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  • Frank Emmert added an answer in Environmental Law:
    Any suggestions on the doctrine (interpretation, meaning) of 'effective, dissuasive and proportionate' sanctions in implementation of EU directives?

    I am researching the topic of implementation of European directives on workers' information and consultation (specifically European Works Councils) where I am looking at enforcement frameworks and their implementation. The EWC directive 2009/38 stipulates that Member States need to ensure that there are sanctions in place which are 'effective, dissuasive and proportionate'. I have gathered some material on the concrete meaning of these terms, but am looking for more tips on how to concretise these abstract notions. I have been looking at general legal literature, environmental law (where some specific sanctions are applied, like restitutio ad integrum, immediate stopage of a breach), but so far less into the EUCJ jurisprudence (I intend to do that later).

    Any ideas on the line of argument, tips, interesting sources or official EU documents would be very helpful.

    Frank Emmert

    As far as I could see, there are no ECJ judgments yet dealing directly with the European Works Councils Directive. I suggest that you look at the judgments of the Court dealing with gender discrimination in the workplace. There are a number of decisions that deal with the question of effective, dissuasive and proportionate sanctions. In von Colson and Kamann, the employer had offered only the out of pocket expenses for the job application - a bus ticket and a stamp and an envelope for sending the application - after clear gender based rejection of two applicants. Subsequently, a discussion ensued between German courts and the ECJ about appropriate sanctions. German courts held in a series of decisions that one monthly salary would be enough, while the ECJ was more inclined to side with the female applicants and award an amount equal to the salary over the entire probabation period, typically 3 months and sometimes as much as 6 months or a year.

    Obviously, the impact of a violation of the EWC Directive would have to be assessed differently but maybe the ECJ judgments from that earlier discussion can provide some guidance.

  • Grzegorz A. Kleparski added an answer in Language:
    What are the pros and cons of a lingua franca? Do the pros outweigh the cons?

    The lingua franca is a two-edged sword. We enjoy the benefits of communicating with each other in a shared idiom, but may be risking the benefits of a multi-cultural society as societal changes occur. If Crystal (2000) is correct that the majority of the world's languages are in danger, do you perceive a negative cultural influence with our sciences being communicated through primarily one language? Crystal communicating on "Dead Language Theory," wrote:

    "The majority of the world’s languages are vulnerable not just to decline but to extinction.

    Over half the world’s languages are moribund, i.e., not effectively being passed on to the next generation…." (p. 19).

    I would love to hear your comments and inquiry.


    Crystal, D. (2000). Language death. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 96. [Excerpt, pp. 1-20] retrieved from http://catdir.loc.gov/catdir/samples/cam032/99053220.pdf

    Grzegorz A. Kleparski

    Dear Carlos,

    Thanks for making me aware of this story. Yet, mind you, languages rarely grow in status and position by order/permission (even of the greatest authorities). There must be (or rather must have been) something inside English that has smoothed the path. I believe there have been many factors that have worked towards this effect.  I was simply suggesting JOHN  to delve into this issue in his dissertation-to-be...


  • Robert Williams, Jr. added an answer in Corporate Strategy:
    Does name change improve financial performance of the firm?

    A number of studies have examined market reaction to name changes, Cole et al. (2015) examines impact of insurer name changes on growth in premiums, which is a component of income. However, sparse literature exists on impact of name change on financial performance. What do you think would be the impact of corporate name changes on the bottom line? Please share your thoughts..

    Robert Williams, Jr.


    I certainly understand.  In our Brand Process Model (attached) you will see that the motivation drivers, and the decision factors, are the main criteria for a renaming (one of the Brand Flux(TM) options).  The next important criteria involves the rollout activities

    To answer your question regarding the financial performance, it depends on those three criteria, and management's ability to shepherd the process.  Which is to say the drivers and decision factors may correctly indicate renaming to satisfy the negative brand audit, and then the rollout is botched - leaving poor results, or the drivers and factors are not optimal, yet a renaming is undertaken with excellent rollout follow-through, and the results (including financial as one measurement) are very positive.  Keep in mind that while financial results are important, there is the larger brand equity issue, not the least of which is the brand soul.

    + 1 more attachment

  • José Alejandro Lugo García added an answer in Text Mining:
    Are there any tools for retrieving sentences & scripts from online texts ?

    tools for extracting online texts 

    José Alejandro Lugo García

    Hi Asma:

    At Coursera recently I found a course called "The Data Scientist’s Toolbox". In one of the lesson the coach put this peace of code that you may able to do with R:

    con <-url ("http://some_online_page?")

    x <- readLines(con)

    I have not tried it yet but it could mean a starting point for you. It occurs to me if the web page has to be downloaded you may try with some bash script in order to automatizing the task.



