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  • M. Felix Freshwater added an answer in Histological Analysis:
    Student T-test versus Wilcoxon rank-sum?

    Hi all!

    I would like to compare the vessels density between to samples (control versus treatment, so 2 groups) of healed skin wounds, based on histological analysis. In each group I have 30 measurement data. At the beginning I was thinking about a simple Student t-test, but I have also found other papers using the Mann-Whitney (=Wilcoxon rank-sum test). Any idea about what is the most suitable?

    Thank you!

    M. Felix Freshwater

    Anais- Two useful references on this are http://biostat.mc.vanderbilt.edu/wiki/Main/ManuscriptChecklist and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mann%E2%80%93Whitney_U_test. If you create box plots of your two samples andcompare them graphically , you will have a better sense of whether there are outliers or other data impacting the distributions.

  • Zhong Jiabao asked a question in Design Compiler:
    How to design and compile a questionaire of proficiency of english academic writing?

    researchers who are interested in EAP,ESP ,writing, corpus and linguistics

  • Dilupa Nakandala asked a question in Heat Maps:
    Does anyone know a good software for developing a geographic heat map?

    I intend to map agri food production to show the level of diversity across regions.

  • Jody D Berry added an answer in Antibody Conjugation:
    Could a coating antibody also be used as detection antibody in an ELISA sandwich assay?

    I want to make a sandwich ELISA for the detection of antigen X. I want to know if I can use the same antibody as detection and coating (detection antibody will be  conjugated to HRP).

    Jody D Berry

    Could try inhibition assay with enzyme labeled antigen being inhibited by the soluble un labeled antigen if no interfering serum antibodies are present in whatever your sample is

  • Xikun Song added an answer in Marine Invertebrate Biology:
    How do I identify sex in thecate hydroids like plumularids?

    How do I identify sex in thecate hydroids like plumularids?​

    Plumularia setacea, Plumularia warreni

  • Adam B Shapiro added an answer in Protein Precipitation:
    Salts used for protein precipitation?

    can any one suggest the various salts except ammonium sulphate for protein precipitation? i need to compare the precipitation of protein with with salts

    Adam B Shapiro

    Remember when comparing the effectiveness of different salts that not just the concentration but also the ionic strength is important. The ionic strength is equal to (1/2)sum(mz2) where m is the concentration of each ion and z is the charge. For example, the ionic strength of 1M NaCl is (1/2)(1x1 + 1x1) = 1 M, but the ionic strength of 1M ammonium sulfate is (1/2)(2x1+1x4)= 3 M.

  • Shabnam Yazdani Mehr added an answer in Adaptive Reuse:
    What types of problems are engaged in the adaptive reuse process?

    I am doing my research on adaptive reuse in architecture. I would like to know from an expert point of view, what are the problems in adaptive reuse that need more research? I thought about building typology, interior design and landscape in term of adaptive reuse. I also would like to know different ideas in this case. Thank you in advance for all your help.

    Shabnam Yazdani Mehr

    Thank you very much dear Srdjan for your comprehensive and useful answer. I went through all of references you stated above and even more and I found them so useful. I also completely agree that there are still some issues with regard to values of heritage buildings. In my point of view, these values can vary based on building typology as well as different perspectives. On the other hand, there should be some research through initial stages of adaptive reuse process in order to preserve values of heritage buildings. 

    I believe your answer will bring more rooms for investigation in this area. It also helped me to consider Authenticity and Integrity values through my research.

    Thanks again for your valuable information. 

  • Matthew Yu added an answer in Refugees:
    Has Turkey a rightful place as EU state-member?

    The EU-Turkey summit has just finished and finalized the announced agreement through which the European Union gives 3.2 billions in aid for Turkey to assist the 2.2 million Syrian refugees sheltered in the country and mainly compromises to stem the flow of migrants to Europe. However, much more important for the Turkey prime-minister, Ahmet Davutoglu, was the formal re-opening of the process of negotiations aiming to discuss Turkish full membership of the EU.  Needless to say that the summit took place few days after the Turkish destruction of a Russian fighter jet that seems to have violated during 17 seconds Turkey airspace, although without making any remote hostile action. It is not also worth to stress that the European extreme right wing movements immediately started vibrant protests against the perspective of a future Turkish adhesion to the EU, arguing that the almost 80 million Turks are not really “European” and only want to wider the huge number of foreign emigrants living and working in Europe.

