Q&A

ResearchGate Q&A lets scientists and researchers exchange questions and answers relating to their research expertise, including areas such as techniques and methodologies.

Browse by research topic to find out what others in your field are discussing.

Browse Topics

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
  • Peter T Breuer added an answer in Grammar:
    How important is the Sholarone when submitting an article to a journal?

    What are the major uses of scholar one? Do editors reject a paper based on the quality of the grammar?

    Peter T Breuer · Birmingham City University

    No, just the spelling.

    Question rejected!

  • Oscar Sierra added an answer in Epithelial Cell:
    How can I isolate bronchial epithelial cells from bronchial brushings?

    I would like to isolate bronchial epithelial cells from human bronchial brushings and am exploring various options. I simply want to deplete any other cell types and there's no need to culture the bronchial epithelial cells. Ideally, I'd like to isolate these cells as close to their native, in vivo state as possible and as many as possible. Possible problems I'm considering are in particular the large amount of mucus in the sample and the clumping of cells from the brushings.

    Oscar Sierra · Washington University in St. Louis

    Hi Sebastian, if the dispase requires Calcium ions then BEGM is the way to go, but if calcium ions should be absent then HBSS is preferable. I only have experience with Pronase and BEGM is a good media for this. Good luck.

  • Qi Wang asked a question in Agricultural Irrigation:
    An invitation

    who would like to send me an invitation for my scholarship application. I am doing research on water harvesting and agricultural irrigation in China. I prefer Englishi speaking country

  • Qi Wang asked a question in Agricultural Irrigation:
    An invitation

    who would like to send me an invitation for my scholarship application. I am doing research on water harvesting and agricultural irrigation in China. I prefer Englishi speaking country.

  • Grace Adusei asked a question in Cowpea:
    Das anyone has an idea how to calculate nitrogen fixation in cowpea using natural abundance method?

    I want information on how to calculate N2 fixation using 15-N based methods for measuring BNF .That is the Principles of the δ15N (15N natural abundance) technique to determine biological N2 fixation (BNF).
    With the formula
    . %Ndfa = δ15N of reference plant - δ15N of N2-fixing legume x 100
    δ15N of reference plant – B 1

    ), expecally how to calculate for the B vale in the formula

  • How long the acid hydrolyzed protein samples can be stored?

    We have some samples which were acid hydrolyzed for amino acid analysis. Is it possible to freeze these hydrolyzed samples and analyze them later?

    Parisa Fallahi · National Corn to Ethanol Research Center, St Louis Great area

    Dear Sobhan, thank you for your answer.

  • Larry Carlson added an answer in Philosophy:
    Can ethics be measured objectively?
    Ethics, ethical committee, ethical approval and other ethical related words are extensively used on Researchgate and other places. How to define and measure ethics in objective bases?
    Larry Carlson · United Tribes Technical College

    Barry, your statements give the impression that you are giving a definition of modernism. Indeed, Merriam-Webster defines 'modernism' with respect to religion as a "tendency in theology to accommodate traditional religious teaching to contemporary thought and especially to devalue supernatural elements."  I certainly agree with your sentiments, though I presume, given the level of your scholarship in general, that you really meant to credit Hobbes instead of Locke for the quote that is characteristic of his philosophy.

    I have no intention of disparaging intuition, or religion, or spiritualism, but rather, to be amongst the rank and file of those who underscore the importance of their keeping up with cultural advancements in general.

    I agree that no group has any special corner on intuition or on the intuitive approach to science or ethics. The city of Denver, where I now reside, is filled with dozens of different types of alternative therapists and religious devotees. I find it challenging to keep both an open mind and, at the same time, a certain degree of scientific skepticism when I attend their festivals.

    Now I will get out my yoga mat, sit in the lotus position, and chant about the importance of keeping science pure.

  • Sam Altman asked a question in Anthropocene:
    Share experiences in transdisciplinary Higher education for the Anthropocene?