  • Manish kumar Patel asked a question in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing:
    What is hyperspectral CASI imager and what is its specification ?

     hyperspectral remote sensing 

  • Houssem Abdellaoui added an answer in Sentiment Analysis:
    Are there any sentiment analyses programs based on Bayesian network?

    I am trying to find any open source sentiment analysis program based on Bayesian network. Even if it was not open source and it has good documentation it will be great.

    Thank you.

    Houssem Abdellaoui

    Thank you all for your answers.

  • Ishag Adam added an answer in Bacteriuria:
    In patients non-pregnant with single kidney, is it indicated to be treated with antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria?

    I only know three indications: 1. Pregnant women, 2. patients undergoing prostate surgery or other invasive urologic surgery, and 3. kidney or kidney pancreas organ transplant patients within the first year of receiving the transplant. But I don´t have evidence in patients with single kidneyy.


    January 12, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.7132

    Ishag Adam

    Dear  Paulo Dinis 

    I mean more investigations and more treatments are needed if we have to  investigate  the asymptomatic  bacteriuria fully 

  • Gary David Isaacs added an answer in Protocols:
    What is the concentration of Primers for ChIP qPCR?

    Dear All,

    What should be the Molarity of Primers for a qPCR after ChIP, the final concentration in a 25ul reaction. Some protocols suggest using 10uM stocks of each primer (0.5ul each), while other protocols suggest using 5uM each primer (o.5ul each) in a 25ul reaction. Which one is the best?

    Thank you


    Gary David Isaacs

    I use 250nM which is pretty standard. Many protocols call for around 200nM. Although Augusta has a good point, I have never titrated my primers. This would cause a lot of extra reactions especially if you are doing a gene expression study with many different genes.

    My stock primers are 100uM. I make a working stock with 20ul of forward and reverse with 760ul water. This gives me a working stock of 2.5uM for each primer. I consider this working stock 10X when making my master mix.

  • Anton R Schäffner added an answer in Plant Molecular Biology:
    How many genes one can transfer successfully to a plant tissue in a single transformation?

    I want to ask a question that, Currently, how many genes one can already transfer successfully to a plant tissue in a single transformation? Thank you and waiting for the answer soon !.

    Anton R Schäffner

    I want to add another consideration or perspective: arguing that there is not a real upper limit, since with the use of binary BAC vectors more than 100 kb can be transformed. Basically you only need to to manage the compilation of genes within such large fragment (as already mentioned above).

    best wishes,

    Tony Schäffner, Munich, Germany

  • Martin A Thomas added an answer in Microporous Materials:
    Does anybody know why microporous materials need to measure Free Space values before a micropore analysis?

    How bout Mesoporous and Macroporous material?

    Now I need to manually turn off the Helium valve after Free Space measurement for instrument ASAP2020 in order to make sure micropore analysis will run smoothly.

    Martin A Thomas

    Hakan, Yes, the free-space values do significantly affect the resulting data (volume adsorbed = volume dosed - void volume). Any error in void volume (sum of free spaces) is transferred directly into your adsorbed amounts!  Small free spaces are therefore advantageous (always take advantage of filler rods and small-bulb cells if there's no problem with elutriation).

    Regarding some specifics of your CO2 analysis. If free space done after analysis is causing you a problem it might be related to sample cell state at the end of the analysis. Is it left under vacuum, back-filled with helium or back-filled with CO2? If back-filled with CO2 it might well be that the initial evacuation for free space determination is insufficient. It should be increased in time if that's possible in the software.

    I'm surprised that the free space analysis takes 1-2h. That suggests problems evacuating the cell and/or equilibrating helium pressures during the measurement. Unstable pressures could be due to residual CO2 (as already mentioned) or insufficient regulation of temperature (any change in temperature around the cell during warm and/or cold free space determination causes pressure fluctuations). Measurements around room temperature are usually the most difficult to thermostat!

    I'm assuming that the free space is done right after the analysis with sample in the cell... or is the empty cell approach being used?  If the latter, don't forget that the cold free space must be corrected (down) to account for the volume occupied by the sample!

