ResearchGate Q&A lets scientists and researchers exchange questions and answers relating to their research expertise, including areas such as techniques and methodologies.

Browse by research topic to find out what others in your field are discussing.

Browse Topics

  • Edmund Samuel asked a question in Cobalt:
    How Lithium contributes in formation/changes of crystal structure of Cobalt oxide in LiCoO2?

    I am interested in understanding the change in Crystal structure of cathode materials (eg. LiCoO2)

  • Does anyone have any experience of adapting authentic reading materials for EAP teaching that they would be willing to share?
    I would like to hear about your problems and successes of using authentic reading materials for teaching English for Academic Purposes.
    Brahim Bouali · University of North Carolina at Charlotte

    Dear Jon,

    I m concocting an EAP  course right now and wish you tell me what you think. I have attached a general description to what I think is a very important issue..

  • E.V.s. Prakasa Rao added an answer in Food Security:
    What if we produce more and more non-organic rice instead of producing a organic rice?
    In many countries, more and more people like eating organic rice as a new life style of healthy food; however, the yield of this rice is normally low and there are many requirements for field preparation in comparison with those of non-organic rice, which lead farmers to be afraid to invest. If the world turns to produce this kind of rice then we might be faced with the problem of food security since with a low quantity of rice it is not enough to provide for people.
    What should be our advice for people or their Government? Producing non-organic rice with a high quantity of rice to provide for the world or the organic rice?

    In the interest of food security and people's health, it is advisable to follow integrated nutrient and pest & disease management methods. Use of novel cropping systems will also help to reduce chemical load on the environment. Organic rice production can be a niche area for selected consumers.

  • Demetris Christopoulos added an answer in Learning:
    Is it easier for students to learn statistics using SPSS or R?

    Many social sciences (Psychology, Business, Sociology, etc.) require their undergraduates to learn some basic quantitative methods (aka stats). This is often coupled with learning to use a software. In psychology SPSS has been the method of choice because many believe that the graphical user interface makes it easier for students to learn, while programming languages such as R are too hard.

    I wonder if this is backed by any hard evidence? Working in medicine for some time I would prefer some randomized controlled trials, but for starters anything else would be great.

    The outcome I would be most interested in is are they able to apply the methods on their own problems?



    Demetris Christopoulos · National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

    SPSS and other 'panel applications' are for a first study. The code in SPSS is closed (a commercial program) and the windows philosophy with tick that option, but be careful not to tick the same time another option, conflicting with the previous, is a limited practise. Besides that, you cannot share your findings so easy, as with R packages.

    Other issues:

    1)the fact that you have to write a line command is not so awful as it seems at the first time

    2)the windows-habit can be overcome using R-Studio

    3)R has better numerical accuracy than SPSS and this means a lot for those who know about computing pseudo-inverse matrices in regression techniques.

  • Vaibhav Pandya added an answer in Protein Structure:
    How can I align three protein structures based on ligands?

    Dear Friends,

    I have three PDBs (structurally very different) but having same ligand in all three. Now I need to align three PDBs (based on ligand alignment) all three for next analysis step. Please guide me to solve the issue.

    Thanks all

    Vaibhav Pandya · Institute of Microbial Technology

    Yes Trevor,

    I have to align the contacting residues. But prior to that I would like to align each ligand in all three PDBs and than check if any correlation in contacting residues is present or not.

    Thanks dear

  • Hadi Parsamehr added an answer in Nano:
    Can anyone help with a wet etchant for TiO2 nanoparticles?

    Please help me for etching TiO2 nanoparticle. This nanoparticle used in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC).

    Hadi Parsamehr · National Tsing Hua University

    for TiO2 using H3PO4–H2O2 etching solution, temperature about 100C. and also you can find the answer of this question in:


  • Peter Sebej added an answer in FACS:
    Could someone share her/his experience with basic FACS analyzers like BD Accuri C6 or Partec Cube 6?

