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  • Eric H. Metzler added an answer in Moths:
    Lepidoptera storage: What can I do with thousands of unidentified moths in ethanol?

    I am working with a collection of > 3000 light trap samples collected in Grand Canyon, AZ, USA over the last three years, with up to 1500 more samples coming in each year. They are currently stored in 250 mL plastic Nalgene containers, and are identified mostly to order with the exception of aquatic taxa.

    The time has come to consolidate this bulky sample set. I know it is always better to save specimen, but what about moths in ethanol? Will a specialist ever be willing to look at these? My lab does not have the time to pin these, and they do not pin well after sitting in 95% Etoh for 2+ years anyway. Does anyone advise throwing these specimens away?

    Eric H. Metzler · Michigan State University

    Please transfer the sample to high quality air tight (rubber-ringed) storage jar with full data written on acid free paper in #2 graphite pencil.  Put the label inside he jar in he alcohol.  High quality jars obviates the need for regular replenishment of the alcohol, and preserves the samples for a very long time.  Proper labeling of each sample with the label, inside the jars, not on the outside, preserves that the data stays with the samples.  Find someone experienced with alcohol samples, such as Dr. Sandra Brantley at University of New Mexico in Albuquerque to determine the best long term storage containers, and the proper fluid.

    Whenever possible, do not store lepidopterans in alcohol.  Finding someone to do all those dissections is nearly impossible.  Most of us (the number dwindles every year) who do dissections much prefer to work on specimens when we can see the wing patterns.  Genitalia are only part of a species identity. Whenever I'm offered alcohol stored lepidopterans, I reply "Maybe someday when I have nothing else to do."

    And please, deposit the new and improved storage jars in a museum equipped to handle alcohol storage. jars.  Do not let the jars stay in a storage site where they will be overlooked by researchers.  OSHA, EPA, and other governmental agencies have strict requirements for storing alcohol samples. A large university or governmental museum is best. for keeping the samples. Storing the samples away in an obscure location thereby making them unavailable to researchers would be a tragedy.

    Good luck.


  • Deevya Sharma asked a question in Photonics:
    In which sequence one should start the research in the field of nano photonics/ photonic integrated circuits?

    i'm looking for the right direction to pursue my work, i need to know weather i should first go for simulations using comsol or FDTD ..else study the experimental work , also i need to know from where i can get the FDTD free one and can anybody  guide me and let me know that where in India i can find labs to go for experimental work ?

    thanku all.

  • 14th Amino Acid Congress?

    This is to invite you to the 14th International Congress on Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins August 3-7, 2015, Vienna, Austria.

    The forum will provide an invaluable opportunity for scientists and students to learn from exciting research conducted outside of their own laboratories, to develop new research collaborations and to freely exchange scientific ideas in a friendly setting. 


  • Ali Khatibi added an answer in Attention:
    How do you measure Attention?

    I am doing research on Attention and its influences on emotional states.

    Ali Khatibi · Université de Montréal

    It really depends on your specific question. You may want to measure attentional bias for which you can use task like spatial cuing task, dot-probe ad etc or you may want to measure attentional control or something else. Taking keywords into account you can also use eye-tracking for research on attention.

  • Agana-Nsiire Nsiire asked a question in Ecosystems:
    What do standard ecological models predict will happen if humans were suddenly to go extinct?

    In light of recent concerns around climate change and the health of global ecosystems, I've been wondering:

    Is the net effect of humans on the global ecosystem positive or negative?

    How would major ecosystems fare if we disappeared? Which systems would fail? Which would flourish? How would nature adjust? Could it adjust?

    Would be good to know the more subtle, less obvious effects we're having and how they would change the planet as well.

  • I would like to measure the level of TPH in plant sample after 90 days of experiments. How can I extract plant samples for TPH analysis?

    My research focus on the ability of plant and bacteria interaction in the process of bioremediation of the polluted soil.

    Kongkeat Jampasri · Mahidol University

    Thank you for all your answers. Danke schön! Mr. Buchmann

  • Ali Khatibi added an answer in Emotion Recognition:
    I need to a task for measure ability of facial emotion recognition that Be standardized for children. Can you help me?

    My knowledge in this area is limited, Thanks in advance.

    Ali Khatibi · Université de Montréal

    It really depends on your hypothesis and the question you aimed to answer in your research. There are several tasks (for emotion recognition, for emotion differentiation, and etc) and depending on the research question. You may want to see the work has been done by simon baron cohen at Cambridge University. 

