Q&A

ResearchGate Q&A lets scientists and researchers exchange questions and answers relating to their research expertise, including areas such as techniques and methodologies.

Browse by research topic to find out what others in your field are discussing.

Browse Topics

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
  • Farid Semsarha added an answer in Cell Viability:
    How can we discuss about the results when both cell viability and mortality decreased?

    Dear friends

    I have cultured hella cells and the cell mortality and viability have been checked under treatment with special drug. So, I have seen that the cell mortality and viability decreased together and I want to have a conclusion about the effect of my drug on hella cells. can you help me?

    Farid Semsarha · University of Tehran

    Dear Kallidaikurichi, very thanks.

    No my cell didn't show any aggregation. But your criteria is very important for me during my future tests. Kindly regards

  • Can ethanol be used in the Methanol extract of a medicinal plant for further analysis ?

    I have prepared, the plant extract in Methanol, but now i want put Ethanol in the residue. Will it Interrupt the experiment ?

    Mruthunjaya Kenganora · JSS College of Pharmacy

    You can use without affecting any properties of extract and results their by. 

    Th details are well explained by Dr. Adolf Nahrsedt

  • Sureshbabu Beemineni asked a question in Triazole:
    How sodium ascorbate willl reduce cu(II) to Cu(i)?

    formation of 1,2,3 triazoles. Can you please give me a reference or schematic diagram>>???

  • Kyungtaek Lim asked a question in NCBI:
    What is the most comprehensive human genotype-phenotype database?

    Hello

    I am searching for a good genotype-phenotype database for human.

    I know OMIM (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim). But it seems not to include GWAS results.

    I found GWASdb (http://jjwanglab.org/gwasdb) that collects only GWAS results.

    I also found PheGenI http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gap/phegeni on the NCBI website, but there is no downloadable dataset.

    Merging OMIM and GWASdb will solve the problem, which, however, is not easy because their phenotype classification is different.

    Does anyone know a human genotype-phenotype database that contains both OMIM-like and GWAS info.

    Thank you.

    Best,

    Kyungtaek

  • Zol Bahri Razali added an answer in Elastomers:
    Which is the best model to analyse the dynamic behavior of Magnetorhological Elastomer?

    I am in need of Mathematical model of MRE to study its dynamic behavior under varying magnetic field to design MRE based Dynamic vibration absorber

    Zol Bahri Razali · Universiti Malaysia Perlis

    You can get the similar or apropriate answer by searching the keyword in the GOOGLE SCHOLAR page. Usually you will get the first paper similar to your keyword.

    From my experience, this way will help you a lot. If you still have a problem, do not hasitate to let me know.

    Kind regards, Dr ZOL BAHRI - Universiti Malaysia Perlis, MALAYSIA

  • How can the austenitic phase achieved on heating be around 150C?
    When before quenching, in a Cu-Al-Ni phase diagram, the beta phase is above 800C. The transformation temperature of Cu-Al based SMA is in the range of 50-200C.
    Zol Bahri Razali · Universiti Malaysia Perlis

    You can get the similar or apropriate answer by searching the keyword in the GOOGLE SCHOLAR page. Usually you will get the first paper similar to your keyword.

    From my experience, this way will help you a lot. If you still have a problem, do not hasitate to let me know.

    Kind regards, Dr ZOL BAHRI - Universiti Malaysia Perlis, MALAYSIA

  • Diego Vimos-Lojano added an answer in Fish Products:
    If we have remarkable decrease in fish production, what are the priority suggestions to take?

    If we have remarkable decrease in fish production, what are the priority suggestions to take? 

    Diego Vimos-Lojano · University of Cuenca

    Hello,
    Your question is very broad, we can say that there are several factors that can influence and it depends if it is an exotic or native species and the type of production (ex situ or in situ). Among the main lines you could investigate.

