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  • Justus Kilonzi asked a question in Brewing:
    Any article on muratina (traditinal african brew alcohol) preparation and chemical analysis?

    hello researchers? i need to know the chemical analysis which can be done to traditional african made brews such as muratina within kikuyu of central kenya

  • Mohammad Khorsand-ghayeni asked a question in Scaffolds:
    The overlap and fusion of fibers can cause changes in the mechanical strength of electrospun scaffolds?

    please see the pictures.

    I want to know about overlap and fusion of fibers in the C part in attached picture. it can cause changes in the mechanical strength of electrospun scaffolds? how?

    increase or decrease? 

    can you introduce an article to me? thanks

  • Kazeem Adepoju added an answer in Statistical Analysis:
    How can I change grouped data into individual data? Is there any user-friendly and the most suitable method to do this? thanks in advance..

    I have a grouped age data on fertility rate..

    Kazeem Adepoju

    It actually depends on the type of software but i seriuosly believe in R software, send your data I will help.

  • Vibha Sharma added an answer in Democracy:
    What should be democracy, apart from elections?

    There is no universal agreement on the concept of democracy.

    Many political scientists agree with some realistic definitions, which describe what democracy is in the real world.

    Normative viewswhat democracy should be-- are much more diverse.

    Democracy in reality, just as democratic ideals, has changed over time. Some democratic aspirations of today's people may become part of democracy in tomorrow's real world.

    What are your views on the Ideal Democracy? What should be democracy, apart from free elections?

    Vibha Sharma

    Dear Barbara Sawicka

    Very Right ma'am. I was very happy to read your answer. I had intended to touch that aspect but my answer was getting too long. Representative democracies are the order of the day now. Direct democracies are also practiced at the lower levels in India  - Village level in the Gram Sabha meetings. - Also known as village level Parliaments - Assembly of village level voters to decide about issues concerning the village.

    But again at the higher levels it is not possible to do that. Even the representative democracies are becoming too representative due to various other factors.

  • Amol Pandurang Jarag asked a question in SWAT:
    Can anyone tell me that which are the advantages and disadvantages of SWAT & RUSEL Model ?

    I need it to my research in Hydrological modeling.

  • Amol Pandurang Jarag asked a question in SWAT:
    Can anyone tell me that which are the advantages and disadvantages of SWAT & RUSEL Model ?

    I need it to my research in Hydrological modeling 

  • Kazeem Adepoju added an answer in SPSS:
    Statistical advice on analyzing the trend of cases over time?

    Dear colleagues,

    I'm working on an article concerning poisoning and wanted to analyze the trend of cases over time but don't know as to what test applies to it in SPSS and how to tackle it.

    Attached is the example of what I want to do and the data available with me.

    I would be very thankful if anyone is willing to guide me on this.

    Thanks in anticipation!


    + 1 more attachment

    Kazeem Adepoju

    Zainudin is right

  • Ivo Carneiro de Sousa added an answer in Jupiter:
    A horrible life (Blackout event) for 15 days is coming soon in our motherland. Are you feel anxiety? How you will overcome from this event?

    According to NASA World will remain in complete darkness from 15th November 2015 to 30th November 2015 due to astronomical event between Venus and Jupiter. 

    Ivo Carneiro de Sousa

    Thank you, Prof. Milan for bringing up some common sense and to avoid an useless global run to buy all available lamps in all supermarkets!

  • Irfan Ullah asked a question in Solr:
    Which one do you think is better in indexing and searching large PDF and OCRed documents? ElasticSearch, Solr or simple Lucerne?

    A number of open source solutions are available that can be used in indexing and searching documents. However, I want to index and search large PDF documents. Which one should I use, ElasticSearch, Solr or simple Lucerne? And why? Does any body know any open-source solution or project that has used any of these or others for the said purpose?

  • Arhan Sthapit added an answer in Postgraduate Studies:
    To produce good business graduates, what is most preferred: Academics, Experiential approach and Research?

    It's interesting to find in many MBA, BBA and post graduate colleges, the focus is heavily placed on academics while a few others go with a blend of academics and little research. Hardly fewer would be there to adopt a more experiential approach by using teachers having industry experience. What do you think would be the most important area of emphasis if you were to produce good management graduates?

