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  • Arthur Tseng added an answer in Supercapacitors:
    Why do my CV data look so strange?

    Hello, everyone

    I am working on supercapacitor.

    I measured the CV for my material and reference substrate as attached image.

    It seems to be a strange shape compared to common rectangular shape.

    Why does it happen?

    And Is it possible that the peaks arrow pointed are redox peaks because my materials sometimes have little copper contamination?

    Thank you very much.

    Arthur Tseng · National Taiwan University

    Hi Isaiah

    Thank you for your advice.

  • Does anyone want to collaborate on a research regarding the development of a new charge contrast method in order to increase the muscle strength?

    It is about a new method, called "TOP & DOWN", which was experimented in athletics: triple jump, hurdles (short distance) and sprint races. A recent study was conducted on a group of bodybuilders.

    Mohamed Souhaiel Chelly · Institut Supérieur du Sport et de l’Education Physique

    I will be glad to contribute to this study.


    Chelly MS

  • Dr.Aneez Ahamad, P.Y asked a question in Nitrite:
    Can someone throw some light on the analysis of sodium salts of nitrites and nitrates added as preservatives in meat by HPLC ?

    Could be a full text reference

  • Abdulaziz M. Ghaleb added an answer in 5G:
    What are differences in the architecture of 4g and 5g??

    i broadly need the idea of differences in the architectures of 4g n 5g w.r.t the physical layer

    Abdulaziz M. Ghaleb · Qatar Mobility Innovations Center

    Regarding the enabling  technologies, Massive MIMO, mmWave are one of them.

    I suggest you to look at the new waveforms in this paper "Waveform contenders for 5G - OFDM vs. FBMC vs. UFMC" . The author suggest that FBMC is better suited than OFDM in theory however, practical considerations pinpoint many issues of FBMC.   UFMC  is promising which is collecting the advantages FBMC while avoiding its drawbacks.

  • How to prepare ion exchange




    Saeideh Hosseini · University of Zanjan

    youcan see the attached links

  • Alexander J. Babchin added an answer in Discovery:
    What is the greatest Discovery Ever ?

    I pay my respect to the Inventor in very destant past, who discovered the Wheel. 

    Other RG participants can have different opinion. 

    Alexander J. Babchin · Tel Aviv University

    I agree with Hanno, Maxwell Equations follow Faraday Induction in significans. They are also First Relativistic Equations known to mankind. Relativity follows Maxwell Equations.

  • Sumukh Hungund asked a question in Open Innovation:
    How do you differentiate between Open Innovation and Closed Innovation?


  • Anette Eltner added an answer in Lidar:
    Is anyone familiar with non-destructive estimates of aboveground biomass using terrestrial laser scanning?

    Terrestrial laser scanning (such as LIDAR) is an active remote sensing technique that allows the structure of vegetation to be 3D-mapped to the finest resolution.

    Please provide links to research articles and other pertinent information.

    Anette Eltner · Technische Universität Dresden

    Bienert, A., Hess, C., Maas, H.-G., von Oheimb, G. (2014): A voxel-based technique to estimate the volume of trees from terrestrial laser scanner data. Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XL-5, 101-106, doi:10.5194/isprsarchives-XL-5-101-2014, 2014.

    Bienert, A., Schneider, D. (2013): Range image segmentation for tree detection in forest scans.  In: International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Antalya, Turkey, Vol. II-5/W2, pp. 49-54.

    Schilling, A., Schmidt, A., Maas, H.-G. (2012): Tree Topology Representation from TLS Point Clouds Using Depth-First Search in Voxel Space. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, Vol. 78, No. 4, pp. 383-392.

    Schilling, A.; Schmidt, A.; Maas, H.-G.(2011):

    Automatic Tree Detection and Diameter Estimation in Terrestrial Laser Scanner Point Clouds. Proceedings of the 16th Computer Vision Winter Workshop. Mitterberg, Austria. 02-04 February, 2011

  • Sergiy Nazarovets asked a question in Papers:
    How to find co-authors?

