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  • Jim Mcguinness added an answer in Execution:
    How significant is the death penalty deterrent effect when those on death row can enjoy their lives for at least 10 years before they are executed?

    After the abolition of the death penalty in some countries, did crime rate increase or decrease in those countries? Which better serves justice: the deterrent effect -if any- of the death penalty or the risk of executing a wrongfully convicted human being?

    Jim Mcguinness · Everest College, Henderson, NV

    Alice, (Ref: "do you think detention for long duration of 10 years could be considered as "enjoyment" for someone who is waiting for their death date?"). That would depend on what they can access. Those on "Death Row" in the U.S. get regular meals, TV, books, mail, visitors, education, exercise, etc.

    Loss of freedom is significant, but the waiting-I'm not so sure that it is. Considering how many actually push for any and every appeal possible to extend the time, I don't see most DR inmates seing it that way either.

    What do/did the actual victim(s) get (besides death and, at times, a horrific one at that)? 

  • John George Hardy added an answer in Contact Angle:
    Determination of Contact angle?

    I want to measure the contact angle of my polymer surface, usually how it can be defined?

    please name device name or softwares

  • Peter James de Lange added an answer in Karst:
    Can anybody provide a concise definition of Makatea vegetation sought?

    Can anyone provide me with a sensible definition of the raised coral atoll vegetation type known as 'Makatea' or draw me to a paper / publication (s) describing it? I have found the term is used widely in literature but so far failed to find how this karst ecosystem is defined (beyond the obvious - its the vegetation that colonises a raised (fossil) coral reef - typical of the Pacific) and/or set apart from other karst vegetation associations. I am interested in relation to work I am doing on the Kermadec Islands (South Pacific). Any comments, help appreciated.

    Peter James de Lange · New Zealand Department of Conservation

    Hi Mike - your initial comments follow my understanding too - but it transpires there is a set definition according to Dr Peter Bellingham (Nunn P (1994) Oceanic Islands.  Blackwell, Oxford, 413 p.) - I am trying to track that reference down now. Cheers

  • Steven Reiss added an answer in Buddhism:
    What is the meaning of life?

    One of the most important questions all belief systems seek to address is: What is the purpose of life? And virtually all religions propose a way of life that will lead to salvation, liberation, satisfaction, or happiness. Buddhism is no exception.

    In Buddhism, the primary purpose of life is to end suffering. The Buddha taught that humans suffer because we continually strive after things that do not give lasting happiness. We desperately try to hold on to things - friends, health, material things - that do not last, and this causes sorrow.

    And for you, what is the meaning of life?

    Steven Reiss · The Ohio State University

    the psychological sense that life is meaningful arises from the management of experiences in accordance with one's values regarding universal goals, of which there appears to be 16.  to put it differently, all human motives/ purposes arise from 16 universal goals that individuals value differently. if you disagree, try to think of an exception.  nobody has in 15 years.  Buddhism address all 16 universal goals.  for example, your statement that we try to hold onto things that do not last is a below-average valuation of what we call the need for order.  it manages the experience of order to a low level and, thus, is meaningful.

  • Can anybody share alternatives that they are using in place of animal dissection and animal experiments at post-graduation level?

    Recently University Grants Commission, New Delhi, issued a directive to all colleges and universities in the country to find alternatives to animal dissection and animal experimentation especially at undergraduate and post-graduate levels. I want to know If some is using such alternatives and if that could be shared?

    I know that there are several colleges that use virtual dissection and that computer models of chemical effects are currently under development.

    Here are some sources that may help:


    And they're constantly improving! http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/2015/01/26/virtual-dissection-method-could-reinvigorate-zoology/

  • John George Hardy added an answer in Tensile Test:
    How many specimens will be needed for uniaxial tensile test?

    I want to do tensile test on aluminium rod specimen and i don't know how many specimens will be needed for this test,in order to reducing costs.

  • John Nichols added an answer in Railways:
    Can anyone recommend a design method for an eductor that will move sand with compressed air?
    Application is a suburban railway with steep grades and new power cars that skid the wheels when the track is wet.
    John Nichols · Texas A&M University

    jm-nichols at tamu.edu

  • Steingrimur Stefansson added an answer in Chitin:
    How do you elute Chitin-bind protein form chitin resin?


