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  • Wolfgang Geithner added an answer in 3D-Imaging:
    What is the best software to convert 2D images to 3D virtual images?
    I am good doing pictures for video games and I would like show my images in 3D environment. What is the best procedure for converting my drawings to 3D?
    Wolfgang Geithner

    I am a bit late with my answer, but I want to add something to Dilek's answer: Blender does not have the capability to render 3D content from plain 2D images. Blender is a 3D modeler and renderer similar (and comparable) to commercial products like 3DStudio, Maya, etc.

    Nevertheless, since version 2.75 (released in 2015) it has the capability to render stereoscopic images from the 3D model one creates in Blender, see for instance: 

  • Krzysztof Kielkiewicz asked a question in Spirituality:
    Does anyone know very recent study on definition of spirituality

    Qualitative or quantitative papers investigating identity of current spirituality

  • Oliver Manuel asked a question in Hydrogen:

    On pages 153-154 of his 1994 autobiography, "Home Is Where the Wind Blows", Sir Fred Hoyle BLOWS THE COVER ON THE BIGGEST LIE in "STALIN'S SCIENCE?"


    1. Without any new data and without any discussion or debate, Fred Hoyle reports on pages 153-154 of his 1994 autobiography, "Home Is Where the Wind Blows", that mainstream opinions on the internal composition of the Sun were unanimously changed changed from:

    _ a.) Mostly iron (Fe) in 1945 to

    _ b.) Mostly hydrogen (H) in 1946

    2. Twelve years later in 1957, B2FH (Burbidge, Burbidge, Fowler and Hoyle, “Synthesis of elements in stars,” Reviews of Modern Physics 29, 547-650) present data on neutron-capture cross-sections and abundances of neutron-capture products in the solar photosphere in such a way as to convince most solar and nuclear physicists hydrogen fusion is the way stars generate energy and make heavier elements out of hydrogen.

    However, that is NOT TRUE. It was shown in 2005 that the 1957 data for neutron-capture cross-sections and abundances of seventy-two (72) different neutron-capture products in the solar photosphere reveal:

    _ c.) About ten (~10) stages of solar mass-fractionation selectively enriching lighter atoms at the top of the solar photosphere, and

    _ d.) The solar interior consists mostly of iron (Fe)

    See “Solar abundance of elements from neutron-capture cross sections”, paper #1033, 36th Lunar & Planetary Science Conference (LPSC), Houston, Texas, March 14-18, 2005.


    Thus, the experimental data published by B2FH in 1957 in fact FALSIFY:

    _ e.) The 1946 change in the internal composition of the Sun from Fe to H, and

    _ f.) The 1957 B2FH paper on element synthesis in stars from hydrogen-fusion

    + 1 more attachment

  • Erik Lindberg added an answer in Oscillators:
    How can we classify or group oscillators ?

    So far I have found that the number of amplifiers may be used as follows:

    Oscillators type A:

    1 amplifier and a feedback circuit.  

    This is the Barkhausen topology

    Oscillators type B:

    2 or more amplifiers and a connection circuit.  

    This is the Non Barkhausen topology

    Oscillators type C:

    No amplifiers !

    These oscillators are based on a dynamic negative resistance e.g. a tunnel diode

    In short

    Oscillators are nonlinear electronic circuits

    which are searching for a bias-point

    Erik Lindberg

    Hello Lutz,

    Quote: "what about other negative resistance oscillators where such an interpretation is not possible ?"

    The gyrator topology for the harmonic oscillator - to me - is a Non-Barkhausen topology with 2 amplifiers. Each amplifier is a two-port four-terminal with an active feedback circuit (instead of a passive feed-back).

    Hello Josef Puncochar:   Děkuji mnohokrát  ;-)

  • Olivier Radakovitch asked a question in OS X:
    How to resolve bug with Phreeqc and OS X ?

    Hey everyone. I downloaded the last version 3.1.3 of phreeq-C for OS X but I cannot launch it. Everytime I got an error message indicating "cannot open log file, phreeqc.log. Stopping". Any solution would be great, thank you

  • Vrks Sai added an answer in Spin Coating:
    How can I disperse aluminium oxide Nano-particles in alcohol and spin coat it?