    Any curriculum for the Anthropocene presents a number of key challenges for traditional higher education structures including fields of study and associated pedagogies. It is disruptive in a number of ways. It is essentially transdisciplinary in nature but drawing from a wide range of disciplines (spanning the full breadth of the natural and social sciences and the humanities). It recognises that socio-political frameworks of the disciplines themselves have contributed to the environmental & social issues that need to be addressed.

  • Does anyone have a guideline or criteria for study quality assessment of pre-post study designs?
    I know of Cochrane risk of bias assessment for randomized and non-randomized studies, but pre-post study design with one time point is not under EPOC non randomized studies, so does anyone have a guideline or reference methodology?
    Joanna B Broad · University of Auckland

    The best resource I know for reporting guidelines (not quite the same as quality guidelines) is the equator network, at

      http://www.equator-network.org/reporting-guidelines/

    They have many guidelines, but sadly not one that I can see purely for before/after studies. However there is this

    Des Jarlais DC, Lyles C, Crepaz N, and the TREND Group. Improving the reporting quality of nonrandomized evaluations of behavioral and public health interventions: The TREND statement. Am J Public Health. 2004;94:361-366.

    & it may be helpful.

    j

  • As a researcher, do you prefer to work alone or with group(s)?

    Based on your experience, do you prefer to work alone or with group(s) either locally or internationally?

    Jenkins Macedo · Searching for Employment

    First, I would like to know what you are referring to when you talk about group? Team or group? These are unique differences between a team of researchers working together and a group of researchers. The nature of a team work is different from the nature of a group work. The difference is basically technical with different levels of engagements, expectations, and outcomes.

    To contribute to your question directly. The nature of work detects whether it would be good to work on a group/team or as an individual. If you are doing an agronomic field trial, it wouldn't be a good idea to work alone as it would be so tiresome. This example could be expended upon to other areas as well. However, if you are doing desktop-based research it could be a good idea to work individually. But as others already mentioned, each nature of individual/team/group work have merits and demerits. 

  • Qi Wang added an answer in Nitrate Leaching:
    What peer reviewed systems and installation methods are you using to measure long-term drainage and nitrate leaching below the crop root zone?

    See above

    Qi Wang · Gansu Agricultural University

     I published a paper "Comparison of lysimeters and porous ceramic cups for measuring nitrate leaching in different soil types. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 55(4): 333-345. ". it tell the process of installation of lysimeter and porous ceramic cup.

    best wishes for you

  • Eric Ouellet added an answer in Protein BLAST:
    How does DNA kill the cancer cells ?

    I have a dsDNA sequence that contains 14 nucleotides which inserted into cell through nanoparticle and shows good cytotoxicity. Also 6 sequences repeats at two end but in reverse order and two sequence in between. I have found no similarity with human genes or any protein in BLAST search. Further it was found  to be identical to some microbes genomic part and their putative proteins. Is it possible that it has 3D str i.e. aptamer that have some binding function, or it may recombine or got inserted like transposons.

    Eric Ouellet · University of British Columbia - Vancouver

    I agree, you should control for the DNA sequence to show if the cytotoxicity is indeed caused by the dsDNA, and not by, say, the nanoparticle. There are several reviews that have investigated several types of nanoparticles and their effects on cellular toxicity. Perhaps the nanoparticle itself is to blame?

    Typcically, dsDNA has a very hard time forming interesting "aptamer-like" 3D structures simply because its persistence length (when duplexed) does not allow for that < 50bp.

  • How can I convert percent soil organic matter into soil C?

    Data of my own and locally available data give percent soil organic matter estimated by loss on ignition for Andosols and Histosols (Highlands of the Andes). I don´t know if there is a reliable method to translate percent organic matter into C content or concentration if we are working with hundreds of data, or how correct this approach would be... Thanks

    Jenkins Macedo · Searching for Employment

    Are you adding any biomass to the soil?