    My final suggestion would be to take a little extra time to repeat the free-space determinations after the analysis, at least once but twice more if time allows.  You will be able to estimate the uncertainty in the void volume measurement from the variability in the measured values.  Also, it is worthwhile doing at least one sample analysis  where the void volume is determined before the analysis to see if there is any significant difference in the values obtained; it is generally more convenient to measure void volume first - the data is correct as it is being required and does not have to be adjusted afterwards, and one doesn't have to perform a supplementary step after the analysis. Generally, post-analysis void volumes are done in cases where helium gets "entrapped" in the sample's pores and cannot be quantitatively removed before the dosing with adsorbate begins (most noticably at cryogenic temperatures, e.g. 77K). If, by comparing "before" and "after" numbers you see there is no significant difference in the net adsorption isotherm, you can safely do the free space determination automatically as part of the analysis initialization.

  • Rodney P Jones asked a question in Cytomegalovirus:
    Can you give opinions/suggestions regarding wider roles for cytomegalovirus in human health?

    Have been documenting an international series of infectious-like events in which deaths and medical admissions simultaneously rise in what can be best described as a rectangular wave effect. Have written a review attempting to link CMV to these suspected outbreaks. Any thoughts or suggestions would be welcome along with potential research which could be relevant. Many thanks for your valuable time. Kind Regards Rod

    P.S. even if CMV is not the direct agent I would be highly surprised if it were not taking opportunistic advantage as it does in HIV/AIDS

  • Sarchil Qader asked a question in Crop Yield:
    I would be very pleased if anyone can suggest me paper in Using RS for estimating crop production rather than crop yield?

    I would be very pleased if anyone can suggest me paper for estimating crop production through remote sensing data. I know there are plenty of papers that crop yield has been predicted but I need only for crop production. Your help will be more appreciated.



  • Md Alamin asked a question in cDNA Synthesis:
    How I can get cDNA from RNA?

    I extracted RNA from rice leaf. I checked my RNA quality by NanoDrop. The result is 260/280=2.02 & 260/230=0.72. I am trying to get cDNA from this RNA by using "PrimeScript™ 1st strand cDNA Synthesis Kit" but didn't get good result. What is the problem with this RNA? Can you please tell me the proper way to get cDNA from this RNA? Advance thanks.

  • Khalid Al-shamsi added an answer in Asphalt:
    Does anyone have the experience of using clear binders in paving applications?

    I recently came across a case of a lightly trafficked pavement in which a particular type of clear binder is mixed with naturally colored aggregate. The surface is suffering from premature top-down cracking. My preliminary work on the binder used indicates that the binder could be the source of the problem. I wonder if any of you folks have worked with such type of binders. Clear binders are generally synthetic binders that contain no asphaltene molecules. They are used to allow coloring of pavement surfaces for safety and aesthetic reasons. These binders offer the possibility of making asphalt mixtures of any color by varying the color of the aggregate or by adding pigments.

    Khalid Al-shamsi

    Dr. Saghafi: Thanks for the valuable suggestions. I have already started working on the rheological properties some time ago.  Chemical analysis is still to be done.

  • Christopher McHardy asked a question in Cultivation:
    Reason for aggregation of Haematococcus cells during lab scale cultivation?

    Dear all,

    in our lab, I recognized that Haematococcus pluvialis built clearly visible aggregates during cultivation in Erlenmeyer flasks. This occured independently of gas supply and at different mixing rates on an orbital shaker. Has anybody an explanation for that?

    Thanks in advance!

  • Leah B Helou added an answer in Praat:
    Can I assess jitter and shimmer in Praat across the connected speech?

    I'm doing a speech analysis and wondering if it's possible to assess voice perturbation (e.g. local jitter, local shimmer, SNR) across the connected speech and non-prolonged vowel (vowel duration in my research is around 0.5 s)? In most of the studies, authors reported perturbations on prolonged vowels, but in a few papers authors reported local jitter and shimmer across the entire voice passage. Any suggestions which kind of phonation/utterance is more adequate?
    Thank you.

    Leah B Helou

    Jitter and shimmer are time-based measures that are most accurate and reliable when calculated from a prolonged vowel sample.  If you're wanting to analyze running speech or relatively short vocalic samples, I think that your best bet is to use cepstral analysis (fast fourier transform of a fast fourier transform), which renders spectral-based measures. 

  • Igor Saenko added an answer in Feed Formulation:
    How can I generate an initial population in constrained multiobjective optimization faster?

    I use NSGA-II to solve constrained MOOP, feed formulation problem. In initialization step, I always verify the generated random chromosome with constraint need before it accept and put into population. But this step need much time, approximately 24 hours.