    Currently, most scientific papers are written by more than one author. Readers ask me - "We would gladly written work with colleagues from other countries, but how to say about it?". So, are there any general principles find co-authors that would be universal for all disciplines? 

  • Amarnath Tripathi added an answer in Food Security:
    Which model should I use when analysing the impact of food prices on food security in developing nation?

    I need to analyse the impact of food prices on food security. Which model to use? What variables to include? How to measure food security?

    Amarnath Tripathi · Institute of Economic Growth

    Food security is here response variable. It is therefore required to define food security first. Then, try to measure food security based on that definition and regress with price, income and other socio-economic variables that may affect food security.  Generally, food security definition includes four dimension - food availability, food accessibility, food utilization and stabilization.  

  • Where can I get sample disaster data set to understand data mining technique and possible results ?

    I want to learn data mining in context to disaster management. Where can I get sample datasets of disasters and the possible results ?

    Suresh Merugu · Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

    Hi Anuj, Please go through this link also,


  • Saeideh Hosseini added an answer in Ligand:
    How do you assign the absorption spectrum of a ruthenium dyes?

    Z-907 a ruthenium dye used in dye-sensitized solar cells exhibits a absorption peak around 430 nm and 530 nm. If my reasoning is correct, the lower energy peak (530 nm) corresponds to the transition of an electron form a Ru d orbital to a p orbital on the ligand in a classic metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT). Since the principle quantum number changes by one, this is a spin-allowed transition. 

    However, I am not sure how to assign the peak around 430 nm because its intensity is about equal to that of the 530 peak. Is this another MLCT to a higher energy p orbital or is it a d to d orbital transition? If it is a d to d transition (which would make it spin-forbidden) why does it have an intensity similar to the 530 nm MLCT? 

    Thank you for your help!

    Saeideh Hosseini · University of Zanjan

    you can see the attached links

  • Dr.Aneez Ahamad, P.Y asked a question in Histamine:
    Does the separation of bioamines eluting along with Histamine is a difficult process in UHPLC?

    As it is closely related species, in the spoilage fishes u find close retention times

  • Rajaguru Sri asked a question in Thermal:
    Thermal pollution: Anyone studied about impact of thermal effuents on river or coastal waters?

    Many thermal plants are established near coastal waters, the heated water effluents are discharged into the near by water body. I have done some work on thermal tolerance of fishes to know about the impact, the articles published given in my site in Research gate. Can you share your work on this subject. Thank you in advance for your response.

  • jang-il Sohn added an answer in Brownian Dynamics:
    What software package do you recommend for Brownian Dynamics Simulations?

    I want to run Brownian Dynamics simulation and wonder which software package is more popular? 

    jang-il Sohn · Korea University

    Basically, I agree with Prados. But I think that it depends programming language.

  • Any one can help me how i can add and open curve fitting toolbox?

    hi any one can help me how i can add and open curve fitting toolbox in matlab iam dawnload it but i don't know how to use

    Abdulaziz M. Ghaleb · Qatar Mobility Innovations Center

    It is there,

    What version of MATLAB you have?

  • What is so important about Ag in SERS?

    Why is SERS ( surface enhanced raman spectroscopy) active only using Ag? Why not other metals?

    Traian Iliescu · Babeş-Bolyai University

    Ag have many free electrons which can determine very intense  plasmon band ,that is, the electric field in the vecinity of the Ag nanoparticles is very  high. As you now the induced moment dipole is proportional with the intensity of this field. This is basis of electromagnetic theory of SERS.

  • What is the maximum concentration of a natural products that we can use for studying the anticancer effects in cell lines?

    Recently we have isolated one novel compound from medicinal plants. The compound is effective against cancer cell lines at a minimum dose of 200 micromoles (24hr). Can we proceed further with this dose level.

    Varalakshmi Nadumane · Jain University

    calculate IC50 value and if it is less than 25-30ug/ml you can proceed to purify the compound

  • Ulf Mallast added an answer in Land:
    What are the most accurate index of recognizing the border of water and land ??

