light, and no single instrument yet devised can detect gamma rays throughout this range. GRO carries four distinct instruments that together span the gamma-ray range from about 20,000 to 30 billion eV. (An electron volt is the energy gained by one electron when accelerated through an electric potential of one volt.) Each of the four instruments has a unique design, and is specialized for particular types of observations:

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) is designed to search the sky for "bursts" of gamma rays that may occur unexpectedly from any direction. BATSE consists of eight identical detectors, located at each vertex of the spacecraft, to give it a very wide field of view (i.e., it can study a large part of the sky simultaneously), and it can measure rapid changes in the intensity of gamma-ray light. BATSE works in the low-energy part of the gamma ray range (20,000 to 2 million eV) in which bursts are expected. Once BATSE discovers a burst of gamma rays, it can signal the other three instruments to study the source in more detail.

    The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) also is optimized to low-energy gamma rays (100,000 to 10 million eV), but can obtain higher quality spectra than BATSE. One function of OSSE will be to respond to signals discovered by BATSE, allowing their sources to be studied in further detail. Of particular importance, OSSE is sensitive to the spectral line produced (at 511,000 eV) when an electron and its antimatter counterpart, the positron, collide and mutually annihilate each other. Because antimatter production and annihilation is an important process near neutron stars (and pulsars) and black holes, study of this line can provide valuable insights into these bizarre structures.

    The Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL) is designed for observations at moderate gamma-ray energies (l to 30 million eV). Because COMPTEL has a wide field of view (though not as wide as BATSE) and can accurately locate gamma ray sources, one of its primary functions will be to produce a detailed map of the sky as seen in moderate gamma rays. It is expected that this survey will reveal many new sources of gamma ray emissions.

    The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) detects high-energy gamma rays (20 million to 30 billion eV). One of its primary missions will be to generate a map of the sky as seen in high-energy gamma rays, complementing the map produced by COMPTEL. Another will be to discover and monitor gamma-ray emissions from pulsars.

  • Can Zn nanoparticles be produced from a plant source?
    Please suggest some techniques.
    Shaban Ahmed Ali Abdel-Raheem · Agricultural Research Center, Egypt


  • Ying Muhui asked a question in Retention:
    Why can we use the deuterium retention in Tungsten to predict the tritium retention?

    Recently,I have referred to many papers about deuterium and tritium retention experience in JET and TFTR. In these papers ,it has been most mentioned that D and T have similar behavior in the first wall of Tokamak, such as the ratio of gas
    retained tto  the fuel part, but can we just use these experiments' data to infer the connection between D and T retenion behavior? is there any theory study which could explain that?

  • Is there any easy method for rearing (without incubator) flour beetles and artificial diet in laboratory?
    There are some papers for artificial diet but there was no growth observed during my work. The insects were dead after 2-3 days survival. Maintenance of relative humidity (27-30 degree Celsius) by ammonia hydroxide.
    Shaban Ahmed Ali Abdel-Raheem · Agricultural Research Center, Egypt


  • Has anybody found a good bioavailability of tryptanthrin in any reviewed papers?
    We have repeatedly observed practically no bioavailability of tryptanthrin in mice.
    Shaban Ahmed Ali Abdel-Raheem · Agricultural Research Center, Egypt


  • Adam B Shapiro added an answer in Diatoms:
    I try to purify a protein (DEAE) but it stays with pigment and go out with wash (Pi 6.3 ; buffer pH 7.9) : have you ever met this problem ?

    I work with a diatom

    Adam B Shapiro · AstraZeneca

    There are several reasons why a protein may not bind to an anion exchange column: (1) it doesn't have sufficient negative charge, (2) it is bound to something else that doesn't bind to the column (pigment?), (3) it is aggregated, (4) the ionic strength of the sample is too high, (5) the column is overloaded with protein and/or other negatively charged substances (such as nucleic acids), (6) the column was not prepared properly.

  • Does “spin” imply physical rotation?

    The “spin” of an electron or other fundamental particle is often described as “intrinsic angular momentum”. This terminology is required because a point particle or Planck length vibrating string cannot possess ½ ħ of angular momentum. Larger objects such as molecules or electrons in atomic orbitals possess quantized angular momentum which can be demonstrated to involve physical rotation. For example, a carbon monoxide molecule in a vacuum can only rotate at integer multiples of 115 GHz which is integer multiples of ½ ħ. Therefore, do you believe that fundamental particles have a physical angular momentum that is currently not understood? Alternatively, is "intrinsic angular momentum" an accurate description of spin because it is a quantum mechanical property that does not involve physical rotation?

