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  • Do you know of free software to do protein-protein covalent docking?

    The protein of my interest is forming isopeptide bond with another protein. Is it possible to do this with any free software?

    Navaneet Chaturvedi · Tel Aviv University

    you can do it on Rosetta.

  • Yaron Rosenstein added an answer in SciPy:
    Why are physicists stuck with Fortran and not willing to move to Python with NumPy and Scipy?

    Nowadays all of the major Fortran related numerical calculus have exactly mapped equivalent libraries in more modern language framework like Numerical Python (NumPy) and Scientific Python (SciPy). 

    What keeps physicists stuck with Fortran?



    Scientific evidence?

    Ansi C interoperable with f77.

  • Seyyed Morteza Hoseini added an answer in ALP:
    What is the cause of a high level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in hepatotoxic-induced animal models?

    I'm keep getting higher ALP serum levels in the control, untreated group compared to the treated ones, is there is any explanation for this?


    Seyyed Morteza Hoseini · Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources

    Hello again,

    Dear Hassan,

    Since you treated all animals (control and treated) in a similar way except for drug treatment (i.e. similar diet, similar ration, similar temperature, similar space and ...), thus, dietary deficiency seems not to be the cause of reduction in ALP activity (With respect to dear Doaa).

    I suggest you to check if there are any difference among the animal of different groups, rather than drug treatment. e.g. if feed intake (or any other factor rather than drug treatment) was affected by treatment. If such differences are detected, then your measured parameters (enzymes) were not solely affected only by drug treatment.

  • Ryszard Malewski added an answer in Electrical:
    What will the effect be if I convert 440V AC to pulsating DC on transmission and how will the behaviour of the electrical equipment be ?

    What will be effect if i convert 440V AC to pulsecting DC on transimssion and how will be the behaviour of electrical equipment ?

    Ryszard Malewski · Malewski Electric Inc.

    I can see only disadvantages of such strange concept and no single advatage as compare to the conventional AC or Dc transmission system

  • Amir mohammad Kamyab added an answer in Imaging:
    How can I reduce the effect of the coma aberration in the lenses array based imaging?

    If we use the lenses array for the imaging, the small images the more distant from the center are more suffer from the coma aberration. How I can reduce this effect? Thank you in advance!

    Amir mohammad Kamyab · Shahid Beheshti University

    first you can use larger lens to reduce coma effect.

    second you can put another lens in front of that lens you have exactly over it and check it  out.

  • Gerhard Curdes added an answer in Concrete:
    I need to represent a change of space in a period of time with GIS tool. How can I structure the database to do so?

    In concrete, I need to represent a historical evolution of the construction works in a period of time. So I have a list of architects that were working in distinct buildings in different dates. That is, architect "A" in 1455 was working in building “X” and then in 1457 was working in “Y” building....

    Gerhard Curdes · RWTH Aachen University

    Hello Patricia,

    I think you should take main historic periods of economic / and local spatial development. Another aspect is the change of urbanistic "Leitbilder" - visions of the form of cities, like the 19. century block-city, the garden city, the modern movement since 1910 and the post-war periode 1945-1960 and later the rebirth of the dense city structur in planning and urban design after 1975 (in Germany). The changing times differs al ittle between countries and continents. But the base - the urbanistic discussion - had worldwide many similarities.

    You can see the the use of main development periods in my boock of the development of the city of Cologne in the Cologne Artikel in Research-Gate and for Aachen on this link:


  • Samuel Vokurka added an answer in Splenomegaly:
    Is there any role for a splenectomy before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML)?

    Is there any role for elective splenectomy before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with CMML who have massive splenomegaly?

    Samuel Vokurka · Fakultní nemocnice Plzeň

    I´m not aware of any recommendation to perform splenectomy in such situation.

  • Parham Kabirifar added an answer in Heat Conduction:
    What is the relation between the C-content and cooling rates in steels?

    For low carbon steels, is the heat conduction equation is inadequate to represent the experimental cooling curves? Or does convection in weld pool region play any significant role for cooling rates in case of low carbon steel ?

