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  • Hemant Kumar asked a question in Tree Breeding:
    Does anyone have data related the genetic variability in Terminalia arjuna?

    Anyone having detail idea about tree breeding

  • Barna Páll-Gergely added an answer in Gastropoda:
    Are there some detailed morphological studies on the hairs of land snails?

    There seems to be no well-published detailed research on the haired snails except Pfenninger et al., 2005 ("Why do snails have hairs?..."), but this work is not morphological... I know also an older work on Trochulus hispidus (Trichia hispida) - Kaiser, 1966.

    Barna Páll-Gergely · Shinshu University

    do you know this one?



  • Md Sikandar Azam asked a question in SPSS:
    How to explain Post Hoc Test "Duncan's Multiple Range Test" run through SPSS?

    I have run Post Hoc test Duncan through SPSS. How it can be explain ? Whether significance level also matters? There are 3 category (small, medium and large farmers) and all category results different subset with 1.67, 2.78 and 4.19 value and significant level is 1.000 in all three cases. Size of the farmers has been compare with financial position (5 point scale very week to very sound).

  • Felicien Amakpe asked a question in Virus:
    Can anybody tell me in which family and genus (exact name) the CBPV and LSV are classified?

    The main bee viruses are classified in two families. The Iflaviridae that hosts the deformed wing virus (DWV), the slow bee paralysis virus (SBPV) and the sac brood virus (SBV). the Dicistroviridae with the black queen cell virus (BQCV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), the Israel acute bee paralysis (IAPV) and the kashmir bee paralysis (KBV).

    But I cannot find in which family the Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV and the Lake snai virus (LSV) are classified. Those viruses are also common in my area and I would like you to help me put them in a family

  • Volkmar Wieser added an answer in Pulp:
    Can anybody suggest a method to segment the pulp area from the tooth radiographs?

    I am a masters student, and in order to work on my project (coding in matlab)  i need to get segment the pulp area of tooth from the dental radio graphs.Would anybody suggest some apt methods to do the same! 


    Volkmar Wieser · Software Competence Center Hagenberg


    Maybe the MSER segmentation method works for you.


    Hope it works!

  • Somya Shanmuganathan added an answer in Apoptosis Assays:
    Can someone help me in finding an inexpensive Positive Control molecule for apoptosis in MDAMB231 cell line to be used for Flow Cytometry?

    I need to measure apoptosis induction via Flow Cytometry in Breast cancer cell line MDA MB 231 following phyto-chemical treatment. I need to have a positive control molecule to ensure that my running of Flow cytometry was correct. It has to be inexpensive and easily available. I live in Muscat and ordering and getting things here takes forever. Appreciate your help.

    Somya Shanmuganathan · Sultan Qaboos University

    Hi all,

    Thank you so much for your prompt response. Just to clarify, exposing my untreated MDAMB231 cells to UV or H2O2 will induce apoptosis for sure and these exposed cells will be my positive control in Flow Cytometry.

    Is my understanding correct?

    Thanks in advance

  • Dorotea Iovino added an answer in Air-Sea Interaction:
    Where can I find information about coupling two models ( WRF & ROMS )?

    I wanted to couple WRF V3.4.1 and ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System) to study some properties of air-sea interaction. Where can i find valuable information about setting and other setup information in web?

    I have a very low configured computer resource (A small server with 12 gb ram). Is it possible to run the models in there for 5 days data?

    Thanks in advance

    Dorotea Iovino · Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici

    you might give a look at http://www.mcs.anl.gov/research/projects/mct/ 

  • Ganga Viswanath added an answer in Fungal Culture:
    How might one store fungal cultures for longer period?

    I have maintained the fungal cultures in agar slants. But certain fungal cultures get contaminated due to water droplets when stored at 4 degree Celsius and provided cultures need to be sub-culture every three-six months. Could fungal mycelium or spores can be stored in glycerol stocks as we do for bacterial storage?  

    Ganga Viswanath · M S Swamininathan Research Foundation

    Thanks all for the information. Its very helpful.

  • Yang Gan added an answer in EDX:
    Can anybody give the details that why hydrogen is not present in EDX SPECTRUM

    I am doing research in the field of crystal growth. For any organic or semi crystals hydrogen is not present in the EDX spectrum. What is the reason behind it?. If u have any idea please send me.  

    Yang Gan · Harbin Institute of Technology

    Hi Ayan,

    Thanks for your follow-up.

    I do not think TEM (or STEM)/EELS has been used routinely for H analysis. It is by no means straightforward; instead, it is a challenging project for each this kind of analysis.

