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  • José Eduardo Jorge added an answer in Cultural Studies:
    Writing a book on other cultures - what is the biggest challenge? How to overcome it?

    There are many approaches on how to write about other cultures and times. What is your experience on the biggest mistakes you saw? What would you recommend to avoid them?

    Is there some implication for nowadays cultural Exchange and reception of migrants?

    José Eduardo Jorge

    Dear Thomas:

    In the first place, it depends on the subject and purpose of the study or work. Generally speaking , anthropology provides rigorous alternative approaches, such as thick description. But of course, there are many other possibilities. I think a crucial point is that the work should clearly explain the point of view from which the author observes and interprets. For example, I have found very useful some studies on my own culture by foreign authors who interpret within the framework of their own values. This happens because we, immersed in our own culture, often naturalize certain meanings and perceptions, and only with great difficulty could think of other possibilities. An external observer is able to objectify these kind of experiences and make us see those alternatives. .

  • Ramadhan (Hamza) Mohammed added an answer in Decision Support:
    Anyone working on Graph Model for Conflict Resolution ii GMCR II, in shared water resource conflict?
    I need the help of this software
    Ramadhan (Hamza) Mohammed

    Thank you dear Dr. Aram ,

    my emails: ramadhan956@yahoo.co.uk  



    with best regards


  • Luiz C. L. Botelho added an answer in Gravitational Field:
    Is the non locality of the gravitational field energy a serious problem for General Relativity (GRT)?



    "Although there is no room for such a thing in the energy–

    momentum tensor T, it is clear that there are situations where a ‘disembodied’

    gravitational energy is actually playing a physical role.

    Imagine  two massive bodies (planets, say). If they are close together (and we can

    suppose that they are instantaneously at rest relative to each other), then

    there will be a (negative) gravitational potential energy contribution which

    makes the total energy, and therefore the total mass, smaller than it would

    be if they are far apart.  Ignoring much tinier energy effects,

    such as distortions of each body’s shape due to the gravitational tidal field

    of the other, we see that the total contributions from the actual energy–

    momentum tensor T will be the same whether the two bodies are close

    together or far apart. Yet, the total mass/energy will differ in the two cases,

    and this difference would be attributed to the energy in the gravitational

    field itself (in fact a negative contribution, that is more sizeable when the

    bodies are close than when they are far apart)." 


    The same problem was also rised by Thirring, Kalman and Feynman in the FGT theory, they inserted the gravitational energy in the tensor equations...

    It is a problem of paramount importance which prevents the General relativity theory from describing any motion in which the hamiltonian is time dependent or rather in case of non isolated systems, or in case of non stationary interactions between different bodies.

    The attempt to model a free falling body in a gravitational field for GRT seems impossible.

    GRT has been tested  only for static or stationary systems where there is not a net exchange of energy (excluding gravitational radiation)

    Don't we need another GRAVITATIONAL THEORY which includes the results give by GRT in order to explain with a better accuracy the simple phenomenon like the free falling of a mass in a gravitational field?

    Luiz C. L. Botelho

    For all :

    Of course that Einstein GR in his basic foundations (specially on quantifying the effect of the matter and energy of Classical Fields  on inducing a SemiRiemanian  non flat structure on the Minkowsky space time ) is the best route to make Gravitation dynamics .But it is always forgotten that global issues , like GR corrections to "body" motions on Newton Physics , Cosmological issues , Quantization ,etc...are far to be well understood (As sometimes the Gentlman Charles Francis appears to convince us )  , in my humble opinion .

    Let me give a simple example :When one solves the Schwarchildren classical problem of geodesic motion on a gravitational field created by a Punctual Mass ,appears several  integration constants .How one determine these constants ?.They are not determined by the own theory , since Einstein equations are non linear hyperbolic equations on a Pseudo Riemann Manifold !(They are only mathematically meaningful as Cauchy problems with suitable initial datum or WORSE ,Distributional sense (weak solutions) )(see my textbook -research monograph -attached).

    To solve this problem one appeals for THE HYPOTHESIS (somewhat outside the Theory ,correct me if I am wrong ) that at a loose non relativistic limit of light velocity going to infinity , the fourth component of the metric tensor is EXACTLY given by the unity corrected by the NEWTONIAN potential of a punctual mass !! .  Some others constants of integrations are adjusted with THE ONLY recourse of mathematical simplicity on the hope that such hand wave choice of constant of integrations will be confirmed by experience ! .So there is a lot of room on making FINE TUNNING physics (expected be  later proved by carefully experiments ) on the realm of MATHEMATICALLY FORMAL GLOBAL differentiable solutions of Einstein equations , specially on the vacuum....,so much praised by Professional GR Theoretical Physicists

  • Ahmed Elazab added an answer in 3D:
    Is there public dataset for evaluating 3D segmentation?