    Parham Kabirifar · The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

    my pleasure. Unfortunately i don't have at the moment but if i came across one i would share it with you.

  • Isa Bala Muhammad added an answer in N Vivo‏-‏:
    Would you suggest Atlas.ti or N Vivo for qualitative data analysis?

    I am doing a qualitative research using grounded theory under epistemology.   However, I am still searching a proper software which can best assist me in analyzing qualitative data like interview, Focus Group Discussion and observation. If anyone can give me good suggestions in choosing the proper software to analyze the above qualitative data, it would be much appreciated. Thank you 

    Isa Bala Muhammad · Federal University of Technology Minna

    I used Nvivo to analyse data collected from an ethnograhic work of a single case study. it involved aural, visual and notes taken from the field. I was able to use NVivo to code and merge all the various forms of  data collected while at the same time producing themes and categories that emerged naturally from the data. I found NVivo quite useful especially in the exploratory  case study research I conducted

  • Rahul Krishna added an answer in Slurry:
    How do I know that glassy carbon electrode was fate?

    This problem occurs during RDE measurement on a catalyst.  After measurement, it became burned. Then I polished it by abrasive paper to smooth its surface and then 0.5 um Al slurry. But the measurement was not successful, it was again burned? What cause it? Is there any electric conduct problem? Please give me comments.

    Rahul Krishna · University of Aveiro

    Yes, it might be problem due to electrical contact. Ask yours vendor for real approach.

    Regarding of electrode cleaning better use diamond paste in prior then alumina slurry. I hope it will work more efficiently.

  • How would I conduct flexural and bending tests on Titanium mesh?

    Hi everyone,

    Can anyone help me?

    I have Titanium meshs (thickness 0.1mm) with different hole sizes. I am finding a standard (ISO/ASTM) to conduct a flexural test/ bending test on them. Our lab has 3 point bending test machine, but I have never used it, I am really freshman about mechanical testing on materials.

    Any help would be appreciated! 

    Thank you so much

    Parham Kabirifar · The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

    my pleasure. maybe you could take a look at the papers which have done this kind of experiment and use them as reference or use a closely related ASTM or ISO standard and modify it to suit your own conditions, sometimes the exact thing one wants would not be available in the standards but generally the concept of the standard could be followed. i hope my answer helps you.

  • Philip Benjamin added an answer in Dialogical:
    Can anyone give me some idea regarding facilitating dialogical climate development in teams, organizations and communities?

    Looking for practical and theoretical ideas and perspectives.

  • Mohammed Faizal asked a question in Nanofluids:
    Can nanofluids be circulated for 10 years without particel sedimentation?

    I am searching for answers where nanofluids can be safely circulated in a system for long periods of time without segmentation.

    I am looking at timelines for close to ten years or more.


  • Fadoua Hamzaoui added an answer in Water Analysis:
    Can anyone help me to get software similar to AqQA for water analysis?

    I am monitoring groundwater in my region, I require AqQa software for making piper diagrams, Durov diagram etc. Can any one suggests any another software to perform the above mentioned diagrams/analysis ? Please share if you have full version.

    Thank you 


    Fadoua Hamzaoui · Faculté des Sciences de Tunis


    you can use the aquachem or diagram logigiciel !

  • C S Naveen added an answer in Gas Sensors:
    Is carbon dioxide a educing gas? Does it increase the conductivity of n type ZnO?

    I am working on the topic entitled, ”Synthesis and Characterization of ZnO nanoparticles for gas sensor application”. I would like to know whether carbon dioxide is reducing gas or not and does it increase the conductivity of n-type ZnO after purging the same in to the test chamber

    C S Naveen · Kuvempu University

    @Alexander Tolstov and @Georgii Sokolsky: Thank you very much

  • Elizabeth Carter added an answer in Conferences:
    If invited to give a Keynote or Plenary Lecture at a conference do you expect to receive money in addition to waived conference fees?

    Just trying to get an understand what is currently common practice when inviting people to speak at a conference.  If you would expect money how much? Many thanks for your help!