    Arhan Sthapit

    Thanks Mohammad Israr Khan sir. I appreciate your sense of social concerns and business ecology. Thanks, sir

  • Md. Sarwar Hossain asked a question in Sustainable Development:
    #‎Sustainable‬ ‪#‎Development‬ ‪#‎Goals‬- No poverty... is it sustainable ?


  • Marina Goroshit added an answer in Parametritis:
    What does it mean non-parametric test, e.g. chi-square and what are other non-parametric tests?

    parametric and non-parametric tests - any guidance please.

    Thank you

    Marina Goroshit


    This is a very brief explanation and there is more information in the links:

    Parametric tests has an underlying normal distribution and they are based on central limit theorem. So we use parametric tests when we have continuous normally distributed variables or large samples, so we can assume normal distribution according to CL theorem. When we have categorical vars. or small samples and non-normal distributions, we apply non-parametric tests. In general, every common parametric test has its non-parametric equivalent. For example, Pearson corr. <-> Spearman corr., Independent samples T-test <-> Mann Whitney U test, Paired samples T-test <-> Wilcoxon test, One way ANOVA <-> Kruskall Wallis test, and so on...


    + 1 more attachment

  • Miranda Yeoh added an answer in Papers:
    Is mis-citation a real problem or a mere trifle?

    Now and then I see some papers of mine referred to within a context to which they have no relation at all or which they rather contradict to than corroborate. Is it but my sad experience or is it more common as one of byproducts of modern scientific “publication burst”? Is something to be done to make authors be more honest in this respect?

    Miranda Yeoh

    Hello dear Prof, do you notice this new feature on RG, where MIS-CITATION CAN BE COMMENTED UPON AND HOPEFULLY ACKNOWLEDGED?  THANKS TO RG.

    My paper was mis-cited.  I put a feedback comment.  But so far, no action was taken.  At least, I get the satisfaction that I have done the best that I can.  Have a look at the feedback at the end.  Please scroll.  Thanks Prof Boris.

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: The strategy of mnemonics has long been used as an aid to learning biology, physiology, pathophysiology, and health assessment in nursing. An application of an alphabetical mnemonics strategy to teaching and learning nursing processes and constructing care plans has been explored for patients with increased intracranial pressure (ICP), hepatic failure, and chronic renal failure. A specific application of this strategy for teaching care planning for patients with ICP is described. Student feedback appears to be positive, and reviews of the teaching-learning experience have received approval in students' evaluation of instruction. The mnemonics strategy presented has the potential for applicability and transferability to other areas of nursing care planning and other course contexts. [J Nurs Educ. 2015;54(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
      Journal of Nursing Education 12/2014; 54(1):1-3. DOI:10.3928/01484834-20141224-03
  • Kazeem Adepoju added an answer in Parametric Methods:
    What's the correct statistical test for textual codes?

    I have the following textual codes and total number of frequencies that I encountered such codes in texts:

    Factual Information                           Total frequencies

    Events                                                   67

    Representatives                                    40

    Programs                                              27

    Indicators                                              23

    1 IV (four independent groups) + 1 DV (total frequencies)

    1 nominal   +    1 scale

    no possibility to draw a distribution or check for similiar/dissimar shape

    not necessarilly independence of observations

    I'd like to simply check if there are differences between groups and the total frequencies. What could be the best non parametric method to use?

    Kazeem Adepoju

    You can find kruskal wallis  more appropriate since interest is on testing whether group differs

  • David Arbon added an answer in Suction:
    What suction pressure do practitioners actually use when performing endotracheal suctioning in their intensive care setting?

    As is apparent from my research interest, I have found that some intensive care units are using levels of vacuum pressure far above that recommended in best practice guidelines. In my setting the suction is taken directly from a central supply that may generate, on a quiet evening with theatres closed, some minus 80kPa of occlusion pressure but generally over 70kPa. More than a little different to the recommended occlusion pressure of some 16 to 20 kPa (120 to 150mm Hg) set using an attached suction regulator, you would agree.

