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  • Yoshinobu Ishikawa added an answer in Autodock:
    How can I install Autodock software on 64 bit windows 7?

    I want to install Autodock software on my 64 bit windows 7, but unfortunately it's not possible for me. When I try to install mgl tools, an error occurs which is said : invalid arguments! What is the problem?

    Yoshinobu Ishikawa


    Put the Autodock_setup.exe under C:, and install it.

  • Raymond Rumpf added an answer in Thermal Oxidation:
    How do I achieve highly efficient fiber-to-waveguide on-chip coupling?

    Silicon substrate with 2 um thermal oxide layer, then fabricate AlN waveguide on top with 300 nm width and 100 nm thickness. Having made a fiber taper with 100 nm tip radius. However, cannot achieve taper-to-waveguide coupling. Anybody knows how to figure it out? Don't want to use grating coupler or lens focusing. Thanks a lot.

    Raymond Rumpf

    Without using a lens (butt coupling) or grating coupler (external wave coupling), that pretty much leaves you only with evanescent coupling (directional coupling).  This is tough because you have to get the fiber core very close to the integrated waveguide.  Your fiber taper will need to get very close to the core, otherwise the coupling will be extremely weak or zero.  I know that you do not want to use a grating coupler, but you could get stronger evanescent coupling using a grating.  This is different than a traditional grating coupler and may be an option for you.

  • Refik Kanjhan added an answer in Primary Neurons:
    What is a good media formulation for neuronal cell culture?

    I am trying to culture primary neuronal cells and am a bit confused by the many different media formulations. Does anyone have experience culturing neuronal cells and if so, what media do you use to keep them alive? 

    Refik Kanjhan

    Dear Charles,

    I think the answer also lies in what you are aiming at or what you are trying to achive. For example, if you are trying to do electrophysiology or patch-clamping like myself, then the suggestion given by Sun Yung is ideal (Based on the formulation published by Cedric Bardy and Fred H. Gage (C Bardy et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2015). If you are doing electrophysiology, to be able to intrepret your results you need to know exact ionic concentrations of your extracellular solutions which determines the membrane responses. With premade media it is usually there are lots of additives that adds too many variables to the equation and makes it hard to calculate ionic conductances and interpret responses.

    best wishes,


  • Chithan C Kandaswami added an answer in Antioxidant Assays:
    In vitro antioxidant assays-waste of money and time?

    Dear All,

    Recently, I have attended two conferences in Europe (EuroFedLipid, Florence, Italy and EuroFoodChem, Madrid, Spain). During many presentations on ANTIOXIDANTS, I have observed that, many researchers have repeatedly highlighted in vitro antioxidant studies are really useless and it does not have any 'real' significance! They have argued that the results will never have any significant correlation with in vivo studies.

    We can find thousands of studies on  in vitro antioxidant assays of plant extracts, synthetic compounds, nanoparticles, so on. I am sure there are so many researchers are working on it and writing their papers. 

    What is your opinion? We must stop such assays and spend our time and energy on other aspects of science?

    Chithan C Kandaswami

    Results of studies examining the mutagenic response of flavonoids in the Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay (Salmonella reverse mutation assay with different tester strains) show ambivalent results. Certain quercetin glycones/glycoconjugates (containg galactose and arabinose moieties; they have vicinal hydroxyl groups, 3’4-OH in their B-ring), (+)-catechin (contains vicinal hydroxyl groups, 3’4-OH in its B-ring) were not mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium TA98 (strain)  with and without S9 (microsomal metabolic activation system containing cofactor supplements and cytochrome P450).  Amentoflavone was reported to be highly mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium mutagenic tests. Amentoflavone, a biphenol (a carbon-carbon dimer of the dietary flavone, apigenin), contains 5- and 7- hydroxyl group in its A-ring (flavone skeleton), and a single hydroxyl group (4’-OH) in its B-ring  (aromatic ring); this B-ring (with 4’-OH) is not subject to hydroxylation by S9 mixture because cytochrome P450 mixed-function-oxygenases oxidize an unsubstituted aromatic ring (example, benzene) to an epoxide (arene oxide), which can be converted to a (dihydrodiol) and catechol by the mediation of epoxide hydrolase.

