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  • How do I perform a typological analysis for qualitative data analysis?

    I am conducting a qualitative case study on young women with breast cancer using non-profit organizations, and I am conducting a typological analysis for the data analysis process.  I have followed Hatch (2002) steps; however, I want to know if there are some different steps from Hatch or other journal articles or books that I can relate to.

    Heather Young-Leslie · University of Alberta

    In qualitative research circles, analysis using only typological frameworks is rare. You will have more luck if you look to qualitative methodology manuals with keywords such as 'narrative', 'discourse' or 'content' analysis. Much of the methodology literature is older, but remains instructional. For example:

    Goetz,Judith Preissle and Margaret Diane LeCompte (1984). Ethnography and Qualitative Design in Educational Research. Academic Press

    Lofland, John & Lyn H. Lofland (1995). Typological Systems. In: Analyzing Social Settings, 3rd ed. Belmont, Cal.: Wadsworth.

    Spradley, James P (1980). Taxonomic Analysis. In Participant observation. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace.

    You could also try the Sage research methods series. For example: 

    Also see this: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0001879173900250

    and this:


    Good luck with the rest of your research! 

  • Fertahi Sayfdin added an answer in FLUENT:
    What are the accurate values to estimate the torque coefficient "Fluent" ?


    I am studing the performances of Darrieus wind turbine composed of three Naca profiles. 

    I have set these values at the "reference values" in order to estimate the torque coefficient.  In fact, I suggest two possibilities. Could I have please your feedbacks.


    Possibility 1: (the study is done on 2D)

    1 - Area:  corde length * 3(number of blade) * 1 (depth)

    2 - Depth:  1

    3- Length: Radius of the rotor

    Possibility 2:

    1 - Area (swept area):  diametre of the rotor * 1 (depth)

    2 - Depth:  1

    3- Length: Radius of the rotor

    Fertahi Sayfdin · Université Moulay Ismail

    okey Mahdi, thanks.

  • Lavdim Kurtaj added an answer in Microcontrollers:
    Can microcontrollers be run at arbitrarily low clock frequencies?

    The datasheet for the ATTiny13A, for instance, lists Min frequency of 0 MHz. Does this mean the clock can be run at any arbitrarily low frequency with no ill effects? I'm assuming it draws lower current at lower clock speeds? Does 0 MHz mean you can stop the clock completely, and as long as power is still applied, it will remember its state indefinitely?

    Lavdim Kurtaj · University of Prishtina, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kosovo, Prishtina

    @ Prasanna Waichal

    If power supply is kept all the time at working level data in RAM will be preserved. Under these conditions even longer than EPROM and FLASH, that have their minimum storing time specified. 

    There are still old microprocessor systems built at '80 that have their working programs stored in battery-back-up RAMs, or industrial PLCs, and still working. And at other side I had couple microprocessor systems with program on EPROMs that started to lose their programmed content (self erased, i.e. floating gate lost some of his trapped electrons). 

    While there is some lower time limit specified for EPROM and FLASH devices, there is no such limit for powered RAM. We are excluding from this possible device failures. 

  • Fatma Sayed asked a question in Breast Cancer:
    I want to make simple and easy project for breast cancer detection using MATLAL PLease help me?

    I want to make simple and easy project for breast cancer detection using MATLAL PLease help me

  • Ronald Fricke added an answer in Fish Ecology:
    Which is the best way to temporary tag 25-30 cm-long fish?

    I need to tag 25 specimens of european chub (Squalius cephalus) for a short period of time. I am interrested in the less harmful method. The specimens have 25 to 30 cm in lenght (fork-lenght).

    Ronald Fricke · State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart

    Dear Calin:

    I am sending you a paper describing the method in a separate message.

    With best wishes,


  • Emily Vance asked a question in Brefeldin A:
    Does PMA/ionomycin stimulation effect Foxp3 detection by flow cytometry in mouse splenocytes?