    But. How widespread is this practice? And, how will it affect my results if I wish to compare studies involving this cohort of patients with those in Intensive Care Units where the procedure is performed in accordance with recommendations. 

    David Arbon

    Thanks Aboud,

    Yes this is true suctioning safely involves several aspects . Catheter to ET tube ratio, depth of suctioning and time, as well as pressure setting.

    However a size 14 French (4.7 mm OD) catheter will suction 56 liters per minute toward an occlusion pressure of 70 kPa (525 mm Hg) whereas when regulated to    16 kPa or 120 mm Hg a flow of 20 litres per minute will be seen through that same catheter toward  occlusion pressure. An occlusion pressure of 48 kPa (365 mm Hg) will  draw a reported 40 liters per minute through a size 14 Fr suction catheter.

    As the catheter is inserted further into the quickly narrowing airways negative pressure distal to the catheter will increase (become more negative) as resistance to return flow increases. Particularly with open suction. Should airway collapse occur, then the set suction pressure will be transmitted directly to the tissues beyond I suspect.

    Interestingly, any negative pressure within the airways below - 40 mm Hg will cause negative pressure pulmonary oedema with the maximum negative pressure that an average human can develop against an occluded airway being about 80 mm Hg. as in choking or strangulation.

    But this is not the question.  guidelines have existed for many years now recommending (sensibly) a requirement to take care with the amount of vacuum used and yet this does not always happen. Questions of a safety, legal and ethical nature may arise when a known risk is not taken into account when performing a procedure as seemingly straightforward as ET suctioning.  To what extent practice does or should follow "best practice" or "evidence based "practice guides is yet  to be examined.

  • Mohammad Hamad Al-khresheh added an answer in Linguistics:
    Can Greenberg's word order universals be applicable to all kinds of languages?

    In the world, there are roughly 7,000 languages belonging to a hundred different language families. The most popular theoretical assumptions regarding word order were developed by Greenberg in 1963. His word order universals have received great interest from linguists and grammarians alike, who have been trying to account for 'cross-language word order patterns'. My question is (Can we point out that all his word order universals are applicable to all languages in the world taking into consideration that Greenberg proposed his linguistic universal based primarily on a set of 30 languages?

    Mohammad Hamad Al-khresheh

    Dear Rahimi, thanks for your comment..

  • Sylvester Adejo asked a question in Isothermality:
    Can someone avail me with El-Awady original publication of his isotherm?

    I want to see how the isotherm is applied to the adsorption of solutes.


    Dr. Adejo

  • N.T. Markad asked a question in Aquaponics:
    Could you name some aquatic plants found in India?

    I am planning to pursue my PhD. in aquaponics. Could anyone suggest me its future scope in India?

  • Kazeem Adepoju added an answer in SPSS:
    What's the best way to analyze the relationship between continuous dependent variable and discrete polychotomous variables in spss?

    Hi everyone,
    I got this dataset for my research which has various discrete polychotomous variables. I'm not sure what kind of analysis i can use to determine the relationship between them and the continuous dependent variable in SPSS. Also I use the spearman's rho to determine the correlation between each variable. is there any other way to get a more correct correlation between varibles?!

    Besides, some other variables have already been transformed into dummy variables or ordinal ones (1/2/3...). I am wondering if this will greatly influence the robustness for my regression model.

    Thank you very much!

    Kazeem Adepoju

    Since the independent variable is categorical in nature, you can try dummy variable regression

  • Jyoti Jaiswal asked a question in Micrographs:
    How to calculate gap between grain size in thin film?

    I have XRD pattern of thin film. I have calculated structural properties from the XRD spectra. I have also SEM micrograph of these film. The shape of grain size is hexagonal. Now, I want to calculate the gap between the garin size. Please guide me. Thanks.

  • Ibrahim Ahmed added an answer in Constitutional Law:
    Can anyone recommend articles about a veto right of parliamentary opposition in German parliament?

    There are some articles talk about the veto right for parliamentary opposition in German parliament, but they didn't mention that which law, provides or guarantees this right; German constitution or the law of procedure of the (Bundestag).