    2-Phenylphenol or o-phenylphenol is readily metabolized by mouse, rat and humans; microsomal cytochromes P450-dependent redox cycling of o-phenylphenol and its in vitro genotoxicity have been well documented.  This compound yields a hydroquinone (2,5- phenylhydroquinone) by para hydroxylation mediated by rat liver microsomes.  2-Phenylphenol is negative in Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay.  Guaiacol, phenol, cresols, eugenol and related molecules are also negative.  Guaiacol (O-methoxyphenol, methylcatechol) is a substrate for peroxidase. Microsomal cytochrome P450 possesses peroxidase activity. Eugenol (4-allylguaiacol), a cinnamate derivative of the shikimate pathway found in clove oil, is oxidized by P450 enzymes to an epoxide, which is rapidly converted to dihydrodiol/catechol metabolites. Benzene, as far as I know, is negative in Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay). Benzene is biotransformed into an arene oxide, and further metabolized to dihydrodiol/catechol by rat liver microsomal oxygenases (P450).

    With regard to radicals generated by the autoxidation of flavonoids and related compounds, the question arises as to the probability of these radicals generated in solution (medium) to reach intracellular targets of polynucleotide chains (DNA) in order to bring about the induction of reverse mutations with different mutation mechanisms, such as base-pair substitution and frameshift mutations (depending on different Salmonella typhimurium tester strains). 

    The points surmised in the above paragraphs may be considered in drawing a conclusion that the mutagenicity of quercetin (and related compounds with antioxidant activity) in Salmonella typhimurium is due to the production of oxygen radicals through pH dependent autoxidation of quercetin in solution.  

  • Maria Luisa Di Martino added an answer in Professional Identity:
    Hi, about professional identity, which recent authors can I take into consideration?

    I'm referring to the symbolic interaccionism of Mead, Stryker, Burke...but I would like to know if there are some other recent studies obout this definition, this area, this specific domain in the identity theory.

    Maria Luisa Di Martino

    I really appreciate all your comments! Thank you so much!

  • Jeffrey J Weimer added an answer in Perovskites:
    When will the substitutional or interstitial defects form with doping in perovskites?

    Hi everyone,

    According to Hume-Rothery rules, the ionic radii difference should be less than or equal to 15% for the dopant to be substitutional.

    When I dope a higher ionic radius with a difference (eg. > 20%) in A-site of ABO3 perovskite structure. I want to know the criteria for the formation of interstitial or substitutional defect?

    Assuming the solubility of solute in the solvent i.e., there is no formation of dopant related oxides as an impurity phase.

    Thanks in advance..

    Jeffrey J Weimer

    The Hume-Rothery rules are for solutions in metals. Are you interested instead in the radius ratio rule? It defines the coordination of ionic structures, especially with regard to the types of cation sites.

  • Muhammad Khattab added an answer in UV-Visible Spectroscopy:
    3D excitation, emission and excitation-emission experiments?

    I am wondering what is the importance and how to interpret these experiments. Also, i noticed that i can't have background corrected (No blank subtraction) for these experiments using perkin elmer equipment. How to solve this problem?!!!! Besides, I appreciate if you could send me some resources to read about 3D experiments.

    Thanks in advance, 


    Muhammad Khattab

    Dear Friedrich,

    i installed Spekwin, but when i tried to subtract the blank (background) from 40 EEM spectra i got the message "the current data is not of EEM type, Blank EEM is NOT possible". please, advise what i did wrong.

    Thanks in advance,

  • Amir Javad Ahmadian Hosseini added an answer in Solar:
    Pressure drop in Pipe using ANSYS Solar Load Model Tutorial & Example

    Can any body Guide me for Solar Load Model Example

    As i want to calculate pressure drop or increase due to heat addition due to Solar load.

    Amir Javad Ahmadian Hosseini

    I have found a website that has an example about Using the Solar Load Model in Fluent. I hope it would help you a lot.


    Good Luck

  • Hiroki Ikawa added an answer in Grassland Ecology:
    Is there any research on the difference of carbon fluxes among different grassland ecosystems by using eddy co-variance technique?

    Are there any research on the difference of carbon fluxes among different grassland ecosystems by using eddy co-variance technique?

    Hiroki Ikawa

    Dear Changliang, You may know already but my colleague has a publication that you may be interested in. Hirata R. et al (2013) Carbon dioxide exchange at four intensively managed grassland sites across different climate zones of Japan and the influence of manure application on ecosystem carbon and greenhouse gas budgets. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 177(15) 57-68.