    We are planning to replace our broken FACS Calibur with a new machine, but we are on a tight budget. We want to use it for basic flow cytometry, mostly internalization assays, typing of DC/monocyte/lymphocyte subpopulations and cell proliferation monitoring, to name a few.

    Any experience/recommendations/comments on basic FACS analyzers like the BD Accuri C6 or Partec Cube6? How reliable are they? The lack of PMT voltage adjustment sounds strange to me. Is this a tolerable disadvantage? How is the software on these machines? Can one get publication grade graphs out of it or does one need additional programs? I'll appreciate your feedback!

    Peter Sebej · Masaryk University

    I do not understand the technical details of you question (I am a chemist), however you could have a look to pages S45-S47 of the SI of our recent publication ( http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/jo500140y/suppl_file/jo500140y_si_001.pdf ) to see few figures produced by Accuri C6 (so they we good enough for a chemical journal). The pictures were produced by our colleague at the Dept. of Biology, who is on maternal leave now, so I am sorry, I cannot ask for any more details, but there should be a lot of other users... And to be honest, to me, as a spectroscopist, was more strange that you can't freely choose the wavelengths to examine and detect the cells, but that seems to be OK for biologists.

  • Steve F. Russell added an answer in EMR:
    How we can define Electromagnetic Radiation which comes from cellular towers?

    I want to explain briefly the EMR that comes from Telecommunication towers

    Steve F. Russell · Iowa State University

    There are several frequency bands, just google 'cellular frequencies' Cell towers have directional antennas that broadcast with a beam power pattern that is controlled so that the EM energy in concentrated in a horizontal pattern to maximize the signal to users. The antenna are also sectorized so that space division multiple access (SDMA) is acheived. The cell tower transmitter have just a few watts but the high gain antennas can raise the effective radiated power (ERP) to 10-20 watts. The cell tower coverage area in controlled by the power level, the antenna gain, and the sectorization of the antenna for SDMA. For example, in cities, the coverage area is made small to avoid interference to nearby cell towers. In rural areas, the tower uses higher RF power levels. Along rural interstates, the towers use antenna the maximize the ERP in both directions along the interstate. Good luck

  • Arjun Shrestha asked a question in Variables:
    Can anyone help me in the interpretation of hierarchical regression analysis?

    While testing moderating effect of a variable on the relationship between two variables using hierarchical regression analysis, the direct relationship between predictor and dependent variable is non-significant but the interaction term is significant. How should this result be interpreted? Is it logical to argue that even in the absence of direct influence of predictor variable on dependent variable, the interaction of two variables can influence the dependent variable?

  • E.V.s. Prakasa Rao added an answer in Crop:
    Is there any evidence of DCD [dicyandiamide] uptake in plants when applied to crops and pasture?

    We are interested in DCD uptake into plants, if any, when it is used as a fertilizer or nitrification inhibitor in crops and pasture. Any papers or views appreciated. 

    Use of nitrification inhibitors is critical for reducing nitrate pollution of environment; consequent  effects such as nitrate and nitrite related toxicity. Prof Amberger from Technical Univ. Munich did pioneering work on DCD; also Dr. Vilsmeir. May be they will be able to answer some questions!

  • Nimmy JOSE Jose added an answer in Herbicides:
    Has anybody done the degradation and sorption studies of cyhalofos-butyl herbicides?
    I need to find out Koc and half life of cyhalofos-butyl herbicides, relevant for aerobic soils conditions.
    Nimmy JOSE Jose · Kerala Agricultural University

    You can contact Dr C T Abraham of Kerala Agricultural University, AICRP on Weed Control. Thrissur, kerala, India

  • Nimmy JOSE Jose added an answer in Weed Control:
    Can anyone inform me of the latest formulations of weedicides which can control weed problem of aerobic rice cultivation?

    Experimentation in detail was done on aerobic rice cultivation. Weed control in this system is the biggest callenge in western U.P. under this system. Pendimethylene is being used as pre emergence control. If just after application rains occcure than weed control become biggest challenge. If some new formulations are available then please help me.

