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- Can anyone recommend readings on expertise in dealing with development of a cognitive map for environment systems?
I want to analyze and optimize the management systems of the environment systems (considering processes of pollution and purification) with cognitive maps of processes in these systems.
Dear colleagues, thank you very much for your valuable advices and recommendations.Following
- A thought experiment inspired by Chalmers' “Fading Qualia”. What manipulations to the neural circuitry demolishes consciousness?
Instead of gradually replacing biological neurons with silicon neurons as in Chalmers' Fading Qualia, I attempt to gradually replace dividable functions of biological neurons with silicon emulation.
The question is, at which manipulation stage does our brain lose consciousness (qualia)?
1) Replacement of axonal spike propagation with an external artificial mechanism that uses radio transmission (e.g. WiFi): Causality between presynaptic neuronal firings and postsynaptic PSPs is preserved, but now neurons are physically isolated.
2) Further replacement of postsynaptic PSP integration with an external artificial mechanism: Causality between presynaptic neuronal firings and postsynaptic somatic membrane potential is preserved, but now without sophisticated dendritic-somatic computation.
3) Further replacement of transformation from postsynaptic somatic membrane potential to postsynaptic firing (Hodgkin-Huxley Eq. mechanisms) with an external artificial mechanism that integrates presynaptic firings and activates postsynaptic neurons by current injection accordingly: Causality between presynaptic neuronal firings and postsynaptic neuronal firings is preserved, but now without an intact internal variable, the membrane potential.
4) Mere replay of spatio-temporal neuronal firing patterns by external current injection: Zero causal interactions among neurons.
Neural activation is the means by which each individual neuron sends messages to certain other neurons. The activation of a neuron X is only of significance in that it will cause a message to reach neurons A,B,C,D. There is no group function of the activation of many neurons.
A connectionist neural network model shows us that having large numbers of signal sending units connected in a divergent and convergent way can achieve complicated computations like recognition of faces or inductive discovery of rules using learning. Nobody ever suggests that the activation of many nodes in a connectionist net means that this activation has some concerted function - it is just the totality of all the nodes sending local messages. So there is no reason to think that there is any concerted function of activation of neurons in brains. There are a number of neuroscientists who seem to suggest this but I do not think with any justification.
Activation patterns are not experiences. The experience is not the combined bowing of all the violinists, it is the sound reaching a receptive ear. The combined bowing may correlate with what the ear hears but if there is nobody to hear it there is no experienced sound.Following
- Can we mathematically model consciousness? We have seen that AI, which was supposed to be a failure, is coming back with
gusto on the back of multi sensor robotics and possibly androids with quantum computers. There is some mysterious counter intuitive behaviour in the sub atomic world which seems to suggest inanimate objects do sense the external world.
It would be nice to know the views of experts from different fields, such as math, science, psychology, sociology, cosmology on this intriguing subject. One possibility
that comes to mind is if probability is actually such a model, as it does incorporate
Thanks..it was most" thought provoking" as well as " mind provoking". Would be nice to know your tongue in cheek views of the same..
- What methods can be employed to identify sample strains in GIT of broilers after feeding them probiotics?
Any suggestion to molecular approaches or methods (apart from RT-PCR) that can be used for analysis and identification of probiotic strains that were fed to broiler chicken. There was growth difference which could be attributed to the probiotics but a molecular proof of the GIT is needed.
You can use standard typing methods like RAPD and PFGE for the identification of your strain.Following
- How do I calculate the percentage of chlorophyll in a microalgal pigment extract?
I extracted pigments from a microalgae using 90% acetone. Chlorophyll determination was done spectrophotometrically at absorbances 664nm, 647nm & 630nm. concentration of chlorophyll a, b, c was calculated in mg/L. how do i use the values obtained to calculate percentage chlorophyll a, b, c present in the pigment extract. Thanks.
NB. I seem to be getting very low percentage values.
Certrainly, Scenedesmus lacks Chl с but has Chl b, so essentially any equation pair suggested above will do. Reasonable Chl percentage of dry biomass is several percent, most often 1-2% (for the rest, please see the suggestions.by Domenico above). Good luck!Following
- Oceanic crust over continental like lithosphere ?