    We have aluminium oxide, NanoDur, 99.5% nanoparticles powder 40-50nm APS powder,S.A. 32-40mg/g.

    Vrks Sai

    @Vinay Sharma I have also tried this out but the viscosity seems very less to go for spin coating.please suggest a method.

  • Anitha Subramani added an answer in Image Mining:
    What are the projects can be done through Rough sets on data mining ( Image mining, web and text mining)?

    Dear Researchers

    Let me know the details about the projects can be done through Rough sets on data mining ( Image mining, web and text mining)?

    K. Anitha

    Anitha Subramani

    Thank you so much mam

  • Fatima Viteri added an answer in Parametric Methods:
    What's the correct statistical test for textual codes?

    I have the following textual codes and total number of frequencies that I encountered such codes in texts:

    Factual Information                           Total frequencies

    Events                                                   67

    Representatives                                    40

    Programs                                              27

    Indicators                                              23

    1 IV (four independent groups) + 1 DV (total frequencies)

    1 nominal   +    1 scale

    no possibility to draw a distribution or check for similiar/dissimar shape

    not necessarilly independence of observations

    I'd like to simply check if there are differences between groups and the total frequencies. What could be the best non parametric method to use?

    Fatima Viteri

    Thank your for your response. We thought so, but finally we decided that it's not possible since only one variable is involved!

  • Alfredo Pereira Junior added an answer in Cognitive Systems:
    Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.

    Alfredo Pereira Junior

    Dear Ravinder, many thanks for making your views explicit in the following statements:

    "The brain however does format the external space internally in a miniature replica of the external world bounded by our eyes , ears and skin... The memory of distance however  small or large is recallable because we format the external space similar to what is seen. The prior reference of the feeling of the dome of the sky actually  matches the dome of skull in our feeling  My prediction is that thalamus would get the credit it deserves . Clearly neuro-anatomically it is hub for  the  first order neurons for all sensory motor input  that allows it to orients us automatically to an  inner world that is dynamically networked around it. "

    Alfredo: This is a clear formulation of the internalist view advanced by Lehar and others (also partially by F. Crick in his "Searchlight Hypothesis"). The phenomenal world is conceived as a brain miniature, having the thalamus as the perceiving homunculus and the skull as the "screen" that coresponds to the position of the dome of the sky. While it may be useful in a heuristic approach by a neuroscientist, it does not support a philosophical criticism as made by Velmans and myself, or more radically by Bennett and hacker in their book on The Philosophy of Neuroscience. In other words, it may be pragmatically good for scientists who would not like to enter deep philosophical discussions.

  • Mehdi Amiri Nasab added an answer in CloudSim:
    How can I simulate Rack in CloudSim simulator?

    The is no good resource for learning or unfortunately i cant find , i want to simulate real data center so I need to create rack but i don't know how ?

    Mehdi Amiri Nasab


  • Biswa Ranjan Swain added an answer in Bessel Function:
    Does anyone know of a program code for effective indices of LP-01 modes for a range of wavelengths ?

    I want to calculate the effective indices of LP 01 modes of an optical fiber of given parameters. The transcendental equation involving Bessel functions need to be solved.

    Please help.

    Thank you.

    Biswa Ranjan Swain

    Hi Prof. Regis,

    Please send me the code at biswaranjan45@gmail.com

    Thank you

  • Ulrich Kueppers added an answer in Oxygen Isotopes:
    Have accretionary lapilli (dense ash aggregates) been sampled and studied immediately upon landing on the ground ?

    Hello everyone,

    I asked a previous question as to whether dense ash aggregates (or "acc-laps") have ever been made in any wind tunnel lab thus far in their fully formed sub-spherical or ellipsoïdal shape ?

    The answer has been: "not yet", even though this would allow to more closely simulate mixed phase aggregation under more realistic in situ ashcloud conditions.

    I am wondering if any accretionary lapilli greater than about 10mm across or so have ever been collected immediately upon reaching the ground and studied immediately, or preserved in a cold box (to prevent them from any melting) and studied in the lab (eg. on a cryogenic SEM stage, or to measure their in situ temperature, and recover inner fluids from the intergranular space....) ?