    Nimmy JOSE Jose · Kerala Agricultural University

    In Kerala, India we are recommending the pre emergence application of oxyfluorfen@ 0.15 kgai/ha 2-3 days after sowing in dry seeded rice. This can effectively manage all types of weeds in the crop stand for 15 days. Care should be taken to see that most of the pre emergence herbicides work effectively in moist soil rather than dry soil. But, if the soil is flooded after the application there can be chances for phytotoxicity to seeds sown below. Pre sowing application of the same chemical @0.2 kg/ha has also been tried 2-3 days before sowing.  

  • Some info about comsol multiphysics

    Could you explain me please what means an initial concentration [mol/m3] в Comsol (only in this programm).
    Is mol/m3 of the attitude the value of substance [mol] for reaction volume or gas volume [m3]?

    Hadi Parsamehr · National Tsing Hua University

    If you wanna simulate gas sensor, it is the density of gas volume. also you can find this kind of structure in COMSOL Manual. 

  • Should we use YouTube, Wikipedia, and other publicly edited resources in our teaching? If yes, how and to what extent?

    Open education resources, especially those such as Wikipedia and YouTube (which rank high in Google search results), are being used more and more often, not only by students, but also by educators. As both a Wikipedia and YouTube contributor, I have mixed opinions. Even though the quality of the resources is increasing in many areas, finding the good articles/videos is still a skill in itself and requires good judgement. Will students lose faith in their lecturer or school, if these people rely heavily on Wikipedia, YouTube or similar web sites? Or will students become more actively engaged in their own learning, as a result of these resources? What advice can we give other teachers, or our students in regards to these resources? For example, check at the references at the end of the Wikipedia article rather than just reading the article, look at the statistics and likes of the YouTube video in question, see who created it, research the presenter or company, and any others? How can we make sure that students will use sufficient critical thinking in using publicly edited open resources? What is the limit, in terms of how far schools or teachers should go? Does it also depend on which subject we are teaching? What are your experiences or opinions? 

  • Yaseen abdul mohd added an answer in RNA:
    Name any known noncoding RNA involved in silencing?


    we are trying to study some silencing assays for with our unknown RNA library, Can any one please let me know if you know about any standard noncoding RNA which involve in silencing so that we can use as our positive control.

    thank you

    Yaseen abdul mohd · Dr.Reddy's Institute of Life Science

    Cristiano Gonçalves Pereira> thanks for your kind response.

  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer in SPSS:
    Do you use any software to teach statistics?

    There are arguments that we should teach statistics, not only using manual calculation but also by using software such as spss,minitab,stats and etc. Most of teacher or lecture prefered to use manual calculation. What is your expert opinion on this?

    Krishnan Umachandran · Nelcast Ltd.,

    Some new software for Statistics  :

    1. The Authentic Statistics Stack
    2. DataScope
    3. Quercus
    4. Stats!
  • Dr. Mrutunjaya Bhuyan added an answer in Choice:
    What is the best field to do PhD and where?

    I am currently doing Masters program. And I am looking for PhD program, which branch in physics will be a better choice and for that field which country will be a good choice?

    Dr. Mrutunjaya Bhuyan · Chinese Academy of Sciences

    That depend on ur interest. All the branches of Physics are quite interesting. If there is some application toward the medical science like DNA etc. Then it is very much interesting. You try to get some knowledge of Physics in different branch of physics from the below link: 


    Hope this quite important for you. 

    Best wishes

  • Brahim Bouali asked a question in Genre Analysis:
    Can we expand ESP to encompass native speakers?

    When we make a genre analysis we discover that every discipline or occupation needs a particular of linguistic , social and psychological meanings. The question is why do we think that only non-native speakers need an ESP courser?

  • Can someone provide the literature available on the toxic effects of leather industry wastewater in environment and their health hazards?