    Matthew Yu

    I really don't know much about this country, but as far as I know, Turkey supports the separatists in the Xinjiang region of our country, and these separatists have created several terrorist attacks, and made great casualties in our country. Turkish diplomats have issued visas specifically for those separatists (hundreds of them) for them to be trained in the Middle East, or in their own territory, I strongly suspect. Now we have further evidence that Turkey might secretly supported IS, if this is true, then it is very resonable to call it a terrorist/rogue country, and this kind of country does not deserve to be a member of an international community. 

  • Muhammad Usman Munir added an answer in Cobalt Nanoparticles:
    Do we need to stir the solution when preparing monodispersed cobalt nanoparticles via the organometallic thermal decomposition method?

    I am synthesizing monodispersed cobalt nanoparticles via the thermal decomposition of Co2(CO)8. This method is widely used to prepare magnetic nanocrystals. But the size distribution of my sample is quite broad, which is undesirable. I am thinking maybe the reason is that I am stirring the solution too vigorously. Does anyone have experience in such case? Thank you very much. 

    Muhammad Usman Munir

    At which speed (i.e rpm) you are stirring the solution and what is the heating temp? Because the speed of stirring and the temp at which you are heating the solution are much important in obtaining nanoparticles of monodisperse and desirable size range.

  • Zhong Jiabao added an answer in Teaching English as a Foreign Language:
    What role does learning about culture have for both the knowledge and motivation of EFL students?

    Most people seem to agree that learning about culture is part of learning a language, but the better we understand the ROLE that learning about culture plays, the more focused we can be about what parts of culture to teach.

    How important is learning the cultural meaning behind idioms?  How important is cultural knowledge for increasing motivation to learn?  Are there other benefits to teaching about native speaker culture?

    Zhong Jiabao

    Learning  the culture of target language is beneficial to adjust and improve the situation of mental health.this is helpful for the learning of the second languange.

  • Xina Li added an answer in Innovation Network:
    Can anyone suggest literature on government cultivating innovation networks?

    I am working on a paper on how government cultivates innovation network. Can anyone suggest literature on how government works on building up a successful innovation network, maybe utilizing cases in Silicon Valley or Shenzhen. If possible, can anyone suggest how to collect facts proving that government does make progress on cultivating innovation network. I am really looking forward to any suggestion.

    Xina Li

    Hi Laura,

    I am so excited to know that you have the similar interest as me! I can hardly find any useful paper in English now, and I will send you if I do find any. There are two papers in Chinese on this topic but not really helpful theoretically. I will start as you suggested.

    If you don't mind, I really appreciate receiving your paper and it would be really helpful to me. Btw, my e-mail address is pkulixina@163.com.


  • Ammara Khalid asked a question in Agilent:
    How to solve Standard value problem in Agilent Gc/MS?

    I am using Agilent Gc/MS and we sometimes have eclectic outage schedule. After that I make my standard again every time. and its value is getting higher every time. I use same conditions and dilation but for the 1st time value was 482295, then 2nd time 712293 and now its 1175216. I can not get reproducible data due to this problem. any suggestions please?

  • Joe Zhang added an answer in Micro-CT:
    How do I wash off iodine or PMA from whole rat heart?

    I stain the rat heart with Lugol's iodine or PMA for micro-CT. I want to re-stain the same heart with for Picro Sirius Red.​

    I stain the rat heart with Lugol's iodine or PMA for micro-CT. I want to re-stain the same heart with for Picro Sirius Red. How do I wash iodine or PMA off from the whole heart. The heart has been dehydrated gradually by 30%, 50% and 70% alcohol when it is stained with PMA and iodine.

    Joe Zhang

    Thanks all for the answers

  • Jacques Lavau added an answer in Quantum Entanglement:
    Is a subquantal structure possible which is compatible with relativity and free will?

    Consider the following two statements:

    1) by moving from one frame of coordinates to another one, in relative movement, the wave-function of quantum systems (including entangled systems) transforms as the relativity requires, and in any frame the quantum systems behave according to the wave-function in that frame;

    2) the result appearing in a present measurement of a quantum particle is not influenced by which type of measurement will be chosen in a future measurement of another particle (in particular if the other particle is entangled with the presently measured one).

    By subquantal structure I mean parameters of whatever type that might decide deterministically the results of measurements, in particular of entangled particles. As an example, the parameters can be local or nonlocal hidden parameters.

    So, the question is, can we say that these two principles exclude the possibility of a subquantal structure that would discard the quantum indeterminism? Alternatively, can somebody offer a counter-example or counter-argument?

    Jacques Lavau

    There is no shield to the broglian noise that swathes and beats every particle (atom for instance) from the others. The panoptic fantasy in microphysics remains a fantasy, and the cruel theorem of necessary variety from W.R. Ashby ruins all our ambitions to "know all the initial conditions".

