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  • Debabani Roy Chowdhury added an answer in Amplicon:
    Are amplicons from qPCR at the end of reaction eligible for gel electrophoresis?


    As a beginner I am learning the concept of qPCR.

    Would you let me know if ,at the end of the qPCR reaction, the qPCR product(Amplicons) can be used for gel electophoresis or not? If not, please let me know why it is not possible to do gel loading.

    Thank you. 

    Debabani Roy Chowdhury · Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology

    Yes, you can do gel electrophoresis of the qPCR product.

  • Sivanantham S added an answer in CMOS:
    How to calculate and get good components value in CMOS power amplifier design?

    Cascode, input matching, output matching.

    Sivanantham S · VIT University

    You must have proper understanding of the design like specifications and what is the target application etc. Then do the analytical work to finalize the component values.

  • Kotagiri Gangaprasad asked a question in PWSCF:
    Geometry optimization of a unitcell using PWscf?

    1) To get convergence, first I need to do some scf calculation by varying ecut,lattice parameters and k-points and using with the converged values I do relax (or vc-relax) calculations and then scf calculations afterward required properties calculation.

    2) I need to do vc-relax calculations to get force on atom 0.01eV and then do scf calculations by varying ecut, lattice parameter and k points for convergence then required properties calculation.

    Which one is correct otherwise please post your answer.

    Thanks in Advance.

  • Virendra Singh Rana added an answer in Essential Oils:
    What are the recent data of total area under cultivation and production of natural essential oils in India?

    What are the authentic sources to get these information? 

    Virendra Singh Rana · Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India

    Its difficult even today in India but data will be available with Essential oil Association of India and then commerce ministry export data.

  • Mohd Nurazzi Norizan asked a question in Spectroscopy:
    Is there anyone experienced in calculating polyene index and carbonyl index from FTIR spectroscopy.?

    I have read one of the journals that describe about FTIR spectroscopy. Another way to elaborate the data is by calculation of polyene index and carbonyl index.

    Is there anyone experienced in calculating the polyene and carbonyl index.? My pleasure if someone can describe it for me.

    Thank you.

  • Karisiddaiah sm added an answer in Analytical Geochemistry:
    Sodium, Na, is commonly found in various molecules, however, what happens to the accompanying chlorine ions from dissolving salt, NaCl? Is Cl inert?

    Sodium is found in many minerals and seems to be able to exchange between salt (from seawater) and into different carbonate deposits, albite, feldspar etc. If salt is the source for the Sodium in these “new” minerals – what happens to the accompanying Chlorine ions from the salt? Chlorine is found in very few substances in the sub surface and encountered mostly as hydrochloric acid in some volcanic settings. The mass balance for Chlorine therefore does not seem to add up. What could be the explanation for this?

    Karisiddaiah sm · National Institute of Oceanography

    Thanks Dr Geoffrey

  • Roger Zapata added an answer in Surveillance:
    What are methods of surveillance in geographically scattered areas?

    What are methods of surveillance in geographically scattered areas?

    Roger Zapata · Individual

    Hola, entiendo que la genotipificación es uno de los pasos finales del proceso de vigilancia, en este caso son resultados de laboratorio, pero no debemos olvidar que hay un proceso previo que comprende desde la identificación de un caso hasta la obtención de la muestra, incluido su transporte a un laboratorio de referencia. Creo que a eso se refiere la pregunta, ¿Cómo o que métodos de vigilancia se pueden implementar la vigilancia en zonas dispersas?, zonas que generalmente se caracterizan por estar ubicadas en áreas rurales de poco o difícil acceso.

    I understand that the genotyping is one of the final steps of the surveillance process in this case are laboratory results, but we must not forget that there is a prior process from the identification of a case to obtain the sample, including transfer to a reference laboratory. I think that the question is about, how or surveillance methods can be implemented surveillance in scattered areas ?, areas generally characterized by being located in rural areas with limited Access.

  • Hamidreza Farhidzadeh added an answer in MATLAB:
    Is the rank function reliable?

    Is the rank function reliable in MATLAB?

    Hamidreza Farhidzadeh · University of South Florida


    Rank function of what exactly do you mean?

  • Vishal Vasistha asked a question in Fuels:
    I want to enroll in phd in india. i am interested in the topic "reduction in emissions in diesel engine by fuel blending". may i know a new fuel?

    i want to enroll in phd in india. i am interested in the topic "reduction in emissions in diesel engine by fuel blending". may i know the new fuel name for my research work that has not been used anywhere and can be easily available? i went through many research papers, they have used various fuels with diesel like CNG,LPG,Biogas,Methane,Hydrogen etc. so almost research have been done using different fuels with diesel. i want to reduce emissions by using some fuel that has not been used till now for research work and can get positive results. thanks

  • Hamidreza Farhidzadeh added an answer in Association Rule Mining:
    Any suggestions on data mining & association rule & bayesian network?

