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- 2What are the tax and legal implications of using royalty financing in the intercompany context?
I'm looking into international tax structures and would greatly appreciate any insights on royalty financing or the use of intercompany royalty payments as quasi-equity.
Many thanks for your reply and for sharing this article.
- 63What are the main results relating astrocyte functions with conscious activity?
Several lines of evidence have related astroglial function with conscious processes. I make a brief summary of the most interesting studies, many of them discussed in my previous publications (Pereira Jr. and Furlan, 2009; 2010; Pereira Jr, 2013; 2014). These results come from several independent respected laboratories. Schummers et al (2009), in a work carried on the M. Sur Lab in MIT, found that astrocytes in the visual cortex are more sensitive to external stimuli than neurons. Thrane et al. (2012) from the M.Nedergaard Lab in Rochester-USA found that astrocytes are more sensitive to three commonly used general anesthetics than neurons. Sfera et al. (2015) argue that conscious delirium derives from a combination of cholinergic inflammatory processes and astroglialfunction failure. A conference summary of empirical results indicating the involvement of glial cells in mental activities appeared in Douglas Fields et al. (2014).
By means of the feedback on neurons, astrocyte information processing can have an effect on learning, memory and behavior (for a recent review, see Robertson, 2013).Takata et al. (2011) found that astrocytes mediate cholinergic neuromodulation into cortical plasticity. Han et al. (2013) inserted human astrocytes in the mouse forebrain and found an improvement of cognitive performance. In this regard, Lee et al.(2014), from the T.Sejnowski Lab in the Salk Institute found that toxic deactivation of astroglial functions impairs recognition memory, a task that involves conscious recall and processing of novelty.
Astrocytes also seem to be involved in the instantiation of emotional feelings and psychosomatic responses, as in the case of chronic pain (see Chen et al., 2012; 2014; Ji et al., 2013). As the mediation between neurons and blood is made by astrocytes through the blood-brain barrier, astrocytes constitute the effector part of the hypothalamus (Panatier et al., 2006; Gordon et al., 2009) and nucleus accumbens (Bull et al, 2014), controlling the release of neuropeptides and their effects on conscious mood and feelings(e.g. hunger.; see Yang et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2015)and their related somatic responses, as the up-regulation of stress-related proteins (Zhao et al., 2008). More recently,Orstroff et al. (2014) from the J. LeDoux Lab in New York University discovered that astroglial processes retract from synapses with neurons that mediate fear signaling in the amygdala, and Will et al. (2015) related the number of astrocytes in the hypothalamus with the experience-learned ability to reach male orgasm.
Bull C, Freitas K, Zou S, Poland RS, Syed WA et al. (2014 Rat Nucleus Accumbens Core Astrocytes Modulate Reward and the Motivation to Self-Administer Ethanol after Abstinence. Neuropsychopharmacology (2014) 39: 2835–2845.
Chen MJ, Kress B, Han X, Moll K, Peng W, Ji RR,Nedergaard M. Astrocytic CX43 hemichannels and gap junctions play a crucial role in development of chronic neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury. Glia60(11):1660-70.
Chen G, Park CK, Xie RG, Berta T, Nedergaard M, Ji RR. (2014) Connexin-43 induces chemokine release from spinal cord astrocytes to maintain late-phase neuropathic pain in mice. Brain137(Pt 8):2193-209.
Douglas Fields R, Araque A, Johansen-Berg H, Lim S, Lynch G, Nave K,Nedergaard M, Perez R, Sejnowski T, Wake H. (2014) Glial Biology in Learning and Cognition. Neuroscientist. 20(5): 426–431.
Fellin T, Pascual O, Gobbo S, Pozzan T, Haydon PG and Carmignoto G.
(2004) Neuronal Synchrony Mediated by Astrocytic Glutamate Through
Activation of Extrasynaptic NMDA Receptors. Neuron 43(5): 729-43.
Gordon, G.R., Iremonger, K.J., Kantevari, S., Ellis-Davies, G.C., MacVicar, B.A., Bains, J.S. (2009) Astrocyte-mediated distributed plasticity at hypothalamic glutamate synapses. Neuron 64: 391–403.
Han X, Chen M, Wang F, Windrem M, Wang S, Shanz S. et al. (2013) Forebrain engraftment by human glial progenitor cells enhances synaptic plasticity and learning in adult mice. Cell Stem Cell 12:342–53.
