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  • Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva asked a question in HTTP:
    When should scientists be banned by journals and publishers?

    Under what circumstances should a scientist be banned?

    In 2014, I was banned from Elsevier's Scientia Horticulturae [1] because I pointed out problems with the editorial board and peer review process, and because I questioned the ethics of the publisher after mine had been brutally questioned. One year later, in 2015, Taylor and Francis / Informa banned me [2] for my criticisms of bad editorial policies, flawed editorial work, unprofessional handling of published papers and several other publishing-related issues. In both cases, the bans were served out by publishing managers, but supported by editorial boards with colleagues, peers and fellow plant scientists. In the second case, two papers that were accepted for publication were aggressively withdrawn from GM Crops and Food [3] by Taylor and Francis / Informa, one as a result of my decision not to pay publication fees because no peer review had taken place, and the second from Communicative & Integrative Biology, the direct consequence of the second ban after complaining that no peer review had taken place in this "peer reviewed" journal.

    My question is therefore meant to assess the opinion of other scientists, especially of those who have been critical of editors and editorial incompetence, poor or unprofessional peer review, or problems caused by or created by publishers.

    I am of the belief that we have rights, and one of those is to protest issues I describe above. Banning scientists because of their critical views is fundamentally wrong and an assault on our freedoms to express our views openly, including differences with the established status quo, and protest as scientists.

    What do you think?

    [1] http://retractionwatch.com/2014/04/10/following-personal-attacks-and-threats-elsevier-plant-journal-makes-author-persona-non-grata/

    [2] http://retractionwatch.com/2015/09/24/biologist-banned-by-second-publisher/

    [3] http://retractionwatch.com/2014/11/20/journal-retracts-paper-when-authors-refuse-to-pay-page-charges/

  • Carlo M. Cunha added an answer in Academic Writing:
    Should the first author on a paper receive more credit than the co-authors?
    A few thoughts:

    - The first author on a paper with multiple authors usually implies that he/ she has done the greatest amount of work – including the writing. It is unthinkable that a paper is published where each author contributed a paragraph with his/ her own style. More credit should be given!
    - On the other hand, on a paper with multiple authors, by convention, the senior’s name comes last. This often happens where it is custom to add the senior from a department to each paper. Adding a name to a paper does however imply that the contribution of each author is equal. If it was truly equal, the first author is not necessarily entitled to more credit!
    - With two authors, the contribution of each may have been equal but the senior may have elected to give the junior the advantage. The first author is not necessarily entitled to more credit!

    Also in ResearchGate, a long list of publications with a huge Total Impact figure is often admired but is this always justified?
    Carlo M. Cunha

    I think the first and last authors should have some higher percentage in the RG score. I also think that this percentage should be maintained when the article has one or two authors.

  • Geng Ouyang added an answer in Hypothesis Testing:
    Should hypotheses always be based on a theory? Can someone refer me to a research paper that emphasizes the need for theory driven hypotheses?

    Should hypotheses always be based on a theory? I will provide an example here without variable names. I am reading a paper where the authors argue that X (an action) should be related to Y (an emotion). In order to support this argument the authors suggest that when individuals engage in X, they are more likely to feel a sense of absorption and thus they should experience Y. There is no theory here to support the relationship between X and Y. They are also not proposing absorption as the mediator. They are just using this variable to explain why X should lead to Y. Would this argument be stronger if I used a theory to support the relationship between X and Y? Can someone refer me to a research paper that emphasizes the need for theory driven hypotheses? Thanks!

    Geng Ouyang

    Dear Mr. Dragan Pavlovic

    So, we may come back to the definitions and cognitions of “ideas” and "hypothesis". Of cause “ideas” are not exactly the same as "hypothesis"--------they are two concepts.

    What are the connections and differences between them?



  • Elsie Mishra asked a question in Family Relations:
    What type of questions can b asked to juveniles if we want to gather information from them about abuse they faced and ther family relation with them?

    i am currently working on finding a relationship between abuse faced by children in family and their tendency to develop criminal behaviour

  • Netra Pal Singh added an answer in Oman:
    Can some provide a list of present MVNOs in Oman?
    I am not able to get the list of active mvnos.
    Netra Pal Singh

    Earlier there were 5 MVNOs in Oman. Can some body advise on sources to get this number now 

  • Stylianos Sergis added an answer in Recommender Systems:
    Can someone suggest good source of materials on recommender systems?