In which geodynmaic setting, we can have an oceanic crust (having ~7 km oceanic crust with thick sediments) underlain by a continental like lithosphere of ~110 km thickness.Following
- What would be the best protocol for cryopreservation and thawing of PBMCs for antigen stimulated cytokine detection?
- PBMC or whole blood: which is a better candidate for post antigen treated cytokine detection?
- How long can I store PBMCs for this kind of experiment?
For antigen-mediated cytokine induction, PBMC will be best suited over whole blood. Whole blood assay will work fine up-to 24 hr assay period.
The articles given by Sandip Chakraborty are the good enough to follow the protocols for isolation and cryopreservation of PBMC.Following
- What is the effect of grain size on young's modulus and hardness of the magnetic thin film?
Whether the grain size affects the mechanical properties of the magnetic thin film?
I Dont know on magnetic thin film but you may like to refer hall petch equation which relates grain size with properties. You can search for phenomenological models for magnetic thin films. All the best.
- How could be minimize the aliasing effect due to the downsampling from a signal?
Suppose that you have a sensor, that you can't change the sample rate or any other feature including the anti-aliasing before the signal be sampled.
Beside this, suppose that, the control loop of the system runs with a slower rate than the sensor, and you cannot change the control loop rate, as well.
Now, assume that the sensor rate is multiple of the control loop rate.
Then, suppose that, after 5 samples of the sensor, the control loop runs once using the latest sample from the sensor (observation: the 5 five samples are stored).
As far I understand this characterized the down-sampling of the signal, and it produces the aliasing effects over the signal.
Then, how this effect can be minimized? Should I have to put a digital filter before the control loop?
... that's fine. I have a shorter paper that just looks at fitting quadratic polynomials. I have found that they are sufficient for most applications. It includes tables with equations for the filter coefficients for causal and non-causal, smoothers and differentiators. All you need to do is plug in your pole location (p, real & repeated, 0<p<1) along with the desired pass-band group delay/advance (q, in samples). I'll upload that soon. And I'll start thinking about that tutorial.Following
- Does anyone know of any successful examples of payment for environmental services (PES) targeting marine ecosystem?
There have some but limited works on Marine PES which are not enough to cover my literature review. Could anybody help provide me some articles or link related to Payment for Marine Ecosystem Services...
You can see the: http://www.iied.org/markets-payments-for-environmental-servicesFollowing
- Fermi energy in Graphene nano ribbons?
I am simulating graphene nano ribbons,and i want to add my magnetic field term in Hamiltonian,is there any other method than Pierls Substitution or not.
Thanks Simchi sir,what i mean i that i want to add magnetic field as well Landau level in my system,earlier B was taken to be zero,so my Hamiltonian is becoming block matrices,as symmetric way,now i want to add electron-electron interaction in my system which earlier Schrodinger -Poisson solver was doing self consistently sir,but here how i can add,i am stuck off at this point sir.
with best wishesFollowing
- Are there molecular studies on “convergent evolution” of body colour patterns in insects?
I have observed individuals of two different families of orthoptera inhabiting a rock having similar body colour patterns (colour of the habitat). It could be an instance of convergent evolution. Molecular level studies are required to prove this hypothesis.
Posting pics of the orthopterans mentioned above. One Tetrigid and one Gryllid. Pics were taken a few years back. Unfortunately, the pics not very clear.Following
- Does anyone has identification chart for identification of isolate using HIMedia KB009 Kit?
Identification of microorganisms using biochemical tests.
Particularly using HiMedia Kit KB009.Following
- Need an effective method for evaluation of bacterial colonization abilities on plant leaves and roosts?
I want to determine the colonization ability of some Bacillus strains on plant leaves and root (Rhizoplane, Rhizosphere and Endorhiza ) but problem is that when I isolate the bacteria the from leaves or roots there will be many different types of bacteria and enumeration of bacterial colonies on the basis of colony morphology is not an accurate method so I am searching for the marking method that can increase the accuracy during enumeration so please suggest some suitable marking methods. If anyone knows about any other method for evaluation of bacterial colonization abilities please guide me. ThanksFollowing
- Should hydrogel submerged in water to reach equilibrium before mechanical test?
I found after fully absorbing water, the mechanical strength of hydrogel greatly reduced. Also, no matter before and after absorbing water, I can't get the same level of strength with literatures (for the same materials). I don't what details I missed. Any advice would help. I greatly appreciate it.