    1. Ecology of the species.
    1. Water quality, identify changes in the physical and chemical properties.
    2. Maximum production capacity.
    3. Common Diseases.

    I hope I have helped

  • Ramesh vb added an answer in Nonlinear Analysis:
    Which tool you prefer for non linear analysis and why?

    I just want to know which tool is used more for the fea non linear simulations. And the reason behind why we use that tool.

    Ramesh vb · tec India

    Yes I am asking about softwares avilable in market...

  • Chengkun Wang added an answer in Probes:
    What causes my sample spectral peak to change and appear so confused?

    Hello everyone ,currently I am doing one project about protein-peptide complex with a  low binding about 0.3mM by ITC.

       I prepare my protein with peptide at a ratio in 2:1 , and test sample stability
    in room temperature(22C). I overlap spectral (after3.5day ) with 1st spectral acquired in room probe. And I find sample after 3.5day can overlap all the signal with 1st day but appear additional 5 peak with a strong peak intensity. After 3.5day in room temperature.

       I didn't carry out NMR titration, because I find such sample have a dramatic conformation change after adding peptide against protein. I don't know where additional 6 peak come from. Thanks a lot!

    Chengkun Wang · Chinese Academy of Sciences

    The concentration of my protein(labeled no his sample ) is 0.45 mM. The spectral revealed a distinct folded conformation. Based on such concentration, I add peptide to prepare protein-peptide complex(such complex alos have a folded conformation ) at ratio 2:1. And additional 5 peak displayed in the middle of spectral width.

    Meantime I also design the same construct only C terminal attached a 6XHis tag(named his sample ) in order to prevent degradation. 15N NHSQC of such new sample show that most of peak overlap with the sample (No his sample) only two peak different in chemical shift. Based on same stratergy and same concentration, I prepared new complex (his sample). Simialr to the above complex (No his sample), most of peak overlap only two different. I also test stability for this sample after 3.5 day.

    Result have been shown that this complex(his sample) also display 5 additional peak nearly same to complex sample(No his).

    Same position for additional 5 peak in both two complex. ​

    For such conformation drmatic change, is it nesseary to carry out titration to determine ratio when prepare protein peptide complex.

    Because precipation will happen when mixed protein with peptide. That's the reason that why I ddin't do titration at the begining.

    Can I prepare a series of protein at a constant concentration and add differnent ratio peptide to such sample instead of common titration method? 

  • Vinay Chandwani added an answer in Neural Networks:
    What is the best way to ensure that there is no correlation between the inputs of neural network?

    Suppose a neural network with its inputs. But some of this inputs have correlation. And has a cause effect relation. Is there any way to find these inputs?

    Vinay Chandwani · Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur

    TO FIND THE IMPORTANCE OF THE INPUTS ON THE OUTPUT THE MOST EASY TO USE METHOD IS THE COSINE AMPLITUDE METHOD (CAM)

  • Sandip Balo asked a question in Abaqus:
    Why is my tube penetrating the mandrel in the pilgering process in my simulation in abaqus explicit?

    pilgering process is the simultaneous reduction in the tube diameter by the axial and rotational movement of the roller over a mandrel. in abaqus explicit i have used penalty contact algorithm between rollers and tube and tube and mandrel. Problem is tube is penetrating the mandrel after the tube is fed forward to a certain distance over the mandrel. rollers and mandrel have been considered discrete rigid while tube is deformable. i have increased the penalty stiffness factor by 10 but to no avail. please help. 

  • Maximum height for a 250W laser (mirror) for Direct Metal Laser Sintering?

    How do you determine the maximum height for a 250W laser for DMLS additive manufacturing technique? The laser is deflected through 3 mirrors and it is mounted on a CNC arm.

    Any help is appreciated.

    Muhammad Farhan · Hydroxyltek Pty Ltd

    Thank you Zol Bahri Razali. I will check that too.