  • Muhammad Khattab added an answer in Solvents:
    What does it mean when blank (solvent) has intense peak in excitation spectrum, but weak one in emission (<10%) of sample intensity?

    Also, sometimes I notice the reverse where weak excitation peak and strong emission peak. For the best of my knowledge, the solvent peak should be (<10%) of sample peak in both excitation and emission measurements.

    Muhammad Khattab

    Thanks very much!

  • Tiago Tomé added an answer in Global Positioning System :
    If I know a GPS position, how can I get the site GPP data?

    If I know a GPS position, how can I get the site GPP data?

    Tiago Tomé

    On the website there is a link to their FTP page - over there, they provide worldwide rasters with GPP values (from what I could understand from their explanation). Using that raster and the GIS proceeding I described in my second comment, you could sample the raster value at that point.

    I'm including a link to a video tutorial on the point sampling tool.

    As for more recent data, I'm not sure if they provide it there, but you should take a closer look at the site and search for more info on that. Good luck!

  • Alan Shope added an answer in Attitude to Death:
    Can anyone recommend a good article or book which provides a good overview and summary of views and opinions on the topic of life after death?

    I am looking for a publication, that would encompass and compare various ideas, views and opinions of philosophers and/or religions on the topic of life after death (if there is any), respectively what happens to individual after their death. I would be glad for any recommendations, even if they may not cover the whole topic.

    Alan Shope

    "Who Dies?" by Stephen Levine is an excellent book by someone involved in hospice care. The author is highly respected and well informed. His approach is eastern but he is familiar with all traditions. 

  • Alexandre Henrique Pinto asked a question in Perovskites:
    Standard XRD pattern for lead methylammonium halide perovskites?

    Hi All

    I am aware the lead methylammonium iodide perovskites can have 3 different cystallines phases: orthorrombic, tetragonal and cubic, which are temperature dependent.

    However, I don't have a PDF, ICSD standard file for any of these phases. Could anybody tell if currently exist standard files for these phases for powder XRD?

    If not, could you indicate some papers truly reliable, where I can see the patterms and compare to my data?

    Thanks in advance

  • Iman (James) Mohammadi added an answer in Concrete:
    Concrete Mix Design - Estimating Volume of Concrete?

    If we have the weights of (cement, water, sand, and gravel), how we could determine the volume of the concrete after mixing?

    Iman (James) Mohammadi

    Hi Faris

    Please find attached the spreadsheet I designed for this purpose. It can be appropriately used for the construction applications which the total volume of each batch needs to be determined.

    If you are not sure about the specific weights of cement, sand, and gravel, you can use the default values provided in the spreadsheet .

    Once you have entered all weights of concrete constituents, the total volume of the batch would be calculated automatically in both litre and cubic meter.

  • Mahwish Qamar added an answer in Counseling:
    Any one have papers on counseling jail inmates?

    May be going to work at a city jail as a counselor and would love some papers to read on the subject.

    Mahwish Qamar

    You will find some chapters useful in the following two books:

    Working with Violence by Jessica Yakeley

    Working with dangerous people, edited by David Jones

    Good luck!

  • Geng Ouyang added an answer in Infinity:
    Can we really have many different definitions with different natures for the concept of “infinite” in human science?

    Since “infinite” concept came into our science, the “infinite” related concepts and theories such as “potential infinite”, “actual infinite”, “countable infinite”, “uncountable infinite”, “infinity”, “infinitesimal”, “infinite set”, “variables” were introduced; still, some other mathematicians (such as G. Kantor and A. Robinson) have tried to develop some different “infinite” theories specially (only) for set theory or analysis …. The question of “What is potential infinite and actual infinite?” has been analyzed, discussed and debated and this situation is sure to be “endless” in present classical science theory frame--------our science history strongly proved!

    Our studies prove that when facing and treating the “infinite related beings” in present cluttered, unsystematic classical “infinite” theory system, we are unavoidable to meet following two unexplainable arguments: (1) what on earth are “infinite”, “potential infinite”, “actual infinite”, “higher infinite”, “lower infinite”, “the ‘infinite’ of more infinite”, …? Can we really have many different definitions for “infinite”? Are different definitions for “infinite” the same mathematical things in our science? Why? (2) What kind of “infinite related number forms” should we have to demonstrate and cognize so many different “infinites”? Can we use just one kind of “infinite number form” forthem (several “infinite related number forms” in Harmonic Series Paradox is a typical example)? Why? Cardinality, continuum hypothesis and non-standard analysis theories help nothing here.