    I implement 3D segmentation and I want to evaluate my algorithm, I am looking about public dataset if it is available



    Ahmed Elazab

    You can use many visualization software. MITK can be used for this purpose with other different facilities. You can find it here:


    Good Luck

  • Rudolf Ritt added an answer in Beetles:
    Can anybody determine this Cerambycid beetle?

    Determination only with pictures is difficult or impossible, I know.

    I thought, it is Acmaeops septentrionis, but I am not sure.

    Germany, Bayerischer Wald, 320 m, Meadow in a small river valley, 2009-05-17

    Thank you for your help!

    Rudolf Ritt

    + 1 more attachment

    Rudolf Ritt

    Hello Rinaldo,

    to your additional questions: I don't know the real size, but I would estimate it at about 20 mm.

    Hello Vincent,

    I tried to magnify the hind angles of the pronotum and the elytral apex.

    Hello Anders,

    Pedostrangalia pubescens is not listed in my key (FHL); I know this species only from "Folia Heyrovskyana", which is no key, there are only very good pictures. Only the male specimen is mapped (as Etorufus pubescens). At all, the shape would fit.

    Thank you all for the motivated discussion! Ok, I know what I have to do next year: I have to collect one specimen of this beetle!


    + 1 more attachment

  • Michael Schwartz added an answer in Altered States Of Consciousness:
    Are dreams, phenomenologically "altered states of consciousness," helpful for clinical neuroscience and "the new psychiatry"? If so, how?
    Medard Boss has perhaps as well as anyone else described dreaming phenomenologically as an altered state of consciousness. What, if anything, can dreams tell us about other states of consciousness, eg., "the default state," "altered states," and states such as schizophrenia, mania, dissociation, etc. Or about consciousness in general.
    Michael Schwartz

    Are you familiar with Hans Jonas' " The Phenomenon of Life: Towards a Philosophical Biology"? There is substantial agreement here. Consciousness becomes "a mode of access" characteristic of all living organisms - again starting with bacteria. And there is agreement with your points 3 and 4.

    Regarding point 5 -- well that may be the rub...  But you may want to take a look at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2823620/ . In any case - all worth a discussion.  And thanks for directing attention here to your excellent publication!

  • Anton Schober added an answer in Theoretical Physics:
    Does the uncertainty principle violate the conservation of energy law?

    Aephraim Steinberg of the University of Toronto in Canada and his team of researchers have performed measurements of photons and showed that the act of measuring can introduce less uncertainty that is required by Heisenberg’s principle. Violation of Heisenberg’s Measurement-Disturbance Relationship by Weak Measurements


    Is reduced the amount of uncertainty by the development of precision our tools? Does Heisenberg's Energy-Time uncertainty inequality imply non-conservation of energy?

    Is the uncertainty principle a property of nature or a result of observer tools?

    Does the uncertainty principle prevents our better understanding of the universe?

    Seems physics has stopped at the border of the uncertainty principle and the speed of light.

    Is there nothing beyond what appears in the universe?

    Anton Schober

    Hi Hossein, I'm NOT interested in this canadian experiment. A gentleman has better things to do. (Richard Ii)

    Heisenberg' principle is basic and fundamental in QM, and there exist NO energy-time uncertainty. Energy and time are NOT conjugate variables and Heisenberg knew that (and told me so).

  • Ian D. Blackman added an answer in Supply Chain:
    What are the main challenges for the future of "supply chain finance"?

    Are they only short term financing problems, or long term financing capacities and interest alignment for a better coordination?

  • Wolfgang F. Schwarz added an answer in Analogy:
    Is analogy the key to understand thinking?

    Hofstadter and Sander write in their book "Surfaces and Essences: Analogy as the Fuel and Fire of Thinking" that analogy is a key issue for cognition and perception. They put analogy into the center of all mental tools. I think analogy is a powerful tool but it is a tool beside others.