    There are indeed reports about EELS study of the metal-hydrogen systems by comparing plasmon shifts without/with H by EELS measurements of valence electron density. But this is a very challenging task. Here is the other example of the controversy about EELS study of H in solids—Laurence A.J. Garvie, Can electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) be used to quantify hydrogen in minerals from the O K edge? Am. Mineral. 95 (2010) 92-97.

    In principle, for routine elemental or chemical bonding analysis from Li to U, usually signals from high energy loss region (ΔE > 50 eV) are used (the so-called core-shell EELS). Usually, low energy loss region (ΔE < 50 eV) is used for thickness determination, valence electron density study or dielectric function study (then for refractive index and extinction coefficient determination).

    Below is the official notice from the GATAN website for their EELS/EFTEM system (link: http://www.gatan.com/techniques/eelseftem): “Core level EELS is sensitive to all elements in the periodic table (with the exception of atomic hydrogen) but is particularly sensitive to light elements.”

    However, in the very low loss energy range where H edge (~10 eV) lies, bulk materials’ plasmon peaks may overlap strongly with H edges if not considering the background noise.

    (Note: Gatan DigitalMicrograph, mentioned by Ayan, is not a hardware update or attachment, but one of Gatan’s Microscopy suite software for quick and advanced analysis with built-in scripting language and plug-in applications, like micrograph analysis as well as EELS/EDS analysis using models, etc.

    Lastly, of course, it is well established to study gas molecules (like hydrogen) adsorption and solids using special low energy EELS (HR-EELS with excellent energy resolution but no spatial resolution) with ΔE less than 0.5 eV. But, this is completely the other story.

    Hope this helps.



  • Volkmar Wieser added an answer in MATLAB:
    How to plot bifurcation diagrams in MATLAB??

    Dynamical Systems

    Volkmar Wieser · Software Competence Center Hagenberg

    This question is already at Researchgate.


    Hope it helps!

  • Sami Gemal Mohammed added an answer in Chloral Hydrate:
    What do you think of using Chloral hydrate to remove primary cilia from cells?

    Chloral hydrate might be toxic to cells by itself. But I assume with the right concentration you can keep the viability of cells while cilia are detached. The question is do you know any unspecific or side effects of using chloral hydrate? Thanks 

    Sami Gemal Mohammed · Radboud University Medical Centre (Radboudumc)

    to cells ... in other words are there any cellular signalling affected by chloral hydrate? how specific is it in removing primary cilia? 

    Thanks for the response 

  • Rajib Sinha added an answer in Industrial Ecology:
    What are the tools to assess waste exchanges in an industrial area?

    Industrial ecology

    Rajib Sinha · KTH Royal Institute of Technology

    In my opinion, MFA is mostly used in such cases.

    All the best!

  • Ben Jastram added an answer in 3D Printing:
    Which is the best FDM printer with high resolution (100 microns or better)?

    My department is currently considering investing in a new 3D Printer. The budget is about 50k. There are quite a range of printers available but I'm interested in direct feedback from people who use those machines on a daily basis, rather than the polished sales rep info. 

    Ben Jastram · Technische Universität Berlin

    Hi Tim,

    We use the FDM technology since 11 years now and to be honest I wouldnt invest in an FDM based system at all. None of your students likes the quality of it - especially the designers and architects. FDM based structures also lack in the mechanical strenght in z-direction i.e. if you need it for engineering and apply force to it.

    If you need high quality "prints" the DLP machines may be an option (down to 25µm for X,Y,Z). But the build volume is quite small, not to mention the toxicity of the base materials.

    You may want to make a list with the desired specifications:

    build volume
    material and desired characteristics
    mechanical properties

    (bio-) compatibility (toxicity)
    detail precision


    Don´t forget, you have to have a room to put the machine in. Depending on the machine you have to concider safety and health issues - if you buy a machine always ask about processing and post processing issues regarding the use of chemicals.

    Each technology we use (SLS, DLP, FDM and 3DP) needs specific post processing steps which need specifc occupational health and safety requirements.

    However, id recomment posting your requirements and then we chat again.

  • Abhishek kumar Pathak added an answer in Urbanization:
    Is it possible to maintain our good health in this era of globalization?

    Threats like pollution, global warming etc. due to rapid industrialization and urbanization create disturbance in our daily life.

    Abhishek kumar Pathak · Nalla Malla Reddy Engineering college

    See because of Globalization their is access of medicines, tech, and medical attentions. But still prevention is better than cure. 

  • Daniela RG Junqueira added an answer in Cross Sectional Studies:
    What are the guidelines for the systematic reviews of cross sectional studies?