    I wanna analyze the landsat images and divide the land area and the water area (a lake) ??

    how can I do that ??

    what is the most accurate index ??

    like NDVI.

    Ulf Mallast · Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung

    Dear Milad,

    although appearing trivial, the differentiation between land and water can be tough, especially if you are dealing with changing coastal environments (e.g. steep coast, flat coast, lagoon). Hence, there is no "most accurate" index, as all available, and I will provide some papers to it, are applicable, but eventually you will come to the point to define a threshold to differentiate the two classes (land and water). This is the decisive act during the processing and whatever kind of water body you intend to extract a global threshold application (one threshold for the entire image) might not work if you have the aforementioned changing conditions. E.g. assume you have steep coasts and next to it a river mouth with a high suspension load, the reflectance values of the water area at the mouth and the deep water will differ, so will the index values, leaving you with the need of two values instead of one to properly detect the coastline at both spots properly.

    To provide you with some indices and aiming specifically at Landsat (mentioned n your keywords):

    NDWI - McFeeters, S. The use of the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) in the delineation of open water features. Int. J. Remote Sens. 1996, 17, 1425–1432.

    MNDWI -  Xu, H. Modification of normalised difference water index (NDWI) to enhance open water features in remotely sensed imagery. Int. J. Remote Sens. 2006, 27, 3025–3033.

    AWEI - Feyisa, G.L.; Meilby, H.; Fensholt, R.; Proud, S.R. Automated Water Extraction Index: A new technique for surface water mapping using Landsat imagery. Remote Sens. Environ. 2014, 140, 23–35. 

     WRI - Shen, L.; Li, C. Water Body Extraction from Landsat ETM+ Imagery Using Adaboost Algorithm. In Proceedings of 18th International Conference on Geoinformatics, 18–20 June 2010, Beijing, China; pp. 1–4.

    If you need more help, let me know.

    All the  best,


  • Phelix Songok added an answer in Library Science:
    Is there any good instrument on how to measure reading habits?

    Most student in library science field came up with such question.

    Phelix Songok · Mount Kenya University

    Use questionnaire on known literally works to target population. 

  • Shahinaz Mahmood Shams asked a question in cDNA:
    How should i design the 96 well plate of qPCR for 2 samples and i have 5 different apoptosis genes?

    I have two cDNA samples

    i need to compare the expression of 5 different genes ?

    How should i do this?

  • Prabhakaran G asked a question in FC:
    What kind of information can I get in ZFC and FC measurement by applying different field?

    1. Applying a magnetic field less than the coercivity (at room temperature)  for ZFC and FC measurement.

    2. Applying a magnetic field higher than the coercivity (at room temperature) for ZFC and FC measurement.

    3. Applying a magnetic field much higher than the coercivity (at room temperature) for ZFC and FC measurement.

  • Zohreh Raeisi added an answer in Ultrasonication:
    What is the maximum ultrasound power for nanotubes?and how about the correspondin time?

    There is one belief indicating on shortening of nanotubes under intense ultrasonication. Is there any maximum value for the ultrasound power when we apply sonication by a probe? I could not disperse my nanotubes in water by ultrasound bath which is why I am thinking of using a probe. Actually, I would pretreat nanotubes by acid treatment or the other methods fisrt.

    Zohreh Raeisi · Isfahan University of Technology

    Dear Mr.Haghi

    I really appreciate your help. However, I want to know the thereshold(maximum) power intensity which can be used for nanotubes and they would not experience any changes in their structures.

  • Tushar Dhanani asked a question:
    Does any one know that how to synthesize DIMCARB ?

    I want to synthesize N,N-dimethylammonium N’,N’-dimethylcarbamate
    (DIMCARB). Can anyone help me ?

  • What are the competitive capabilities of a manufacturing company?

    What are the most important competitive capabilities of a manufacturing company for evaluating its performance? For example, the utilization of advanced manufacturing technologies.