Ji RR, Berta T, Nedergaard M. (2013) Glia and pain: is chronic pain a gliopathy? Pain 154 Suppl 1:S10-28.
Lee HS, Ghetti A, Pinto-Duarte A, Wang X, Dziewczapolski G, Galimi F, Huitron-Resendiz S, Piña-Crespo JC, Roberts AJ, Verma IM, Sejnowski TJ, HeinemannSF (2014) Astrocytes contribute to gamma oscillations and recognition memory. ProcNatlAcadSci U S A111(32):E3343-52.
Ostroff LE, Manzur MK, Cain CK, Ledoux JE. (2014) Synapses lacking astrocyte appear in the amygdala during consolidation of Pavlovian threat conditioning. J Comp Neurol. 522(9):2152-63.
Panatier, A. (2009) Glial cells:indispensable partners of hypothalamic magnocellularneurones.J.Neuroendocrinol. 21:665–672.
Pereira Jr. A (2013) Triple-Aspect Monism: A Conceptual Framework for the Science of Human Consciousness. In A. Pereira Jr. & D. Lehmann (Eds.)The Unity of Mind, Brain and World: Current Perspectives on a Science of Consciousness (pp. 299-337). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Pereira Jr. A (2014) Triple-Aspect Monism: Physiological, mental unconscious and conscious aspects of brain activity. Jnl. Integr.Neurosci., 13(2), 201-227.
Pereira, A. Jr., &Furlan, F.A. (2009) On the role of synchrony for neuron-astrocyte interactionsand perceptual conscious processing. J. Biol. Phys.35 , 465– 481.
Pereira, A. Jr., &Furlan, F.A. (2010) Astrocytes and human cognition: Modeling informationintegration and modulation of neuronal activity. Prog.Neurobiol. , 92 , 405– 420.
Pereira, A. Jr., Barros, R.F. & Santos, R.P. (2013) The calcium wave model of the perception-action cycle: Evidence from semantic relevance in memory experiments. Front. Psychol. 4: 1–-4.
Robertson JM. (2013) Astrocyte domains and the three-dimensional and seamless expression of consciousness and explicit memories. Med Hypotheses 81(6):1017-24.
Schummers,J,Yu, H and Sur, M (2008) Tuned responses of astrocytes and their influence on hemodynamic signals in the visual cortex. Science 320: 1638–1643.
Sfera, A, Osorio, C, Price, AI, Gradini, R and Cummings, M (2015) Delirium from the gliocentric perspective. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 9: 171.
Takata, N., Mishima, T., Hisatsune, C., Nagai, T., Ebisui, E., Mikoshiba, K., Hirase, H. (2011) Astrocyte calcium signaling transforms cholinergic modulation to cortical plasticity in vivo.J. Neurosci. 31(49), 18155–18165.
Thrane, AS, Thrane VR, Zeppenfeld D, Lou N, Xu Q, Nagelhus EA & Nedergaard, M. (2012) General anesthesia selectively disrupts astrocyte calcium signaling in the awakemouse cortex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 109, 18974–18979.
Wang, F. Smith, N.A., Xu, Q., Fujita, T., Baba, A., Matsuda, T., Takano, T., Bekar, L. &Nedergaard, M. (2012) Astrocytes modulate neural network activity by Ca2+-dependent uptake of extracellular K+. Sci Signal., 5, 26.
Wang Y, Hsuchou H, He Y, Kastin AJ, Pan W (2015) Role of Astrocytes in Leptin Signaling.J MolNeurosci. [Epub ahead of print]
Will RG, Nutsch VL, Turner JM, Hattori T, Tobiansky DJ, DominguezJM(2015).Astrocytes in the medial preoptic area modulate ejaculation latency in an experience-dependent fashion.BehavNeurosci. 129(1):68-73.
Yang L, Qi Y and Yang Y (2015).Astrocytes Control Food Intake by Inhibiting AGRP Neuron Activity via Adenosine A1 Receptors.Cell Rep. 11(5):798-807.
Zhao Y, Xiao J, Ueda M, Wang Y, Hines M, Nowak TS Jr, LeDoux MS. (2008) Glial elements contribute to stress-induced torsinA expression in the CNS and peripheral nervous system. Neuroscience 155(2):439-53.
To Vladimir, Lewis and Rita, in response to your latest answers in this question, may I invite you as well as all others to visit this report: Zero in on a Blind Spot: The Gun Powder Factory in Düneberg - Tracking history at http://dfa-spr.blogspot.com.es/2015/10/zero-in-on-blind-spot-gun-powder.html . It is about a practical approach to the question posed here. Thanks Alfredo for posting it!Following
- NewWhat are the content variables for a video/film?