    Elizabeth Carter · University of Sydney

    Thank you Prof. Umachandran. I understand that there are no professional fees paid.  I am running a conference this year and I have run a number of conferences before.  What I am wondering is what the current 'expected' practice is and how much might one be expected to provided.  I would prefer to provide no honorarium and keep registration costs as low as possible, but I understand I may do that at the risk of international speakers declining an invitation to speak.

  • Musbah Tanira added an answer in Herbal Plants:
    Why do we use dry leaves for the preparation of crude extracts?

    Can we use fresh leaves in spite of dry powder for the preparation of herbal plants crude extracts?

    Musbah Tanira · Sultan Qaboos University

    to reduce the yield which reduce the time for processing

  • Can science provide solutions for the main problems of the world?

    Nowadays, there are some high priority problems at a global level, such as: poverty, limited energy resources, limited food and even drinking water (especially related to the population growth phenomenon), global warming and rapid climate changes, the gap between developed and undeveloped countries. 

    Amara Soonthorndhada · Mahidol University

    Science leads you the ways of thinking but more than that all problems we are facing to are man-made. Science could help to raise the awareness of responsibility and sharing. Then we can live in a harmony. 

  • Has there been research to show that with increasing education, there has been improved ethics in a community?

    'Students often know the right thing to do. How can schools help them to do it?

    The numbers are in and they don't look good." That was the assessment of the Josephson Institute of Ethics last October, when they conducted a survey about the moral standards of more than 20,000 middle and high school students. Almost half the young people reported stealing something from a store in the previous 12 months. In the same period, seven out of 10 cheated on an exam.
    Should we be worried? Many observers say that we should. We see evidence of more antisocial behavior than ever among our youth—a sort of divorce between personal ethics and everyday behavior.'

    Has there been research to show that with increasing education, there has been improved ethics in a community?  Can you share, give some evidence? Thanks.

    Krishnan Umachandran · Professor

    We are witnessing the negative impact of the erosion of shared moral beliefs and standards across the land. It is not just in terms of divergent religious or ethnic values. Indeed, deep down their roots, every religious or traditional value system has important shared beliefs about the sanctity of life, about the good of communal living, about the care of the offspring. And communities still survive and make progress because the majority of their members accept and respect the primacy of moral values and principles. Morality is an internalised private cop, which if completely abandoned will spell doom for all. In spite of the odds, we still have generalised shared values about the wrongness of kidnapping and armed robbery just as we do about the immorality of corruption.

  • Sadjad Baradari asked a question in Steel:
    Is there someone who does have experience with AISI 51XX steels(low-alloy chromium steels)?

    I'm looking for some information on AISI 51XX steels, especially their mechanical properties after various heat treatments and/or mechanical processing (hot forging especially). I would really appreciate it if someone would help me with this matter.

  • What factors contribute to SMEs in emerging markets to adopt Innovation practices?

    Key Factors that are internal to firm or external to firm 

    Shivan A.M Doski · University of Duhok

    i think empowerment is the key factor to adopt innovation by SMEs. you can refer to prof. Dr. Mohd. Khairuddin Hashim books published on SMEs and Innovation in  UUM, Malaysia.

  • Simona Frone added an answer in Sanitation:
    Should household connection to public networks of water supply and sewerage sanitation be mandatory?

    Although rural communities have gained access to WSS infrastructure, many households refuse to connect and so to pay for this integrated service, meant for civilization and  control environmental pollution (and conforming with the WFD in the EU).

    Simona Frone · Academia Romana

    Yes, thank you. I happen to know that the WSS sector in Portugal has been successfully and sustainably developed  (involving SCF but also some PPP, if am not mistaken) in the last maybe 15-20 years, and should be an example to be followed by Romania as well...

  • Mohammed Faizal added an answer in Nanofluids:
    Any information on large scale industrial use of nanofluids as a coolant?

    Power plants have lot of water requirements. With limited water resources available more efficient cooling systems using nanofluids can save lot of water. This can reduce heat exchanger size and footprint also.

