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  • Hasan Rohani asked a question in PLC Programming:
    Is it a way to access Allan Bradley PLC program is recommended?

    Is it a way to access Allan Bradley PLC program you offer?

  • Devi Septiyani Arifin asked a question in Energy:
    PVDF can transform from mechanical energy to electrical energy?

    How PVDF can transform from mechanical energy to electrical energy?

  • Vahid Mosallanejad added an answer in Comsol:
    How can I import two different variables from first and second Physics to the third physics in a COMSOL model?

    Assume a COMSOL model with three different physics. Let’s say that first physics has an output V1 and second output is V2. If I wanted to use one of them as position dependent variable in the third physics then I just will use “values of variable not solved for” from setting of “study3” But I need to import both. There is not multiple selection originated from previous studies. It seems I can use just one of the variables in third physics.  Anybody knows who to import more than one variable from two different physics in last physics?

    Vahid Mosallanejad · University of Science and Technology of China


    Thank you very much and sorry for long delay. I checked it your suggestion is true.

  • Noshaba Hassan asked a question in Denitrification:
    Can anyone please tell me how to develop and maintain the anoxic condition in a bioreactor compartment designed for denitrification and COD removal?

    Can anyone please tell me how to develop and maintain the anoxic condition in a bioreactor compartment designed for denitrification and COD removal  textile watewater? what should be the ORP and do i have to add some reagents or what??

  • Larry L Simpson added an answer in Lean Management:
    Is anyone aware of a lean success factors survey instrument I can get permission to use?

    I want to do research pertaining to small wholesale distributors in the United States.  I would like to either study lean success factors or identify the portion of wholesale distributors that have successfully implemented lean management concepts.  This research is for my dissertation and I am required to use a pre-existing survey instrument.

    Any help in this regard would be greatly appreciated.


    Larry Simpson

    Larry L Simpson · Northcentral University

    I am trying to do a study on the lean success factors for wholesale distributors.  What I need is a survey instrument that I can use to survey distributors.  It needs to use a Likert scale to quantify the measurement of the importance of some commonly perceived success factors or some other appropriate measurement.  It also has to include a question asking if they in fact use lean management in their organizations.

    It is not necessary that the survey be directed at wholesale distributors.  It does have to be a survey that was adequately validated and used in a published study.

    Any help that you can give me would be greatly appreciated.



  • Singh Shivakumar added an answer in Conferences:
    Should the conference abstracts published on indexed journals be taken into account as a publication?

    I don't think so, but many people do. What's your opinion?

    Singh Shivakumar · Stanley Medical College

    An abstract of a conference in a published journal should be given significance . There is a screening process by the conference scientific committee  to decide the quality of the abstract & it can be rejected , if it is not significant . Presentation in a conference by the authors  , to the peers & the subsequent discussions are a very relevant part of the conference .

      RG has given us the option of writing a detailed article & attach it as a dataset supplement to the abstract . In the era of open science , it is up to the reader to decide the relevance of the paper . If the abstracts are not relevant , then peer reviewed journals should not publish them & should be made available only  as conference abstracts of the concerned scientific committee.

  • Surajit Chakraborty added an answer in Cord Factors:
    Does Mycobacterium smegmatis produces cord factor?

    As cord factor is known to confer virulence to Mycobacterium tuberculois, its important to know, if the glycolipid is formed in Mycbacterium smegmatis too? I assume, the latter being avirulent should not produce. I could not find any information on it.

    Surajit Chakraborty · Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research

    Seema, Kindly find the references attached below.

  • Which method will be preferable for the separation of bio compounds?

    Can anybody suggest me the protocol for identification and isolation of bioactive compounds from seaweed extracts by either column chromatography or HPLC method?

    S. Thanigaivel · VIT University

    Thanks Mr. Tong and Idris. Can we perform GC-MS  for further detection of products to name them what it is..? 

  • Hariharan Manoharan asked a question in Cell Lysis:
    At what pH does e. coli cells disrupt?