I am doing a content analysis of some award wining films. Please, advise me on the content categories. ThanksFollowing
- 4Can a dichotomous variable (yes/no) be used in a multiple regression analysis of the theory of planned behavior?
I have measured a number of components of the TPB using internally consistent 7-point Likert scale items. However, one component was measured using dichotomous items that simply ask questions like "Do people criticise you for doing this behaviour? Yes/No" -
Can these kinds of questions be used in a multiple regression to test the predictive power of the different constructs of the TPB? If so, how? Any references on how to do this would be much appreciated.
definitely you can. In the following link there is some clarification:
- NewHi! Does anybody know if TMEDA can activate sodium hydroxide?
Hi! Does anybody know if tetramethyl ethylene diamine (TMEDA) can activate sodium hydroxide, thus making it more nucleophilically active in organic solvents? Thank you!Following
- 2What are the ways to measure the influence of affect on the decision-making process?
I would like to know if there are any tasks, other than affective priming paradigm that can be used to measure the influence of affect heuristic on cognitive judgements.
I would say that many studies use indeed some logic of affective priming, since they are interested in contextual or incidental affect (i.e., unrelated to the decision at hand), which may exert their influence on decision making via priming. For instance, in our studies, we used music (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24432007) and facial cues (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26595436) to investigate incidental emotional effects on risky decision making and preference parameters according to Prospect Theory.
However, there are other approaches. For instance, one can compare affect-rich decisions such as about electric shocks or medical decisions and affect-low or less affect-rich decisions such as money-related decisions (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11437299). This captures integral emotions, which are integral to the decision at hand (and therefore need to be distinguished from incidental emotions).
Another approach is to manipulate non-emotional aspects that are thought to interact with emotional processes related to decision making. For instance, manipulations of cognitive load/availability of cognitive resources changes the weight of affective aspects in the decision process (http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1999-15817-004, or also http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/dissertationen/gerhardt-holger-2011-06-20/PDF/gerhardt.pdf)
- 1What are the causes of adolescent maternal mortality?
what are the causes of adolescent maternal mortality in rural developing countries?
The main cause is poverty as most of these girls get pregnant out of wedlock. They can barely look after themselves or pay for proper medicare. Unfortunately, the society compounds their challenges by deeply frowning at them.Following
- 3How do I concentrate sugarcane juice?
what is the temperature and time required for concentrating?
- NewCan tissue samples treated with RNAlater or AllProtect still be digested with Collegenase/Dispase/DNase?
I am generating tumors in mice which will be extracted for FACS sorting (eGFP and mCherry) and RNA extraction for RNAseq. As tumor preparation for FACS and sorting can take up to 6 hours in total, I am worried that the RNA expression profile of my cells will significantly change during this time.
I was therefore considering using RNAlater or AllProtect to preserve the RNA profile of my cells. However I cannot find a reference stating treated tissues can still be digested; or if these solutions have an effect on fluorescent proteins.
Has anybody worked with RNAlater or AllProtect in a similar situation?Following
- NewCan anyone refer me to studies that document change in self-rated health over a short period of time (one year or less)?
Ideally in a community sample not a chronically ill sample, but anything will work.Following
- 2If I know a GPS position, how can I get the site GPP data?
If I know a GPS position, how can I get the site GPP data?
They supply geotiff data via FTP which, I guess, could be used to sample for values on given GPS locations. On QGIS (the GIS package I usually use), I would create a shapefile layer with the GPS points and then use the Point Sampling plugin to get values at those points from an underlying raster image (in this case, the MODIS image).
Naturally, the precision of this approach would depend on the resolution of the raster data. In this case, I've downloaded one of the geotiffs they provide and did a quick measure, each cell seems to correspond to roughly 5,5 km-wide square areas.
Hope this helps!Following
- 3When are CD-1 female mice considered "reproductively old"?
I asked the supplier of my experimental animals about the age when CD-1 female mice may be considered "reproductively old". I was told that "reproductors" undergo replacement when they reach 8 or 9 months old. However, they failed to provide a reference for such a statement.
Can anyone help me, please?
Stefano Falone, Ph.D.
Dept. of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences
University of L'Aquila
Hi Dear Stefano,
your aim was so fantastic, but i believe that you have to test your idea to arrive to your question. anyway thank you so much for your view.