  • Paul N. Diagboya added an answer in Biosorption:
    How to calculate parameters of pseudo-first order kinetic model?
    I have found how to calculate parameters of pseudo-second order kinetic model, but bad luck with pseudo-first order model. So, how to calculate qe and k1 from the slope and intercept?
    Paul N. Diagboya · University of Ibadan

    see these:

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.0 4.038

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.01.0 48

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.05.004

  • Frederic W Grannis added an answer in Lung Cancer:
    What databases are available for lung cancer CT images?

    What  databases are available for lung cancer CT images? Which database will suit for detecting lung nodules and studying for lung cancer?

    Frederic W Grannis · City of Hope National Medical Center

    Coincidentally, I just received an email from a man who's wife died of lung cancer who comments on the Lung Cancer Allaince's "Give a Scan" program and asks that his message be forwarded to others who might be interested.  I have pasted the message below.

    Hi everyone.
    You might not recognize the e-mail address, but I’m Scott Reid and I was fortunate to be a participant in the Lung Cancer Alliance’s Sixth Annual National Lung Cancer Survivor Summit held in Washington, DC, September 7-10, 2014.
    Some of you reading this may have been participants as well and know what an amazing experience it was for us all. Besides the highlights of an extremely poignant “Shine a Light” event held on the opening night of the summit at the White House, learning from guest speakers on the topics related to “Accelerating Discoveries” and most importantly participating as “Survivors on the Move” by meeting on Capitol Hill with our state’s Senators, Representatives and their staffs to raise awareness on a federal government level about all things lung cancer related, I was also able to meet so many people whose lives were forever changed by this horrific disease and who are fighting every day to help improve survival rates, not only for themselves, but for generations to come.
    One of the things at the summit that surprised me was when the topic of the “Give a Scan” program came up in my conversations and the occasional reaction I received in return of “What is that?”
    Now, before I get into the “What is that?” part, let me back track a bit for those that don’t know or remember my connection to lung cancer.
    Back in 2011, I knew a little bit about lung cancer, but not as much as I should have in retrospect. I had a friend at work that lost his wife at too young an age a few years earlier to this disease and she was a non-smoker, but I didn’t really understand all that surrounded lung cancer beyond the “Surgeon General’s Warning” and that many smokers died more often than non-smokers. I didn’t understand what it meant to show no symptoms, as I learned later that my friend’s wife had, until it was too late, and how she was part of a growing population that never smoked yet lost their lives to lung cancer. And then on a normal August day the lung cancer “freight train” hit me at full speed.
    I won’t go into all the details, there is a blog post I wrote on the Lung Cancer Alliance website that will do that (http://www.lungcanceralliance.org/blog/a-wifes-legacy-lives-on/), but in a nutshell my wife Gail and one of my longtime friends were both diagnosed with lung cancer within days of each other that summer, Gail at 46 and my friend at 49. Within a year, both of them we gone, leaving us too soon.
    To say that I was angry and confused would be an understatement. How could this happen in this century of so many technological advances? Remembering back to my co-worker’s wife, that was three lung cancer related deaths and all of them were to people in the prime years of their lives. How could their lives not been extended through “modern” medical advances? Didn’t we learn anything from the “War on Cancer” that started in the early 1970’s?
    Then you learn the unfortunate truths. About survival rates that haven’t changed all that much over the past 30-40 years. About inappropriate proportions of funding going for research of non-lung cancers compared to the number of people impacted by lung cancer annually. About the treatments Gail receiving not changing in decades because there are no new discoveries being used in a widespread fashion to combat this disease. The bad news keeps piling up the deeper you dig for answers.
    We all know the numbers…now. We didn’t before the train his us, but we do now.
    So, I decided I had to do something and about five months after she died I stumbled across the “Give a Scan” program (http://www.giveascan.org) while looking for answers and this was my introduction to the Lung Cancer Alliance. Stumbled is the operative word. No one should have to stumble across this information and I wondered why I hadn’t heard of this before or why someone didn’t recommend this to us along the way.
    I read about the “Give a Scan” program being the first of its kind “people powered” CT (“Cat Scan”) donation program for lung cancer research. I liked the “people powered” part right away. I figured the traditional methods didn’t change anything for years, why not execute “Power to the People” as John Lennon has us all singing in the 70’s?