    Im trying find a good source about recommender systems. Can someone recommend one?

    Stylianos Sergis

    You can always try some useful and relevant Springer Books: 

    - Recommender Systems Handbook [http://www.springer.com/us/book/9780387858197]

    - Persuasive Recommender Systems [http://www.springer.com/us/book/9781461447016] 

    - Recommender Systems for Social Tagging Systems [http://www.springer.com/us/book/9781461418931]

  • Prakash Gambhir added an answer in Pedigree:
    What are the causes of wrong in pedigree information?

    Two kinds of pedigree errors can influence the results of breeding value estimation - incorrect pedigree information (i.e. wrong parentage) and missing pedigree information (i.e. parentage unknown).

    Prakash Gambhir

    In a OPD setting the cardinal rule that should be followed by a clinician is to have a minimum three generation pedigree.

  • Eugene F Kislyakov added an answer in Cognitive Systems:
    Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.

    Eugene F Kislyakov

    If experience outside consciousness, it is simply mechanistic changes in our body. It is Louis' man-machine. All materialistic explanations are such. The problem with them is that, as said Poincare, if we have one mechanistic explanation, we may have a plenty of them.

  • James Hill asked a question in Aromaticity:
    Why are trifluoromethyl diazirines so stable?

    Trifluoromethyl diazirines stability is well documented, however I am yet to find an explanation of why...
    Can it be homoaromatic or even aromatic? 
    2 pie e-, in a planar system? Even with the sp3 carbon, couldn't that make it homoaromatic?

    Or is it just aided by the trifluoromethyl group withdrawing electrons from the strained ring?

    Bonus points of you know the mechanism of Schmitz Diaziridine/diazirine synthesis.

    Any resources or insight is greatly appreciated. 


  • Ahmed Mohsen Al-Baidhani added an answer in Business:
    How do we check effectiveness of BSC in a large Orgnisation with multiple business?

    I am planning to do a effectiveness study of BSC in our organisation , please let me know if anyone has done a detailed study on this area.


    Ahmed Mohsen Al-Baidhani

    You may want to check my paper about the effectiveness of B SC. You may use this descriptive study and other similar studies as an entrance to your specific study.Ref. Google Scholar, Research Gate, Academia, etc. 

  • Paul Barrows added an answer in Variance:
    Why some researchers in psychometrics still use the "Little Jiffy" approach (PCA + Kaiser rule + Varimax)?

    This approach is used even when exists papers where give alternatives procedures, who are more useful because focus on variance of construct, not in variance of error like the PCA.

    Paul Barrows

    I would highly recommend the chapter below regarding the use of the Kaiser criterion and other general issues regarding factors extraction using PCA. They view the Kaiser rule as arbitrary and not suitable for assessing the number of extracted factors. The Kaiser rule results in over-extraction of components, and they recommend a parallel analysis procedure to calculate an eigenvalue cut-off point for a given analysis.

    Velicer, W. F., Eation, C. A., & Fava, J. L. (2000). Chapter 3: Construct explication through factor or component analysis: A review and evaluation of alternative procedures for determinng the number of factors or components. In R. D. Goffin & E. Helmes (Eds.), Problems and Solutions in Human Assessment: Honoring Douglas N. Jackson at Seventy (1st ed., pp. 41-71). New York: Springer-Verlag.

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: The concept of a construct is central to many of the advances in the behavioral sciences during the second half of this century. Constructs serve to summarize, organize, and facilitate the interpretation of data. The concept of a construct also permits us to move directly from data analysis to theory development and testing. Factor analysis and component analysis are two very similar methods that facilitate the transition from dealing with a large number of observed variables to a smaller number of constructed or latent variables. Douglas Jackson employed factor or component analysis as an integral part of his sequential approach to the development of psychological measures (Jackson, 1970, 1971). It has become a standard part of measure development and is one of the most employed statistical procedures in the behavioral sciences.
      Problems and solutions in human assessment, Edited by Goffin, R. D. and Helmes, E, 01/2000: pages 41-71; Kluwer.
  • Veera Kumari added an answer in Wind Power and Power Systems:
    How to calculate the over estimation and under estimation cost of wind power in solving opf ?

    any paper on model calculation

    Veera Kumari

    this paper may be useful

  • Gram Knapp added an answer in Asperger Syndrome:
    Aspergers 'Fountain of Youth'?