    Our science history since Zeno’s time tells us clearly: there are serious fundamental defects in present infinite related classical science theory system-------both in philosophy and mathematics. Our science history since Zeno’s time also proved that not matter how we have tried, all the paradoxes and troubles produced by present infinite related classical science theory system are impossible to be solved (unsolvable) inside this very system itself.

    For some small defects, the diminutive mendings are very much ok; but for the serious fundamental defects, those diminutive mendings do not only of no help but produce more troubles------errors plus other errors. So, the challenge is: to be or not to be staying in the foundation of present infinite related classical science theory frame.

    Geng Ouyang

    Dear Mr. Mariano Ruiz Espejo and Mr. Yves Péraire, thank you.

    1, According to my studies, “Infinite” in set theory which deals with “Infinite big” but forgets “Infinitesimal” is only part of the “Infinite world” in our science.

    2, we have to have numerical cognitive work on both “Infinite big” and “Infinitesimal”-------a new field of "Number Theory" is waiting to be opened up.

    Yours sincerely,


  • Rosemary L Sparrow added an answer in ELISA:
    Can aggregated-looking serum samples affect ELISA antibody titre?


    In my lab we are using ELISA to determine antibody titres in sheep sera by several different immunisation regimens. Previously this assay was done last year (four times, due to the serum not being diluted enough to get an endpoint calculated, and various other problems) though consistently we were able to show titres from group A were higher than group B (about 700-fold increase in endpoint titre). We calculate endpoint cutoff using the mean + 2 SD of negative samples (from the sheep before they were immunised). I know this is not 'ideal' but this is looking for differences between groups, rather than seroconversion or some other measurement.

    We have repeated the assay to look at a different immunisation regimen, but now group B is coming up higher than group A. This is quite confusing.

    The sera have been freeze-thawed a few times (frozen, thawed, aliquoted into plates to freeze, and then thawed for assay). We always make sure we compare sera that have had the same number of freeze-thaw cycles.

    This time doing the assay, the student noticed that the thawed serum samples of Group B appeared strange, the protein had aggregated into an oily goo at the bottom, and after vortexing and pipetting mixed back together, but sort of 'settled' again when the samples sat on the bench for about 1 minute (I have observed this too but generally once mixed it stays mixed for at least half an hour).

    Is it possible that this is a sign of some aggregation between antibodies, or with lipids in serum, that are increasing signal in the assay? Is there something that can be done to resolubilise the proteins, such as incubating for a long time in detergent?

    Rosemary L Sparrow

    Hi Natalie

    Thanks for your additional information. I still think it sounds like cryoprecipitation. This can occur in thawed serum samples and is due to the presence of residual fibrin carried over following the clotting process.  Cryoprecipitation can become more apparent with repeat freeze-thaw cycles.

    Also I wonder whether part of the problem could be that the clot was not fully retracted when you collected the serum. This could mean that you have some residual clotting proteins present in your 'serum'.  Did you use a standard tube to collect the sheep blood or a serum separator tube with a gel barrier? Did you place the tube in the refrigerator to aid clot retraction. It is best to allow longer than 1 hour for the clot to retract - preferably overnight in the refrigerator.



  • Kristoffer Graham Greaves added an answer in ISP:
    Has anyone ever had an online survey returned with nil response? if so, what is the best way to report it?

    In the middle of a thesis.

    Have set up an online survey via Google Forms, (link verified through pre-testing with multiple computers and different ISP's.) Now I have sent it to my general population and have had zero response; and the closure date approaches very quickly. I can't extend the closure date either.

    If the totality of the response is zero (assumed) how should this be reported?

    Kristoffer Graham Greaves

    It seems that the data collection method has failed in this situation, possibly because of a technical issue, or the method used is not effective for reaching the people you want to participate. If I were in your position, I would work on an alternative data collection strategy. Depending on the conditions of your ethics approval, you might need to get supplementary approval for the alternative data collection method. Do you write up the unsuccessful data collection method? It might be useful to examine what went wrong there, and write about it. Insights about the pros and cons of data collection methods do contribute to knowledge, in my view.