    I'm staining mouse splenocytes for Foxp3 using the eBioscience kit. I'm also staining the same cells (different tubes) for IL-17 and IFNg so I do a PMA/ionomycin/Brefeldin A stimulation on all the cells first. I upped the PMA and ionomycin for this new model we are doing and now I get squat for Foxp3. This could also be an old antibody or just a lack of Foxp3, but I'm curious what others have found.


  • Mustafa Yüce added an answer in Energy Security:
    Does anybody know any article about 'Turkish Stream' and its affects to Turkish - EU relations in the long run?

    I am making a research about the 'Turkish Stream' which is the latest natural gas pipeline between Russia and Turkey. And how could be its affects for the Turkey - EU relations and EU Energy Security. I am looking for some article related or close to these topics. Any favours would be well-recieved... Thank you, Mustafa YÜCE.

    Mustafa Yüce · Marmara University

    Dear Vogel, 

    I guess there is a great misunderstanding about my question. It has actually 0 % connection, between my question and your well-intentioned 'engineering' answer. But thank you anyway. I am making a research about 'Turkish Stream' as I mentioned above. For the long run, it would have some effects to relations between Turkey and EU. But the question is, what kind of effects will it be, positive or negative? That is all my concern. It is about the topics like, Europen Energy Security, Russian Domination about providing natural gas for EU etc. I find your style a little bit strange sir, it is like you hold up to ridicule on me. If it is so, I would kindly ask you to please spend more effort on 'Academic Kindness' regarding come to know about it completely! Thanks. 

  • Lucas Bonan Gomes added an answer in Alumina:
    Why do alumina XRD peaks shift slightly to higher angle with increasing temperatures?

    Al(NO3)3 was heated at different temperatures. The obtained alumina XRD peaks shift to higher angle with increasing temperatures. Higher temperature can make the lattice size expand, which will drive the peak shift to lower angle. But why shift to higher angle?

    Lucas Bonan Gomes · Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul

    Have you measure the particule size after grinding? (particle size is not crystallite size). If you measured powder in an original sample holder, the focus must be correct. Have you observed preferential orientation? Alumina fine powder has this feature on XRD analysis.

  • Do you think that a quantum computer will be just an addition to a traditional computer?

    or will it be  a separate device?

  • Remi Cornwall added an answer in Noise:
    Is there any meaning to take the noise uncertainty in consideration if we measured the noise?

    Dear researchers 

    It is known that the conventional energy detector are susceptible to noise uncertainty due to the assumption of the noise power. But, does the noise uncertainty has any meaning if we were able (let's say) to measure the noise power of the received signal and then compare it to the total signal power in order to make a decision?


  • Bishwa Subedi asked a question in Thermophilic Enzymes:
    What causes the protein concentration to decrease even in short interval of time and how do I handle such protein?

    Hi All,

    This question is related to the one that I had before in this discussion forum ( https://www.researchgate.net/post/How_do_I_handle_a_protein_which_precipitates_when_adding_co-factor_to_it_for_crystallization ). 

    I am trying to crystallize a protein along with its co-factor bound to it. For this I used 4 fold of ATP (based on molarity) and 0.01M MgCl2 to prepare the protein for crystallization. The protein behaved strange and precipitated (above link is about the same discussion). However, I set up the crystallization with the supernatant after spin for about 30 sec even though I ended up with huge pellet.

    Luckly, I have promising hits from the initial screen but now do not know the concentration to optimize it or replicate it. The main problem is that I noticed decrease in protein concentration that has been at 4 degree. I look forward for your suggestion to deal with such protein.

    I would like to let you know that it is a thermophillic enzyme and utilizes ATP for its activity. Also any tips to deal with avoiding precipitation would be very helpful. I have tried working at room temperature and heating the protein complex to see if it gets soluble but it did not work. I also tried ADP instead of ATP and both ADP, ATP (1:1) as suggested in my previous discussion.

    Thank you in advance.


  • How to implement FFT pruned technique in Matlab?