    There are available guidelines of systematic reviews of RCT (Cochran) and observational studies (Moose guidelines).

    I am conducting a systematic review on predictors of X disease. Please help me on guidelines.

    Daniela RG Junqueira · Federal University of Minas Gerais

    General guidelines for systematic review can be applied for non-randomised trials, but the bigger challenge is assessing risk of bias. Cochrane has recently developed a tool to assess risk of bias in non-randomised trial,  but I guess it has’t been updated in the handbook yet:

  • Harleen Kaur Dhaliwal added an answer in Methods:
    S.aureus identification and confirmation
    can anyone suggest me how do i identify and confirm a bacterium to be S.aureus
    Harleen Kaur Dhaliwal · Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai

    apart from s aureus, what other types of microorganisms can grow on baird parker agar?

  • Hong Soo Lee added an answer in Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization:
    How critical is aminoallyl-dUTP when performing DNA FISH?

    Hello, I'm currently working on DNA FISH (Fluorescence in situ hybridization).

    So, I've been doing nick translation following the invitrogen protocol (https://tools.thermofisher.com/content/sfs/manuals/mp32951.pdf).

    However, I've notice that this protocol doesn't use aminoallyl-dUTP while other protocols do.

    When I proceeded with this protocol, I didn't get the expected result.

    To my knowledge, aminoallyl-dUTP is a critical material when performing DNA FISH, but if I'm wrong, please correct me.

    Is there a mistake in this protocol, or am I doing something wrong?

    Thank you for your time and consideration.

    Best regards,


    Hong Soo Lee · Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology

    Thank you for your answer, Andrew. I noticed that it has dUTP in the mix. Probably, I used less amount of DNA than this protocol.

  • Abhishek kumar Pathak added an answer in Hearing:
    Do people pay more attention to distinguish the person or to his downfall (failure)?

    When the tree falls everyone hear the sound of the crash. While growing a full hearing of the jungle does not have any noise. Does this apply to the dealing with the humans?

    Abhishek kumar Pathak · Nalla Malla Reddy Engineering college

    People always remember their good times, it is a natural tendency that humans forget about mistake done by themselves.
    So when others commit one he/she mock at them, as no one has time to resolve their own mistake.

  • Shen-Ming Chen added an answer in Immunosensor:
    Is my electrochemical immunosensor GC modified electrode surface properly working in protein detection or not? How can I solve the problem?

    i follow articles as zero concentration is not given signal.my gc electrode modified is correct or not.

    blow i give my full experiment methods details.this system will work properly or not can give me advise.

    cobalt phtalocyanine and chitosan mixed added on GC surface than Capture antibody, antigen Concentration (zero con.) ,reveling antibody tagged with gold nano particle(nano catalyst). the elctro surface  incubation of substrate as P-nitro phenol and NaBH4. TO detect the DPV methods as redox cycling reaction.

    Shen-Ming Chen · National Taipei University of Technology

    You must know what is the response of electrochemical Immunosensor for detection of protein.

  • Frederick Dayour added an answer in Questionnaire:
    Standardized questionnaires

    Does anybody know websites where you can find standardized questionnaires?

    Frederick Dayour · University for Development Studies


  • Neng-Yu Lin added an answer in Lung:
    Does any one have good at recognizing cell types in lung staining?

    Hi, I did a IHC staining in I.T. lung-Bleo injection mouse tissue. Does any one have the idea what cell type of the positive staining cells are (brown staining in the nucleus)? 

    Thanks for your help

    Neng-Yu Lin · Universitätsklinikum Erlangen

    Dear experts,

    any specific type 2 pneumocytes markers recommended?

    surfactant associated protein C, and MUC1 are the markers of mature AE2 cells, right?

    I am looking some markers for hyperplasia AE2. Thanks

  • Adisu Teshale asked a question in Renewable Energy:
    I want to do a research concerning hybrid renewable energy based converters what can you suggest me?

    I want to do a research concerning hybrid renewable energy based converters what can you suggest me?

  • Nicola La Porta added an answer in Assisted Migration:
    Does anyone have any examples of assisted colonization, managed relocation or assisted migration in plants?

    Collaborations may be forthcoming if I can find anyone working on plant assisted colonization.  It can be anywhere in the world and any habitat.  I want to try out a decision framework recently published on AC and the biogeographic approach.

  • Sivakumaran Wignarajah added an answer in TILLING:
    Can anyone tell me or provide paper about highest achieved strength of concrete till date?

    Can anyone tell me or provide paper about highest achieved strength of concrete till date?