- 5Is barrierless TS possible ?
I am doing H-abstraction reaction by OH radicals. I found one TS, Which is barrierless. Is it possible. What is reason behind it ?
I did not tell that a low negative frequency corresponds to a barrierless TS. I told that when the PES is flat, the TS may be barrierless. This you can easily understand from your IRC path. Then again optimize the end points of the IRC path to minima and then calculate the energy barrier. Because, as far as I experienced, the H-atom abstraction reactions from a molecule by hydroxyl radical did not proceed through barrierless transition state pathways.
- 2Smart Cities or Smart villages? Can smart villages be a solution for Climate change effects in developing nations?
There is a new era of smart cities, all developing nations are focusing on building their cities smart in order to become sustainable and resilient. India has recently launched smart city project. Developing nations should be focusing more to their villages and try to curb the urbanization growth. More urbanization means more of sealed surface, more pollution, less absorption capacities of soil. Most of the developing nation has urbanization level in the range of 25-50% of their total area. why not preserve the rest of the area, create job opportunities, equip them with sustainable measures. Villages are more sustainable and resilient than cities.
Is it possible to strengthen the villages instead of cities and help them and the population their not to get urbanized?
yes, ..who contributes most to the Green House Gas Emissions...
China--54.7 (22% GHG emission), India -- 31.2 (6% GHG emission), Indonesia-50.7 (2% GHG emission), Bangladesh--28.4 (1% GHG emission)Following
- NewDiscoloration of Silicon Wafer during Ion Implantation?
I was wondering if anyone has seen discoloration of a bare Silicon wafer during Ion Implantation. For reference, we are implantating H+ at 250 keV, ~3 mA, 1E17/cm2 dose.
The type of coloration we see is a color gradient ranging from yellow to purple. Is there some contamination in our system?
- 1What are the techniques used to measure cellular membrane temperature?
in cancer and normal cells in case there is a difference between the two
The following publications cover the answer to your question:
1-Tohoku J Exp Med. 1989 Mar;157(3):193-8.
A role of the cancer cell membrane fluidity in the cancer metastases: an ESR study.
Nakazawa I1, Iwaizumi M.
AH66F or Yoshida sarcoma (YS) cells were transplanted intraperitoneally into male Donryu rats. Cancer cells obtained from ascites were suspended in saline solution (10(7) cells/ml) after washing. Then, 0.1 ml of each suspension obtained from both strains was injected into the tail vein of 5 rats, respectively. Each metastatic nodule, 1 mm or less in a diameter, thus obtained was then injected into the peritoneal cavity in which these metastatic cells come to free. After 10 days, cancer cells obtained from each ascites were suspended in phosphate buffered saline (Ca2+ and Mg2+ free, pH 7.2) after washing. Each suspension (10(7) cells/ml) was violently vibrated with a definite amount of 5-doxyl stearic acid and spin labeling of cancer cell membrane was done. Furthermore, each specimen thus obtained was subjected to the electron spin resonance (ESR) measurement and the order parameter was determined from the spectra. In both YS and AH66F strains, the cell membrane fluidity of the metastatic cancer cell was increased at each temperature measured from 5 degrees C through 35 degrees C. The results obtained here suggest that the change of the cell membrane fluidity of cancer cell is closely related with the cancer metastases.