  • Tara Athan added an answer in Syntax:
    Which are the formal ways for defining a concrete syntax in language engineering?

    Meta modeling has been defined as the the formal way for defining an abstract syntax of a domain specific modeling language, no specific method has been formalized for the definition of concrete syntax. Though some researchers have define the concrete syntax of their language based on their own informal definition of the concrete syntax. Dear all is there a formalized way for defining a concrete syntax of a language (the concrete syntax here in question  is a visual concrete syntax)

    Tara Athan · Athan Services

    @Hajara - I just noticed I didn't address your final parenthetical about visual syntax. While I don't know the details of the syntax of interest, many such syntaxes can be modelled using markup such as SVG. (http://www.xml.com/pub/a/2001/03/21/svg.html) Since SVG is an XML language, then it may be possible to use a schema language for XML to define a grammar for the subset of SVG which constitutes your concrete syntax model.

    Another approach I have seen is to employ a textual XML-based concrete syntax as intermediary, and then use an XSLT stylesheet to transform it to SVG.

  • What are the health benefits of Guava?

    Some excerpts from the article "Go guavas – 10 reasons to eat this fruit!" by Sameer:

    "Guavas or amrood is blessed with many nutrients by nature. Originally found in South America, this fruit was presumably brought to India by the Portuguese. Here are some of its health benefits:

    Improves your immunity

    Guavas contain four times the Vitamin C content present in oranges. Vitamin C helps in improving your immunity and thus keeps your body healthy and protects it from pathogens that cause infections. (Read: Immunity-boosting foods that are available in India and easy on the pocket!)

    Improves your hormonal function

    Copper, present in guava, helps in the production and absorption of hormones. This property helps in improving the function of your endocrine system especially thyroid glands which is responsible for the way in which you metabolize food, use energy, etc.

    Lowers risk of cancer

    Being diagnosed with cancer can be a person’s worst nightmare. Being rich in Vitamin C and antioxidants like lycopene, eating guavas can protect your cells from damage and reduce your chances of getting cancer. Additionally, Vitamin C boosts your immunity which is critical in fighting cancer cells. (Read: Top 10 food habits to prevent cancer)

    Good for diabetics

    Rich in fibre and with a low glycaemic index, guavas can be consumed by diabetics and those who want to prevent diabetes. When you have diabetes, your body stops producing insulin which is responsible for the absorption of glucose. Consuming fruits and vegetables rich in fibre is recommended.

    Has anti-ageing properties for your skin

    Guavas are rich in Vitamin C, Vitamin A and antioxidants like lycopene and carotene which protect your skin from wrinkles and fine lines, thus making you look younger. Old-age is a certainty in everyone’s life, and eating a guava every day can at least prolong the process.

    Helps treat constipation

    Constipation is caused when food is stuck in our colon. Guava, is rich in fibre which helps in clearing the blocked pathway and thus curing your constipation. (Read: Top 10 home remedies for constipation)

    Helps improve vision

    Even though, guavas are not as rich in Vitamin A as carrots, they still are still a very good source of the nutrient. Vitamin A helps keep your eyes in good condition, and also helps improve your vision. Night blindness is one of the diseases associated with a Vitamin A deficiency.

    Good for pregnant mothers

    Guavas contain Folic acid, or Vitamin B-9, which is recommended for pregnant mothers since it can help in developing the baby’s nervous system and protect the newborn from neurological disorders.

    Helps you relax

    Magnesium present in guavas helps in relaxing your nerves and muscles. In today’s stressful times, consuming a guava to combat stress and relax is certainly a good idea. (Read: Feeling stressed? Try these natural remedies)

    Good for your brain

    Brain is one of the major organs of our body, and keeping it healthy should be on our priority list regardless of how intelligent we consider ourselves. Guavas contain Vitamin B3 and Vitamin B6, also known as niacin and pyridoxine, which helps in improving blood circulation to the brain and relaxing your nerves."

    Your views are welcome! - Sundar

  • Miranda Yeoh added an answer in Floods:
    Some countries in East Europe: Serbia and Bosnia, are experiencing destructive floods. What systems would be needed to prevent sudden severe floods?
    When I browsed, I find a few links:
    Is your expertise in this area? What systems would be needed to prevent sudden severe floods, in places that do not normally experience this phenomenon? Can you provide some helpful suggestions, so that water is a useful commodity, rather than a 'foe'?
    Miranda Yeoh · Kolej Matrikulasi Selangor, MALAYSIA (Selangor Matriculation College)

    Dear Prof Ljubomir, a previous Prime Minister (Dr. Mahathir) suggested that those flood prone areas should have homes on stilts.  Just now when I drove back to college, I heard that the number of persons evacuated in 5 states was around 90 000.  My home and my college are fine, just some water logged areas. (How can we channel this water to those dry areas?) 