    Mohammed Faizal · Monash University (Australia)

    Hi All

    Please let me know if there is any application that uses nanofluids for more than 10 years.

    I am new to this area. I am searching for answers where nanofluids can be used can be safely circulated in  a system for long periods of time without segmentation.

  • Hengky S H added an answer in Family Business:
    What are the 3 core competencies of a family business successors?

    Please tell me the three competencies (features) that are most important for the successor of the family business in your opinion.

    Hengky S H · Universiti Utara Malaysia

    To Olga: I am fully agree, commitment is the first priority

    To Marchin: I am agree as well as  you mentioned support and advice, and transfer of competence. On my suggestion it is Honest

    And Finally, To Jaharkanty, I am agree that creativity is very important, whether as a feed back or new idea, which honestly expressed by the member  

  • Mudasir Ali added an answer in Process Design:
    Does anyone have a design for the development of apricot pit cracker (bitter and sweet) for cold desert regions of kashmir valley?

    We are in the process of designing and fabrication of apricot pit cracker for ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir state. 

    Mudasir Ali · Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir-shalimar

    we are in final stage of development and fabrication of high capacity apricot pit cracker cum separation unit 

  • Elfadil Abass added an answer in Agarose Gel:
    Why do I get two bands after digesting my plasmid with PfoI?

    I have a vector with PfoI site. I did single enzyme digestion to check for the linearity. For the reaction, I used 5U of thermo scientific PfoI for 1ug of plasmid with an incubation time of 14hours. After the reaction was complete, I loaded entire sample on an agarose gel and was surprised to see two bands. Can anybody explain what could be reason behind this extra band. I feel it could because of partial digestion but I am not sure. I am attaching gel picture. Details are: first lane is control(undigested plasmid), [2,3,4,5] lanes are PfoI digested samples, and remaining lanes can be ignored.

    Elfadil Abass · Ahfad University for Women

    with fast digest enzyme from theromfiosher you can have better results. Try FastDigest (# FD1754).

  • Amr Hessein added an answer in Ruthenium:
    What are common dyes used for dssc applications, like N719 is one of it?

    what are the other ruthenium/metal or commercially available dyes?

    Amr Hessein · Benha University

    check this link


  • Shiv Puri added an answer in Microstrip Antenna:
    What difference is there between design frequency and operating frequency regarding Microstrip antenna?

    What is difference between design frequency and operating frequency regarding Microstrip antenna. What is the role of design frequency for designing of antenna.

    Shiv Puri · Asansol Engineering College

    The design frequency is the specifications of the antenna at which it resonates but operating frequency is the usable bandwidth for wireless communications !!!!!!!!!!1

  • Bachir Benarba added an answer in Breast Cancer:
    How can we explain the high incidence of breast cancer among youth women (age under 30yrs)?

    In our previous studies we've revealed that in Algeria, Women (30-35 years old) are at high risk of breast cancer.

    Bachir Benarba · Mascara Universit

    Dear Nadia

    I agree with you, westernization of algerian women lifestyle with less physical activity, diet, obesity and late age at 1st pregnancy but also lack of breastbreeding are factors that may contribue at this high incidence.



  • Rahul Krishna added an answer in Graphene Growth:
    Could the dirties on quartz tube effect on cvd growth graphene?

    I've been working on CVD growth graphene for two years. I growth graphene on copper substrate. I didn't have any problem about producing graphene until nowadays but I've some problem about growth graphene since two weeks. Yes, I produce graphene but it's not look like previous ones. In before experiments, I grew homogenous graphene but now, our graphene is not homogenous. Sometimes, I can't see graphene peak on some of part when I am checking it with Raman. I've checked flowmeter and also pump system but there is no any different from previous ones. But I've also reliazed that our quartz tube which is used graphene growth is getting dirty. Could this dirties on quartz tube effect on quality of graphene?

    Rahul Krishna · University of Aveiro


    Probably, it might be due to the deposition.contamination of amorphous carbon inside of tube. Once time in my experiment also I had shown similar kind of problem. Try to do proper cleaning of accessories by ethanol/acetone and purging by N2.