    I read that you send copies of your own scans, or those from a loved one as their caregiver, along with a consent form and some other forms providing more generalized information related to the lung cancer diagnosis, like age at diagnosis, family history of lung or other cancers, smoking history, exposure to smoke, radon, asbestos and other cancer causing agents and treatments. This combination of scans and data is exactly what researchers have been asking for. Then I read the clinching points for me. The scans and metadata available to researchers worldwide via the website can be used FREE OF CHARGE while the patent’s identity is protected. All “identifiers” - information like name, address, doctor’s name, social security number, etc. - are stripped from the scans. Now, my wife was a stickler for protecting her privacy. We shredded everything we had to. It didn’t go in the trash with our names on it. She also never wanted to be the center of attention either. So I know she would be really happy with remaining anonymous in such a public place while having her data available where it could make a difference. Her scans would have sat on a file server in some hospital or file cabinet in a doctor’s or radiology office for decades doing nothing, but now they might lead to cures. This was a “no brainer” for me to participate.
    The process of obtaining the scans and getting them to the Lung Cancer Alliance was super easy for me. A phone call, a letter to the oncologist asking for information on how to get copies of Gail’s scans (which I could have just walked in to get as well), picking up the scans on DVD’s and mailing them in probably took less than an hour of total time. No one gave me a hard time along the way, but I was prepared if they did. I mean this data was Gail’s and not theirs! Who were they to resist? So I was ready to tell them, “look, I want this data and I want it now!” but once they heard what this was about and where it was going there was no resistance and they were glad to help.
    So now that you know more about “Give a Scan” and the impact it has, why aren’t you participating? Why aren’t you telling others to consider participating? And if you are participating and spreading the word, THANK YOU!
    Just think about it. 157,300 lung cancer deaths were reported in 2010 and if just 10% of those left behind thought about donating their loved ones scans, 15,730 additional scans would be available in a just a single year. Funding for researchers is becoming harder to find. Wouldn’t it be easier to help these researchers find that potential cure we all know is somewhere in all the data out there by spending a small amount of your time to gather the information, sign the forms and send it in? And our lung cancer survivors can provide even more data to researchers. We keep getting the word out and “Power to the People!” we might get to a point where 50,000 or 100,000 scans are available!
    It has to start somewhere and that is why I’m asking this question. Knowing what I’ve told you about my experiences, and how easy and safe this is to do, won’t you participate in donating scans or to help get the word out to other patients, caregivers, oncologists, nurses, hospitals, news agencies, you name it? We’ve all lost too much to this disease and isn’t it time for us to take control of the direction the research is going as well?
    To wrap this up, I’ll tell you why “Give a Scan” is very important to me. As I said in my blog post, Gail was worried before she passed away that her nieces and nephews, we have nine of them, wouldn’t remember her when she was gone, but I told her they’ll remember because of all the great stories we have of her when she was right here with us, but a bigger part of her legacy just might be in those scans. Maybe some research team might find better treatments or even a cure, so that our nieces and nephews might live in a world where they never have to hear those nightmare words, “It’s a tumor in your lung.”
    I will never forget the day we heard those horrific words as the lung cancer freight train hit us straight on. We never saw it coming. No one ever does. We all understand that…now. It’s so simple. Donate scans. It costs you nothing but your time and the life it could save might be your own.
    Be like a comic book super hero we all know. No one knows your true identity, but everyone will be grateful you are there saving and protecting lives. Be a “super” man or woman and “Give a Scan”.
    All you have to do is send an email to: giveascan@lungcanceralliance.org and they will send you all the information you need to start the process.
    Thank you all for taking the time to consider the “Give a Scan” program and for all the inspiration I get from all of you as well. I know we all wished we never had to meet the way we did because of lung cancer, but I’m glad this community has gathered together to turn it all around and make the world a place that can be lung cancer free.
    Scott
    “Give a Scan” -- http://www.giveascan.org

    PS: Please feel free to share this story with all you think that can help.