    People diagnosed with Aspergers Syndrome, ASDs and ADHD are often reported as appearing much younger than their real age, can any research indicate this?

    Gram Knapp

    Thank you :)

    I might elucidate somewhat to say when I said 'reported', I only meant anecdotally and observationaly in things like blogs and folk theories I come across as an Aspie myself. I have Apsergers and ADHD.

    I have to admit, I and others observe it, ourselves. And in the perceptions of others we come across who are shocked at our real ages. I wonder if what is happening is these perceptions have been mediated by the way we act, more than the way we look.
    It may be a thesis research proposal I want to formulate and look into further.

    Also, I understand confirmation bias of some kind could be at play here :P

    Yes I was more interested to see if there is room to actually open up research in this area. I can't find any that has specifically tested this.

    So you are right to say 'according to the literature'... but I am still intrigued because the academic literature seems scant. Although there would be HUGE interest in this topic..  out there in general, if something is actually occurring around our physiology, lifestyles, or cultural perceptions as an actual phenomenon to be statistically or qualitatively explored.

    Thank you Beatrice :)

  • Ananya Pala asked a question in Biodiesel Production:
    What are different between batch and fixed bed process for biodiesel production?

    I,m not understand about mass transfer in each process

  • Angana Ray added an answer in PDB:
    How to calculate surface exposure of residues of protein structures in PDB format?

    DSSP: http://swift.cmbi.ru.nl/gv/dssp/ . 

    Angana Ray

    you can use VMD or VMD/TCL script to calculate SASA of each residue which may be related to surface exposure of residues of protein

  • Charles A. Ogunbode added an answer in Theory of Planned Behavior:
    What is the difference between attitude toward specific behavior and awareness of consequences?

    Referring to the definition introduced by Ajzen (1991) attitude can be measured via multiplying two values. Firstly is the individuals' beliefs about the consequences of the behavior and their evaluation about those consequences.

    However in Value-Belief-Norm theory developed by Stern (1999) new construct was presented named Awareness of the Consequences. 

    Which to wide extend showed to be similar to aforementioned construct in TPB.   

  • Om Prakash asked a question in Handling:
    I am planning to solve person re-identification in images. What are the suitable features that can handle the view change of the person?

    Please suggest the requested feature/s.

    Thank you

  • Adam B Shapiro added an answer in Chemical Biology:
    What is the best (i.e. most effective) iron chelator?

    We have been trying to chelate iron in vitro and we would like to determine the effects of iron deficiency. We have tried using deferoxamine, however due to disadvantages (slow uptake and short half-life) we would like to use a different iron chelator. We would like to use SIH, but it doesn't seem to be available for commercial purchase. Can anyone recommend a good source of SIH? Or mayba a good alternative?

    Thank you very much in advance.

    Adam B Shapiro

    Have a look at this Wikipedia article on siderophores:


  • Clemens Anklin added an answer in Ribose:
    What is the best 2D NMR technique that is useful to differentiate the 2' and3'- substituted OH's on ribose sugar?

    isomers are as drawn in the attached file.

  • Aashiq H Kachroo added an answer in Homologous Recombination:
    What are the possible methods of homologous recombination of a foreign bacterial gene in to a chromosome of an E. coli host strain strain?

    Bacteriophage transduction is a common method for this.

    -Are there any simple method of doing this without using phages?

    -To check the activity of a gene do I need to integrate it into the chromosome of the host ?

    -can I get the same function using a transformed vector with that gene?

    Aashiq H Kachroo

    Use Lamda RED recombination system. That makes linear PCR integrations much more efficient with only 36bp homology needed at the termini. This method will allow integration of gene or disruption of a gene at particular loci. However you donot need to integrate the gene to test the function, simple cloning and heterologous expression on plasmid will work to test the function of a gene.

  • Terry Tudor asked a question in Waste Management:
    Can you give us some feedback on some proposed amendments to our waste management courses?

    Can you give us some feedback on some proposed amendments to our waste management courses?

  • Adam B Shapiro added an answer in Peptides:
    How to remove TFA from peptide?

    synthetic peptide(MW is 1KDa or 2KDa) from a company contains 0.1% TFA and I use 50mM Tris buffer(pH 8.0) to dissolve it. However, when i do enzyme activtiy measurement, I found that the high concentration peptide is very acid so that it affects the enzyme actvity. I try to apply C18 reversed-phase resin to solve it, but my tutor think that TFA binds peptide(containing Arg and lysine) so that it can not separate TFA from peptide well.Therefore, i want to remove the TFA by some effective methods with little sample loss . 