  • Denise Goins added an answer in Knee Osteoarthritis:
    Is it possible that cartilage regeneration could happen by itself?
    Does anybody have the experience of observing cartilage regeneration by itself directly or indirectly (for example, by radiography)?
    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Background The effectiveness of arthroscopic treatment for osteoarthritic knee is a controversy. This study presents the technique of a novel concept of arthroscopic procedure and investigates its clinical outcome. Method An arthroscopic procedure targeted on elimination of focal abrasion phenomenon and regaining soft tissue balance around patello-femoral joint was applied to treat osteoarthritis knees. Five hundred and seventy-one knees of 367 patients with osteoarthritis received this procedure. There were 70 (19%) male and 297 (81%) female and the mean age was 60 years (SD 10). The Knee Society score (KSS) and the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) were used for subjective outcome study. The roentgenographic changes of femoral-tibial angle and joint space width were evaluated for objective outcomes. The mean follow-up period was 38 months (SD 3). Results There were 505 knees in 326 patients available with more than 3 years follow-up and the mean follow-up period was 38 months (SD 3). The subjective satisfactory rate for the whole series was 85.5%. For 134 knees with comprehensive follow-up evaluation, the KSS and all subscales of the KOOS improved statistically. The femoral-tibial angle improved from 1.57 degrees (SD 3.92) to 1.93 degrees (SD 4.12) (mean difference: 0.35, SD 0.17). The joint space width increased from 2.02 millimeters (SD 1.24) to 2.17 millimeters (SD 1.17) (mean difference: 0.13, SD 0.05). The degeneration process of the medial compartment was found being reversed in 82.1% of these knees by radiographic evaluation. Conclusions Based on these observations arthroscopic cartilage regeneration facilitating procedure is an effective treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee joint and can be expected to satisfy the majority of patients and reverse the degenerative process of their knees.
      BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 11/2012; 13(1):226. DOI:10.1186/1471-2474-13-226
    Denise Goins

    I am glad you found a possible treatment plan.  Please let me know what happens!

  • Amir Javad Ahmadian Hosseini added an answer in FLUENT:
    How can I write a UDF for special symmetry boundary condition in fluent?

    I want to change normal vector of symmetry boundary condition.

    Amir Javad Ahmadian Hosseini

    Dear M.Dastmalchi

    I have a tutorial book that published by ANSYS for writing UDF. I think that it would help you to find your purpose. I attached this manual here.

    Good Luck

  • Yunan Prawoto added an answer in Root Growth:
    Auxin application on the soil....is it useful?

    I purchased auxin with the purity of 90% total 25 grams.

    I am planning to dilute it into 500liters of water.

    this will make concentration of 25/500 000 or 50 part per mil (ppm) or 0.0005% right?

    and using this water (with 50 ppm of auxin), I am planning to water 500 agar wood trees that is almost 4 years old but with the trunk size of less than 2cm diameter.

    I aim to promote root growth, therefore, I will just poor the liquid on to the soil..


    do you think I am on the right track??


    ps: I have zero knowledge on plants but just love to do gardening

    Yunan Prawoto


    are you saying that the concentration is a bit too high? will it kill the plant? what is the best concentration?

  • Lukman Inuwa Gani asked a question in Workflow:
    Please how do i develop a data processing workflow that will enhance ambient noise signal of various types i urban and marine enviroments?

    Please, reading materials will help out. Thanks

  • Parviz Parvin added an answer in Astronomy & Astrophysics:
    An old question that is still fresh: Is gravity a Newtonian force or Einstein space-time curvature?
    No gravitational wave was measured yet, no graviton was detected accordingly. On the other hand no space- time curvature was observable. There is no successful experiment to validate the current theories. What is the nature of the mysterious gravity? What is the velocity of this effect ?
    Parviz Parvin

    Dear Dan

    I believe that the  photon has a zero rest mass and nonzero  moving mass:

    E=h.nu = pc= mc2

    m=p/c=h.nu/c2, that is nonzero!

  • Bruce Weaver added an answer in Histological Analysis:
    Student T-test versus Wilcoxon rank-sum?

    Hi all!