    The reason is that there is the hypothesis that they form like hailstones by riming, once they grow above a size characteristic of the drop break-up limit (5-6mm across). If this "volcanogenic hailstone" hypothesis is correct, then my expectation is that a proportion of accretionary lapilli larger than about 6mm diameter should still be frozen upon reaching the ground (especially if above-ground températures are close to 0°C; if not partial melting takes place), so that somewhat larger ones (say 10mm diameter ones) may still be frozen (despite partial melting) and still contain inner ice upon landing on the ground.

    Has anyone checked for this ?

    Assuming for a moment that larger sub-concentric acclaps can be sampled immediately, preserved and analysed for oxygen isotopes of any trapped ice water, then this could provide valuable data as to the temperature environments through which the acc-laps have been recycled again and again in the volcanic cloud before ultimately falling out.

    Analogous oxygen isotope ratio studies  of the subconcentric layers of hailstones from severe thunderstorms have provided such information in that case.

    I am looking forward to hearing back.

    Best wishes and kind regards,


    Ulrich Kueppers

    Ooops, I misused the keyboard....

    Anyway, I was nearly done, we will be hosting the third workshop of Vertigo in May next year in the Eifel in Germany (see below).

    I would be very happy if we could meet directly and discuss this issue "live". I would bring my PhD student (Sebastian B. Mueller) along.

    Best regards, Ulli

    + 1 more attachment

  • Raaid Alubady asked a question in Virtualization:
    Adaptive Virtual Queue

    Hello everyone; I need Adaptive Virtual Queue code in C++ can be working inside NS3?

  • Vrks Sai added an answer in TiO2 Nanoparticles:
    How to disperse tio2 nanoparticles in organic solvents?

    like ethanol,ethylene glycol,etc 

    to be used for spin coating for intermediate layer for carbon nanotube synthesis

    Vrks Sai

    But how to add PVA, I tried but it's not dissolving ,also the initial solution viscosity is too less for spin coating, please help me out.

  • Robert Grosse added an answer in Cell Invasion:
    Is there an assay which measures changes in the barrier function of stromal cells?

    I would like to measure how molecular changes in stromal cells (fibroblasts, stellate cells, etc) change their 'permissivity' to tumor cell invasion.  In other words, instead of measuring tumor cell invasion in a Matrigel/transwell system, measuring the allowance of tumor cells through a fibroblast layer. Any help or suggestions is appreciated.

  • Anthony G Gordon added an answer in Brain Abscess:
    Does otitis media causes fatal brain abscesses?

    It has of course been known for a long time that there is a connection and correlation between brain abscess and otitis media (or sinusitis).  But is this a simple causal link?  Self-evidently so, according to modern medical opinion.   However, I think Hippocrates was correct in believing that the primary cause was cerebral, eg a traumatic fluid leak into the middle ear or mastoid, and that the ear infection was secondary.  So instead of the massive number of case reports of abscesses with unilateral or acute OM, which clearly support the Hippocratic theory, can we please have case report(s) in young people where there is an obvious dose response relation with OM, ie a symmetrical bilateral severe case of OM with uniform bone erosion and destruction, not dependent on any previous trauma or disease?

    Anthony G Gordon

    "While this was not a brain abcess cascading into the oto-region case--neither did the female case you shared seemed to be."

    In Oscar Wilde's case, and that of others mentioned here and in the literature, the cascade occurred at a late stage, either leading to sudden cure, or making only a temporary respite in a fatal case, or coming too late (OW is the only such post mortem case I know of, and that witness account has therefore been much ridiculed).   In "otogenic" abscess in general, the trouble starts many years previously with a drip-drip from brain to ear.  Cascading only occurs when the leak has been temporally sealed, and centrifugal pressure from brain to ear has built up. 

  • Simon Kuebler added an answer in Age Estimation:
    What is a possible method to date fluvial sediments consisting of mafic/intermediate volcanic sand?

    I would like to get age constraints on the deposition of fluvial sediments in a river deposit in the Kenya Rift. Age estimates are Mid to Late Pleistocene. The sources are mostly basaltic, trachytic and phonolitic lava flows. Quarz content is fairly low, so I'm guessing OSL won't be the method of choice. Any ideas?

    Simon Kuebler

     Thanks for your help and suggestions! I will certainly go through your publications. 

