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  • Ana Camacho added an answer in Intelligence:
    In your opinion, which variables influence students' motivation?

    I am working on the development of a workshop designed to teachers about how to motivate students to study. Implicit theories of intelligence is, undoubtedly, an important topic to discuss with them! In your opinion, which variables influence motivation towards study?

    Ana Camacho

    David Charles Wright-Carr, M. Şahin Bülbül, Harshvardhan Singh, Daniela Vandepeer, Silvana Best, Mark E Gould, Bobby Hoffman, Debra Sharon Ferdinand, Silburn Clarke and Ian Kennedy,

    Thank you so much for your opinions! My own motivation about this topic has been renewed with your answers.

  • Vania Baldi added an answer in Attachment Disorders:
    Is attachment disorder the environmental root of sociopathy?

    In  Martha Stout's book, The Sociopath Next Door, she writes "Children who suffer from attachment disorder are impulsive and emotionally cold and sometimes dangerously violent towards their parents, siblings, playmates, and pets. They tend to steal, vandalize, + start fires, + they often spend time in detention facilities when they are young + in jail when they become adults, just like sociopaths".

    Is anyone familiar with this phenomenon?

    Vania Baldi

    Dear Beatrice,

    I advice you Howard Gardner: Art, Mind and of Multiple Intelligence, (1983), and Multiple Intelligences After Twenty Years (2003). 

    Also: B. F. Skinner, was an American psychologist behaviorist: Contingencies of Reinforcement: A Theoretical Analysis.

    Finally, the extraordinary psychoanalyst Melanie Klein: The Psychoanalysis of Children and Narrative of a Child Analysis, 

    I hope you find it useful


  • Andrés Granados added an answer in Boundary Layer:
    Which is the most latest and suitable numerical method for soving boundary layer flow equations in fluid flow???

    Boundary layer fluid flow containing microorganism is my research topic.So i need some suggestions regarding numerical methods by which i can do my research so easily.

    Andrés Granados

    LES = Large eddy simulation.

  • Abdelkader BOUAZIZ added an answer in Polyvinyl Alcohol:
    Hi, Which grade of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is considered as a best surfactant for polymeric nanoparticles?

    Waiting for answer.

    Abdelkader BOUAZIZ

    Dear ????

    low molecular weight PVAl are the more suited. Regards

  • Shabnam Yazdani Mehr added an answer in Adaptive Reuse:
    What types of problems are engaged in the adaptive reuse process?

    I am doing my research on adaptive reuse in architecture. I would like to know from an expert point of view, what are the problems in adaptive reuse that need more research? I thought about building typology, interior design and landscape in term of adaptive reuse. I also would like to know different ideas in this case. Thank you in advance for all your help.

    Shabnam Yazdani Mehr

    thanks indeed for your help. I wish you luck with your research.

  • Mohammad Israr Khan added an answer in Rationality:
    How do the economists define self-interest and rationality?

    How do the economists define self-interest and rationality so as to make these concepts different from the animal instincts, beast behaviour, and barbarism? What is that which forms and what is that which does not form the self-interest? Moreover, are these the behavioural guides for all individuals? Are these the collective guides for policy making? 

    Given the propensity for free riding in each economic-beast, does not the collective policy results into a collective free riding of those who make policies over those who do not?

    Mohammad Israr Khan

    Sir Yoshinori,

    You have certainly raised the level of discussion to very high standards of academic rigour. I cannot gather courage to comment on your content. But I will surely see the others, like Sir Guy or Sir Robin, making points with you.

    With lots of thanks and best regards


  • Stam Nicolis added an answer in Gravitational Field:
    Is the non locality of the gravitational field energy a serious problem for General Relativity (GRT)?



    "Although there is no room for such a thing in the energy–

    momentum tensor T, it is clear that there are situations where a ‘disembodied’

    gravitational energy is actually playing a physical role.