    I would like to compare the vessels density between to samples (control versus treatment, so 2 groups) of healed skin wounds, based on histological analysis. In each group I have 30 measurement data. At the beginning I was thinking about a simple Student t-test, but I have also found other papers using the Mann-Whitney (=Wilcoxon rank-sum test). Any idea about what is the most suitable?

    Thank you!

    Bruce Weaver

    Ronán Conroy's article in the Stata Journal (see link below) illustrates nicely much of what Jochen has been saying.  Notice that in the example he starts with, the two samples have exactly equal medians; but the p-value for the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test is well below .05. 


  • Yosvani Orlando Lao León added an answer in Information Systems:
    Can you suggest books to teach development of information systems to undergraduate students?

    Books, articles, and others

    Yosvani Orlando Lao León
    Dear Franger,
    May I suggest to you these ones that I have
    How to find information. A guide for researchers
    Understanding Information Systems. What they do and why we need them
  • Alfredo Pereira Junior added an answer in Glial Biology:
    What are the main results relating astrocyte functions with conscious activity?

    Several lines of evidence have related astroglial function with conscious processes. I make a brief summary of the most interesting studies, many of them discussed in my previous publications (Pereira Jr. and Furlan, 2009; 2010; Pereira Jr, 2013; 2014). These results come from several independent respected laboratories. Schummers et al (2009), in a work carried on the M. Sur Lab in MIT, found that astrocytes in the visual cortex are more sensitive to external stimuli than neurons. Thrane et al. (2012) from the M.Nedergaard Lab in Rochester-USA found that astrocytes are more sensitive to three commonly used general anesthetics than neurons. Sfera et al. (2015) argue that conscious delirium derives from a combination of cholinergic inflammatory processes and astroglialfunction failure. A conference summary of empirical results indicating the involvement of glial cells in mental activities appeared in Douglas Fields et al. (2014).

    By means of the feedback on neurons, astrocyte information processing can have an effect on learning, memory and behavior (for a recent review, see Robertson, 2013).Takata et al. (2011) found that astrocytes mediate cholinergic neuromodulation into cortical plasticity.  Han et al. (2013) inserted human astrocytes in the mouse forebrain and found an improvement of cognitive performance. In this regard, Lee et al.(2014), from the T.Sejnowski Lab in the Salk Institute found that toxic deactivation of astroglial functions impairs recognition memory, a task that involves conscious recall and processing of novelty.

    Astrocytes also seem to be involved in the instantiation of emotional feelings and psychosomatic responses, as in the case of chronic pain (see Chen et al., 2012; 2014; Ji et al., 2013). As the mediation between neurons and blood is made by astrocytes through the blood-brain barrier, astrocytes constitute the effector part of the hypothalamus (Panatier et al., 2006; Gordon et al., 2009) and nucleus accumbens (Bull et al, 2014), controlling the release of neuropeptides and their effects on conscious mood and feelings(e.g. hunger.; see Yang et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2015)and their related somatic responses, as the up-regulation of stress-related proteins (Zhao et al., 2008). More recently,Orstroff et al. (2014) from the J. LeDoux Lab in New York University discovered that astroglial processes retract from synapses with neurons that mediate fear signaling in the amygdala, and Will et al. (2015) related the number of astrocytes in the hypothalamus with the experience-learned ability to reach male orgasm.


    Bull C, Freitas K, Zou S, Poland RS, Syed WA et al. (2014 Rat Nucleus Accumbens Core Astrocytes Modulate Reward and the Motivation to Self-Administer Ethanol after Abstinence. Neuropsychopharmacology (2014) 39: 2835–2845.

    Chen MJ, Kress B, Han X, Moll K, Peng W, Ji RR,Nedergaard M. Astrocytic CX43  hemichannels and gap junctions play a crucial role in development of chronic neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury. Glia60(11):1660-70.

    Chen G, Park CK, Xie RG, Berta T, Nedergaard M, Ji RR. (2014) Connexin-43 induces chemokine release from spinal cord astrocytes to maintain late-phase neuropathic  pain in mice. Brain137(Pt 8):2193-209.

    Douglas Fields R, Araque A, Johansen-Berg H, Lim S, Lynch G, Nave K,Nedergaard M, Perez R, Sejnowski T, Wake H. (2014) Glial Biology in Learning and Cognition. Neuroscientist. 20(5): 426–431.