  • Jeffrey Frusha added an answer in Materials Science:
    Is there a material which could conduct heat in only one direction, like a diode?
    When heat on one side is higher, it conducts it to the other side. Is it logically possible to stop it from transferring in the reverse direction?
    Jeffrey Frusha

    MIT developed a Polyethylene fiber that conducts heat 300 times better in one direction, than the other, and that conductivity is better than many pure metals.  now, if they can only figure out how to make it in bulk and as a solid piece...


  • Refik Kanjhan added an answer in Fluorescence Microscopy:
    What advantages does fluorescence microscopy have over electron microscopy when one wants to study protein structural change of viruses?

    In particular studying rearrangement of the protein that encapsulate the virus.

    Refik Kanjhan

    Dear Glenda,

    ONe of the best thing about fluorescence microcopy is the abilirt to label upto 4 even 5 different target simultaneously in the same sample.

    best wishes,


  • Debra Sharon Ferdinand added an answer in Individual Differences:
    Does any one have questionnaire for individual differences in the classroom classroom?

    Two of my undergraduate students are working on their graduation research. They need help

    They want to find a questionnaire for individual differences. Any help please?

    Debra Sharon Ferdinand


    I did look at accommodating cultural differences in the classroom in my research, which can give some insight into your question, but from a cultural perspective. I hope you find it useful.

    Best regards,


    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: One Style Does Not Fit All: Facilitating Cultural Differences in Teaching Debra Ferdinand, Doctoral Candidate, Department of Workforce Education and Development, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois. Uche Onyebadi, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, School of Journalism, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois Growing cultural diversity on U.S. college campuses requires that faculty are equipped to accommodate for the cultural differences among their students. This descriptive study addresses this issue and examines students’ perceptions on accommodating their cultural and learning differences in teaching in a University’s Workforce Education and Development (WED) program. Participants comprised graduate students with one or more years of enrolment in a WED program. Data were collected using a self-reported survey consisting of open- and close-ended questions that included students’ perceptions on responsive teaching strategies for culturally diverse students and suggestions for improvements. Study findings indicate that WED teaching strategies are insufficiently responsive to students’ learning styles and suggest that cultural differences need to be given greater consideration in teaching delivery. URL to Article: http://icbche.org/icbche/news/the-icbche-journal/journal-spring-2009/
      Journal of Further and Higher Education 01/2009; 25(1).
  • Nana Kesewaa Dankwa asked a question in Reward:
    Does anyone know any gamification systems out there for use in experiment setting?

    My name is Nana Kesewaa Dankwa, I study MSc. Computer Science and Media at the Bauhaus University in Weimar, Germany.

    I am currently doing my Master Thesis research in the area of gamification. I am looking to conduct an experimental study that relates to finding the effects of play on the use of a gamified system. My research relates to gamified systems that can be used in an enterprise or for business purposes such as personnel administration, time management, multitasking or generally office productivity.

    For my experiment, i need two gamified system5 that can be used that requires
    - 5 minutes learning how to use the system
    - around 30 minutes of actual usage
    - in that usage time, users should get the core experience of the gamification.

    I ask this question because i have been doing a thorough search for two existing gamified systems that can be used in an experimental setting for an experimental setup but having challenges finding some fitted for an experimental setting or simply costs lots of money . I need a system that:

    1. Players can create own profile or avatar.
    2. Players get rewarded (example with points,in-game items and, or badges) for every task carried out and these rewards are communicated to the player.
    3. Players can see the goals of the tasks and can work towards it.
    4. Players can monitor their progress while using the gamified system
    5. Players can learn the gamified system within 5 minutes.
    6. The existence of a leaderboard showing other users in the experiment (optional).
    7. Tasks can be clearly outlined for the players using the gamified system

  • İbrahim Yilmaz added an answer in PLGA:
    Is PLGA soluble in toluene?

    I have prepared PLGA with chloroform and now I would like to try with toluene. Do you have any advises?

    İbrahim Yilmaz

    I' could dissolve  PLGA beads placed in falcon tubes with %4 pure acetone (-CH3COO-) solution to have %6 concentration.

    Mehmet ISYAR, Ibrahim YILMAZ, Gurdal NUSRAN, Olcay GULER, Sercan YALCIN, Mahir MAHIROGULLARI. Safety of bioabsorbable implants in vitro.  BMC-Surgery. 18.11.2015

  • Katarzyna Szczepańska-Woszczyna asked a question in Competences:
    Managerial competencies vs talent?

    What's more important in a manager's work?

  • Phaik Lyn Oh asked a question in Drug Compounding:
    In vitro Transcytosis Assay - but no instrument to measure TEER?