    Imagine  two massive bodies (planets, say). If they are close together (and we can

    suppose that they are instantaneously at rest relative to each other), then

    there will be a (negative) gravitational potential energy contribution which

    makes the total energy, and therefore the total mass, smaller than it would

    be if they are far apart.  Ignoring much tinier energy effects,

    such as distortions of each body’s shape due to the gravitational tidal field

    of the other, we see that the total contributions from the actual energy–

    momentum tensor T will be the same whether the two bodies are close

    together or far apart. Yet, the total mass/energy will differ in the two cases,

    and this difference would be attributed to the energy in the gravitational

    field itself (in fact a negative contribution, that is more sizeable when the

    bodies are close than when they are far apart)." 


    The same problem was also rised by Thirring, Kalman and Feynman in the FGT theory, they inserted the gravitational energy in the tensor equations...

    It is a problem of paramount importance which prevents the General relativity theory from describing any motion in which the hamiltonian is time dependent or rather in case of non isolated systems, or in case of non stationary interactions between different bodies.

    The attempt to model a free falling body in a gravitational field for GRT seems impossible.

    GRT has been tested  only for static or stationary systems where there is not a net exchange of energy (excluding gravitational radiation)

    Don't we need another GRAVITATIONAL THEORY which includes the results give by GRT in order to explain with a better accuracy the simple phenomenon like the free falling of a mass in a gravitational field?

    Stam Nicolis

    The Lorentz transformations can't be *proven* they are *postulated* and consequences are deduced. Demonstrating special relativity means checking that  systems related by  Lorentz transformations are equivalent-it's the same thing. To do this means checking that quantities that are supposed to be invariant, are indeed-that's where experiment comes in. However it's wrong, having related two systems by Lorentz transformations, to then be surprised that quantities that are not invariant under such transformations, are different in the two systems. The mathematical statement is that Maxwell's equations are invariant under Lorentz transformations and that statement has consequences that can be tested by experiment, namely checking that certain quantities that are supposed to be invariant, if this were the case, are, indeed, invariant. Just like in Newtonian mechanics one uses the law of conservation of energy, to test that the system studied is, indeed, properly closed-and vice versa. Energy is conserved in relativistic mechanics, too-and more subtly when gravitational effects must be taken into account. The difference between relativistic and Newtonian mechanics can be checked, indeed, by measuring quantities that are invariant in one case and not in the other, in particular, by measuring the consequences of a difference of the speed of light, since this speed is an invariant in relativistic mechanics and not in Newtonian mechanics.

    Once more, it doesn't matter, beyond history of science, what any one person wrote, at any one time, beyond the mathematics and the experiments. The mathematics and physics can be expressed in many different ways that can be shown to be equivalent technically, though can appear quite different. That Einstein and others chose to use certain examples that these days, appear strange, is irrelevant to the content. It doesn't make sense to perform textual analysis on scientific papers or books, but to understand the idea and work out the consequences for oneself. 

  • Na Le asked a question in Diffraction:
    Why we have many small spots on eletron diffraction pattern?

    Can anyone explain me why we have many smaller spot on the diffraction pattern despite the spots which are clearly visible. I attatched the images below.
    My suggestion is: the pattern recorded more than one crystalline, so the diffraction patterns of the two overlap.
    Can one make me clear about this.

    + 1 more attachment

  • Suhail Najm Shahab asked a question in LTE:
    Maximum SINR for LTE?

    Dear all,

    I working on enhancing the SINR value for LTE, I know there is a minimum requirement for SINR on LTE based on MCS (QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM).

    my question is there is any range for maximum SINR value? 

  • Ierardi Enzo added an answer in AIDS:
    What do you want to say bout HIV infection and AIDS ?

    December 1st is World Aids Day. HIV infection- the current situation worldwide is a conflagration for human being. HIV infection can be prevented and the epidemic can be controlled. Why does HIV infection still spread swiftly and widely in the world? Why cannot all infected persons be treated? No one takes responsible for the spreading No effective ways are for future. Where will human society go?

    Ierardi Enzo

    Being HIV positive is not synonymous with AIDS. Many people with HIV do not progress to the clinical stage called AIDS.