    Best, Simon 

  • Napoleon Ono Imaah added an answer in Discovery:
    Will the 2015 Nobel Prize in physics be based on false-positive data?

    On April 30, 2011, at an American Physical Society meeting, I presented my initial findings that showed that Albert Einstein's notion of hidden variables, although not local, was indeed correct.

    In 2012, I applied my discovery of these hidden variables to the Higgs boson initial discovery and found it to be based on omitted-variable bias since the two origin variables that caused the predicted effects observed were not factored into the results (see "Assumed Higgs" link). Since the two origin variables are mutually exclusive yet can produce the same results, obtaining false-positive data from experiments based on omitted-variable bias is unavoidable (see "Tempt Destiny Experiment Results" link). In science, a discovery cannot be obtained based on false-positive data. Yet in 2013, physicists confirmed that they discovered the Higgs boson and then was awarded the same year the Noble Prize for their discovery. This all took place despite both parties being informed in 2012 of the discovery of Einstein's hidden variables which would negate the Higgs boson discovery since the Large Hadron Collider cannot detect which origin variable caused which particle collision effect which in turned caused the decay product used as evidence for their discovery.

    In the meantime, I have invited the general public to confirm if the Higgs boson discovery was or was not based on an omission error (see "How Grade School Children Can Confirm If Quantum Mechanics Is a Fundamental Theory - Class Assignment Search For First Cause" link).

    It is rumored that science self-corrects itself when a new discovery supersedes previous knowledge. If this is true then how long does it take for such a correction to take place and will the 2015 Nobel Prize in physics be given for yet another discovery based on false-positive data?

    + 2 more attachments

    Napoleon Ono Imaah

    Dear Manuel,

    Your false-positive theory is a critical contribution to the search for physical and latent coefficients and new discoveries in knowledge  both in the science and the arts. However we need to differentiate between what is falsified and what is flawed in your false-positive postulation. Deliberate manipulation of data is falsification that is criminal; data that could be flawed because of hitherto unknown omission of data due to the limitations of natural human errors at a particular period could be flawed , but not as a culpable crime.

    The discovery of the concept of false-positive data in the sciences and the arts dates back before the 2015 Nobel Prize in physics and it will certainly outdate it. The fact is that the world has progressed in spite of false-positive perceptions. For instances; the human-earth centred cosmology; the atom theory that roasted Giordano Bruno (1548 – February 17 1600) as a heretic in the caldron; the false forceful accusations of the holy horrors of the inquisition that burnt the heroine Jan de Arc at the stakes; the laws of gravity that Galileo Galilei cleverly escaped; the now flawed Darwin's Origin of Species and the theory of the survival of the fittest; the limitations of the now expanding universe, etcetera. However, these false-positive ideas moved the world of their respective times, though passively and latently; but clearer and positively forward.

    False-positive data are not found only in  the 2015 Nobel Prize in physics.Data; based on false-positive data are pervasive: those who will get will get it by those who will judge them fit for the honour; even if on false-positive precepts.



  • Robert Grosse added an answer in Invasion assay:
    Any ideas for optimization of invasion assay, epithelial ovarian cancer cells?

    My project involves invasion assays in TOV112D ovarian cancer cell line, After having some good results with FBS gradient 0-10%, using ready to use inserts (FAL354483), the invasion index now dropped from 25% to 10-15% which is too low to see a difference between control and knockdown. Has anyone used any attractants or played around with the gradient, or does anyone have other suggestions for me to bring the invasion index up again? Thanks a lot for your help!

  • Bharath Srinivasan added an answer in 3D:
    Are there any software that can predict the effect of the SNPs in the 3D of the protein?

    I would like to study certain SNPs which is coding and change the amnio acids, so i need to know whether this SNP affect the protein 3D or not

    Bharath Srinivasan

    you can try using ENTPRISE! Below is the link and the papers


    Gao, M, Zhou H, Skolnick J. 2015. Insights into Disease-Associated Mutations in the Human Proteome through Protein Structural Analysis. Structure. 23(7):1362-1369.

    Zhou, H, Gao M, Skolnick J. Submitted. ENTPRISE: An algorithm for predicting human disease-associated amino acid mutations from sequence entropy and predicted protein structures. PLOS One.