    I would like to set up an in vitro assay to evaluate transepithelial transport of drug compounds using transwells with Caco-2 monolayer.

    We do not have a volthohmmeter that is typically used to measure transepithelial resistance (TEER) and is reflective of monolayer integrity.

    Is there a way I can still do the assay without measuring the TEER, and will the results still be valid? Any suggestions / feedback would be greatly appreciated.

    Thank you!

  • Suzan M. Ragheb asked a question in Carbapenemase:
    What is the difference between Carbapenem ,imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem and doripenem in the assessment of carbapenemase producing bacteria?

    What is the difference between the use of Carbapenem ,imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem and doripenem in the assessment of carbapenemase producing bacteria? Is there a famous reference that provides details for such test? Thank you.

  • Mario Radovan added an answer in International Migration:
    What solutions do you propose for the reception of immigration to current Europe ?

    Due to the wave of immigration to Europe that has become more pronounced in recent times, what solutions do you propose for the reception of emigration to Europe ?

    Your answer will be greatly appreciated.


    Mario Radovan

    I took part in this discussion long ago, but I am very busy, so that I cannot discuss much. Anyway, what confuses me is the fact that the media of the so-called free world never say anything about our role in the creation of the present situation. Let me quote a piece of text from my book "Communication and Control" (Amazon /Kindle).

    My digital edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica (2001) says that "the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan was born on April 27, 1978". There were conflicts between secular and religious forces in this new republic, so that its government asked the Soviet Union (Russia) for help. ...  Britannica describes the "Afghan War (1978-92)" as "the internal conflict between anticommunist Muslim guerrillas and the Afghan communist government (aided, from 1979 to 1989, by Soviet troops)" ... However, at that time, the West strongly supported the "resistance fighters" who fought against the Afghan government. This support included the boycott of the Moscow Olympic Games in 1980. Sixty-four countries, led by the United States, refused to take part in those Olympic Games in support of Afghan "resistance fighters" and in protest to the Soviet "aid" to the Afghan government. ...

    After Afghanistan came Iraq, Libya ... I do not say that we caused the problem, but I hold that we contributed to the creation of the present situation. However, nobody is fool enough to say this aloud. A discourse cannot help much now, but silence will not help either. It may be that I do not understand anything, but the public discourse & silence of the free world confuse me, indeed.

  • Debra Sharon Ferdinand added an answer in Joining:
    From passive observer to active participant: is not this the real key to learning?

    When the learner joins learning, is not the final proof that the teacher has achieved her/his goal?

    Debra Sharon Ferdinand

    I think it depends on the quality of learning. If the student actively engages in learning and we can see progress being made in understanding/applying concepts, then teacher is well on the way of achieving his/her goal. In contrast, if the learner joins learning but depends heavily on the teacher and others in the group to learn then it may be a case that the learner is "shadowing" learning thru others.

    Best regards,


  • Anand Mp added an answer in Electrical Power Systems:
    I wish to implement IEC 61850 with Wi-Fi in substation automation; what pros and cons will I experience?

    Can anybody suggest why in IEC61850 use Wi-Fi for Substation Automation?

    Anand Mp

    I think its a very good concept. We after implementing iec 61850 saves a lots of copper hard wiring. If we can transmit the data through wifi it will even save many communication cables.

    Ofcourse i am much concerned about the data security and crtical data availability. We have many connectionaless communication to enhance the critical data availability timely. So do you think the data objects will receive timely through wireless connection? If that work then this is a good concept

  • Zeeshan Bhatti asked a question in Systematic Reviews:
    What criteria, rules, standards, are used to measure the quality of an Article for conducting Systematic Literature Review?

    What criteria, rules, standards, are used to measure the quality of an Article for conducting Systematic Literature Review?

    Any Suggestions for conducting SLR, how to start documenting?

  • Prabhakaran Selvam added an answer in Natural Compounds:
    Could the addition of a specific glycan structure to a biologically active compound change its pharmacodynamics other than just kinetics?

    some research suggests that the glycan stay attached to its aglycon part while it binds to the receptor(s), in fact the glycan residues itself bind to receptor helping in longer receptor activation.In one study [1] people reported that glycan conjugate’s specificity is higher towards some particular receptor compared to its natural free form. This makes me wonder whether it is possible to skew the pharmacological activity of some natural compounds towards specific pathways just by adding a specific glycan structure to it which could increase its affinity towards specific receptor(s).