    Steingrimur Stefansson · HeMemics Biotechnologies Inc

    Hi Tengfei, the only organic solvent can think of that is not irreversibly denaturing is DMSO.

  • Drasko Cvijovic added an answer in Psychopathology:
    What are the most frequent core beliefs in psychopathology?

    In the CBT literature, core beliefs are what underly most psychopathologies, and most other models have a similar construct. I was wondering if there is any research, or clinical observations, which have looked at the most frequent core belief statements?

    Drasko Cvijovic · Ghostbusters, Belgrade

    Stephen, if I get you right, I am also myself contemplating that, at a metaphysical level rather than on (solely) behavioral... What fascinates me is a "belief" that one has to be right. Even a script "I am wrong, all is my fault etc." is underlied by it so in fact it says "I am right that I am wrong". If you go through the above answers you are going to discover such belief underlying any of the mentioned "scripts" which could be more or less reality defective, but if you don't succeed in replacing them with something (obviously for that person!) "more right", they are going to selfrepair as such core belief is in foundation of our psychophysical existence. Even the generation of particular scripts can be better viewed in the light of this core one. Does this make any sense to you?

  • Nikola Vukelic added an answer in Reaction Kinetics:
    How can we calculate the reaction constant (k) in the pseudo-first-order reaction?

    I want to calculate constant (k) for the the first-order reaction and pseudo-first-order reaction. In the first-order reaction I obtain the slope of a plot of ln(Ct/Co) versus (t) in excel file.
    how can I calculate that In the first-order reaction.

    Nikola Vukelic · University of Belgrade

    Y-axe is natural logarithm of conc. In different time/initial conc.  X-axe is corresponding time.      Is kinetic first or pseudo first order depends n

  • What is the recommended maximum passage in cellular culture of LX2 cells?

    Hello Everybody.

    I would know what is the maximum passage number in the cellular culture of LX2 cells or what is the recommended maximum.

    Thank you!

    Hola Fernando.

    siento decirte que no he trabajado con cultivos celulares, por lo que no tengo ni idea.

    siento no poder ayudarte.

    Un saludo. 


  • Mohamed Adel Hammad added an answer in MATLAB:
    Is there any multi-class SVM classifier available in MATLAB?

    I applied SVM classifier for my ECG recognition problem. It works nicely for two classes. But it cannot be applied to multi class problem. Is there any approach or MATLAB code available?

    Mohamed Adel Hammad · Minoufiya University

    Thanks Dr.Mohiy

  • Awatef Balobaid asked a question in Cloud:
    Which is the best tool to simulate the cloud?

    What is the most popular tools for simulation cloud? and what is the best one if I want to simulate in cluster, private cloud and public cloud environment??


  • Rosh La Bob added an answer in Vehicles:
    Help with my cell proliferation data analysis?

    I have two data sets of different cannabinoids on Caco2 cell lines. I used DMSO as a vehicle, and it seems that my vehicle affects cell activity. Im not too sure how to account for my vehicle when it comes to my data set. Can anyone help me with this?

    Rosh La Bob · Leeds Beckett University

    I have the DMSO data alone. And the DMSO alone is affecting the cell count and i need to account for it. I know its not a difficult question, but what is the answer? Just having difficulty getting my head round it. Thanks

  • Shicheng Guo asked a question in Cytoscape:
    VizMapper is dispeared in Cytoscape 3.1.1?

    Do you know why VizMapper is dispeared in Cytoscape 3.1.1 (ubuntu)?

    Best regards,

  • Is big data nothing but found data?
    Many sources reveal that before "Google Flu Trends", "Found Data" was the term used in many companies {Found Data: the digital exhaust of web searches, credit card payments and mobiles pinging the nearest phone mast}.
    James R Knaub · Energy Information Administration

    Charles -

    "Big data" and "found data" might have much in common, but I wonder if a distinction may be that found data could be something someone sought after, whereas big data might too often be a pile of data we collect, with no clear purpose, and then just see what associations we might run across. ??? (I am not an expert on this. Does a 'found' data set have to be large?) In that case, found data may be superior in that there may have been a legitimate scientific reason/model behind the search for relevant data, whereas when big data is about nothing but associations, we might incorrectly infer causality.