    HIV is not a virus that is transmitted in the normal life of relationships, at home, in public places such as bars or school transportation; there are even problems to live with an infected person, in fact you could safely hug and kiss, drink from the same glass with a person suffering from the disease, because the HIV virus is not transmitted through coughing, urine, feces , saliva, sneezing.

    Therefore, only prevention is to accurate monitoring and protection of sexual relations.

  • Kouser . added an answer in Sequence Analysis:
    Can someone help in the DNA sequencing technique and recommend a book and a program for the sequence analysis?

    Plz i want some help in the DNA sequencing technique, so any recommendation for a book and a programe for the sequence analysis???

    Kouser .


    David W. Mount's "Bioinformatics" [Cold Spring Harbor Press; ISBN 0879697121].

    Definitely a must own and read if you are into Biological Sequence Analysis.

    Will get back to you with names of two more books shortly.

    Best regards,

  • Farhan Younas added an answer in Protein Denaturation:
    Urea as protein denaturant?

    Do you know If the urea is quite more efficient than SDS as a protein denaturant?  I always experience a smear in my SDS-PAGE and I thought Urea may help me in getting rid of this smear.

    Farhan Younas

    The smear you get is mostly because of very high concentrations of detergents in your sample. For checking in SDS you can quickly exchange the buffer via amicon filters and then run SDS. Do you calculate the concentration of protein before loading on the gel? maybe you are loading too much protein?

  • Abu-Bakr M. Gomaa added an answer in Science, Technology & Society Studies (STS):
    Is there still a gulf between scientists and ‘intellectuals’? Which of them have more influence on people’s worldviews?

    Traditional intellectuals –thinkers, writers, political and social commentators, and artists- have historically played a major role in the diffusion of the ideas that shape the ways people see the world and their own society and lives

    In the prominent book The Third Culture (1995), John Brockman claimed that these kinds of intellectuals have “become increasingly marginalized”. They are being replaced by scientists who, “through their work and expository writing”, communicate directly with the general public. These “third-culture intellectuals” would be represented by the likes of Paul Davies, Martin Rees, Richard Dawkins, Steve Jones, Daniel C. Dennett, Brian Goodwin, W. Daniel Hillis, Nicholas Humphrey and many others.  

    The culture of traditional intellectuals, says Brockman, “dismisses science”, is “often nonempirical”, uses “its own jargon”, and “is chiefly characterized by comment on comments, the swelling spiral of commentary eventually reaching the point where the real world gets lost”.

    The idea of a Third Culture has its origin in C.P. Snow’s influential “Two Cultures”   essay (1959), in which the British scientist and novelist deplored the “mutual incomprehension” –“sometimes hostility”-- between science and the arts. Scientists shared a “culture” –no matter their political, religious, social class and even disciplinary differences-, with common attitudes, standards, approaches, assumptions and patterns of behavior, At the opposite pole, attitudes were more diverse, but the total incomprehension gave an “unscientific flavor” –often almost “antiscientific”— to the whole “traditional culture”. Moreover, scientists largely overlooked traditional literature, which they perceived as irrelevant to their interests, while most intellectuals were unable to describe something as basic as the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

    Snow saw such disconnection and polarization as a “sheer lose” to society and stressed the need to build bridges between the sides. In a second essay, published in 1963, he suggested that the gap would be closed by a “Third Culture” that would eventually emerge. In his version of this new culture, intellectuals would communicate with scientists.    

    Not long ago, a column in Scientific American stated that Snow’s vision “has gone unrealized” (see Krauss, Lawrence M.: “An Update on C.P. Snow’s ‘Two Cultures’”, August 17, 2009).

    What is your opinion? Is there such a cultural divide? Are intellectuals scientifically illiterate? Do scientists ignore the basics of the humanities? Which of them have more influence on the public? What kind of Third Culture –if any- is emerging?

    + 4 more attachments

    Abu-Bakr M. Gomaa
    I think the intellectuals are more effective than the scientists because they are able to express themselves in the media more than the scientists.
  • Mridul Sarker asked a question in Grid:
    Can you suggest any carbon grid that can bind with protein ?