    If you have some ideas, please tell me as soon as possible.

    Thank you very much.

    Adam B Shapiro

    If it is only the acidity that is the problem, and not the TFA itself, then you could titrate a peptide stock solution with base to neutralize the pH.

  • Nikolay Raychev added an answer in Confinement:
    How quantum confinement works?

    situation of discrete energy levels is called quantum confinement but how it works on semiconductor. What is its advantages?

    Nikolay Raychev

    Quantum confinement effect in semiconductor quantum dots is expressed in the fact that ground state confinement energy is inversely proportional to the size (radius). Thus, as one increases the radius (size), the confinement energy decreases, but never reaches zero. i.e., the lowest possible energy for the quantum dot sample is not zero.

    Confinement in quantum dots can also arise from electrostatic potentials generated by external sources /electrodes, doping, strain or impurities/

  • Reshma Vijay asked a question in MODIS:
    Emerging goverment policy impact on hr management?

    Emerging goverment policy (Modi Goverment)

    Impact on hr Management especially on women employees

  • Saravana Kumar Gr asked a question in English:
    Where can I get an English version of Annalen der Physik (1850)?

    See Link:

  • Zahra Tahernezhad asked a question in Congresses:
    Do you know a list of conferences and congresses?

    Hi, I would like to know a list of conferences and congresses about agriculture in 2016.


  • Octav Olteanu asked a question in Convexity:
    Is it true that for any finite dimensional compact subset K, its convex hull is compact and equals the convex hull of its extreme points?

    See the book of A. Grothendieck, "Topological Vector Spaces", Gordon and Breach, New York, London, Paris, 1973. 

  • Mohamed A. A. Mahdy added an answer in Statistical Methods:
    How can I evaluate my immunohistochemistry results?

    One of the projects I am working on contains IHC. Now that the staining is done as well as the scoring (Semi quantitative), I was wondering which is the best way to present those results? Using the median value does not represent in some cases the truth, whereas I am not sure if I can use an average value of the scores I have.

    Which is the best statistical method to analyze the significance of those results?

    Mohamed A. A. Mahdy

    please check this discussion


  • Essam Al-Moraissi asked a question in Mandible:
    What are the differences between lag screws and positioning screws when performing bilateral sagittal ramus ostetomy?

    2 methods to fixate proximal and distal segment either in advancement or setback of mandible to correct dentofacial deformities using lag screws or positioning screws . 

  • Vijayamohanan Pillai N added an answer in Regression Analysis:
    Can we compare betas of two different regression analyses ?

    Dear All,

    Is there any method/creteria to standardize regression coefficients coming from different regressions.


    We want to compare regression beta's coming from two  different regressions.

    Vijayamohanan Pillai N

    The article cited above (Statistical methods for comparing regression coefficients….) is not the appropriate one for this question.

    We can compare two regression coefficients from two different regressions by using the standardized regression coefficients, called beta coefficients; interestingly, the regression results from SPSS report these beta coefficients also. To get the beta coefficients, first we have to change both the DV and IV into standardized variables. A variable can be standardized by subtracting the mean of the variable from its values and dividing this difference by the standard deviation of that variable. Such standardized variable also is known as Z-variate. Next, instead of running the usual (standard) regression, we run regression on these standardized variables. Or much easier, run the usual regression in SPSS; SPSS will report the beta coefficients also along with the usual regression coefficients!

    The standardized regression (beta) coefficients of different regression can be compared, because the beta coefficients are expressed in units of standard deviations (SDs). The interpretation of the beta coefficient is as follows: if the standardized IV changes by one standard deviation, the standardized DV, on average, changes by beta standard deviation units. Remember, in the usual regression model, we measure the relationship in the original units of DV and IV. But here it is in units of SDs, and that is why we are able to compare the different coefficients.

    Now, in case the regression coefficients are already given and we are not able to run standardized regression, it is possible to convert the usual regression coefficient into beta coefficients, by making use of their relationships. The relationship between the usual regression coefficient and the beta coefficient is as follows: beta coefficient = usual regression coefficient multiplied by the sample standard deviation of IV(X) and divide by the sample standard deviation of the DV (Y). This relationship holds true in multiple regression also. For more details, see Gujarati’s Basic Econometrics, 4th edition, Chapter 6.