    If e. coli cells are incubated in a solution ranging from pH 1 to 14, then at what pH will cell lysis first occur? Assuming the solution is distilled water (pH from 1 to 14, prepared using HCl and NaOH) and incubation time is 5 or 10 minutes.

  • Huma Qureshi added an answer in Allelochemicals:
    Is the use of allelochemicals lies under organic agriculture?

    Scientists now a days are looking for natural allelochemicals instead of synthetic herbicides and pesticides. Can we categorize this practice under organic farming/agriculture?

    Huma Qureshi · PMAS - Arid Agriculture University

    Dr. Khorsandi !

    Can you please provide me any good document discussing the categories for deciding either organic farming or not? In laboratory, obviously different solvents with different polarity are used to find the most active and appropriate desired response. So what I've gained from the discussion is we can't say allelopathy as organic farming tool untill and unless we isolate and characterize that in the laboratory, is that so?

  • How do domestic transformers effect on the distribution network review?

    I want to know how domestic transformer effect on the distribution network review?

    Saptarshi Roy · National Institute of Technology, Warangal

    If The Neutral Conductor opens, Break or Loose at either its source side (Distribution Transformer, Generator or at Load side (Distribution Panel of Consumer), the distribution system’s neutral conductor will “float” or lose its reference ground Point. The floating neutral condition can cause voltages to float to a maximum of its Phase volts RMS relative to ground, subjecting to its unbalancing load Condition.

  • Jit Kong Cheong added an answer in Autophagy:
    Why am I not able to detect the LC3 band in western blotting?
    I am stuck with this for the past 1 year and would appreciate any help possible. I am trying to detect autophagy levels in my cells and I am unable to consistently produce the LC3 bands (most of the time there is no bands except once). The conditions I used are as follow:

    Sample: A5-RT3 skin carcinoma cells lysed in Triton lysis buffer
    Gel Running: 12% gel, 30ug protein/well, tried running both half and full gels (was told that running gel too far would make smaller proteins defuse)
    Wet Transfer: Tried 70V 20 mins and 45V 20-30mins, Tried PVDF membrane and NC (.45um) membrane
    Western Blotting: As we are using the infrared detection system, blocking is done with the commercial blocker, washing with TBST, LC3 Ab is from MBL mouse monoclonal.

    Can someone tell me why am I not getting the bands? Is it due to the MBL antibody, the .45um PVDF/NC, the transfer condition, the amount of protein loaded (assuming that infrared is more sensitive and the amount of protein used is sufficient) or the infrared system that is the problem?
  • How can I address the issue of a significant change in the Control group?

    A study on effect of a particular yogic maneuver was carried out in our department. It involved two groups, control and intervention group( n = 50 in each). It so happened that, at the end of study period cardiovascular parameters like BP, HR  showed significant fall in the intervention group, at the same time the other group which was not having any intervention ended up showing a significant increase in BP and HR at the end of the study period. Now how to do i account for this? Has any one come across such a problem before? 

    Veera Manikandan R · Christian Medical College & Hospital

    This is a typical situation situation for a two-way anova. See the link below for the tutorials. One is for SPSS and other is for R. 

  • How to concentrate T7 Phage in a protein free i.e (Co-Precipitation agent free) environment that can be used for coupling/Iodination etc..?

    How to concentrate T7 Phage in a protein free i.e (Co-Precipitation agent free) environment that can be used for coupling/Iodination etc..?

  • Chen tiam foo added an answer in Plasma Chemistry:
    How can increase the quantity of monomer flow into the reactor chamber and reduce the leakage of the piping connection at the monomer inlet?

    The monomer I used was heptylamine.

    I did for warming up the monomer by immersed the bottom flask in the water bath. I used the heating tape to warmed the SS piping as well and the SS piping had the heptylamine odor strongly.

    However, it showed air plasma reaction (pink color) once turned on the RF power. Heptylamine seem doesn't flow into the chamber because it doesn't have any odour of Heptylamine inside the chamber.