    Sivakumaran Wignarajah · BGE Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan

    Do you mean the highest strength of concrete used in in actual building construction? If so, the answer seems to be concrete with compressive design strength of 300 N/mm2 design strength, which has been developed and used by Taisei Corporation in Japan. There is a brief mention about the building where the 300 N/mm2 concrete was used in the following URL:  http://www.taisei.co.jp/english/csr/annual_report_online2013/research.html

    Taiheiyou Cement Corporation of Japan recently announced (in June 2015) that it has successfully developed a new cementitious material that delivers record compressive strength of  464 N/mm2 using normal pour-and-form techniques. (See http://www.taiheiyo-cement.co.jp/english/summary/pdf/150605.pdf). However, actual use in construction has not been reported yet and is probably many years away.

    (There have been reports elsewhere that compressive strength of 673 N/mm2 using reactive powder concrete (RPC) technology has been achieved, but this requires curing of concrete under  high temperature and pressure (specifically, hot-press forming at 250°C to 400°C.)

  • Francesco Maria Sabatini added an answer in Forest:
    Has anyone information or articles about the destruction of the forests of the world over the past decade ?

    We are investigating the destruction of the forest
    and factors contributing to the degradation of Hyrcanian forests in Iran.

    Francesco Maria Sabatini · Sapienza University of Rome

    I believe you may find a lot of interesting information in a recent paper that came out in Science:

    Hansen MC, Potapov PV, Moore R, Hancher M, Turubanova SA, Tyukavina A, Thau D, Stehman SV, Goetz SJ, Loveland TR, Kommareddy A, Egorov A, Chini L, Justice CO & Townshend JRG (2013) High-Resolution Global Maps of 21st-Century Forest Cover Change. Science 342: 850-853. doi:10.1126/science.1244693.

    this is the abstract:

    Quantification of global forest change has been lacking despite the recognized importance of forest ecosystem services. In this study, Earth observation satellite data were used to map global forest loss (2.3 million square kilometers) and gain (0.8 million square kilometers) from 2000 to 2012 at a spatial resolution of 30 meters. The tropics were the only climate domain to exhibit a trend, with forest loss increasing by 2101 square kilometers per year. Brazil’s well-documented reduction in deforestation was offset by increasing forest loss in Indonesia, Malaysia, Paraguay, Bolivia, Zambia, Angola, and elsewhere. Intensive forestry practiced within subtropical forests resulted in the highest rates of forest change globally. Boreal forest loss due largely to fire and forestry was second to that in the tropics in absolute and proportional terms. These results depict a globally consistent and locally relevant record of forest change.

  • Marc Schmieger added an answer in Noise Analysis:
    Does oversampling correlate white Gaussian noise?

    If we receive a signal assuming white Gaussian noise channel and we want to over-sample the signal to ensure high correlation between signal samples, does the oversampling affect the noise correlation (which is suppose to be uncorrelated).

    Marc Schmieger · Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering IBMT

    In general it is good practise to use oversampling more than two times of your signal frequency even with correlation techniques. If you apply (white gaussian) noise which is uncorrelated and with a constant power density spectrum over frequency range and maybe if you apply filtering before A/D-conversion or not, the sampled noise still remains uncorrelated.



  • Geoff Margison added an answer in Protein Purification:
    Protein Purification - Residual MCS residues?


    I am attempting to purify a protein of interest, however upon the cloning of the cDNA sequence into the vector I am left with a number of residual MCS sites, which if expression is initiated upstream of the His-Tag will also be incorporated into the final protein and will remain after TEV cleavage. Does this pose a problem (will I end up with additional residues on the N-terminus) and if so should I SDM them out?

    Any advice would be greatly appreciated.


    Geoff Margison · The University of Manchester

    I know that the factor Xa will cleave immediately after its recognition peptide seq, in pQE30 Xa, so I guess the same is the case for TEV: ie, no additional AA  residues needed (but Michael is right: check it out!).

    Note that even Nature publishes papers with structures of non-native proteins, so as Richard says, it probably doesn't matter either way.

    But nevertheless I'm trying to get "my" native protein expressed!  

  • Khairul Hasan asked a question in South Asia:
    Which index SOI or SST has more impact on drought in South Asia?

     Which index SOI (Southern Oscillation Index) or SST (Sea Surface Temperature) has more impact on drought (SPEI- standardized precipitation evaporation index  ) in South Asia. Could anyone please explain? Thank you in advance!

  • Marc Ferlet added an answer in Software Management:
    Anyone able to recommend open-source image analysis software for thermal infrared photographs?

    I'm looking for open-source image analysis software to manage, rectify and analyse on a per-pixel basis thermal infrared photographs. I'm using a FLIR B335 thermal camera. Thank you.