How do you measure mechanical strength? For hydrogels the higher the rate of strain applied, the higher the apparent elastic modulus. So you probably have lower values because of the way you perform the measurement.
To get repeatable data you must hydrate the gel to equilibrium.
See my publications (Acta biomaterialia 10/2013; 10(2). DOI:10.1016/j.actbio.2013.10.023 and others on mechanical testing of hydrogels Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 10/2014; 102(10). DOI:10.1002/jbm.a.34914 )Following
- Can I do an ASC oligomerization assay on tissue homogenates?
I primarily see ASC oligomerization assays (with DSS crosslinking) done in cell culture collections, but I have been unable to find any examples of this assay being done in tissue homogenates. Is this possible? Does anyone have a suggested protocol?
I think you will be the first one. We also work with monocytes and macrophages. However, we could see released ASC in human lung BAL but never checked for oligomerization.
- Tissue engineering What is tissue engineering about?
Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are relatively new and emerging multidisciplinary fields involving biology, medicine, and engineering that has the potential to revolutionize therapeutic pathways and protocols for restoring, maintaining, or enhancing tissue and organ function (Figure 1.8.5.). Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, tissue engineering, material methods, scaffolds, and biologics for the purpose of creating new tissue growth in various clinical contexts. The term regenerative medicine is often used synonymously with tissue engineering, although regenerative medicine places more emphasis on the use of stem cells to produce tissues. Figure B1.8.5.
A Schematic of Tissue Engineering
A number of studies over the last few years demonstrate that stem cells alone are not sufficient to regenerate tissue defects (Table B1.8.6.). Instead, the use of scaffolds and stem cell supplements in combination with stem cells to create a stem cell composition are thought to be required. This is due to the importance of the environment in stem cell biology. Environmental cues significantly regulate several stem cell biologic programs including but not limited to cell division, differentiation, and functional development.
The field of tissue engineering combines many disciplines to maximize the ability of a cell therapy to seed and fill a tissue defect. The ultimate goal is neoengineered functional tissue in situ. Tissue engineering strategy generally involves the isolation of healthy cells from a patient, followed by their expansion in vitro. These expanded cells are then seeded onto a three dimensional (3D) biodegradable scaffold that provides structural support and can also act as a reservoir for bioactive molecules such as growth factors. The scaffold gradually degrades with time to be replaced by newly grown tissue from the seeded cells. The in vitro cell / tissue can then be transplanted back into the patient. A number of novel approaches have been developed for the fabrication of biomaterial-based 3D scaffolds. More recently, nanofiber-based scaffolding systems are being explored as scaffolds for tissue engineering. Tissue engineering is more and more being thought of as an alternative therapy (to surgery) achievable in the near future (O'Halloran et al., 2007).
Key components of tissue engineering include stem cells, 3D scaffolds, extracellular matrix components, growth factors, and a wide array of biologic supplements.
The foundation of tissue engineering / regenerative medicine includes:
Biomaterials: designed to direct the organization, growth, and differentiation of cells towards forming functional tissue by providing both physical and biological cues.
Cells: cell type, cells source, primary vs.established, genetically engineered, HLA Matched vs. Unmatched ~ autologous, allogenic, xenogenic, stem cells, mature cells.
Engineering Design Aspects: 2D cell expansion,3D tissue growth, bioreactors.
Biomechanical Aspects of Design: relationship to development, physiology, and response to stressors.
Informatics to support tissue engineering: gene and protein sequencing, gene expression analysis, protein expression and interaction analysis, quantitative cellular image analysis, quantitative tissue analysis, in silicon tissue and cell modeling, digital tissue manufacturing, automated quality assurance systems, data mining tools, and clinical informatics interfaces.
The development of tissue engineering models, and their use in vitro has increased dramatically over the last few years. Many of the more standardized and widely used models are now reconstructed into kits and assays that retain the intent and biophysical properties of the original model, but are adapted in such a manner that standardized protocols and assays of a cell and molecular nature can be used by researchers in the tissue engineering field.