  • Karen Weletyk added an answer in Attachment Disorders:
    Is attachment disorder the environmental root of sociopathy?

    In  Martha Stout's book, The Sociopath Next Door, she writes "Children who suffer from attachment disorder are impulsive and emotionally cold and sometimes dangerously violent towards their parents, siblings, playmates, and pets. They tend to steal, vandalize, + start fires, + they often spend time in detention facilities when they are young + in jail when they become adults, just like sociopaths".

    Is anyone familiar with this phenomenon?

    Karen Weletyk

    Thank you, Anton. I will get that book and read it over the Christmas holiday.

  • Jerzy Maselko asked a question in Citations:
    How can I get your list of my papers and list of citations?

    How can I get your list of my papers and list of citations.


    Jerzy Maselko

  • Anika Amin added an answer in Organic Solar Cells:
    Is there any free software for simulating OLED/Organic Solar Cell?

    We want to design OLED/Organic Solar Cell devices. For that purpose, we need a free software for designing such devices. Can anyone help me in this regard?

    Anika Amin

    @ Lieven :is it free?...does the evaluation version provide access

    to all options?

  • Grace W. Muriuki asked a question in Engineering Mathematics:
    What are the perceptions of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics professionals on nuclear energy?

    The Dow Centre for Sustainable Engineering Innovation at the University of Queensland is currently undertaking an international survey of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics professionals’ attitudes toward nuclear energy to better understand what influences those views. we are inviting you to complete the survey by clicking on the link below. It should take approximately 20 minutes to complete.


     If you have any questions in relation to the survey feel free to contact either Maureen Hassall ( m.hassall1@uq.edu.au) or Peta Ashworth (p.ashworth@uq.edu.au)

  • Thomas Hollyday added an answer in Borderline Personality Disorder:
    Does anyone have experience with Borderline Personality Disorder treatment options?

    Most therapists, mental health agencies, consider BPD untreatable.  I choose to believe that all things are possible.  Can anyone lead me to research in this area?

    Thomas Hollyday

    I pulled this from the web hope it helps you. Tom Hollyday

                          Treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)
         Current research shows that treatment can decrease the symptoms and suffering of people with BPD. Talk therapy is usually the first choice of treatment (unlike some other illnesses where medication is often first.) Generally, treatment involves one to two sessions a week with a mental health counselor. For therapy to be effective, people must feel comfortable with and trust their therapist.
    Some BPD symptoms are easier to treat than others. Fear that others might leave, intense, unstable relationships or feelings of emptiness are often hardest to change. Research shows that treatment is more effective in decreasing anger, suicide attempts and self- harm, as well as helping to improve over-all functioning and social adjustment.
         People whose symptoms improve may still have issues related to co-occurring disorders, such as depression, substance abuse, eating disorders, or post-traumatic stress disorder. However, research suggests that full-blown symptoms rarely coming back after remission.
        There are several treatments that are most often used to manage BPD:
            1. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) focuses on the concept of mindfulness, or paying attention to the present emotion. DBT teaches skills to control intense emotions, reduce self-destructive behavior, manage distress, and improve relationships. It seeks a balance between accepting and changing behaviors. This proactive, problem-solving approach was designed specifically to treat BPD. Treatment includes individual therapy sessions, skills training in a group setting, and phone coaching as needed. DBT is the most studied treatment for BPD and the one shown to be most effective.
            2. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) can help people with BPD recognize and change both their beliefs and the ways they act that reflect inaccurate or negative opinions of themselves and others. This therapy can help people see difficult situations and relationships more clearly and find better ways to deal with them. CBT has been shown to be effective in lessening mood and anxiety symptoms and self-harm.
            3. Mentalization-based therapy (MBT) is a talk therapy that helps people identify and understand what others might be thinking and feeling.
            4. Transference-focused therapy (TFP) is designed to help patients understand their emotions and interpersonal problems through the relationship between the patient and therapist. Patients then apply the insights they learn to other situations.
            5. Medications cannot cure BPD but can help treat other conditions that often accompany BPD such as depression, impulsivity, and anxiety. Often patients are treated with several medications, but there is little evidence that this approach is necessary or effective. People with BPD are encouraged to talk with their prescribing doctor about what to expect from each medication and its side effects. Omega-3 Fatty Acids, often called fish oils, have efficacy in relieving symptoms for certain mental illnesses, but their effectiveness in BPD is less clear. One study of 30 women with BPD showed that omega-3 fatty acids might help reduce symptoms of depression and aggression. 1
            6. Self-Care activities include: regular exercise, good sleep habits, a nutritious diet, taking medications as prescribed, and healthy stress management. Excellent self-care can help to reduce common symptoms of BPD such as mood changes, impulsive behavior, and irritability.
    If this is ignored the problem can become worse, God bless you Terry Mainer, i do not know if the problem is your's or friends, but I will say a pray for it.