    I am trying to fix protein molecule on carbon grid. I want to take TEM image. i am finding difficulties in fixing protein on carbon grid. is there any modifies carbon grid available ?

  • Fajar Abdurrahman asked a question in OpenCV:
    How to make an image-based visual servo control system?

    I want to build visual control using opencv in raspberry. After some research, i found that this control system is the best and most possible to built. Are there anyone who knew the best tutorial in my case? thank's

  • Song Lin asked a question in PAML:
    What kind of trees has "branch label" required in PAML?

    I rencently try BEB test in PAML codeML, using the tree as newick format build by phylip like that:


    but after setting up the parameter and run the program it shows this:

    Error: need branch labels in the tree for the model..

    I have no such problem when running NEB test. I don't know what "branch label" require in PAML cause the number in the tree file are the "branch label".

  • Madhava Meegaskumbura added an answer in Academic Journals:
    PLOS ONE, PeerJ or conventional journals for publication? - suggestions for early career professionals
    PLOS ONE, PeerJ and other open access peer reviewed journals are coming as the best alternative academic publications to the conventional journals. There is debate going on which one is better, the image of IMPACT FACTOR is also controversial. What are your thoughts for the early career professionals to publish on the emerging open access journals like PLOS ONE and PeerJ?
    Madhava Meegaskumbura

    I guess, for OA journals, its a time for experimentation and for traditional journals its a time for adaptation. Its hard to asses who will prevail (or become dominant) due to the dynamic nature of the processes being tried out.

    For instance, there is another new high IF OA journal, ELIFE which tries to dramatically cut down on "time for publication" while keeping up the quality. They are trying yet another unique process where OA journals are collaborating with each other. Also the editor gives a single set of instructions to the author based on reviewer reports. 

    Traditional journals mostly also try to adapt to the new background by offering the choice of OA to their articles, cutting down on "time for publication" and collaborating with other traditional journals, often within a publishing group.

  • Ivan Semernik added an answer in Symbolism:
    How to separate positive and negative symbolic variables of an equation to the left and right sides of the equation in MATLAB?

    for example we have this equation :
    3*a - 2*b + 5*c - d = 0 

    First I need to separate positive and negative variables to both side of equation:
    3*a + 5*c = 2*b + d

    and then take only the coefficient of each symbolic variables:
    3 + 5 = 2 + 1 

    Thank you 

    Ivan Semernik

    Hi Sivanandam Kaliannan,

    Matlab help document is a very handy tool that conveniently categorized. In addition, it is possible to use a keyword search for entering key words in the search bar.

    If this method did not give results, or you need to solve a complex problem, which still has not been studied, it is possible to try to find a discussion on the any forum of a similar easier task. Solution of the problem you may not found, but it is several times helped me find references to Matlab functions, which I later used for the solution of my tasks.

    Another way is to ask question in the forum, likely someone already faced similar tasks. Besides, it is always interesting to see how other professionals approached to the solution of the problem.

  • Rudolf Ritt added an answer in Beetles:
    Can anybody determine this Cerambycid beetle?

    Determination only with pictures is difficult or impossible, I know.

    I thought, it is Acmaeops septentrionis, but I am not sure.

    Germany, Bayerischer Wald, 320 m, Meadow in a small river valley, 2009-05-17

    Thank you for your help!

    Rudolf Ritt

    + 1 more attachment

    Rudolf Ritt

    Thank you very much, Fabian.

    I tried to retrace this with FHL and I could see my failure. Supplemementary, Acmaeops septentrionis has hairy elytra and is also much smaller than St. scutella. What the picture also shows, is the "rough dotted anterior third of the elytra getting more fine to the apex". 

    Best wishes


  • Ghada Abdallah asked a question in Hydroxychloroquine:
    Why hydroxychloroquine can treat primary ITP with positive ANA antibody and can't if it is negative? and what is the evidence?


  • Farhan Younas added an answer in Saw:
    Western blotting

    although I saw spesific binding before. now I don't see any spesific bind. everything that I use is same but I didn't see at the latest a few assays. What could be the problem? Is it perishable homogenates? my homogenates have been waiting for about 6 months and without proteases and B-mercaptoethanol

    Western blot non-specific bands?