    There was a lively thread under multiple linear regression not long ago, where it was made clear (notably by Theo Dijkstra, but it was a consensus) that when determining what regressors to keep, there should be a reason for modeling that way, not just relying on the data. With big data there may be less question about one batch of data leading in a different direction than another, as that could be tested, but we could still see spurious relationships. [A dermatologist once told me it was unusual for someone with such dark hair to have skin cancer. What he missed was that I have dark hair, but pale skin. You can't just look for associations in a vacuum without sometimes going wrong. Perhaps that is not exactly the right analogy here, but I like that one. :-) ]

    If, however, found data were just whatever someone 'found' that supports their view ... ignoring data to the contrary ... then big data sounds better.

    I imagine, however, that 'big data' and 'found data' can each mean different things to different people under different circumstances - so sometimes they may mean the same thing. (Similarly, it was obvious on another RG question that "representative sampling" meant different things to different people.)

    But I think that whatever the name or variation on a theme of a large data set, one must still back up 'found' associations with theory, and much better to theorize first, rather than try to justify after-the-fact, though theorizing first, and then only using data that agree would certainly be as bad.

    Cheers - Jim

  • Is anyone involved in studies of essential oils in mouthwashes where specific essential oils are studied and compared?
    Interested in finding out which essential oils have proved most effective in mouthwashes to treat plaque and gingivitis.
    Tatjana Lj. Marković · Institute of Medicinal Plants Research "Dr Josif Pancic"

    You can have a look at my publications (we have tested oils and mouthwashes).

  • Are there any standard questionnaires that can be used when evaluating groupware?
    Evaluation of real-time, distributed groupware has been a challenge for many years because it involves evaluating the groupware system's ability to support taskwork, as well as teamwork. Teamwork is difficult to measure quantitatively and data regarding teamwork may be more easily extracted via a set of well-formed questions posed to sample group members after performing tasks using the groupware system under evaluation. Does a standard questionnaire like this exist (by "standard" I mean "recognized as valid and reliable") or are there any guidelines on forming such a questionnaire?
    Christoph Oemig · University of Bamberg

    Unfortunately there is no standard questionaire. But maybe the following papers get you closer to what you are looking for.

  • Prahlad Raninga added an answer in Antibodies:
    Can anyone suggest a way to detect Bcl-xL, cIAP-1, and survivin in MM cell lines, RPMI 8226 and U266?

    I am unable to detect Bcl-xL, survivin, and cIAP-1 protein levels in RPMI8226 and U266 cells. I used Santa Cruz antibodies in 1 in 1000 dilution. I treated cells with a drug for 24 hours, prepared whole cell extracts, and run them on a gel. Tried many times, but never succeed. Can anyone give any suggestions please?

    Prahlad Raninga · Griffith University

    Thank you all for your suggestions. It seems that antibodies are the problem in my case and I should try CST or R&D antibodies.

  • How is the development of the collaborative economy impacting urban planning?

    How is the growth of the collaborative economy, particularly the trend towards coworking and sharing of commercial and industrial spaces, likely to impact (or has already impacted) on urban planning?  I'm interested in any current research available, or to connect with other researchers in this area.  Thank you.

    Kathryn Cullen-Edwards · Deakin University

    Hi Helen. Thanks for your comment, which raises an interesting point about the developed -v- developing countries' experiences of the collaborative economy.  I also take your point about who is currently involved,  but I do think this trend will become increasingly mainstream, and may in fact be a major shift with significant impacts. It will be very interesting to watch how this trend develops, not just in respect of urban planning, but across many facets of our lives. Thank you!

  • Muzaffer Karasulu added an answer in Serum:
    Analysis of HMG-CoA reductase activity in serum or plasma? What's the better?