    Abhijeet Digalwar · BITS Pilani

    Dear Dr. Mohsen Mazaheri Asad , I think to have competitiveness, organization must believe in their philosophy, people, product and process and performance, Please go through attached paper for more details

  • Mateen Hafiz added an answer in Heat Flux:
    What is the geological link for the observed heat flow?

    The heat flow (attached is a figure based on data from IHFC) is related to tectonics. For example, along the rifting center, the heat flux is expected to be high while at the old craton, the heat flux is expected to be low. However, the heat flux observation is also strongly affected by some local effects: At the rifting center, you can either observe quite low heat flux or extremely high heat flux. My questions are:

    (1) What are the causes for these local effects on heat flux?

    (2) At the orogenic zone, you can some times observe extremely high heat flow (e.g. some observations in Tibet), what's the reason for these extreme high heat flux?

    (3) With dynamic models, we can predict heat flux. How can we link observed and predicted heat flux? Do they correlate well in previous publications?

    Thanks a lot.

    Mateen Hafiz · University of Jammu

    In the rift systems, the basement faults can bring Mohorovicic Discontinuity shallower at some places which can contribute to the higher heat flow.

    In Tibet, the lithospheric attenuation or orogenic crumpling of the crust is perhaps the reason for high heat flux. 

  • Can anyone suggest some good research articles on the strategic control of corporation strategy?

    I want to find out how the effect of strategic control on startegy of coorpration , Do you have any suggestions on what (recent) papers would be suitable for this matter?

    I am grateful for any ideas, suggestions, or information that you may have!

    Jafar Tayebi Nia · University of Tehran

    Hi Nicholas,

    Thanks a lot for such a detailed, comprehensive and insightful response. It is indeed very helpful, and I will surely dig into relationship between startegic control, business- level startegy and preceived effectiveness of the startegic control. i will glad to hear meaningful guide.

    Thanks once again :)

    Best Regards,

  • How can I decrease the fluorescence of my samples for Raman spectroscopy?

     I am trying to get the Raman spectra of solutions with very low concentrations of amino acids 1mM-6 mM. However, I can not see their peaks because they are masked by the fluorescence of the solutions, which also prevents me from using long exposure times.  I have no idea what is the source of this fluorescence because my buffer is 25 mM  in Tris-HCl and 150 mM in NaCl (pH=7.2).  Also, I always wash my cuvettes with soap and nitric acid before using them. Does anyone have any tips on how to decrease the fluorescence? By the way, I am using a 514 nm laser source.

    Traian Iliescu · Babeş-Bolyai University

    If there are some fluorescent impurities, which can present this phenomenon, you  can to adsob them on the activ charcoal. After that you must obtrain the absoption spectra to to locate the absorption band and the avoid this spectral range with Raman excitation line. SERS spectra is another posibility, but ,be carefull because SERS spectrum have some diferences by compoaring with normal Raman spectrum.

  • Kamal Hadad asked a question in Transport Theory:
    In diffusion Theory for the vaccuum boundary, flux is zero at extarpolation distance why?

    While transport theory exactly dictates the flux to be zero at vacuum boundary, in diffusion theory  flux is zero at extrapolation distance (=0.7104 Lambda_tr) why?

  • Ya-Nan Yang added an answer in Iceland:
    Is there any reported low-δ18O magma formed at active convergent margin?

    Large-scale low-δ18O magmas have been interpreted to have formed by remelting or assimilation of high-temperature hydrothermally altered rocks, such as those found in Iceland basalts and Yellowstone rhyolites. Formation of low-δ18O magma, in most cases, seems to related to rift or extensional tectonic environment. I just wonder whether low-δ18O may be formed at subduction zone and how it happens. Discussion or any relevant reference is appreciated.

    Ya-Nan Yang · Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Michael, thanks for your timly reply. High temperature of equilibration between sea water and oceanic crust would decrease the δ18O of the latter. But is it possible that the low δ18O signature be transferred to to igneous rocks formed at subduction zone through remelting of the oceanic part with low-δ18O?