  • Hans. W.P. Koops added an answer in Semiconductor:
    Why is Silicon Oxidized when deposited on Metal substrates?

    Silicon deposition

    Metal Semiconductor Interface

    Metal contacts

    Silicon based devices

    Hans. W.P. Koops · HaWilKo GmbH Ober-Ramstadt, Germany

    Silicon is oxidized in an Deposition process, since typical vacuum Systems all contain many water layers on the internal surface, which also are part of the residual gas pressure, and which normally are not cleaned by a full chamber Plasma cleaning and outgassing procedure. Therefore evaporated hot Silicon Atoms find abundant Oxygen in the water layer to become oxidized.

     Have a happy new Year , Hans

  • Does anyone want to collaborate on a research regarding the development of a new charge contrast method in order to increase the muscle strength?

    It is about a new method, called "TOP & DOWN", which was experimented in athletics: triple jump, hurdles (short distance) and sprint races. A recent study was conducted on a group of bodybuilders.

    Luís Fernandes Monteiro · Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias

    I also will be glad to contribute to this study. I think that the main reasons, to utilize this method with athletes are: (1) It's necessary to work on the explosive strength throughout the all curve-time; (2) When there is a large porch of stagnation in advanced level sportsmen; and (3) When you have to break the Speed-Power barrier. 


    Luís Monteiro

  • Will DNA FISH become obsolete?

    Next generation sequencing is the new wave. It is becoming more affordable.

    Will it make DNA FISH obsolete? Will DNA FISH related companies shut down?

    A technical and commercial answer is most appreciated!

    Kai Ove Skaftnesmo · Institute of Marine Research in Norway

    Probably not as DNA FISH can also tell something about location of the signal that NGS can not. Also in heterogeneous cell populations FISH can tell the abundance and location of a locus of interest. 

  • YOGESH CHANDRA TRIPATHI added an answer in Academia:
    Do you have experience with caste employment at Universities in spite of the law?
    There are many examples of illegal employment of children of professors. It is an ethical issue. It is about nepotism. Rectors of the University of Novi Pazar, in Serbia, hired several members of their closest family, although there were better candidates for the academic places. Do you have experience with such phenomena?
  • Mustafa Hamed added an answer in Curve Fitting:
    Any one can help me how i can add and open curve fitting toolbox?

    hi any one can help me how i can add and open curve fitting toolbox in matlab iam dawnload it but i don't know how to use

    Mustafa Hamed · University of Technology, Iraq

    i used version 7.10.0(R2010a)

  • Raju Sharma added an answer in Slag:
    How can one distinguish between Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag and Iron Slag? Is chemical analysis important or is there another method?

    Both Ground Granulated Blast Furnace slag and Iron slag have very similar appearance. The end result of both these slags is entirely different on the mechanical properties of concrete.  Is there any method to distinguish between both materials? 

    Raju Sharma · Chandigarh University

    your answer and links helps me allot to distinguish the GGBFS and Iron slag.Thanks to guided me

    Can someone guided me about the influence of Basic oxygen furnace slag on compressive strength properties of concrete. is this possible the BOFS containing concrete compressive strength in 7 days is less than normal concrete 

  • Shiuh-Hwa Shyu added an answer in Iterative Methods:
    Which are the stable iterative numerical methods?

    Currently I am using Gauss Siedel Iterative method to solve CFD equations. I am facing instability problem i.e. iterations keep on increasing without change in rms value for a given variable such as temperature. 

    I want to know which are some stable iterative methods so that one can implement to get rid of diagonal dominance criteria to be satisfied?

    Shiuh-Hwa Shyu · WuFeng University


    Don't quite understand what problem you have. Do you use pressure-velocity approach? Or hyperbolic system? The "instability" problem occurrs at what stage?

  • Alfonso A. Rojo Ramírez asked a question in Protocols:
    How important do you think is to include the method of value in the family firm protocol?

    It is well known the importance of make a protocol by the family firm but between the items it must contain, what is the relevance to include the value of the firm and particularly, the method to use when somebody decide, for example, leave the family firm?