    How can I improve the system to gain more monomer flow into the chamber? Any methods to tighten the bottom flask to holds the stainless piping?(Figure 1)

    Chen tiam foo · National University of Malaysia

    Hi Hannah,

    The instruments here are limited. However, I am going to characterize this coating soon (Thickness, Functional Group-FTIR/XPS/Contact Angle). Most of the issues are on the design itself especially leak tight. Indeed, the dimension of every part of the system design need to consider.

    Thank you for sharing the needle valve information and also the studies of freeze-thaw cycles. I wish to have some figures from your freeze-thaw system if you don't mind. Hope to hear from you

    Yes, I agree with you that applied water bath might cause the monomer itself polymerize. So, I had done some monitoring of the temperature of monomer during the plasma polymerization

    Again, thank you for sharing your knowledge and experience with me.

    Best Regards,



  • Himanshu Gogoi added an answer in FITC Labeling:
    For FITC labelling of proteins, what should be the blank solution for 280 nm and 495 nm?

    I wish to find out the ratio of flourescein to protein after FITC labelling of protein at 280 and 495 nm spectroscopically. What will be the blank solution for this purpose? 

    Himanshu Gogoi · Jawaharlal Nehru University

    If my protein is at phosphate buffer pH 7.4, can I perform my conjugation at this pH, or do I need to change my buffer pH to more basic range?

  • Does anyone know of any tools for quantifying your classroom teaching practices in higher education?

    I am interested in tools that could be used to assess college/university teachers' classroom practices for their own professional development. I am familiar with the COPUS but wondered what others have found or used?

    Thank you

    Introduction Self-evaluation Philosophy

    Pp72, Survey of strengths, weaknesses and opportunities of Comenius 2.2 in-service training programmes in Europe with the financial support of the European Commission in the framework of the Socrates programme Edited by Manuel Megìas Rosa

  • Jelli Venkatesh added an answer in Stress Tolerance:
    If a transcription factor (AP2) has an alternative spliced form without the AP2 domain, can its overexpression in a line give stress tolerance?

    If a Predicted Transcription factor (AP2) having alternative spliced form (Not given in database) and the overexpresion of that gene shows stress tolerance, is it worth for studying further because main AP2 domain was cut out in the alternative spliced form.



    Jelli Venkatesh · Konkuk University

    Hi Manu try gene finding tools in Softberry.


  • M N Manoj added an answer in QIAGEN:
    Does the genomic contamination in qRT-PCR not fluctuate with amount of tissue added?

    I recently did a qrt-pcr reaction using primers from a different authored paper.  The primer was made from the 3'UTR.  Although I usually do the DNAse on column digestion from Qiagen, I ran out and tried the reaction anyways.  Both my +reverse transcriptase and -RT samples show practically the same Ct values.  What confuses me, is that the actin shows a range of ct values (tight within each triplicate and group) which isn't surprising since the tissue is from microscopic embryonic parts of the heart and you can't normalize to spec or weight.  But why doesn't the ct values of the, what I assume to be genomic DNA fluctuate?

    M N Manoj · Bigtec Labs

    Variation in actin Ct is significant and this should have shown similar trends with genomic GOI also. How specific are the GOI primers? Any dimer / non-specific hits etc?. What are the ct values with NTC (-RT & +RT ), for GOI assay?

  • Tamilarasi Krishnakumar added an answer in Erbium:
    How can i attach or yttrium or Erbium to metal oxide nanoparticles?

    Is there any simple method to attach Yttrium or Erbium to Metal oxide nanoparticles..Is there surfactants or polymers available to link the above stated materials. Any suggestions are welcome..

    Thanks Mr. Tengfei Zhou. Is it possible to attach Yttrium oxide to Metal oxide in aqueous solution?

  • Saptarshi Roy added an answer in Transformers:
    Is it wrong to burn operation of distribution transformers connected?

    Is it wrong to burn operation of distribution transformers connected?

    Saptarshi Roy · National Institute of Technology, Warangal

    The distribution through the transformer may be disrupted.