2- Thermal phase transitions in plasma membranes of cancer cells measured by means of Qdot fluorescence
ARTICLE in MEDICAL LASER APPLICATION 22(4):256-264 · JANUARY 2008
Laser scattered-light applicators used for laser-induced tumor therapy (LITT) facilitate precise thermal metastases destructions. Major tissue-optical parameters (absorption coefficient μa, scattering coefficient μs, anisotropy factor g) reveal biological tissues to be strongly scattering media exhibiting a so-called “optical window” in NIR. In this spectral range therapeutic laser radiation is scattered and absorbed at deeper tissue levels leading to virtual enlargement of the laser applicator.In this study breast cancer cells MX1 were heat stressed to verify the maximum phase transition in MX1 plasma membranes. For this purpose, a novel method of quantum dots (Qdots) fluorescence dosimetry was developed. Qdot fluorescence was detected with a confocal laser scan microscope. Evaluation of measured laser-induced fluorescences yielded a first approximation of the phase transition in MX1 cells.Monolayered MX1 cells were thermally stressed at 40, 42, 45, 50 or 56°C (30min each). Controls were kept at 37°C. Fluorescent cell labeling was realized via biotinylated concanavalin A (ConA) targeting glycocalix sited carbohydrate residues covering the plasma membranes. ConA then was sandwiched by red-emitting Qdots™ 605 conjugated to biotin-binding streptavidin.After exposure to low heat stress (40 or 42°C) plasma membranes were not visibly affected. Heat stressings at 45 or 50°C induced morphological changes of cells and tissue conformations. Also reorganization of plasma membrane structures were induced leading to more regular Qdot accumulations and higher fluorescence densities. This process coincided with shrinkage and rounding of cell shapes as a result of active stress response which was more pronounced in the 45°C-stress group than in the 50°C-stress group. Severe stressing at 56°C inhibited active responses and caused destruction of membrane integrities shown by necrotic cell phenotypes associated with intracellular Qdot accumulation. Through domain formation during plasma membrane melting, the distribution of differential state transitions was relatively wide (50–56°C).Qdot labeling of heat stressed cancer cells demonstrated alterations of plasma membrane organizations and integrities, respectively. Extents of cell lesions observed by Qdot fluorescence definitely correlated with stress doses applied during heat treatments. The phase transition temperature calculated from Qdot fluorescence images of MX1 cells was approximately 52°C and was 20% higher than phase transition of synthetic lipid membranes.
Hoping this will be helpful,
- NewHow I can quantify the nitrogenase activity with ARA technic for Rhizobium?
It is possible to apply this method on root nodules and/or on Rhizobia strains (like nitrogen fixation by the free bacteria) and how for each case?Following
- 9Has Turkey a rightful place as EU state-member?
The EU-Turkey summit has just finished and finalized the announced agreement through which the European Union gives 3.2 billions in aid for Turkey to assist the 2.2 million Syrian refugees sheltered in the country and mainly compromises to stem the flow of migrants to Europe. However, much more important for the Turkey prime-minister, Ahmet Davutoglu, was the formal re-opening of the process of negotiations aiming to discuss Turkish full membership of the EU. Needless to say that the summit took place few days after the Turkish destruction of a Russian fighter jet that seems to have violated during 17 seconds Turkey airspace, although without making any remote hostile action. It is not also worth to stress that the European extreme right wing movements immediately started vibrant protests against the perspective of a future Turkish adhesion to the EU, arguing that the almost 80 million Turks are not really “European” and only want to wider the huge number of foreign emigrants living and working in Europe.
Now Turkey has more chances to become a member of EU than Ukraine has. But really, I think both Turkey and Ukraine will remain a buffer zone for the EU.Following
- NewWhat is the difference between sham and placebo control?
Is sham surgery or sham laser same as placebo? Is sham and placebo synonyms ?Following
- 3Can you use both the Theoretical framework and the Conceptual Framework in the same research study?
Can you use both the Theoretical framework and the Conceptual Framework in the same research study?
I agree with David. A theoretical framework consists of concepts and, together with their definitions and reference to relevant scholarly literature, the existing theory that is used for a particular study. It is to demonstrate an understanding of theories and concepts that are relevant to the topic of the research, and that relate to the broader areas of knowledge being considered. A conceptual framework is more an analytical tool, useful as organizing device in empirical research. It is an abstract representation, connected to the research project's goal, that directs the collection and analysis of data. The conceptional framework operationalized, as it were, in a manner tied to the purpose (e.g. description > categories, explanation/prediction > formal hypothesis). So, yes, you can have both in one study. One being the organisation of the underlying ideas, the other the organisation of specific things measured in this research (which represent the underlying theoretical concepts) .Following
- 10How can I find data (ground truth) for parametric analysis of different algorithms In image segmentation?
I want to do a project about parametric analysis in some methods of image segmentation. I need ideal output(it means an image that has been segmented and it's the original that we one to access. ) but I don't know how to find this. And also one of our parameter for analyzing is boundary displacement error, but I can not find any formula or function for this to measure this parameter.
Most of the time, the ground truth images corresponds to manual segmentation done by a radiologist. You can find real patient MRI images database of a brain tumor along with ground truth from SICAS medical image repository through this link: www.virtualskeleton.chFollowing
- 9Is it possible for bacteria and fungi to give greater inhibition zone at lower concentration then the higher concentration?
This is concerning antimicrobial test- where i am using essential oils naturally extracted to test the effect on bacteria and fungi
yea its true for some essential oils. Actually i am using Tween 20 for dissolving oil in water. I was thinking - is that due to precipitate that i am getting my results in such manner.?Following
- 15What are some Capture Mark Recapture techniques possible for Palmate Newts (Lissotriton helveticus) ?