    If I did not verify the chromosome, the given solution did not meet the constraint. Most of solutions just meet 1 - 2 nutrient constraint from 8.

    In this case, how to generate initial population fast?

    Igor Saenko

    We solved the same problem as follows. We added to an individual an additional chromosome –the managing one. Genes of this additional chromosome were responsible for performance of various constraints. Generation of initial population began with generation of additional chromosomes. Further on the basis of the generated genes of these additional chromosomes genes of the main chromosomes were formed. Thanks to such approach it was succeeded to lower percent of the 'wrong' main chromosomes in initial population, and also when performing selection and a mutation practically to zero.

  • Stamatis Zogaris added an answer in Landscape Ecology:
    From a spatial view: What can be considered the "landscape scale" ?

    Something I always asked myself: In the field of Landscape ecology. How do we define and parametrize the "landscape scale" from a spatial view? What counts as a landscape and what is just the minimal covering area of all field sites? Are landscapes intrinsically defined by the social-ecological boundaries of humans that interact within them or is there sth. like a general theorem that defines the spatial scale (per ecological or environmental process) that a landscape can operate on?

    My current view is that landscapes as such seem to be limited (in terms of spatial scale) by the question a researcher intends to address. Some processes (such as dispersal) act on a greater landscape scale including the surrounding, while others require a much finer focus towards the studysites. But this is obviously inherently biased by my (or others) perception as a human and other species might "perceive" a landscape not (only) in terms of processes.

    Appreciate any cool references to seminal or review papers that investigated this.

    Stamatis Zogaris

    Excellent question!

  • Christian Müller added an answer in Transfection:
    How may I analyze drug sensitivity in differentiated neuroblastoma cell lines?

    I have the following issue:

    I am currently working on the role of a miRNA (I will call this miRNA miR-X) on drug sensitivity in neuroblastoma (see figure pdf).

    I found that this miRNA significantly induces differentiation in the neuroblastoma cell line that I am using.

    In order to analyze whether the miRNA increases sensitivity to anticancer drugs, I had planned to use the AlamarBlue assay to measure cell viability. The alamarBlue assay is based on that living cells are metabolically active and are able to reduce the non-fluorescent dye resazurin to the strongly-fluorescent dye resorufin.

    However, now I am speculating whether the alamarBlue assay is the “right” assay to measure sensitivity of cells to a certain drug in my case.

    I found that transfection of cells with miR-X mimics significantly reduces cell viability (50% cell viability in miR-X transfected cells 72 hours after transfection- see figure pdf).

    But I am now raising the question whether miR-X – transfected cells cells are really less viable as compared to control-transfected cells?

    Does the alamarBlue assay rather indicate decreased proliferation and metabolic activity due to differentiation?

    Can I really use the alamarBlue assay to evaluate whether cells are more sensitive to anticancer drugs?

    Which assays may I use? I will analyze apoptosis by Flow cytometry and/ or western blot analysis. Do you have other ideas?

    Some of the drugs that I am using induce mitotic catastrophe and not apoptosis. How may I measure drug sensitivity in this case?

    Christian Müller

    Well perhaps you can have a closer look to other methods.

    For determination of proliferation you can use trypan blue cell counting or MTT assay.

    For determination of apoptosis you can use FACS analysis (e.g. Sytox, AnnexinV).

    The combination of both should address exactly your issue.


  • Witold Orlik added an answer in MMPI:
    Who knows about recent studies about the psychometric properties of MINIMULT (The very brief version of MMPI developed by McKinnon in 1968)?

    This test is used in my country, but no count with recent serious studies.

    Witold Orlik

    Hello Sergio,

    Please check the attached article, it may be a bit helpful

    Good luck with your research

  • Syed Zahid Ali Shah added an answer in Microglia:
    Why does DAB colour not turn brown?

    i am sorry if my question is stupid but i am very new in the field of IHC...i have brain samples from syrian golden hamsters...i want to detect astrocytes,microglia and neuron in them...when i do IHC for them only with astrocytes i get very clear slides colour change to brown after DAB application and gives very nice slide...while for microglia and neuron my slides colour hardly change to brown and slides very faded...what could be the reason as i tried to change citrate buffer and other stuff many times but no luck...thanks in advance

    Syed Zahid Ali Shah

    what if i try to do retrieval for bit long time in citrate buffer and bit higher temperature?

  • Klaudia Kloc-Muniak asked a question in qRT-PCR:
    Which is LPS best to obtain high level of TNF-alpha in RAW264.7 cells?