    Fellin T, Pascual O, Gobbo S, Pozzan T, Haydon PG and Carmignoto G.
    (2004) Neuronal Synchrony Mediated by Astrocytic Glutamate Through
    Activation of Extrasynaptic NMDA Receptors. Neuron 43(5): 729-43.

    Gordon, G.R., Iremonger, K.J., Kantevari, S., Ellis-Davies, G.C., MacVicar, B.A., Bains, J.S. (2009) Astrocyte-mediated distributed plasticity at hypothalamic glutamate synapses. Neuron 64: 391–403.

    Han X, Chen M, Wang F, Windrem M, Wang S, Shanz S. et al. (2013) Forebrain engraftment by human glial progenitor cells enhances synaptic plasticity and learning in adult mice. Cell Stem Cell 12:342–53.

    Ji RR, Berta T, Nedergaard M. (2013) Glia and pain: is chronic pain a gliopathy? Pain 154 Suppl 1:S10-28.

    Lee HS, Ghetti A, Pinto-Duarte A, Wang X, Dziewczapolski G, Galimi F, Huitron-Resendiz S, Piña-Crespo JC, Roberts AJ, Verma IM, Sejnowski TJ, HeinemannSF (2014) Astrocytes contribute to gamma oscillations and recognition memory. ProcNatlAcadSci U S A111(32):E3343-52.

    Ostroff LE, Manzur MK, Cain CK, Ledoux JE. (2014) Synapses lacking astrocyte appear in the amygdala during consolidation of Pavlovian threat conditioning. J Comp Neurol. 522(9):2152-63.

    Panatier, A. (2009) Glial cells:indispensable partners of hypothalamic magnocellularneurones.J.Neuroendocrinol. 21:665–672.

    Pereira Jr. A (2013) Triple-Aspect Monism: A Conceptual Framework for the Science of Human Consciousness. In A. Pereira Jr. & D. Lehmann (Eds.)The Unity of Mind, Brain and World: Current Perspectives on a Science of Consciousness (pp. 299-337). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

    Pereira Jr. A (2014) Triple-Aspect Monism: Physiological, mental unconscious and conscious aspects of brain activity. Jnl. Integr.Neurosci., 13(2), 201-227.

    Pereira, A. Jr., &Furlan, F.A. (2009) On the role of synchrony for neuron-astrocyte interactionsand perceptual conscious processing. J. Biol. Phys.35 , 465– 481.

    Pereira, A. Jr., &Furlan, F.A. (2010) Astrocytes and human cognition: Modeling informationintegration and modulation of neuronal activity. Prog.Neurobiol. , 92 , 405– 420.

    Pereira, A. Jr., Barros, R.F. & Santos, R.P. (2013) The calcium wave model of the perception-action cycle: Evidence from semantic relevance in memory experiments. Front. Psychol. 4: 1–-4.

    Robertson JM. (2013) Astrocyte domains and the three-dimensional and seamless expression of consciousness and explicit memories. Med Hypotheses 81(6):1017-24.

    Schummers,J,Yu, H and Sur, M (2008) Tuned responses of astrocytes and their influence on hemodynamic signals in the visual cortex. Science 320: 1638–1643.

    Sfera, A, Osorio, C, Price, AI, Gradini, R and Cummings, M (2015) Delirium from the gliocentric perspective. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 9: 171.

    Takata, N., Mishima, T., Hisatsune, C., Nagai, T., Ebisui, E., Mikoshiba, K., Hirase, H. (2011) Astrocyte calcium signaling transforms cholinergic modulation to cortical plasticity in vivo.J. Neurosci. 31(49), 18155–18165.

    Thrane, AS, Thrane VR, Zeppenfeld D, Lou N, Xu Q, Nagelhus EA & Nedergaard, M. (2012) General anesthesia selectively disrupts astrocyte calcium signaling in the awakemouse cortex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 109, 18974–18979.

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    Alfredo Pereira Junior

    Dear James, many thanks for your comments! As far as I know, Hameroff's theory is about conformational changes of microtubule proteins in neurons. The connection of ions with water and proteins in astrocytes is very different. Astrocyte have calcium ion waves in the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) and in cytoplasm microdomains (not microtubules). I am not sure if the release of calcium ions from the ER is through microtubules. I am also not sure about the structure of these microdomains. I thought they were structured by glial fibrillary acidic proteins, but an expert recently told me that these proteins are not so frequent in all types of astrocyte. 

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