    It is generally known that leather industries (technically tanneries) plays an important role in the economy of many developing nations like India. However, it is the major polluters worldwide. There is a growing concern about the environmental pollution caused by leather industry wastewater, especially due to the wastewater pollutants like organic pollutants, toxic heavy metals like chromium and azo dyes are of the major concern. Therefore, it is required to know the toxic effects of leather industry wastewater in environment.

    Gaurav Saxena · Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University

    Dear sir, 

    Could you provide the literature available on the toxicological effects of pollutants present in tannery wastewater in environment

  • Steve F. Russell added an answer in CST:
    Why do we get harmonics in port signals, working on cst software?

    Dear all,currently i am working on CST software. I got harmonics in port signals in 1D-results,when i was simulating a power divider(using micro striplines). Can you please help in this regard, why we are getting these harmonics even port is matched(approximately) and how to eliminate it. Thank you.

    Steve F. Russell · Iowa State University


    I would like to help but there is not enough information in your question. Traditionally, harmonics are caused by nonlinearities in a signal path. Can you tell me more?

  • Falah Fakhri added an answer in Real Time:
    What are the best techniques for Image processing in agriculture?

    What are best suitable techniques in image processing to identify the real time change in the region of farm and what are the best suitable techniques to identify the real time change in the leaf of a plant to identify the plant diseases?

    Falah Fakhri · University of Turku

    I think the NDVI index is the best technique in image processing to identify the real time. please take a look to this links:



  • Xiao Hongtao added an answer in Phylogeny:
    Have any large-scale phylogenetic trees of fishes been built so far?
    It's a big and great job to do with over 30,000 species of fish.
    Xiao Hongtao · Wuhan University

    Camilo.,Thank you .

    I have been out in field for the last two months, which make it not available for me to check the updates.I have known the snalysis you recommed first, which provife me some information.But I don't know the second one yet. It's far from get fully understanding of the phylogenetic relationship of fishes with over 30 thousands fish species. 

    Best wishes.


  • K. T. Varughese added an answer in Nanoparticles:
    How important is maintaining temperature while centrifuging Polymeric nanoparticles?

    Does temperature maintained during centrifugation have effect on nanoparticle aggregation.

    K. T. Varughese · Central Power Research Institute

    The results  will be better with temperature if the polymer is crystalline. If it is glassy, the centrifugation will be  effective only  above the Tg for thermoplastic. For thermosets, depending  on the type of the polymer and additives used  conditions have to be fixed.

    What is the nature of the polymer or the polymeric nanoparticles?. May I know specific details if you have?

  • Please suggest some free but good software tools for scientific illustration

    Need recommendations for easy-to-use diagram drawing tools

  • Rajesh Alayil added an answer in Condensation:
    After condensation, will the condensate have a higher temperature than the surrounding air ?

    Will the condensate formed after condensation, have any temperature change in them. My point is, during phase change there will be energy release for sure. What happens to this energy, will it be taken by the air or condensate or will it be shared.

    Rajesh Alayil · Indian Institute of Technology Madras

    @ Ramachandran  @ Sunil  , thank you for the info. But I doubt, why is it that the heat released is taken up only by the cooling medium. Because at the interface both phases co-exit, why is it not shared. It would be kind of you if you could throw more light on this.

    Thanks for your time, appreciated.

  • How do I interpret results of intraparticle diffusion model “IPD”?


    I want to describe my adsorption kinetic results by using intraparticle diffusion model “IPD” of Weber and Morris.
    The plots of qt versus t1/2 at different initial phenol concentrations show multilinearity characterizations (Figure is attached), indicating that two steps occurred in the adsorption process.
    According to (Li et al., 2012) who obtained similar results, the first sharp section is the external surface adsorption or instantaneous adsorption stage. The second portion is attributed to the gradual adsorption stage, where intraparticle diffusion is rate-controlled.
    My first question is why (Li et al., 2012) attributed the second step to intraparticle diffusion, despite their plot shows that equilibrium is reached during this step (dqt/dt =0).
    my second question is why we don't consider the step between time=0 and (time at the first qt ) this will give us a plot with three steps.