    I'm struggling a bit with the TNFalpha assay using RAW264.7 cells:

    1. LPS is leading to only an 80% increase in TNFalpha mRNA levels, which seems low.

    2.Increasing the dose of LPS leads to a reduction in TNFalpha induction (very weird)!

    I am thinking that there is a problem either with the LPS I am using(it is a bit cloudy in “solution”, currently I am using L6529 LPS from Sigma) or perhaps I should be using ELISA rather than qRT-PCR.

    Any thoughts/suggestions would be helpful.

    Thank You very much!!!

  • Muhammad Asim added an answer in Refrigeration & Air Conditioning:
    What are the new concepts for desiccant cooling systems developed by Fraunhofer ISE?

    The aim is to develop advanced systems with increased performance – in the field of open cycles as well as closed cycles for desiccant cooling systems for air conditioning.

    Muhammad Asim

    hi dear,

    you can find from the link


    if you any help , just let me know.

  • Muneer Bani Yassein added an answer in Directed Acyclic Graph:
    In RPL protocol, Does a node generate a DIO message after rank recalculation or wait for trickle timer?

    In RPL (Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks), to maintain a DAG (Directed Acyclic Graphs), each node periodically generates DIO messages triggered by the trickle timer.

    If the rank value of a node has changed after recalculation (due to update of ETX after data transmission), does the node issue a DIO message to broadcast the updated rank immediately or waiting for the trickle timer?

    Muneer Bani Yassein

    RPL supports mechanisms that may be used for local repair within
    the DODAG Version. The DIO message specifies the necessary
    parameters as configured and controlled by policy at the DODAG

  • Sven Haller added an answer in fMRI:
    Is there a simple tool to create surface projection maps using .nii fMRI data?

    I have fMRI data in MNI standard space in .nii format, and I would like to create surface maps known e.g. from PET

    Is there an existing tool to do this?


    Sven Haller

    Thanks a lot for the answer !!

  • Ibrahim Halil Polat asked a question in Cells:
    P53 mutation in Breast Cancer?

    Hello. Many papers show that T47D human breast cancer cells have mutated p53. So, is it possible that there are some T47D cells which have wild type p53 or all the T47D cells existing have mutated p53 and this is kind of a characteristic of these cells? Thanks for the comments.

  • Jagdish Chandra Binwal added an answer in Information Science:
    IT has made it easier for students to do research but yet the result are not successful especially to the tertiary Institution in West Africa. Why?

    With this era of information technology,instead of research being the major key bone because of android gadgets,it has made students to be more lazy in their academic life. More time is spent on gaming and social media.

    Jagdish Chandra Binwal

    IT is not a problem.  It is just an aid in literature search, data collection and statistical analysis. Synthesis and logical derivation of relationships and other findings need intellectual exercise where the lacuna exists. Here, the role of the supervisor or the guide is crucial.  In most of the countries, research is tending to be a business. Evaluation system is more or less faulty allowing enough scope for favouring  each others candidates.

  • Christian Müller added an answer in Kinase Inhibitors:
    Is it necessary to serum starve cells before treating with a kinase inhibitor?

    I am wanting to treat MCF7 cells with a kinase inhibitor (not sure which kinase it is affecting yet). Should I serum starve the cells before the treatment?

    Christian Müller

    Well, in some cases it is good to starv your cells from serum, but it really depends on the goal of your experiment. If you have short treatment time points (few hours) serum starvation helps you to determine the effect of your inhibitor. even if you want to use some cytokine/ligand stimulation to determine the direct effects.

    but if your experiment is designed for longer treatment time points (hours-days) your cells could be much stressed after serum starvation.


  • Adam N. Letchford added an answer in Graph Algorithms:
    How can I devise an algorithm which generates all possible edge disjoint spanning tree of graph G?

    Let G be an undirected graph with n vertices and m edges, such that each edge has a real-valued cost.  How can we devise an algorithm which generates all possible edge disjoint spanning tree of graph G ?

    Can someone provide me the article entitled as "A Note on Finding Maximum-Cost Edge-Disjoint Spanning Trees" by J. Roskind and R. Tarjan, Nov. 1985 ?

    Adam N. Letchford

    The question doesn't seem well-posed to me.  Perhaps you want to compute a maximum cardinality set of spanning trees that are mutually edge-disjoint?  This is a special case of finding a maximum cardinality packing of bases in a graphic matroid.  I imagine that Jack Edmonds will have looked at that in the 1960s.  Unfortunately I don't have a precise reference.  Sorry.