Several types of models have been described and can be divided in to classes and categories in the following manner:
1) Tissue Culture Incubation Models
4) Novel versus Established
Standard Bioreactor (see below)
Monolayer, ECM Coated Surfaces Pseudo-encapsulation
Spatial Biological, Microenvironment
Novel and / or Poorly Defined / Validated (i.e. open / closed rabbit annulus scaffolds)
Standardized & Characterized (i.e., OPLA)
MECHANOBIOLOGY, STEM CELL BIOLOGY, AND TISSUE DEVELOPMENT
For the engineering of load-bearing tissues, tensile and compressive loading are the most commonly researched and discussed. Among these two types of forces, tensile loading is more relevant for fibrous tissues such as tendons, and compressive loading is more relevant for bone and articular cartilage. Uniaxial compression is probably the most frequently used stimulation method for cartilage tissue engineering. In confined uniaxial compression, the tissue is compressed in one direction, while deformation of the tissue in any other direction is prohibited. This occurs when a sample perfectly fits a container, while it is compressed by a piston at one side. In unconfined compression, the tissue is allowed to expand freely in the direction perpendicular to the axis of compression. In both compression types, particularly in a confined setup, the porosity of the container, the supporting plate and/or the piston are important boundary conditions for the applied mechanical loading. Time-dependent tissue deformation and fluid pressurization depend on fluid expression from the tissue during compression and on rehydration of the tissue upon relaxation.
It is also possible to compress a tissue from all sides at the same time, for instance by imposing a hydrostatic pressure via the surrounding fluid. Less frequent are compression regimes where compression is induced through an indenter with a size smaller than the size of the sample itself, or compression with platens that are shaped according to the desired sample ~ specific in vivo geometry. Shear loading of cells and tissues stimulates cells and induces formation of particular tissue types. Shear can be applied by grabbing two sides of a construct and sliding the grips in opposite directions in parallel planes. A specific type of such shear loading is applied by rotating the grips. Rather than by grips, however, shear loading on cells in culture is more frequently induced by forced fluid flow. Drag forces due to the flow of the culture medium over the sample or the cells stimulate cell metabolism. For some cell types, fluid flow patterns are of relative biological importance, for example: superficial zone cells in articular cartilage as well, which have shown to express surface zone protein (SZP / lubricin), a protein determining the mechanical functionality of articular cartilage, in response to shear loading.
In addition to the method of loading, it is evident that the loading regime, i.e. the frequency and magnitude, and whether the load is continuously or intermittently applied, have profound influences on the developmental biology of the tissue. The loading experienced by the cells further depends on the properties of the scaffold material. Many studies have shown that scaffold stiffness and texture affect cell behavior immediately, and that properties such as scaffold porosity and permeability are important in tissue engineering. The latter has special relevance in relation with forced perfusion and nutrition.
TISSUE BIOREACTORS ~ CELL BIOLOGY AND BIOMECHANICS IN TANDEM
Bioreactors are laboratory tissue culture devices that provide a controllable environment that maximizes nutrition, minimizes the accumulation of waste products, and in some models provides other effects that benefit cell or tissue growth in some way (i.e., a mechanically active environment).
SPINNER FLASK BIOREACTORS: A spinner flask induces the mixing of oxygen and nutrients throughout the medium evenly, and reduces the concentration boundary layer at the construct surface. Scaffolds are suspended at the end of needles in a flask of culture media. A magnetic stirrer mixes the media and the scaffolds are fixed in place with respect to the moving fluid. Flow across the surface of the scaffolds results in eddies which are turbulent instabilities consisting of clumps of fluid particles that have a rotational structure superimposed on the mean linear motion of the fluid particles. They are associated with transitional and turbulent flow. It is via these eddies that fluid transport to the centre of the scaffold is thought to be enhanced (Goldstein et al., 2001). Typically, spinner flasks are around 120ml in volume and are run at 50 - 80 rpm. 50% of the medium is changed every two days (Freshney et al., 2000). Cartilage constructs have been grown in spinner flasks to thicknesses of 0.5mm (Freed & Vunjak-Novakovic et al., 2000). While this is an improvement on cartilage grown in static culture, it is still too thin for clinical use. Mass transfer in flasks is not adequate enough to deliver homogeneous cell distribution throughout scaffolds and cells predominantly residing on the construct periphery.