    I will evaluate the HMG-CoA reductase activity, but I have little serum and more plasma, I wonder if it really makes much difference between the two. Remembering that my biochemical samples were all made in serum. Thank you.

  • Does HDAC inhibitor (phenylbutyrate) increase total histone levels?

    I have treated myocytes with a HDACi ( phenylbutyrate, 5 mM, 48h) and prepared RIPA cell lysates. In WB, together with acetylated, total total histones are also increasing. The levels are basal in control cells. I presume total histone levels should remain without change following HDACi treatment and only acetylated forms should change. Any idea about this trend?

  • Daniela Turcanu Carutiu asked a question in Cameras:
    For paintings photos in UV what brand has camera obscura large enough with camera attached?

    < 50x70 size

  • Mahesha Manjunatha Poojary added an answer in JCPDS:
    Can anyone provide me JCPDS XRD files for Ag and Au Nanoparticles? ?

    I need JCPDS file for Ag and Au Nanoparticles (NPs were synthesized using biomaterials).Literature says that for Ag NPs, JCPDS file no. is JCPDS file no. 04-0783, while for Au NPs it is 01-1174.

    Is it OK if there is minor variation in the angles compared to the JCPDS file? 

    Mahesha Manjunatha Poojary · University of Camerino

    Dear Natheer, thanks for your information and attachments. Could you please tell me which software I have to use to see these .cif files? Is it possible to send .pdf files??

  • Does anyone have access to legislative seat data for Ecuador and/or Peru for 1900-1945?

    I am looking for seats (by party) for Ecuador and Peru for 1900-1945 (I have the data for post-1940s) for a project I'm working on. So far I've been unable to find anything other than election results (votes). Thanks.

    I realize that parties were mostly meaningless and chaotic (or "inchoate") during that period. But I still want to compare with the data I have from Bolivia and other countries in South America.

    I am compiling a large dataset that I will then share with anyone interested.

    Miguel Centellas · Jackson State University

    I have all the post 1979 data. I'm look for data (and seats data, not votes) for the earlier period. I want to calculate basic measures like effective number of parties for the 20th century. 

  • Mark Tingay added an answer in Earthquake:
    Among thrust, strike-slip and normal fault which one shows maximum and which one shows minimum release of energy during an earthquake?

    Can any one tell this question along with any reference book or scientific paper related to this topic??

    Mark Tingay · University of Adelaide

    Hi Goutam, I don't think its necessarily a matter of fault type. The Andersonian fault classification scheme is just a way of relating fault orientation and displacement with respect to the relative magnitude of vertical and horizontal stresses.

    of course, the biggest earthquakes tend to be the mega-thrust events at subduction zones. However, the energy released is more a matter of how much resistance there is to the stresses, and how much energy can then be built up and released. You can have big or small earthquakes on all three fault types. 

    Good luck!

  • Heather Nielsen asked a question in Photovoice:
    How has the use of photovoice been used to expand qualitative research with illiterate or semi-literate community health workers?

    Both national and international community health workers

  • Tatiana Swoczyna added an answer in Plant Ecology:
    What is natural range and natural habitat of Pyrus calleryana, Platanus orientalis, Styphnolobium japonicum in Asia?
    The topic of my research is tree species selection for urban environments. In extremely harmful urban habitats trees are liable to water deficit or deicing salts. Our native tree species cannot cope and probably must be replaced by "imported" ones.
    Tatiana Swoczyna · Warsaw University Of Life Sciences

    Dear Russell,

    Thank you for your answer! Thanks to you I have found there some information.

    Kind regards,


  • Endre Solti added an answer in E-Learning:
    Whats is your opinion regarding the future of e-Learning?

    I am interested to do a prospective analysis about the e-Learning

    Endre Solti · University of Campinas

    Yes, Ian Kennedy, but it is important to emphasize that here, in the comments. Lay people have the impression that distance education serves all courses. Also, I see that the students of distance education, at least here in Brazil are saying many things about that combination and little research permeate the possibility of practical training in teaching, or the possibility of including courses that have practical subjects the range of options for distance learning courses.