  • Can the smeared crack model be used for open-hole laminates under compression?
    The smeared crack model has been used for open-hole tension.
    Zol Bahri Razali · Universiti Malaysia Perlis

    You can get the similar or apropriate answer by searching the keyword in the GOOGLE SCHOLAR page. Usually you will get the first paper similar to your keyword.

    From my experience, this way will help you a lot. If you still have a problem, do not hasitate to let me know.

    Kind regards, Dr ZOL BAHRI - Universiti Malaysia Perlis, MALAYSIA

  • Why Renilla measure decays very quickly in my samples?

    I am trying to perform a dual reporter assay with firefly and renilla luciferases (Promega). In the sequential protocol, first I measure firefly luciferase (whose gene in inserted in tubulin repeats to act as pol II promoter control) and then add Stop&Glo buffers to immediately measure the renilla luciferase (which is expected to measure the promoter activity of my sequences). The first measure is apparently correct but in the second one a high value of luminescence is observed in the first seconds but it decreases very quickly (much quicker than it should according to commercial protocol). As I took the measure of 30 seconds, the value is much closer to the background than to the first value observed in the luminometer. Any idea of what is happening?

    Many thanks

    Zol Bahri Razali · Universiti Malaysia Perlis

    You can get the similar or apropriate answer by searching the keyword in the GOOGLE SCHOLAR page. Usually you will get the first paper similar to your keyword.

    From my experience, this way will help you a lot. If you still have a problem, do not hasitate to let me know.

    Kind regards, Dr ZOL BAHRI - Universiti Malaysia Perlis, MALAYSIA

  • Raj Kumar added an answer in Light:
    Which light shows good increment in the degradation of dye with ZnO?

    Source :UV light and  Visible light.

    Can any one explain about Band gap of Photoinduced ZnO by UV  and Visible light.

    Raj Kumar · National College, Tiruchirappali

    Thanks...

  • Zol Bahri Razali added an answer in Nanotubes:
    How can I carry out doping of nanoballs or nanotubes inside glass?

    Does anyone have experience with the doping of nanoballs or nanotubes inside transparent dielectric like fused silica, PMMA etc.?

    Zol Bahri Razali · Universiti Malaysia Perlis

    You can get the similar or apropriate answer by searching the keyword in the GOOGLE SCHOLAR page. Usually you will get the first paper similar to your keyword.

    From my experience, this way will help you a lot. If you still have a problem, do not hasitate to let me know.

    Kind regards, Dr ZOL BAHRI - Universiti Malaysia Perlis, MALAYSIA

  • Zol Bahri Razali added an answer in Graphene:
    How can I functionalise graphene with APTES via a covalent reaction with hydroxy groups and si, not amine group?

    I know there are some articles that bond APTES via amine to carboxyl (from graphene).

    Zol Bahri Razali · Universiti Malaysia Perlis

    You can get the similar or apropriate answer by searching the keyword in the GOOGLE SCHOLAR page. Usually you will get the first paper similar to your keyword.

    From my experience, this way will help you a lot. If you still have a problem, do not hasitate to let me know.

    Kind regards, Dr ZOL BAHRI - Universiti Malaysia Perlis, MALAYSIA

  • Zol Bahri Razali added an answer in Semiconductor:
    What is the main reason Brillouin RLG and Raman RLG are not used extensively?

    What are the drawbacks of Brillouin RLG and Raman RLG as compared to semiconductor RLG ?

    Zol Bahri Razali · Universiti Malaysia Perlis

    You can get the similar or apropriate answer by searching the keyword in the GOOGLE SCHOLAR page. Usually you will get the first paper similar to your keyword.

    From my experience, this way will help you a lot. If you still have a problem, do not hasitate to let me know.

    Kind regards, Dr ZOL BAHRI - Universiti Malaysia Perlis, MALAYSIA

  • Zol Bahri Razali added an answer in Oxide Glasses:
    How do you calculate current density in a melanin film synthesis experiment?