    Ibrahim Ahmed

    Hello Prof Marco Althaus,

    Thank you very much foe the answer, you illustrated more issues that opened my view about the veto right of parliamentary opposition in Germany.  I sow in some researches and articles talked about this but couldn't convince me . The answer and references are very helpful.

    And let me sen my thankful message to Mr. Jefrrey de Fourestie, for his useful answer.

    Thank you again

    With Best Regards   


  • Elman Shahverdiev added an answer in Polarization:
    What is meaning of photon polarized at 45 degree?

    what is meaning of photon polarized at 45 degree? what is difference between +45 degree polarization and -45 degree polarization of photon?

    Elman Shahverdiev

    In E and E plane photon polarization at 45 means polarization direction of light along the diagonal of this plane. Correspondingly is the definition of -45 degree polarization 

  • Gajanan NIVRUTTI Kanade asked a question in Ayurvedic:
    What are various herbs used in ancient 'Indian ayurvedic samhita' & their uses?

    what are various herbs used in ancient 'Indian ayurvedic samhita' & their uses?

  • Duyi Samyor added an answer in Animal Studies:
    In animal study which gender and age of sprague dawley rat is preferred ?

    As I have seen in the Journal papers about the gender specification.

    Duyi Samyor

    Thats a lot of help. Thanks everyone

  • Victor Christianto asked a question in Archaeology:
    What can we learn about interstellar communication from archaeological findings?

    A recent publication from SETI seems to suggest that it is possible to find connection between archaeology and interstellar communication (file included).

    My question: What can we learn about  interstellar communication from archaeological findings? Your comments are welcome.

  • S. Feliu Jr added an answer in Defect Chemistry:
    Is there any way to identify metal vacancy defect by XPS?

    I introduced various concentration of metal dopant to a Zinc oxide. Based on defect chemistry equations, I found that it is possible that metal vacancy exists in the product. Is there any way to identify the existence (or tendency of its amount after various doping concentration) by XPS?

    S. Feliu Jr

    You may find a large amount of information by simply introducing " metal vacancy defects and xps"  in the search tool of the Sciencedirect from Elsevier:

    For example,  in the abstract of the manuscript entitled:

    "TEM and XPS studies on the faceted nanocrystals of Ce0.8Zr0.2O2"

    Materials Characterization, Volume 100, February 2015, Pages 31-35
    Debadutta Prusty, Abhishek Pathak, Manabendra Mukherjee, Bratindranath Mukherjee, Anirban Chowdhury

    It is stated

    " X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses confirmed the presence of vacancy related defects and revealed the presence of ~ 22% of Ce3 + in the nanopowders"

    Kind Regards.


  • Mubashar Rehman added an answer in Emulsions:
    Microscope imaging of emulsions?
    I'm interested to know how can I make a thin layer of single droplets of an emulsion between the object plate and the cover glass without destroying the natural structure of the droplets.
    Mubashar Rehman

    All have given valuable information about electron microscopy. For light microscope, you can use concave glass slides that have concave depressions so that coverslip will not touch depression region (and emulsion droplet). 


  • George Dishman added an answer in Cosmology:
    What are some of the models of dark matter using a scaler field?

    What are some alternative models of dark matter as a scaler field using an approach similar to one found in the paper http://arxiv.org/pdf/1504.04037.pdf?

    George Dishman

    Approaches to resolving the dark matter question using modified gravity are very difficult when structure growth prior to recombination is considered since there were no gravitationally bound structures at that time.

    A second problem for such approaches is dwarf galaxies or globular clusters with very high mass-to-light ratios. Worsley above gives an upper limit of 6.25 but for example the object known as Segue 1 has a mass to light ratio of 3400.

  • Victor Christianto asked a question in Spectra:
    Can we compare gravitational wave spectra from vibrating string spectra?

    The study of gravitational wave is quite old, but gravitational wave spectra is rarely studied (see: http://inis.jinr.ru/sl/P_Physics/PGr_Gravitation/Ciufolini%20(ed.).%20Gravitational%20waves%20(IOP,%202001)(422s).pdf)

    Since gravitational wave can be considered as classical wave, then it seems possible to compare its spectra with vibrating string spectra. What do you think?