  • Ulrich Mutze added an answer in Theoretical Physics:
    I am stuck with a complex integration given in the file attached herewith. Can any please suggest me the way to solve such integration?

    I am stuck with a complex integration given in the file attached herewith. Can any please suggest me the way to solve such integration?

    Ulrich Mutze


    'In the very definition of ζ(s), this integral appears'

    most people, -- Riemann among them -- define the zeta function as described in the Wikipedia article to which Gert referred earlier. So the formula given in Gert's respond does not have the tautological nature  which you seem to anticipate.

  • Subhash C. Kundu added an answer in Ethics:
    Which norm is more useful to the greatest number of people?

    Ethics is also responsible for determining what can be described as the sense of human existence, the deeper meaning of the ethical and existential life of the individual and the cosmos that includes it. This is also why it is customary to differentiate the terms 'ethics' and 'morality'. Another reason is that, although they are often used interchangeably, it is preferred to use the term 'moral' to indicate the association of values, norms and customs of an individual or a particular group of people. It is preferred to reserve the word 'ethics' to the rational intent (i.e. philosophical) to found the moral as a discipline not subjective.

    The question posed by the meta-ethics on the justification of moral principles, is needed to unravel the tangle of motives and principles that are the foundation of the same moral conflict. The meta-ethics therefore wish to make a conceptual clarification in order to resize the claims camped by particular moral perspectives. It defines the scope of ethics with respect to the various expressions of the ethos.

    The practical philosophy reacts against the claim of neutrality requested by analytical metaethics. In fact, while giving up its own scientific foundation, it can not, according to the practical philosophy, demand ethics the same rigor and the same accuracy that require mathematics. Demonstrations of mathematics are always valid, ethical ones are mostly. So, ethics is not a science for its own sake, but wants to direct the practice.

    As to whether priority is good or just, there are several theories:

    • ‘liberalism’ recognizes a certain autonomy of the just in respect to the good, so it is a must that action conforms to a right norm and it is necessary to choose based on the principles of justice. This theory sees its birth in Locke and Kant, and a recovery in the twentieth century, due to many authors, for example: John Rawls, Robert Nozick.

    • to communitarianism, justice is not a matter of rules and procedures, but something that concerns people's behavior in relation to their peers; justice is a virtue of the person.

    • Philosopher Charles Taylor, however, believes illusory to imagine that the ‘right’ can disregard the reference to the good. He sees, then, a primacy of the ‘good’ on the right, where for good is not intendent: profit, but "anything that stands out over the other things on the basis of a qualitative distinction." Morality is not only concerned with just obligations and public rules, but first with all qualitative distinctions.

    • Axiology, or the study of the value or quality. The theory of values ​​is mainly the nature of value and goodness in general.

    Utilitarianism holds as the ultimate criterion of the principle of utility, so the moral purpose to be found in all we do is the ‘largest remaining possible of good over evil’. In this case we speak, obviously, of good and evil non-moral. There are three basic types of utilitarianism.

    Utilitarianism of act. The basic principle is always that of the remaining balance of good over evil, and it becomes important to stress particularism, namely that the question to ask is what I should do in this particular situation and not what everyone should do in certain kinds of situations. So the remainder that is searched is referred immediately to the single subject and is not a remnant of the general good.

    General utilitarianism. This is based on two fundamental characteristics:

    • The basic principle of utilitarianism

    • the principle of '' 'universalizability'.

    Then while acting, each one must ask what would happen if everyone acted in such a cases. The idea behind general utilitarianism is related to the fact that, if it is right that a person in a certain situation makes a certain thing, then it is right that that action is made by any other person in similar situations

    Utilitarianism of the rule. It highlights the centrality of rules and says that generally, if not always, we have to determine what to do in particular situations, appealing to the norms. It differs from ‘deontologism’ because it adds to this the fact that we always have to determine our policies wondering which standard will promote the greatest general good for all. So the whole issue, in the utilitarianism of the rule, revolves around the question: which standard is more useful to more people?

    At the base of each conception of ethics is the notion of good and evil, of virtue and a certain vision of man and of human relationships. These ideas are often related to a particular religion, or at least to an ideology.