    Im going work on "Offshoring association rules for improvement unsuccessful organizations in ERP (enterprise resource planning) by using Bayesian network (BN)" . and I am using than WEKA software. but i dont know exactly what algorithm I use?
     because apriori algorithm is used to association Rule mining. And the role of Bayesian networks are not clear.
    Please guide me about work process



    Hamidreza Farhidzadeh · University of South Florida

    Hi Milad,

    Please send me the message to send you the reference

  • S M Pandi Subramanian asked a question in Academics:
    Anyone interested to join as Academic Editors?

    Hi Peers, I am with my team currently building a product with the next generation peer review system for academics. We are looking for eminent editors to join us and help improving the articles quality to meet the scholarly merit. Interested peers, please share your Name, Position, Area of Expertise. Looking forward to work with great scientific minds.

  • Hamidreza Farhidzadeh added an answer in Weka:
    What algorithms in weka software is Better for ""association rules mining by using Bayesian network (BN)"" ?

    I know apriori algorithm use for association rules mining but I dont know what algorithm use for association rules mining by bayesian network in weka software.

    if you know please guide

    Hamidreza Farhidzadeh · University of South Florida

    Hi Milad,

    Please send me the message to send you the reference.

  • Sukhada Bhingarkar added an answer in Cloud Security:
    Can anyone suggest a tool / way to simulate EDoS (Economic Denial of Sustainability) attack on cloud?


    Can anyone suggest me the tool / way to simulate EDoS (Economic Denial of Sustainability) attack on cloud?



    Sukhada Bhingarkar · MAEER`s MIT College of Engineering

    Instead of setting up a cloud with Openstack, can I make use of Amazon's Virtual Private Cloud (VPC)?



  • Simon Ngugi asked a question in Information Sharing:
    Could you give me ideas on the survey instruments that can be used to measure information sharing and use of technology in a supply chain ?

    I,m trying to measure information sharing and use of technology in a supply chain

  • Marković G. Đoko added an answer in Autonomy:
    How important is learner autonomy?

    To what extent do learners get a better educational experience when they take control of/responsibility for their own learning?

    Marković G. Đoko · University of Montenegro

    Autonomy implies limited freedom. In my opinion controlled freedom gives positive effects in work with learners.

  • Felicia Cooper asked a question in E-Therapy:
    What is the difference between e-counseling and e-therapy?

    Difference between e-counseling and e-therapy?

  • Ahmed Najar added an answer in Total Synthesis:
    Any idea about the total synthesis of PYRIDINE-2-CARBOXAMIC ACID?

    I am trying to synthesize this compound to use it as a standard. I am not very strict on purity as I will not use it in a mix.

    Ahmed Najar · University of Alberta

    Thanks a lot Eric! picolinic acid and CDI  should be at equal stoichiometry, is that what you meant by e.q.?

  • Sangram Shamrao Patil asked a question in Phthalates:
    What is the procedure to extract phthalates from liquid solution?

    Phthalates, Extraction

  • Magloire Lobetti added an answer in Exercise Movement Techniques:
    What is better for core strength, abdominal bracing or hollowing?

    Many research have spoken a lot on theories and exercises but very few with applications. First I would like to hear your thought on the subject and exercises you personally use with patient/students or have used yourself

    Magloire Lobetti · Humber College

    I think you have couple interesting factors. I strongly agree with ensuring their adherence. Another good factor you pointed out is the country; the ability to adhere to the type of dynamics in that community and assessing the mechanisms behind the pain. I often use diaphragmatic breathing exercises first as a warm-up to help activate the abdominal muscles before involving any functional movements. Stuart MC-Gill emphasizes on the use of the Lewitt exercise which I found extremely important in proprioception and mind muscle connection. I will read your article and further investigate your methods. 



  • Asa Wu added an answer in Sampling:
    How to treat cell in time-dependent?

    Hello All,

    I am doing an experiment to treat the same dose of a certain substance to cells and leave them for different time periods: 12, 24, 36 hrs and compare with no-treatment cell. I would like to know what is the right way to do it? Should I treat every cells conditions at the same time first, then collect the cell sample in different time, or treat the cells in different time, then collect all the cell samples at the same time?

    Thank you

    Asa Wu · Mahidol University

    Thank you Jochen. I would like to ask a bit more about which way to start.

    In case of starting all treatment at t0 and harvesting cells at different times, It is good to let the cell start at the same growth rate and see the effect of the treatment as it goes, but what's about the control/non-treatment cell which is used to compare. If I measure the cell at 5 point times for example: harvest after 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th hr. Which time point I should harvest for the control?

    In other hand, start treating at different t and harvesting all cells at last time point together and if the treatment results some cell death. The cells will have a different cell number when it is treated at different time point, for example cell treated at t5 will have more time to grow and more cell number than cell treated at t1 is.  Is these comparable?

  • Marković G. Đoko added an answer in Future:
    What world will look like in 2050?

    Our future is not inevitable. What is possible, what changes and what is unvarying? What do you think? 