  • Athanasios Kakalis added an answer in Viscosity:
    Group contribution model for pure liquid viscosities

    I am searching for a general correlation to predict viscosities of pure liquids. The correlation can either be a group contribution model, or depend on physical properties that can be predicted using group contribution models. Thanks!

    Athanasios Kakalis · Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

    Dear Effie Marcoulaki,

    Some articles that may be of help are as follows.

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1385894799001734

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378381201007609

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378381208000411

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876107012002192

  • Any recommendations on histone H3 triK27 antibody?

    I would like to stain FFPE human cancer tissues with H3tK27 for immunofluorescence.  Any recommendations for an antibody with low background?

    Isabelle R Miousse · University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

    I've used the Abcam #ab6002 too, also for ChIP

  • Xavier Musonye asked a question in Geothermal:
    Any relationship between major or trace elements with alteration minerals in a geothermal field?

    Is there any relationship between major or trace elements in rock cuttings with the alteration minerals in a high temperature geothermal field? If there is, are there any publications written?

  • Thomas Ha added an answer in Finite Element Method:
    How to apply cyclic/fluctuating/alternating loading in Franc2D?
    How to perform fatigue crack analysis using Franc2D software? I couldn't find how to apply cyclic/fluctuating/alternating loading in Franc2D.
    Thomas Ha · Technical University Darmstadt

    Do you have a solution in the meanwhile? I have exactly the same question in the moment :-). I just can arrange the crack growth with quasi-static calculation methods. In both Franc 2D and Franc2D/L I cannot find this function.

    I wanted to use VCCI/MCCI in combination with the cyclic load.

  • Eric Ouellet added an answer in Electrolysis:
    How can I prevent electrolysis on gold electrodes in a microfluidic channel?

    I apply low AC voltages and frequencies at kHz levels on planar gold electrodes which are directly in contact with a sucrose-dextrose medium (These gold electrodes are attached to the glass substrate via 30 nm thick Ti layer and I believe that electrolysis occurs because of Ti existence).

    Eric Ouellet · University of British Columbia - Vancouver

    This is a problem we used to have as well with Platinum/Titanium electrodes in microfluidic channels. We solved the problem by depositing a layer of SiO2 by PECVD on the surface of the electrodes (and using kapton tape to "mask" the edges for proper electrical contact). Since I am not sure of your application, this is the best advice I can offer you. 

    Have you also tried using Chromium as the adhesion layer instead of Titanium?

  • Paul N. Diagboya added an answer in Adsorption:
    Adsorption with virgin peanut shell - Why did I experience an irregular removal of naphthalene?

    I am carrying out a research on adsorption of naphthalene with a virgin peanut shell. My results indicated that as contact time increased, the % removal of naphthalene by the shell was irregular (moving up and down), equilibrium was not achieved even after 180mins. Please what are the possible reasons behind it.

    Thanks

    Paul N. Diagboya · University of Ibadan

    Basically, the problem may be with the method of separation of the sorbent after adsorption of naphthalene and the means of detection of naphthalene after adsorption.

    How did you do the separation from the biosorbent?

    How did you determine Naphthalene in solution.

    When these factors are not taken into consideration while carrying out the experiment, then you are bound to have such fluctuations.

    For instance, if UV spectrophotometer was used in the determination, then absorption of UV rays by impurities (sorbents in solution) may cause such distortions.

    Regards

    Paul

  • Elmira Shojaei asked a question in Wind:
    Passive ventilation and Cooling strategy (Wind Tower)

    Hi all, I am investigating on different ways to increase the efficiency of Iranian wind towers. Right now, I am doing a research on contemporary buildings having passive wind tower(or Cool tower) like Animal Campus Dog Adoption Park project design by tsk (http://www.aiatopten.org/node/154). I wonder if you know any other project like this.
    Looking forward to hear from you.
    Thanks in advance.