    In the experiment for synthesis melanin film: I use fluorine doped tin oxide glass (Anode) and aluminium (Cathode) in the 50 mM dopa mixed with borax buffer at pH 8. For synthesis melanin film, I use gulvanostatic method by the source of energy is power supply and the fluorine doped tin oxide glass has size 25x40x2 mm ,7 Ω/sq.

    How can I calculate current density if I want to use the current density is 10 mA/cmfor synthesis melanin film?

    Zol Bahri Razali · Universiti Malaysia Perlis

    You can get the similar or apropriate answer by searching the keyword in the GOOGLE SCHOLAR page. Usually you will get the first paper similar to your keyword.

    From my experience, this way will help you a lot. If you still have a problem, do not hasitate to let me know.

    Kind regards, Dr ZOL BAHRI - Universiti Malaysia Perlis, MALAYSIA

  • In elderly patients more than 70 years old, do you recommend laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy?

    In elderly patients more than 70 years old with gall bladder stones, do you recommend laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy?

    Or , no surgery at all except in emergency or profound complaint?

    Muthukumaran Rangarajan · Kovai Medical Center and Hospital

    Dr.Borodach,

    When you said "a routine procedure is indicated" - I assume you mean laparoscopic chole. In our center, elderly patients who need cholecystectomy with mild or manageable comorbids are always treated with a laparoscopic procedure with excellent outcomes.

    Indeed, these days its rare to find an elderly patient requiring surgery without comorbids !

  • Sanjay Kumar added an answer in Allozymes:
    How can I calculate selective sweep from allozyme data?

    I have allele frequency and geneotypic frequency data of allozymes in natural populations of Drosophila. By using these data,  how can i calculate selective sweep?

    Sanjay Kumar · Banaras Hindu University

    Thank you very much Prof. Wallis.

  • Zol Bahri Razali added an answer in Zirconium:
    What is a chemical method for coating Zirconia with ZrO Cl2?

    Again I want someone help me to use a chemical method to coat ZrO2 particles with Cl2.

    Zol Bahri Razali · Universiti Malaysia Perlis

    You can get the similar or apropriate answer by searching the keyword in the GOOGLE SCHOLAR page. Usually you will get the first paper similar to your keyword.

    From my experience, this way will help you a lot. If you still have a problem, do not hasitate to let me know.

    Kind regards, Dr ZOL BAHRI - Universiti Malaysia Perlis, MALAYSIA

  • Ricardo Frausto added an answer in Transfection:
    Can anyone suggest an alternative method over western blot if no good antibody available for a gene ?

    I have transfected tumor cells with pcDNA for a gene of interest. I have tried 5 antibodies for the same gene from different providers, but none of them worked nicely so far. I have mRNA upregulation results from qRT-PCR. Could you suggest an alternative method to show overexpression of that gene at protein level?

    Ricardo Frausto · Stein Eye Institute, UCLA

    Great suggestions from Luke and Justin!

    Prior to giving up on the western, you need to determine whether your construct (CMV driven I presume) is working as it should (i.e., overexpressing your gene of interest). You can do this by using a bicistronic IRES vector. I would use some fluorescent protein (e.g., GFP) as your reporter so that you can visualize via fluorescence microscopy. Using an IRES containing reporter construct would also afford you the ability to avoid tagging your protein, which may impact the normal function of the protein.

    You can also consider an ELISA. I have performed this using whole brain tissue lysates and it worked amazingly well, even though the assays are often geared towards measuring protein in supernatant or plasma. If I'm not mistaken, I think some companies are now selling kits that have been tested on whole cell lysates. Anyway, worth considering as ELISAs are more sensitive than WB. Also, antibodies that don't work by WB may work in ELISA since they may recognize the native protein better than the fully reduced protein by WB (can try a non-reducing gel as suggested already in WB).

    Last resort would be to do an immunoprecipitation of your protein to concentrate your protein of interest, but having to do this may just indicate that your construct is not working as it should.