ROTATING WALL BIOREACTORS: The rotating wall bioreactor was developed by NASA. The wall of the vessel rotates, providing an upward hydrodynamic drag force that balances the downward gravitational force, resulting in the scaffold remaining suspended in the media. Dynamic laminar flow generated by a rotating fluid environment is an efficient way to reduce diffusional limitations of nutrients and wastes while producing low levels of shear. Media can be exchanged by stopping the rotation temporarily or by adding a fluid pump whereby media is constantly pumped through the vessel. Fluid transport is enhanced in a similar fashion to the mechanism in spinner flasks and the devices also provide a more homogeneous cell distribution than static culture. Gas exchange occurs through a gas exchange membrane. The bioreactor is rotated at speeds of 15-30 rpm.
Cartilage tissue of 5 mm thickness has been grown after 7 months of culture As tissue grows in the bioreactor, the rotational speed must be increased to balance the gravitational force and ensure the scaffold remains in suspension (Schwarz et al., 1992; Freed et al., 1997).
COMPRESSION BIOREACTORS: This class of bioreactor is generally used in cartilage engineering and can be designed so that both static and dynamic loading can be applied. This is because static loading has been found to have a negative effect on cartilage formation in comparison to dynamic loading, which is more representative of physiological loading. In general, compression bioreactors consist of a motor, a system providing linear motion, and a controlling mechanism used to provide displacements of different magnitudes and frequencies (Figure B1.9.). A signal generator can be used to control the system including loading cells while transformers can be used to measure the load response and imposed displacement. The load can be transferred to the cell-seeded constructs via plated distribution devices, which distribute the load evenly. However, in a device stimulating multiple scaffolds simultaneously, care must be taken that the constructs are of a similar height or the compressive strain applied will vary as the scaffold height does such that the larger scaffolds will bare most of the transmitted forces. Mass transfer is improved in dynamic compression bioreactors over static culture (as compression causes fluid flow in the scaffold) through improvement of the aggregate modulus of the resulting cartilage tissue (i.e., native articular cartilage).Following
- What is the best and most reliable soil database at the European level?
There are quite a few number of soil databases being used worldwide, each having different spatial resolution, coverage, and data quality. Among them, the JRC ESDB, the FAO/Others HWSD, and the ISRIC-WISE databases are more cited. However, no specific set of rules have been developed to select an appropriate soil database.
Do you have any suggestion for choosing the best and most reliable soil database for a research study at the European level?
You can follow the soil portal in below link:
- How to prevent edge effect in TUNEL assay?
I am recently conducting TUNEL on (perfused) mouse brain cryosection and so frustrated by its edge effect in DNase-treated positive control (The attached photo is a closeup of edge area). Not as expected to be green everywhere, inner region of the slice has little signal.
I have tried to adjust duration of triton incubation, amount/concentration of DNase and also temperature of DNase incubation but no improvement so far. So could anyone give suggestion what can cause the effect and how to troubleshoot next?
Thanks so much for your help.
thanks for sharing!Following
- Have you conducted empirical research about juvenile fire setting?
I am conducting an analysis of records of intervention with juvenile fire setters, searching for correlates between the identified risk factors (social, environmental, behavioural, psychological) in the young person, and the methodologies used to set fires - the versatility of the fire setting.
I have not found much research that has been conducted to date that links these artefacts explicitly.
Are you aware of research that explores the interconnection between risk factors and methodologies?
Here is another publication which briefly mentioned the fire setting issue among adolescents.
Taiwo, A.O. (2009). Predictors of antisocial behaviour among adolescents in Ibadan region. In Awaritefe A. (ed), Towards a sane society: Healing the nations. Pp 212-229, Nigerian Association of Clinical Psychologist.
I will endeavour to make the article available for you to download. But as I mentioned in this article, I found that the issue of fire setting is contextual by culture. For example, among the adolescents I studied, what will be regarded as fire setting in the western world may not be found among them. The common fire setting I found was setting fire to people's farms, it was not seen as any wrong but as a game. These young adolescents were doing this for the purpose of hunting "bush meat". My own dad was a victim of this behaviour as the adolescents set fire to his cocoa farm and this made him to turn from being a rich farmer to a poor one as the land can no longer be used for cocoa farming after the fire setting. So in my scale which I developed to assess antisocial behaviour, I mentioned setting fire on farm as an item because the adolescents will not understand other forms of fire setting.