  • Can we consider "healthy practices" as "process medicine"?

    In operations management, business organizations offer either product or service. Can we consider healthy practices as non-product medicine?

    The correct power supply with vegetables, carbohydrates, low in fat and acúçares, without excess, and according to the functional profile of individuals is the path for a healthy life both in the situation as to the future. The fewer pills in General regardless of whether natural or synthetic, or other alternative therapies is best for the individual.

  • Kamal Eddin Bani-Hani added an answer in Profit:
    Can reinvestment of profits be a solution to business growth?

    Growth has been a major concern in recent years, especially in the context of the current crisis. Yet diverse solutions and recommendations have been tried. Reinvestment is rarely discussed as a viable solution to companies growth, though is had yielded significant growth in some developing countries. What are your kind opinions and views on this issue?

    Kamal Eddin Bani-Hani · Hashemite University

    We should not distribute all profits to the shareholder. A good proportion of the profit should be reinvested for the business growth, opening new lines of production or services, expansion which will eventually create more jobs and create more profit

  • Has there been research to showing that increasing education improves ethics in a community?

    'Students often know the right thing to do. How can schools help them to do it?

    The numbers are in and they don't look good." That was the assessment of the Josephson Institute of Ethics last October, when they conducted a survey about the moral standards of more than 20,000 middle and high school students. Almost half the young people reported stealing something from a store in the previous 12 months. In the same period, seven out of 10 cheated on an exam.
    Should we be worried? Many observers say that we should. We see evidence of more antisocial behavior than ever among our youth—a sort of divorce between personal ethics and everyday behavior.'

    Has there been research to show that with increasing education, there has been improved ethics in a community?  Can you share, give some evidence? Thanks.

    Miranda Yeoh · Kolej Matrikulasi Selangor, MALAYSIA (Selangor Matriculation College)

    Friends, Doc Ezequiel RR Rey has snt us a reminder that 'Education without ethics is like a ship without a compass: no direction.'

    Dear Dr NIzar, the Chemistry teachers must say this to the 'big brothers'.  (Recently I heard an action research report that teachers spent too much time 'scolding or preaching'.)

    (@Behrouz, at this moment, I haven't been able to get the link.  The message I got is: 'This webpage is not available'.)

  • Deepak Gambhir asked a question in MATLAB:
    Why Gaussian image noise obtained using MATLAB's imnoise function is different?

    Dear friends, I have seen many a times in results of research articles that, Gaussian noise present in an image with particular variance are much different from that obtained using MATLAB's imnoise function.

  • Why can't cloning vectors be used for expression?

    Why do we use expression vector? Why is a cloning vector usually not used as expression vector?

    Kai Ove Skaftnesmo · Institute of Marine Research in Norway

    Cloning vectors usually contains a large multiple cloning site with many restriction sites making it quite flexible to choose restriction sites for inserting a gene. In addition some cloning vectors are provided with T overhangs made to ligate directly with A overhangs created by non proof reading polymerases. However most cloning vectors are stripped from extra genetic elements like promoters, mammalian selectable markers and so on, and can therefore not be used for expression of your protein. You can however use an expression vector as a cloning vector if you want, however as you state most traditional cloning vectors are not expression vectors.

  • How I can use FAHP in Acceptance sampling?

     I need sample calculation and methodology.

  • Any possibility of using Carbon Nano Tubes in Self Compacting Concretes ?

    I am very keen to know about  carbon-nanotubes for increasing material properties.

  • Dennis Soku added an answer in Teaching English:
    In teaching English as a Foreign Language, how much of the class should be about culture?

    Most teachers agree that teaching the culture of native speaking countries is valuable, but how MUCH should this be done?  Do you have a percentage in mind or other way of saying how much of the course should be about culture?

    Dennis Soku · Wisconsin International University College, Ghana

    In teaching English lessons, any of the lessons that bother on the English culture should be exploited. While the teacher explains the cultural practice among the British, for instance, he/ she should also find out from his/ her students how the practice works in his culture. I was doing a course in 'Techniques of relation' in France.  The lecturer for this course was a German. One of the movements,involving the  use of the  hands he emphasized,  can never be accepted in a public forum in Ghana. The point is that, when introducing cultural aspects of the English language in class, it should take the form of a comparative study. When this happens the students will not only be following the British or American culture but they will also appreciate and accept the good practices in their own culture.