    Maybe your gene of interest just needs to be subcloned into a different vector altogether.

    Best of luck.

  • F. Caballero-Briones added an answer in Perovskites:
    How we can etch and pattern FTO glass with Zinc powder and HCl for perovskite solar cells?

    How we can mask?

    F. Caballero-Briones · National Polytechnic Institute-CICATA Altamira

    Spread some powder onto the subtrate uniformly, add some hcl drops and let bubble for a while until fto is dissolved

  • Zol Bahri Razali added an answer in MPB:
    Can a minor secondary phase near MPB lead to non uniform grain size distribution?

    When a binary system forms a Morphotropic Phase Boundary (MPB), and if a minor secondary phase exists near MPB throughout, can it leads to a non uniform grain size distributions. Is it one of the reason to observe Diffused Phase Transitions near MPB.

    Zol Bahri Razali · Universiti Malaysia Perlis

    You can get the similar or apropriate answer by searching the keyword in the GOOGLE SCHOLAR page. Usually you will get the first paper similar to your keyword.

    From my experience, this way will help you a lot. If you still have a problem, do not hasitate to let me know.

    Kind regards, Dr ZOL BAHRI - Universiti Malaysia Perlis, MALAYSIA

  • Zol Bahri Razali added an answer in CZTS:
    Can CZTS exhibit n type conductivity? If yes in which Cu/Zn+Sn and Zn/Sn ratio?

    most of the references mention about p-type conductivity of CZTS due to CuZn antisite defects. Is is possible to make stable n-type absorber layer of CZTS by controlling the atomic % and temperature?

    Zol Bahri Razali · Universiti Malaysia Perlis

    You can get the similar or apropriate answer by searching the keyword in the GOOGLE SCHOLAR page. Usually you will get the first paper similar to your keyword.

    From my experience, this way will help you a lot. If you still have a problem, do not hasitate to let me know.

    Kind regards, Dr ZOL BAHRI - Universiti Malaysia Perlis, MALAYSIA

  • Zol Bahri Razali added an answer in Robotics:
    It's true to use of linearization to control of 3D bipedal robot?

    its true to use of linearization to control of 3D bipedal robot

    Zol Bahri Razali · Universiti Malaysia Perlis

    You can get the similar or apropriate answer by searching the keyword in the GOOGLE SCHOLAR page. Usually you will get the first paper similar to your keyword.

    From my experience, this way will help you a lot. If you still have a problem, do not hasitate to let me know.

    Kind regards, Dr ZOL BAHRI - Universiti Malaysia Perlis, MALAYSIA

  • Jong-Huy Kim added an answer in Cyclic Voltammetry:
    How is the current sign defined in cyclic voltammetry of ideal electrical double layer capacitors?

    We are involved in comparing specific capacitances derived from CV (cyclic voltammetry) experiments and from galvanic discharge experiments. In our CV experiments, at a particular scan rate (say 5-200 mV/s), we see a generally symmetrical disposition of the CV curve above and below "0" current. When discharging, the current changes sign from positive to negative as the applied potential is decreased from maximum to minimum, and as the resulting current changes from a maximum positive value to maximum negative value. These behaviors are revised on reversing the potential scan. There are no Faradaic electron transfer processes involved. So what causes the current to reverse sign shortly after beginning discharge and again shortly after beginning charging?

    Jong-Huy Kim · Korea Institute of Energy Research
    Exactly saying, the current  from CV is 'a response current' on the weep(scan) rate. The reason that the sign of response current is not instantly reversed according to the changed sign of scan rate is due to a nonideal polarization of porous electrode caused by internal resistance within  pore structure, as an iR drop effect. Formore inforamtion, please refer to "Electrochemical Capacitor and Hybrid Power Sources", Proceeding Volume 2002-7(ISBN 1-56677-325-3) published by ECS, 2002, pp 5-8.