    To Sanjay,

    Saying that a spinor is a solution of the relativist Dirac equation does not tell us what is a spinor. The Dirac's equation is no more than an identity, on which we have made the magic of "usual quantic substitution of variables", and then assumed that the syymbols are matrices. OK, the computation works (only in special relativity) but if this is the only answer which prevails, it would be more honest (and simpler) to tell that spinors are a formalism that we use efficiently in our computation, and nobody know what they mean.

    For how long physicists will have to live with this narrative ? As the quote :

    "No one fully understands spinors. Their algebra is formally understood but their general significance is mysterious. In some sense they describe the "square root" of geometry and, just as understanding the square root of -1 took centuries, the same might be true of spinors" (Michael Atiyah)

    But the time goes, and the time limit is coming !

  • Xi Mingjie asked a question in Fluid Inclusions:
    Where can buy synthetic quartz fluid inclusions?

    Where can buy synthetic quartz fluid inclusions produced using a solution of known composition. Especially in North America region.I want to use them as external standard for quantitative analysis elements in individual fluid inclusion by LA-ICP-Ms.

    Thank you very much.

  • How long will it take to finish virtual screening in Discovery Studio with 16000 ligands?
    I have put 16000 ligands on Discovery Studio for virtual Screening.
    Shaban Ahmed Ali Abdel-Raheem · Agricultural Research Center, Egypt


  • How to prepare 0.1% w/v suspension of urease-active meal?
    Does any one know how to prepare 0.1% w/v suspension of urease-active meal from urease, Merck. 0.1% w/v suspension of urease-active meal is indicated for using in urea cream determination in BP.
    Shaban Ahmed Ali Abdel-Raheem · Agricultural Research Center, Egypt


  • What is the recommended input data (rainfall, temperature,...) record length for the complex rainfall runoff hydrological model?

    Is that possible to compare the results of complex rainfall-runoff hydrological model and simple conceptual rainfall-runoff model with minimum input data records. 

    Seyed Mohammad Moein Sadeghi · University of Tehran

    I would like to propose you for adding the "rainfall interception" of canopy as well as the ecohydrological parameters of forest canopy, such as: canopy storage capacity, free throughfall coefficient, stemflow, and etc.

  • Ranjan Sarmah added an answer in SPSS:
    How does Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used for training siRNA dataset?

    How to classify siRNA sequences and how to train a dataset using SVM. Also what would be the best software for doing this. Whether SPSS v 16 support SVM or not. If yes please explain how to interpret. 

    Ranjan Sarmah · Assam Agricultural University

    Whether SPSS 16.0 support Support Vector Machine???

  • Why stomata close when excess water? How the mechanism?

    I means when water flooding. Thank you

    Seyed Mohammad Moein Sadeghi · University of Tehran

    Moreover, useful papers has been attached.

  • Alex George asked a question in Tankyrases:
    Can anyone suggest, the best cell lines to study about tankyrase 1 and telomerase activity in malignant/ normal conditions?

    would like to study tankyrase 1 (TNKS1) activity under certain conditions!

  • Mohammad Firoz Khan added an answer in Happiness:
    What is Development?

    The development demonstrates various assumptions such as:

    (a) Progress, extension, expansion, enlargement
    (b) Social evolutionism = catching up with the developed and industrialized countries, class etc
    (c) Individualism = developing the personality of human being, self confidence, dignity, happiness
    (d) Economism = achieving growth, income.
    (e) Intensifiers = more democratic and participatory, grass root.

    Are these really definitions of Development?
    I have quoted this question from Gilbert Rist, 2002: The History of Development From Western Origins to Global Faith, Academic Foundation, New Delhi.

    What is Development in your opinion?

    Mohammad Firoz Khan · Jamia Millia Islamia

    There are a number of definitions of development. These vary according to experience and ideology. Generally, growth (economic) is confused with development, while development is qualitative a growth is quantitative. . Like any qualitative theoretical construct, development defies any structured definition that can be rendered to numerical evaluation. It is evident from various over-going and ongoing definitions to capture it like economic well-being (infrastructure and economic justice), social development (education, health etc.), human development index, happiness etc. However, in gist all attempts are geared to know whether citizens of a country or region or locality find live liveable, enjoyable with dignity.

  • What is the protocol for hydrolysis of iridoid glycosides using beta glucosidase (from almond -sigma aldrich)?
    Its > 2units /mg.
    Shaban Ahmed Ali Abdel-Raheem · Agricultural Research Center, Egypt


  • Does anyone have a reliable instrument for auditing the incidence of sustainability in a course?

    we need to identify the level and degree of sustainability in a course and then we're going to compare the level with changes to student views, attitudes and behaviours towards sustainability 

    Liz Sidiropoulos · Central Queensland University

    Thanks Piet, appreciate your comments.