    But many suggest that glycan part just enhances the compounds water solubility and bioavailability, and so it doesn't have any pharmacological effect. It also stated that  [2]  the glycan parts will be hydrolysed at the site of receptor and thus only the free compounds would bind to the receptor.

    So i can't reconcile both. I wonder which is more evident, will the glycan parts be removed or would stay inside biological system resulting in enhanced pharmacological activity and stability until it is eliminated?

    For my research I seriously hope that glycosylation of compounds should give enhanced activity which has to be significantly higher than that has already been reported. Thank you.

    + 1 more attachment

    Prabhakaran Selvam

    Thank you Dr.Edward Moh. Yes it makes sense. Glycosylation on smaller molecules indeed changes its pharmacological effects but the question is, will the glycan structure of these small molecules be intact while it binds to their targets? Sure some are bound to be hydrolysed either in the digestive system or inside the body. but is it really possible to synthesis glycoconjugates that are stable throughout the pharmacokinetic pathways?(any paper suggestion would be helpful).I believe that glycosylation is a great tool to fine tune the pharmacological activity of small molecules. Using glycans all I want to do is, to synthesis a series of glycoforms,each with different specificity towards different receptors, and finally screen for a particular glycoform that is potent in exerting a specific/desired cell physiology. Because most of these small molecules found in the nature are multifunctional with multitude of targets. So it would be great if we could increase their affinity towards specific receptors and thus enhancing a specific pharmacological activity. I am looking for experimental proofs for this.

  • Abd El-monem Abd dEl-hamee Megahed added an answer in 2D & 3D:
    What are applications of convex sets and the notion of convexity in mathematics and science?

    In a Euclidean space, an object S is convex, provided the line segment connecting each pair of points in S is also within S. Examples of convex objects in the attached image include convex polyhedra and tilings containing convex polygons.  Can other tilings containing convex shapes be found?

    Solid cubes (not hollow cubes or cubes with dents in them) are also examples of convex objects.   However, crescent shapes (a partial point-filled circular disk) are non-convex .   To test the non-convexity of a crescent, select a pair of points along the inner edge of a crescent and draw a line segment between the selected points.   Except for the end points, the remaining points in the line segment will not be within the crescent.  Except for the 3rd and 5th cubes, the cubes in the attached images are convex objects (all points bounded by walls of each cube are contained in the cube).


    From left-to-right, the cresent shapes are shown in the attached image are non-convex: Nakhchivan, Azerbaijan dome, Taj Mahal, flags of Algeria, Tunisia, Turkey and Turkmenistan. For more examples of crescent objects, see


    Can you identify other crescent shapes in art or in architecture that are non-convex?  Going further, can you identify other non-convex objects in art or in architecture?

    The notion of convexity leads to many practical applications such as optimization


    image processing


    and antismatroids, useful in discrete event simulation, AI planning, and feasible states of learners:
    In science, convex sets provide a basis solving optimization and duality problems, e.g.,
    Convex sets also appear in solving force closure in robotic grasping, e.g.,


    Recent work has been done on decomposing 2D and 3D models into their approximate convex components. See, for example, the attached decompositions from page 6 in
    J.-M. Lien, Approximate convex decomposition and its applications, Ph.D. thesis, Texas A&M University, 2006:


    There are many other applications of the notion of convexity in Science. Can you suggest any?

    + 4 more attachments

    Abd El-monem Abd dEl-hamee Megahed

    a convex function is very important  for obtaining the optimal solution of mathematical programming

  • Vicktoria Vishnevskia-Dai added an answer in Choroidal Neovascularization:
    What parameters of laser are recommended for induction of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in mice?

    What parameters of laser are recommended for induction of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in mice?

    Vicktoria Vishnevskia-Dai

    הייתי מנסה עוצמה גבוהה בזמו קצר ועלומה קטנה

  • Ola Elgamal added an answer in Incubators:
    Crosscontamination of adenovirus?

    Can anyone please share their lab protocol when handling Adenovirus experiments. I need to do one experiment using adenovirus and wanted to know If that would contaminate the hood and incubator, can I use a common hood and incubator or that would contaminate other cells. Thank you

    Ola Elgamal

    Thank you

  • Huw C. Davies added an answer in Hyperbolic Geometry:
    Can anyone suggest me how to find the solution of Inviscid Burger's equation with sinusoidal wave initial condition?