I hope this is useful.Following
- What will be happened if someone drink deuterium water?
Is D2O is toxic or not?
You can follow the below link:
- Can anyone tell me about the parameters for the evaluation of hydrology of an area?
I have to do hydological investigation of a given area, so for this i need to focus on some parameters. I am little bit of confused regarding this.
The hydrology study of an area or region is basically a balancing of the sources and sinks. The sources are water bodies, rivers, lakes; ground water sources;rainfall, soil moisture, irrigation schemes;
The sinks are evaporation, evapotranspiration, runoff. So you need to collect all these information and develop a hydrology model for the region.
- Is the Short Form (36) Health Survey useful for every patients?
The Short Form (36) Health Survey is a 36-item, patient-reported survey of patient health to measure of health status. I studied many clients by using this questionnaire. But I want to know that is tool is useful to calculate quality of life in all the patients or it is useful for some patients?
Some questions of SF-36 such as questions about feelings and moods work for everybody. However the coding system is clumsy. Quality of life can be measured with more specific questionnaires as well as depression.Following
- What may be the possible source of Cadmium contamination in ground water?
In my study, some of the ground water samples were having Cadmium concentration higher than the drinking water quality standard (BIS)
Please see the below link:
- Do you know University Professors of Statistics without any published article as first author in his/her speciality?
I think it should be documented such cases and the true reason of it.
I am not aware, further these statisticians are much sought after support providers for us in management and social work data analysis.Following
- How long does CA-MARKOV Module in IDRISI Selva processing take?
I want to predict 2013 landuse change based on Markovian stochastic model using CA-MARKOV module.It takes long time, sometimes 24hrs to 3 days. What might be wrong?
I have already run MARKOV module to cross tabulate 2000 and 2006 Landuses. I have suitability maps in Raster group file(each stretched 0-255 integer values), i have also the Markov Transition area file. I am now using 2006 Landuse to predict 2013 Landuse change, where i specified 7 as a Number of Cellular automata iterations, 5 x5 filter.
I have also checked the disk space i have 45GB, RAM is 8GB,
Other computer specifications :Windows7 , Core i3.
Software in Use:IDRISI SELVA v17.00
The process runs well and pass from step 1 to 8, then in step 8 when starts "mola" process, it stays there for so long more 24hrs-5 days, before i terminate it.
Anyone with similar experience? Please help.
Probably you are the same Canute 's problem. Too many pixels, too many operations...Following
- Is there any relationship between intellectual capital and organization performance/firm performance?
- Is there any relationship between human capital and organization/firm performance?
- Is there any relationship between structure capital and organizational/firm performance?
- Is there any relationship between external capital and organizational/firm performance?
The performance of an organisation depends upon the competence of the employees and hence the better the human capital stock of an organisation the better would be the firm performance ,however there are other variables like organisation culture,policies and leadership that me promote or demote firm performance even if the human capital of the organisation is good.Following
- Does anyone know how to calculate the number of cells using in mRNA expression in Real time PCR ?
i have to set up an experiment about mRNA expression and mRNA levels in CL-6 cell lines by using Real time PCR method but i don't know what the amount of cells that need in an experiment
Agree with Nicole Maeding. For mRNA expression you need as less as 1 µg of total RNA.Following
- Can we use MTT-assay for high-throughput screening (HTS) for determining the cytotoxicity of drugs?
I am curious whether MTT can be use for HTS or not? i need to determine the cytotoxicity of 50 different small compounds against various panel of cancer cell line (7 cancer cell line). Is it feasible to use MTT as HTS? IS there any other cytotoxicity assay to replace MTT and more reliable one.
I would highly appreciate if someone share some related information.
The answer is yes. And at least the last time I took a close look at this issue it was the best method for detecting cytotoxicity.
Caveats (our experience was both high throughput and high volume.
1 The screening steps should phased, from sensitive to specific.
First phase with log escalation of the drug that are basic and cross a wide range.
Second phase with more refined drug escalation studies to narrow the effective dose range.
Third phase to create KM50 toxicity data.
For hits on screening, formal cell culture and molecular biology protocols should be performed to better define the biology of the compound hit.Following
- What is the information obtained from SAED pattern of nanopoarticles?
recently i got the image having diffraction ring ? but dnt know what to conclude....i dnt have miller indices tooFollowing