  • Vinesh Kumar asked a question in Earthquake:
    Is climate change has any effect on earthquake or not?

    Earthquake is very disastrous. The my question is that is there any relation between earthquake and climate change?

  • Anyone can suggest any research papers that can help to compare MAC of different networks?

    I am searching for the work that has been done so far on  second layer of OSI model specially MAC. Please share/suggest me some useful research papers, if you have any idea.

    Khalid Hussain Soomro · University of Sindh

    Dear sir, you are right. I want to compare different MAC approaches and I mean entire Medium Access Control sub-layer when I say MAC.


  • Iman Rahimi added an answer in ENVI:
    What is the equation for extract solar radiation from MODIS satellite using by ENVI software?

    dear researchers

    my project is related to extract solar radiation from MODIS product and I want to use ENVI software , but I couldn't find suitable equation or formula for this subject , I should appreciate if some one can assist me in this issue.

     Hello Dr Heydar ,
    Thanks for your attention, it's irradiance (radiance)

  • What is the significance of axial ratio bandwidth in wireless applications?

    What are the methods used to increase axial ratio bandwidth in microstrip antennas

    Vikas Khairnar · BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa

    Thank You sir

  • Inoka Karunaratne added an answer in Termites:
    Could you help me with a proper method to raise termites (Microcerotermes gabriellis) in the laboratory conditions?

    the biggest challenge for me to rear this termite is keeping the relative humidity between 90 to 95%. I was wondering if there is a method/substance to maintain this condition. I'll be glade if some one gives his/ her ideas about raising termite colony in Lab conditions.

    Inoka Karunaratne · University of Peradeniya

    As this is the Subterranean termite you cannot use the bark sandwich method. I hope the following paper would help you. It is available online.

    Laboratory evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) for controlling Amitermes vilis (Hagen) and Microcerotermes gabrielis (Weidner) (Isoptera: Termitidae)
    Volume 1, Issue 1, March 2012, Page 27-34
    Alireza Rahimzadeh; Marziyeh Rashid; Aziz Sheikhi Garjan; Bahram Naseri  

  • M N Manoj added an answer in Primer:
    How can I get specific HPV E6/E7 amplification with E6/E7 consensus primer?

    Halo, I have been trying to perform HPV genotyping using E6/E7 consensus primer. However, I found a thick unspecific band around 750-800 bp on the gel electrophoresis. The HPV target bands supposed to be around 600-700 depend on the HPV type. I have tried to decrease the primer concentration and modify DMSO concentration to increase the specificity, but the unspecific bands keep appearing. So, I tried to sequence the unspecific bands and turns out it is part of Homo sapiens BAC clone RP11-120J15 from 7, complete sequence. I tried to modify the annealing temperature but it did not work well too. Have anyone encounter the same problem with me?

    M N Manoj · Bigtec Labs

    40 oC sounds too low for annealing - this could be the main reason for non-specific hits. Try to get primers with Tm > 60 oC. Are this published primers?

  • Ghanshyam G Tejani asked a question in Research Papers:
    Can any one help me to learn composite benchmark functions ?

    Dear all,

    I am looking for study material and basics of composite unconstrained benchmark functions. I have gone through many research papers. Composite functions are stated in various research paper as follows:


    f1, f2, f3, . . ., f10 = Sphere Function 10 [5, 5] 0
    [sigma1 ,sigma2, sigma3; . . .  ,sigma10]=[1, 1, 1, . . . , 1]
    [lemda1, lemda2, lemda3 . . ., lemda10] = [5/100, 5/100, 5/100, . . ., 5/100]

    Please help me to convert above version into equations similar to other benchmark functions


  • Dilip G. Gore asked a question in BlastN:
    How to classify the uncultured bacterium into genus and species?

    Many cultures when sequenced and searched from homology for 16S rRNA gene, it shows homology with uncultured bacteirum by BLASTN search. So what are the alternatives by which we can classify them into particular genus and species.