    Subhash C. Kundu


  • Eric monier-vinard added an answer in Heat & Mass Transfer:
    Can you help me to find the modelling expression of heat flux througth a semi-infinite medium?

    I am looking to find the temperature expression for heat flux through two composite (layer) semi-infinité médium

    Eric monier-vinard

    The following papers (free access) will give you the three-dimensionnal steady-state temperature solution for a finite multi-layered substrate submitted to localized heating source(s) cooled from upper or lower surface using third kind of boundary conditions. Then I think that you could determine the solution for your one-dimensionnal infinite media case.

    Good work. 

    Analytical thermal modeling of multilayered active embedded chips into high density electronic board, Thermal Science, 2013, 10.2298/TSCI120826072M.

    Analytical modeling of multi-layered Printed Circuit Board using stacked via clusters as component heat spreader, Thermal Science, 2015, 10.2298/TSCI140403143M.

  • Mauro Francisco Pinheiro Da silva added an answer in Battery Materials:
    What are the solutions to dissolve erbium oxide(Er2O3)?. is it disolove in enthonal solution?

    To prepare battery materials, i have used erbium oxide for synthesis. 

    Mauro Francisco Pinheiro Da silva

    To have Er2O3 "dissolved" you hve to ensure that the size o grains is 1 micron or smaller. You have to observe the zeta potential for peptization as a sol gel liquid.

  • Michael Krichbaum added an answer in Structured Interviews:
    What is your preferred structured interview for depression?

    I am planning a study in which we will administer the interview one time in order to determine if people meet diagnostic criteria for major depression.  As always, it is a high priority for the measure to have strong evidence for validity and inter-rater reliability.  And the shorter the depression.  Bonus points if you provide a link to the interview or information!

    Michael Krichbaum

    Dear Eve, you can use the MDI as a structured interview and even rephrase or comment items which you think are difficult to understand. The review chapter you mentioned refers to screening instruments only, which may not allow diagnosis.

  • Mauro Francisco Pinheiro Da silva added an answer in Graphene:
    What is the diffrence between Graphene and Graphene nanoplate ? both can be used to prepare graphene oxide ?

    1.What is the different between  Graphene nanoplate   and Graphene?

    2.Can we use both to prepare graphene oxide?

    Mauro Francisco Pinheiro Da silva

    Graphene is a continuous film of 2 D carbon no matter the size. Graphene nanoplate is a plate of graphene with nanometric dimensions. Both of them  can be used for graphene oxide preparation, but usually it is prepared from graphite by thermal expansion and ultrassound, chemical oxidative atack and ultraasound.

    see B.C. Brodie, Ann. Chim. Phys. 59, 1860, 466.

    C.K. Chua and M. Pumera, Chem. Soc. Rev. 43, 2014, 291. and my last publication

  • Raul Cevallos asked a question in Sertraline:
    Is there an effective pharmacological treatment of depressive symptoms in dementia?

    A recent research published has shown that Sertraline and Mirtazapine are ineffective for depressive symptoms in patients with dementia. What alternatives do we have?

  • Kaido Paapstel asked a question in Metabolomics:
    Can I use the factors derived out of principal component analysis for conducting Pearson correlation analysis?


    I have run PCA to reduce my metabolomic data to 5 meaningful factors. I was wondering if I could use Pearson's r to show a linear dependence between one of these factors and C-reactive protein. Does it make any sense?


  • Dragan Pavlovic added an answer in Hypothesis Testing:
    Should hypotheses always be based on a theory? Can someone refer me to a research paper that emphasizes the need for theory driven hypotheses?

    Should hypotheses always be based on a theory? I will provide an example here without variable names. I am reading a paper where the authors argue that X (an action) should be related to Y (an emotion). In order to support this argument the authors suggest that when individuals engage in X, they are more likely to feel a sense of absorption and thus they should experience Y. There is no theory here to support the relationship between X and Y. They are also not proposing absorption as the mediator. They are just using this variable to explain why X should lead to Y. Would this argument be stronger if I used a theory to support the relationship between X and Y? Can someone refer me to a research paper that emphasizes the need for theory driven hypotheses? Thanks!

    Dragan Pavlovic

    Yes, Thomas.