    Thank you.

    Li, Y., Du, Q., Liu, T., Sun, J., Jiao, Y., Xia, Y., ... & Wu, D. (2012). Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the adsorption of phenol onto graphene.Materials Research Bulletin, 47(8), 1898-1904.

    Navneet Singh Randhawa · CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur, India

    All the best!

  • Raktim Haldar added an answer in FOSS:
    Can someone suggest a gentle way of teaching continuum mechanics?

    Continuum mechanics uses tensors . Students need to acquire a usable

    facility with short learning curve. Is there a free open source  software  (FOSS)

     which can be used to gently introduce  this subject and demonstrate the advantages

    of using continuum mechanics on simple examples?

    Raktim Haldar · Indian Institute of Technology Delhi


    Although I have no idea about a software concerning Quantum Mechanics, I found a few lectures by Donny Lee to be quite interesting. You can have a look.

    Best Regards.

  • What is the basis for practical elimination of an accident sequence for nuclear power plants?

    Is it the frequency of occurrence, DiD implementation, provision of safety systems

    Avinash Gaikwad · Atomic Energy Regulatory Board

    Thanks Mr. Pablo Florido and Mr Roland Iosif Moraru, for the comment

    Do the NPP Regulators world over acknowledge and use the word Practical Elimination in practice. What is the official stand taken by various regulators. The IAEA OECD definitions are available on their website but a clear scientific basis for regulatory guidance need to be further evolved.

  • Luckman Muhmood added an answer in Manuscripts:
    How long does it take to get notified from Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A about the decision that was made?

    I submitted a manuscript to MMTA and after 130 day they made a decision about the manuscript. However, it has passed 3 day since they made the decision and so far any staff have contacted me yet.

    How long does it take to get a notification from a staff member of MMTA?

    Luckman Muhmood · K J Somaiya College of Engineering

    i would assume 3 month period is sufficient enough to get an answer. The delay in getting a review could be due to non-availability of subject experts. Once the key reader is assigned the manuscript, he approaches a few subject experts. These experts are then given 2 weeks to review the manuscript. Depending on the prompt reply from the reviewers, the decision is made ( some timebetween 8-10 weeks. The key reader then responds to the main author/ corresponding author. If you are not the corresponding author you may not get the communication. 

  • Robert Vlk added an answer in Cardiac Surgery:
    CPB Prime. How to do it?
    I would like to conduct a survey among cardiac anesthesiologists and perfusionists about the composition of prime solutions. I would greatly appreciate if anyone could answer my questions indicating their suggestions.

    For years controversy has raged over the inclusion of colloids in pump primes, with specific emphasis placed on the value of albumin as a routine prime constituent. The adjunct of albumin has the rationale to counteract hypotonicity due to excessive hemodilution that could lead to tissue edema and altered organ function.

    Hyponcotic primes could promote tissue edema through interstitial expansion with plasma water. In our institution, as in many centers around the world, albumin has been added for years to CPB prime with the aim to offset these changes, although the benefits associated with this practice is still controversial.

    When low-molecular-weight hydroxyethyl starch (HES), came into the market, they have been used as volume-expanding adjuncts to crystalloid primes. As an alternative approach to Albumin. In our institution HES 130/0,4 has been largely used in the last decade for prime solutions.

    Recently the safety of HES has been greatly questioned till that the FDA and the European drug agency gave a warning on their use in some categories of critical patients and also in cardiac surgery. As result the italian agency has retired HES solution from the market.

    What do you think about this issue. Should we definitely use crystalloid-only primes? Is there a reason to come back to albumin?
    Robert Vlk · Fakultní nemocnice Královské Vinohrady

    In adult cases crystalloid priming - Ringer solution, mannitol and normal saline - total volume 1000 ml with heparin 5000 IU added for more than 10 years without any problems.