    Hyperbolic conservation laws

    Huw C. Davies

    QUARTERLY OF APPLIED MATHEMATICS Volume: 30 Issue: 2 Pages: 195-& Published: 1972

  • Zeeshan Bhatti asked a question in Computer Science:
    Can anyone help me define the protocols for Systematic literature review in Computer Science/Graphics field?

    I would like to know and define the protocols that are used in doing Systematic Literature Review in field of Computer Science and Graphics.

    What criteria, rules, standards, are used to measure the quality of an Article?

    Any Suggestions for conducting SLR, how to start documenting?

  • Thomas McCloughlin added an answer in Biodiversity Documentation:
    Does anyone have a technical definition of biodiversity?

    Is there an equation for a numerical score of biodiversity that captures richness of certain 'types' of species as well as the abundance of such representative species in a given ecosystem?

    Thomas McCloughlin

     Noss' article is very interesting indeed and we need an update - although the themes are still prescient. It may be that we need to look at indices similar to monitoring of pollution in streams and rivers.  The problem with this approach is that it doesn't work for lakes or the sea, or even in streams and rivers in different countries. A system needs to be done for soil types, tree canopy, heath, saltmarsh, bog surface, lakes, littoral seashore whereas environmental monitoring only really happens for freshwater because of its human-relative value.  It would also be beyond the work of any one biologist.  But it seems to me that it should be the job of any government to fund research in devising biodiversity indices for the full range of habitats in their care. I thought the following was interesting in this respect.


  • Gabriel Yoguel added an answer in Innovation Studies:
    Are there in developed countries models of cooperation between large and small firms?

    I am studying about the models of cooperation and relationship between NTBFs or SMEs and large companies (supply chain, R&D or ….). I would appreciate if you could help me, Are there in developed countries program, plan or act about support of formation this relationships?

    Gabriel Yoguel

    I would recomend the following articles

    i) Technological Collaboration: Bridging the Innovation Gap between Small and Large Firms* MJ Nieto, L Santamaría - Journal of Small Business …, 2010 - 

    ii) Determinants of successful R&D cooperation in Japanese small businesses: The impact of organizational and contractual characteristics, H Okamuro - Research Policy, 2007 - Elsevier

    iii) R&D collaboration by SMEs: new opportunities and limitations in the face of globalisation, R Narula - Technovation, 2004 - Elsevier

    iv) Industrial districts as 'learning regions': a condition for prosperity
    BT Asheim - European planning studies, 1996 - Taylor & Francis

    v) Collective efficiency and collective failure: the response of the Sialkot surgical instrument cluster to global quality pressures, K Nadvi - World development, 1999 - Elsevier

    vi) How to promote clusters: policy experiences from Latin America
    T Altenburg, J Meyer-Stamer - World development, 1999 - Elsevier

    vii) Impact of ownership on the international involvement of SMEs
    Z Fernández, MJ Nieto - Journal of International Business …, 2006 - palgrave-journals.com

    viii) Production Networks: Linkages, Innovation Processes and Social Management Technologies: a Methodological Approach Applied to the Volkswagen Case …
    G Yoguel, M Novick, A Marin, H Syd - 2000 - researchgate.net

    ix) The environment in the development of firms' innovative capacities: Argentine industrial SMEs from different local systems, G Yoguel, F Boscherini, H Syd - 2000 - littec.ungs.edu.a

  • Viren Swami added an answer in Socio-Cultural:
    Can someone point me towards the Perceived Socio-cultural Pressures Scale (Stice et al 1996) that has been modified for use with adult males?

    Does anyone have a copy of the items in the Perceived Socio-cultural Pressures Scale(originally constructed by Stice et al. 1996) that would be suitable for use with adult males.Tylka et al (2005) used a modified version for assessing drive for muscularity but I cannot find the items anywhere. Can anyone help?

    Viren Swami

    Hi Tracey,

    The original version of the scale can be found here: http://www.ori.org/files/Static%20Page%20Files/Perceived%20pressure.pdf

    In their 2005 paper, Tylka and colleagues used the original version of the scale, but also modified it to assess men's perceived pressures for muscularity. For this version, the original PSPS items were altered by substituting ‘‘to lose weight’’ and ‘‘thin’’ with ‘‘to be more muscular’’ and ‘‘muscular’’. For example, item #1, "I’ve felt pressure from my friends to lose weight", becomes "I’ve felt pressure from my friends to be more muscular". Tylka et al. reported that this revised measure had an internal consistency coefficient (Cronbach's alpha) of .86, although it should be noted that its factorial validity does not appear to have been examined. 

    Best wishes,