    Hello everyone,

    I have read the paper "Hilbert Transform of FFT Pruned Cross Correlation Function for Optimization in Time delay estimation" written by Tamin and Ghani in 2009 and I believe that the technique proposed by the authors is very interesting, so I'm trying to implement this technique.

    Currently, I am applying the spline interpolation in RF signals, and then FFT and Hilbert transform, but I know that the Matlab resample function applies an anti-aliasing (lowpass) FIR filter to input during the resampling process, and resamples the sequence in input vector at X times the original sample rate using a polyphase implementation.

    What is the best way to implement this technique?

    Thank you very much.

  • Md Ashraful Islam asked a question in Cell Line:
    Which GBM cell line is better (or more aggressive) for GBM tumors ?

    I have following cell lines






    Please share your opimion

  • Jorge Arede added an answer in Sports Physiology:
    What are the differences in foot contact time while sprinting between untrained and trained runners?

    Writing a paper looking at the acute differences between performing repeated sprint training on sand vs grass.

    Jorge Arede · Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro


  • Olgun Cabri added an answer in Eigenvalue Problems:
    How can we estimate eigenvalues when the stiffness matrix is singular?

    hi all

    it is known we get matrix eigenvalue problem  Ax=kMx by applying FEM to diffential eigenvaleu problem. where k is eigenvalue,A is stifness matrix and M is mass matrix.

    k=0 eigenvalue of differential equation and my stifness matrix is singular. so matlab eigs(A,M) function says

    Warning: The shifted operator has small reciprocal condition estimate: 0.000000
    indicating that sigma is near an exact eigenvalue.
    The algorithm may not converge unless you try a new value for sigma.

    algoritm does not  converge to other eigenvalues as it says. How can i handle this?

    Olgun Cabri · Artvin Coruh Universitesi

    Thank you Peter Breuer and Alex McCloskey for recommendation. i added 2M to A and it works. 

    Best Regards all.

  • Paul Milham added an answer in Soil Analysis:
    Could we oven-dry our soil for Mehlich 3 testing method?

    Based on our protocol, it is said the soil for Mehlich 3-P is air-dried. How about oven-dried? Did anybody ever try over-dried soil? Are the numbers comparable? Thank you very much!

    Paul Milham · University of Western Sydney

    Peter's advice is good.  If you wanted to go a step further you could extract field moist soil and correct the values for moisture content as Peter suggested.  Note that if field moist soils are to be held before analysis I suggest freezing to minimise microbial effects.

  • Can anyone help me with introduction and literature review to the topic: Measurement of gamma radiation exposure in the interior part of any building?
    It should also include references.
    Keran O'Brien · Northern Arizona University

    You might find: 

    K. O'Brien, Human dose from radiation of terrestrial origin, Natural Radiation Environment III, U. S. Dept. of Energy Rep. CONF-780422 (Vol. 2), p. 1163, 1980.

    useful to some degree.  Dose rate calculations in a building are carried out in this report.  Please forgive the self-reference.


    Keran O'Brien

  • How to calculate inverse of a matrix in modular mathematics in rings ?

    please help me out to find this!!

    Jorge Morales Pedraza · Independent Consultant

    Matrix (mathematics)

    In mathematics, a matrix (plural matrices) is a rectangular table of numbers or, more generally, of elements of a fixed ring. In this article, if unspecified, the entries of a matrix are always real or complex numbers.

    Matrices are useful to record data that depends on two categories, and to keep track of the coefficients of systems of linear equations and linear transformations.

     Definitions and Notations

    The horizontal lines in a matrix are called rows and the vertical lines are called columns. A matrix with m rows and n columns is called an m-by-n matrix (or m×n matrix) and m and n are called its dimensions. For example the matrix below is a 4-by-3 matrix:

    The entry of a matrix A that lies in the ith row and the j-th column is called the i,j-entry or (i,j)th entry of A. This is written as A[i,j] or Ai,j, or in notation of the C programming language, A[i][j]. In the example above, A[2,3]=7.