Dear colleagues, for a study (spring 2016) I am designing on Amphibiocystidium infections in Palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus) in the Netherlands I am wondering if there are some capture - (mark)- recapture techniques available for this species. I am familiair with these techniques in other Amphibian species but I am wondering if these are applicable to Palmate newts (f.e. are belly patterns useable)? Thank you very much in advance!
Thank you so much for your very informative answer! Yes, I would really appreciate your help in this! My first question would be did you only used the left or right side per newt? I can imagine you have the choose the one or the other.
- 1Is anyone working with application of orthogonal polynomials in economics field?
or in logistics area?
In plenty of applications in numerical methods, check out Ken Judd's book.Following
- 7How can we rank abstracting/indexing databases?
I am wondering how can we rank the relevance of indexing databases (services) of academic journals. In particular I would like to see the top 5 to 10 scientific databases based on journal's importance. For example, the first place would be journals indexed in Current Contents. What database would be on the second place? On the 10th place? I am aware that a particular journal can be indexed in many databases. But are there any objective criteria that can help in answering this question?
There is no absolute justice, but my opinion is to appraise the journal itself rather than the database. because in some databases you can find thousand of journals, but not all of them have the same level. for example if we talk about SJR you can find four tiers (Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4). So the database is one indicator.
- 3Can anyone provide rat monoclonal antibodies purification techniques?
Can someone provide please some rat monoclonal antibodies purification techniques? Especially some useful protocol for protein G use since the one provided by manufacturer is not working properly (GE Healtcare).
Do you know what the isotype of the mAbs are? This is crucial for the type of resins / precept steps you may wish to use.Following
- 2What is the concept of vertical resolution in LIDAR?
What is the concept of vertical resolution in LIDAR?
You mean what does it represent? Vertical resolution (VR) is usually measured by the vertical distance between adjacent points at a given distance. For example, if you had a resolution of 30 mm at 100 m, then at a theoretical object 100 m from the scanner the distance between points captured would be 30 mm. Of course if you were scanning something closer than 100 m the points would be closer together as well. Horizontal resolution (HR) is usually equal to VR.Following
- 15Which is the best cost-effective mounting medium for Immunofluoresecnce?
Dear fellow researchers,
I am looking for some cost-effective suggestions for the mounting medium. We have used the one from Thermo-Fischer Scientific until now and it has been working "OK" till now. However, I have read some articles in which researchers have pointed out the benefit of using the best mounting medium to stop the photo-bleaching for a longer time. Therefore, we have decided to try some other options this time which are more cost effective.
Any kind of suggestions for cost-effective mounting mediums are highly appreciated.
Thanks in advance.
Hello, I consider Prolong (thermo) the best one. Is read to use, dry after some hours, keep the signal for several days, and is possible to buy with DAPI (to nuclei counter-stain).Following
- 11Can anyone express the relationship between word order and communication?
does anyone express the relationship between the word order and communication ?
If one was able to come up with a formula for the relationship between word order and communication, you would be on the way to winning something like a Nobel prize. You would resolve some very difficult NLP challenges. However, without getting into the deeper problem, lets have a look at what we are talking about. Word order refers to the conventional arrangement of words in a phrase. In other words, it is the sequence of words in a sentence, especially as governed by grammatical rules such as SVO which is a relatively fixed pattern in English (in affirmative sentences). The primary word orders that are of interest are the constituent order of a clause – the relative order of subject, object, and verb; the order of modifiers (adjectives, numerals, demonstratives, possessives, and adjuncts) in a noun phrase; and the order of adverbials. You can then play around with these and see how they impact on meaning. OSV is marked in English "Bread they ate". But you can always contextualise "Bread they ate all the time because there was nothing else to eat".Following
- 4A control lentiviral luci shRNA vector kills the cell?
The cells start to die in about 6 days after infections. Surprisingly, the cells more sensitive to the luci shRNA control vector then to the shRNA than to the gene of interest. The empty lentiviral vector is not toxic. Washing away of polibren after infection does not help. Cells are human cHL, B-NHL and B-ALL cell lines.
Thank you in advance.
Dear Tuncay, the cells were not selected. They just do not proliferate or proliferate slowly. The luciferase shRNA is most toxic. I just designed a scrambled control and is waiting for results. My favorite hypothesis is that shRNA induces antiviral (off-target) response.Following