  • Loopinder Sood added an answer in Genetic Algorithm:
    What research is there on how to set parameters for genetic algorithms?

    Genetic algorithms are very good for searching, but there are a number of parameters that need to be set - population size, # of generations, mutation rate, etc.  If the parameters are not set correctly, you many not get a very good answer.  What research is there on how to set parameters for genetic algorithms?

    Loopinder Sood · Coventry and Warwickshire Partnership NHS Trust

    Please see Improvements in Genetic Algorithms. Vasconcelos et al, 2001, which shows how to link the mutation rate and the crossover rate with the genetic diversity (mean fitness/maximum fitness)

    http://www.cpdee.ufmg.br/~jramirez/publicacoes/p2001-1.pdf

  • Elmira Shojaei asked a question in Wind:
    Passive ventilation and Cooling strategy (Wind Tower)

    Hi all, I am investigating on different ways to increase the efficiency of Iranian wind towers. Right now, I am doing a research on contemporary buildings having passive wind tower(or Cool tower) like Animal Campus Dog Adoption Park project design by tsk (http://www.aiatopten.org/node/154). I wonder if you know any other project like this.
    Looking forward to hear from you.
    Thanks in advance.

  • Paul N. Diagboya added an answer in Plants:
    Can anyone tell me the apparent physical parameters used for good adsorbing plants for metal adsorption?

    Among a variety of plants, if we know the basic plant parameters, then will be easy for initial screening for heavy metal absorption studies.

    Paul N. Diagboya · University of Ibadan

    Other parameters such as pH of the metal solution of interest, rate of adsorption, effect of temperature on the biomass, effect of concentration are necessary for one to say that a particular biosorbent is good for adsorption.

    please check http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.05.004

  • John Basson added an answer in Suicide:
    How can we reduce the rate of suicide in countries by 10% by 2020?

    In WHO's Mental Health Action Plan 2013—20, WHO member states have committed themselves to work towards the global target of reducing the rate of suicide in countries by 10% by 2020. Can we achieve this goal?

    John Basson · University of New South Wales

    WE can do work with young men who are unemployed or who have justb been released from prison. We can help young people in their adol;escent years with services tailored to their needs. the adolescents will tell us what is the most appropriate approach if we ask.

  • Ahmed Elymani asked a question in Interpretation:
    Could you tell me how can interpret spoligotyping results?

    I have 10 myobacterium tuberulosis samples and i well do spoligotyping experiment but i want to know how can interpret these results and are there any technique colud be used instead of spoligotyping?

  • John Basson added an answer in IT services:
    How is psychosis different in people with intellectual disability?

    Prevalence of psychosis in intellectual disability (ID) is 3 time higher than general population. People with (ID) frequently seek help from psychiatric services. Is it easy/difficult to make a diagnosis of psychosis in this group? Are their symptoms different from general population? How do they respond to medication? What is your experience about outcome of psychosis in this population and have you seen treatment resistant psychosis in this group. How do you address treatment resistant psychosis if you see it in this group?

    Muhammad Ayub

    John Basson · University of New South Wales

    This depends in the level of disability and the verbal ability of the patient to atrticulate the experience of distress. The less verbal ability the more behavioural symptoms will be the manefestation of the psychosis.

  • Has the closure of the large psychiatric hospitals led to increases in the numbers of people with a mental health disorder in prison?

    I'm aware that some authors from the US believe there is an association between hospital closure and increases in the numbers of mentally ill people in prison but is there any such evidence from the UK?

    John Basson · University of New South Wales

    I think that the research on this is not the best way to spend money. What we know ias that there are too many people in prison who have mental illness. Many, the majority, have a short sentence. There needs to be diversion at court stage. the more serios crime commmited by the mentally ill needs specialist units. the need for clinics in prison is easily made with the multiple paers on the level of MI in prisoners. Lets look at models of care and their outcomes and not more epedemiological papers telling us more versions of what we know.