    Farhan Younas

    Antibodies binding quite also depend on their LOT. the batch of their production. If you are using the same batch as you used before, then maybe you have problems of protein degradation. Maybe you can try with fresh homogenates, with protease inhibitors added. Some proteins are not very stable in liquid suspension. 

  • Abdul Rehman added an answer in Financial Support:
    Which are the methods of Government financial support for SMEs?

    Especially,  the method of finances with grants. 

    Abdul Rehman

    Kindly visit these two links and read the articles, I hope these will help you.



  • Vladyslav Mirutenko asked a question in France:
    Does anyone has an article by W.Wittmer?

    I'm looking for the article by W.Wittmer: Contribution à la faune de l'Iran 3. Coléoptères Drilidae, Cantharidae et Malachiidae // Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 1967, 3: 1087-1091.

  • Hugh J Byrne added an answer in Raman Scattering:
    What is the difference between PL(Photoluminescence ) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy ?

    raman/ gemmology/ PL

    Hugh J Byrne

    From the answers above, it is important to note that Raman is a scattering technique, which is inelastic because of interaction with the vibrations of the atoms in a molecule or solid (not a single atom). It  can occur nonresonantly, and therefore instantaneously, and the selection rules which govern it require a change in polarisability of the bond at the zero point of the vibration, as opposed to IR spectroscopy, which similarly probes vibrations, but as it is an electric dipole transition it requires a change in electric dipole. Raman therefore tends to be good for symmetric, polarisable moieties, whereas IR is better for asymmetric, polar bonds.

    This does a comparison of Raman and IR in the context of clinical applications.

    “Raman Microscopy: Complement or Competitor?”,
    Hugh J. Byrne, Ganesh D. Sockalingum and Nick Stone,
    in ”Biomedical Applications of Synchrotron Infrared Microspectroscopy: A Practical Approach”, David Moss, (Editor), RSC Analytical Spectroscopy Monographs No. 11 (2011) ISBN: 978-0-85404-154-1

    Photoluminescence, is a radiative relaxation of an already electronically excited state. It is governed by the selection rules of an electronic dipole transition and has a characteristic lifetime (transition probability), although this can be very strongly affected by the competing nonradiative processes (quenching).

  • Omid Mahian asked a question in Thermal Conductivity:
    Thermal conductivity of SiO2 nanoparticles is about 1.4 W/mK at 25C, I want thermal conductivity values by 60 C. Can you help me?

    Materials and Mechanical Engineers

  • Ponkumar Ilango added an answer in Construction:
    How can I classify FA and CA in C&D waste?

    construction and demolition waste. How can I classify FA and CA in C&D waste?

    Ponkumar Ilango

    Dear Guna Sekar ,

    I'm attaching here with One Information for your reference.  

  • Lenyna Santos asked a question in Forestry:
    How does India or other countries implement a forestry extension program or education? what institutions are responsible for this?

    forestry extension, in the case of the Philippines, is a non formal education trying to help and educate people. It is like an out of school education but this is still organized and systematic

  • Vedvyas Jayprakash Dwivedi added an answer in Conjoint Analysis:
    Is there any manual available for doing conjoint analysis through SPSS?

    Any material will be great help.

    Vedvyas Jayprakash Dwivedi
    SPSS auto spell difficulty...
  • Diana da silva added an answer in Political Development:
    How colonialism has effected institutional development and it's impacts on economic and political development?

    Any literature suggestions,,,Thanking in advance 

    Diana da silva

    thank you very much Tarron Khemraj,,your references will be helpful..your paper is quiet interesting..

  • Amallah Lamiae added an answer in Durum Wheat:
    Reviwers of agronomy and genetic evolution in french please?


    Can anyone be a reviwer of my manuscript in french?I need 2 reviewers please, the subject of my paper is abbout the genetic diversity of durum wheat.

    Amallah Lamiae

    Thanks Dr Salem.

    Best wishes,