    Cheers , Liz

  • Adam B Shapiro added an answer in Toxicity Studies:
    How to conduct toxicity studies on ammonium sulfate purified protein?

    Please provide the method for conducting toxicity studies on ammonium sulfate purified protein?

    Adam B Shapiro · AstraZeneca

    To remove ammonium sulfate from the protein, pellet the protein in a centrifuge. Dissolve the pellet in a suitable buffer. Remove residual ammonium sulfate either by dialysis or by gel filtration chromatography. Measure the final protein concentration.

  • How to interprete data obtaining from geophysical method - electrical resistivity method?

    Should i use a software or can i do it manually?

    Milton J. Porsani · Universidade Federal da Bahia

    Dear Ashwienee,

    Take a look at some exemples of automatic interpretation metidos for VES in the following papers.






    Milton Porsani

  • What are the procedures involved in polymerization of 1-vinyl 1,2,4 triazole using free radical mechanism?
    I have to synthesize poly (1-vinyl 1,2,4 triazole) in laboratory to be used as a dielectric layer. I also need to know the procedure for separation of products.
    Shaban Ahmed Ali Abdel-Raheem · Agricultural Research Center, Egypt


  • How can I use InChI keys to enhance a chemical database? Is there a method to decode them?

    InChI keys are generated using hash functions that are supposedly near impossible to decrypt. I am currently using InChI keys that access a database created by myself to identify and undertake simulations. The database merely uses the InChI key to locate the chemical structure in question. This naturally limits simulations to only those chemicals within the database.

    I was wondering whether there is a method to actually decode the InChI key to obtain meaningful information rather than merely using it as an identifier. Alternatively, I was wondering if there is a method to link online databases to the program to access InChI keys, somewhat akin to the twitter api...

    Shaban Ahmed Ali Abdel-Raheem · Agricultural Research Center, Egypt


  • Steingrimur Stefansson added an answer in Chitin:
    How do you elute Chitin-bind protein form chitin resin?


    Steingrimur Stefansson · HeMemics Biotechnologies Inc

    Hi Tengfei, are you expressing a CBD construct that has a cleavable linker?

    If not, then all the papers I have seen use heavy duty protein denaturants such as SDS and guanidinium to release CBD proteins from chitin resins.

    I have used 10-20% DMSO to release proteins in active forms from other resins. If that doesn't work, then you should probably reclone your protein into a cleavable vector.

  • Miloud Bekkar added an answer in Learning:
    Should a teacher focus on 'rigorous learning' or 'learning with entertainment'?
    It has been seen that many teachers in universities have become entertainers rather than focusing mainly on value-addition and learning. A lot of time gets devoted to pleasing the students; knowing them personally; building good relations with them; and telling jokes and creating humour; the focus becomes more of good feedback than rigor. Keeping the audience motivated is good for effective teaching; but since a lot of time goes in entertainment less time remains for analysis and conceptualization. What is your preference and why?
    Miloud Bekkar · Mascara University Algeria

    I read in an Arabic version of Chourouk Newspaper in Algeria today, december 21, that some pupils' parents complained about a teacher who presented Jingle Bells song to her children, and the journalist blaimed her. Tha's ridiculous because this is what is called teaching entertainment.   

  • George Christoff added an answer in Desensitization:
    Does somebody have an opinion about the value of specific IgG 4 during desensitization?

    Some pulmonologists want to follow IgG4 concentration of the allergen during desensitization because IgG4 must increase for good result. This test is often contested.

    George Christoff · Medical University of Sofia

    Many laboratory tests have been suggested and studied as candidates for a marker of  AIT efficacy. Serum IgG4 level is one of them.  However there are no sound evidence based data that we can use just one particular test to predict and assess AIT  results. That is the reason why allergists have accepted that total symptom score, medication usage score and quality of life are the markers for AIT efficacy.

  • Amin Abdollahi added an answer in DMSO:
    How does solvent affect on the molecular weight of polymer?

     I mean how  can The polarity of the solvent effect on the molecular weight of synthetic polymers is based on the condensation reaction?" between DMAC & DMSO which one increases the molecular weight"?

    Amin Abdollahi · Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute

    according to the raw materials, the solvent polarity have different effect in the Mw. so, you should be determined the class of the polymerization reactions

  • Donnee Ness asked a question in Africa:
    Who is doing research in Africa on the burden, economicc and otherwise of breast cancer related lymphoedema?

    I am looking for stats and economic burden of breast cancer related lymphoedema in low resource countries