  • Xikun Song added an answer in Cnidaria:
    Is this Genus Eutima ? (Phylum: Cnidaria) collected from the hard surface found at the coastal waters of Bay of Bengal ,India ?

    This is the Genus Eutima ? was collected from the coastal waters of Bay of Bengal from the depth range of 2 m. The photographs were atcched with the scale bar.

    The specimen color is pink due to the adding of Rose Bengal. However original colour was grey. Somebody try to identify this. 


    + 9 more attachments

  • Reynaldo Inocian added an answer in Mother Tongue:
    What are disadvantages of using the mother tongue as the method of instruction among primary school children?

    Especially when mother tongue is different from the language used in textbooks of students.

    Reynaldo Inocian

    Well, amidst all the advantages in using the mother tongue, the only disadvantage of it is when the students are not using their native tongue as mother tongue, meaning they use other language like English. This is the problem if in a specific locality there can be more languages used as mother tongue. 

  • Kiyohiro Takahasi asked a question in Rosetta:
    How to lyse the E.Coli pLys strain in mild condition?


    I am going to try E.Coli Rosetta 2(DE3) pLyss strain for protein expression. I have read some papers and found pLys strain does not need sonication for lysing because of Lysozyme expression. My target protein is very sensitive to heat and I don't want to use sonication. What is the good way to lyse the E.Coli using expressed Lysozyme. Simply freeze/thaw e.coli and stirring at low temp?  

  • Hasitha Eranda added an answer in Variable Stars:
    Is there any way to observe a variable star with two telescopes at the same time?

    Hello I'm an undergraduate researcher, observing a roAp star using a 20 inch commercial telescope. Since its oscillation period is short, I was thinking of using two 20 inch telescopes at the same time using different filters for each telescope. I'm using UBVR filters. Although CCD s are different Quantum efficiency is the same. Is there any possible way to calibrate data?

    Hasitha Eranda

    Thank you sir,

    I'm observing HD19918.  One pulsation period is about 19 minutes. Exposure time I applied for U and B filters was 60s and for others 30s. But since the pulsation period is so short I could take only few images within a period.

      My original research is "Determination of Oscillation periods of Delta Scuti stars using photometry". But I also chose a roAp star for asteroseismic study.I think it would be great if there were 4 telescopes observing the star at the same time because then we can use UBVR 4 filters respectively. But I'm new to astrophotography and observational astronomy.

  • Diana Baharuddin added an answer in Time Series:
    How do I arrange time series data with combination of mutliple stocks?

    Hello Members,

    1.I have a problem in analyzing time series data with multiple stocks. Let say, I have 30 stocks duration for 5 years, thus, how should I arrange the data in order to get one result?

    2.I will also include a dummy for stocks below 10 and dummy above 10. How should I deal with it? Based on question no.1, should I group it first into dummy then how?

    I'm a bit lost. I hope you can help me. Thank you so much

    Diana Baharuddin

    Hello Patrizio,

    Thank you for the respond. Let say my variable are trading volume and historical prices in a daily for 5 years which consist of 30 stocks company. Thus, how do I arrange for one day trading comprises for all stocks in order to get one result which represent for 30 company stocks?

    Hope you can help me.Thank you

  • M. Sivasubramanian added an answer in Nanofluids:
    Which nanofluid is good to enhance heat transfer in a tube? TiO2 or SiO2 or other nanofluids?

    any suggestion of nanofluid use in tube for enhance heat transfer?

    M. Sivasubramanian

    You can choose CuO or Al2O3 for better heat transfer, bit expensive and take care of size of the particle and the concentration of the nano fluid.

  • Awadh Alkhaldi added an answer in Engineering Thermophysics:
    How do I measure the thermal properties of a wall using acoustics?

    I am wondering if there is a way to measure the thermal resistance of an envelope using acoustics?

    Awadh Alkhaldi

    Than you all for responds and suggestions. Murlidhar what do you mean by decimal varations??!!. 

  • Xina Li added an answer in Innovation Network:
    How can I prove that innovation network exist and evaluate it?

    If I want to prove that innovation network is exist in Shenzhen High-tech Industry, how can I prove that? Is it possible to prove that without questionnaire survey? And how can I evaluate the strength of the network? Looking forward to your answer.

    Xina Li

    Hi Girish,

    Thank you! I really appreciate your suggestion. I will look into it!