    Marković G. Đoko · University of Montenegro

    It will happen many technological "miracles". We'll go shopping at a moon. Underwater cities will be normal phenomenon etc.

  • Hamid Mojarrad added an answer in Writing:
    Does student knowledge of L1 writing conventions influence L2 writing?

    In a previous question I asked, most people agreed that L1 writing ABILITY correlates with L2 writing ability.  This is my follow-up:

    Are conventions for L1 writing in a given culture sometimes different from the expectations of the L2 culture?  If so, how can we help students take advantage of similarities and avoid the problems resulting from differences?

    I am asking this because I am working with some students who have the thesis that conventions for writing in Mandarin Chinese are different from expectations in English writing, particularly in non-fiction informative and persuasive writing, such as would be used in classroom writing assignments. 

    I look forward to your insights.  If anyone had relevant literature citations, I would appreciate them.

    Hamid Mojarrad · Payame Noor University

    Thanks for your kind attention and response.

  • Ilya Korotetskiy added an answer in Contamination:
    How can I prevent cell culture contamination?

    we usually used HEK293 cell line for analysis our results, but for last few weeks I suffer a lot of cell contamination. Characteristics of contamination is also unique. To prevent contamination I changed my cell line, medium but there is no positive outcome. Every time when I divide my cell there is no contamination, but after 1st cycle when I again divide my cell some cells are contaminated some are not, but after 2nd cycle most of the cell become contaminated. Under microscope there is many black spot and this become visible in 3rd cycle, a hazy white suspension. I cleaned my incubator, change medium several time, autoclave each and every bottle, every time before work rinse work station with ethanol. Moreover my other lab mates have not this problem.

    I really can not understand this situation. Can any one help me with their experience.

    Ilya Korotetskiy · Republican State Enterprise "Scientific Center for anti-infectious drugs"


    If you had a microbial contamination you could try to isolate these bacteria and evaluate of it drug sensitivity. After then you could try to use the antibiotics (to which bacteria was sensitive) for eliminate of contamination

  • Priyavrat Thareja added an answer in Higher Education Management:
    What are the potential benefits of Quality Management to teaching and research at at HEIs?

     Can anyone direct me to the studies / authors that have looked at the teaching, learning and/or research benefits of quality management in HE?I have found several references on the benefits of QM in terms of improving structures and processes at HEIs, however I have not been able to locate any source that discusses its contribution to educational outcomes (teaching, research,etc) even in passing.  Is there any research on that? Any help will be much appreciated.

    Priyavrat Thareja · Rayat Institute of Engineering & Information Technology

    @ Lela,  benefits of Quality Management in terms of improving educational outcomes (teaching, research,etc) have been validated, but largely not practiced, hence the need for such a question. the applications have been instead on peripheral processes, and in improving structures. There is thus a need to both research for the right methodology (and models) to apply Quality Management, and also secure the benefits duly achieved by industry, for  they remain as potential benefits due to teaching and research @ right application of Quality Management at HEIs?

  • Amir Borumand asked a question in Reflectance Spectroscopy:
    What parameters need be considered in choosing suitable wavelengths and light source for diffuse reluctance spectroscopy measurements of soft tissue?

    Hi All, 

    I have to set up a phantom study as well as an in vivo study for measuring light reflectance spectra of human tissue using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy technique.

    I have to choose up to 4 wavelengths but not sure what wavelengths do I need to perform my experiments.

    Need to be mentioned that data obtained from experiments will be used for validating numerical a light propagation numerical model (Monte Carlo).

    As my second question, what difference does it make using a LED as a light source instead of laser?

    Thank you very much.

  • Nguyen dinh tao asked a question in Fish Taxonomy:
    Let me any comment or/ identify the species of genus Schistura in Vietnam?

    ichthyologist, freshwater fish, taxonomy

  • Ahmad Rizqi Kurniawan asked a question in HER2:
    What does "GEM" in "pGEM-T" stand for?

    I use this vector to clone PIK3CA and HER2 partially but do not know what "GEM" stands for until now. Does anyone know what "GEM" stands for?

  • Narayanan Nair Mohanan added an answer in Calystegia:
    Could somebody identify this flower?

    Probably Calystegia (?) species?

    Narayanan Nair Mohanan · Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute

    is it a shrub or a climber, not clear from the photographs. If shrub  it  may be Ipomoea carnea. Flower colour can slightly vary.  But if climber, I doubt it may be some species of the genus Argyeria.

  • Lokman el hakim Bendjedid asked a question in SPSS:
    Data analysis"pca; mca; famd" from several lists ?

    I have a survey in which there is a list of products; where the respondent must select among that list, then it will evaluate some characteristics concerning the selected products.

    my question is how I can make a data analysis "pca, mca or famd" to the characteristics of products by using "SPSS" or "FactoMineR of R", take into account for example that the first respondent may select a list of products differs from the second respondent, and it selects list differs from the third respondent and so on?