    The notation A = (aij) means that A[i,j] = aij for all indices i and j.

    Matrices with entries in arbitrary rings

    If we start with a ring R, we can consider the set M(m,n, R) of all m by n matrices with entries in R. Addition and multiplication of these matrices can be defined as in the case of real or complex matrices (see below). The set M(n, R) of all square n by n matrices over R is a ring in its own right, isomorphic to the endomorphism ring of the left R module Rn.

    If R is commutative, then M(n, R) is a unitary associative algebra over R. It is then also meaningful to define the determinant of square matrices using the Leibniz formula; a matrix is invertible if and only if its determinant is invertible in R.

    All statements mentioned in this articles for real or complex matrices remain correct for matrices over an arbitrary field.

    Matrices over a polynomial ring are important in the study of control theory.

    Partitioning Matrices

    A Partitioned Matrix or Block Matrix is a matrix of matrices. For example, take a matrix P:

    We could partition it into a 2-by-2 partitioned matrix like this:

    This technique is used to cut down calculations of matrices, column-row expansions, and many computer science applications, including VLSI chip design.

    Classes of real and complex matrices

    Certain special matrices are so important that they are given special names, as listed in list of matrices. Below are some examples:

    -symmetric matrices are such that elements symmetric to the main diagonal (from the upper left to the lower right) are equal, that is, ai,j=aj,i.
    -hermitian (or self-adjoint) matrices are such that elements symmetric to the diagonal are each others complex conjugates, that is, ai,j=a*j,i, where the superscript '*' signifies complex conjugation.
    -Toeplitz matrices have common elements on their diagonals, that is, ai,j=ai+1,j+1.
    -Stochastic matrices are square matrices whose columns are probability vectors; they are used to define Markov chains.

    Adding and multiplying matrices

    If two m-by-n matrices A and B are given, we may define their sum A + B as the m-by-n matrix computed by adding corresponding elements, i.e., (A + B)[i, j] = A[i, j] + B[i, j]. For example

    Another, much less often used notion of matrix addition can be found at Direct sum (Matrix).

    If a matrix A and a number c are given, we may define the scalar multiplication cA by (cA)[i, j] = cA[i, j]. For example

    These two operations turn the set M(m, n, R) of all m-by-n matrices with real entries into a real vector space of dimension mn.

    Multiplication of two matrices is well-defined only if the number of columns of the first matrix is the same as the number of rows of the second matrix. If A is an m-by-n matrix (m rows, n columns) and B is an n-by-p matrix (n rows, p columns), then their product AB is the m-by-p matrix (m rows, p columns) given by

    (AB)[i, j] = A[i, 1] * B[1, j] + A[i, 2] * B[2, j] + ... + A[i, n] * B[n, j] for each pair i and j.

    For instance

    This multiplication has the following properties:

    (AB)C = A(BC) for all k-by-m matrices A, m-by-n matrices B and n-by-p matrices C ("associativity").
    (A + B)C = AC + BC for all m-by-n matrices A and B and n-by-k matrices C ("distributivity").
    C(A + B) = CA + CB for all m-by-n matrices A and B and k-by-m matrices C ("distributivity").
    It is important to note that commutativity does not generally hold; that is, given matrices A and B and their product defined, then generally AB ≠ BA.

    For other, less commonly encountered ways to multiply matrices, see matrix multiplication.

    Linear transformations, Ranks and Transpose

    Matrices can conveniently represent linear transformations because matrix multiplication neatly corresponds to the composition of maps, as will be described next.

    Here and in the sequel we identify Rn with the set of "rows" or n-by-1 matrices. For every linear map f : Rn -> Rm there exists a unique m-by-n matrix A such that f(x) = Ax for all x in Rn. We say that the matrix A "represents" the linear map f. Now if the k-by-m matrix B represents another linear map g : Rm -> Rk, then the linear map g o f is represented by BA. This follows from the above-mentioned associativity of matrix multiplication.

    The rank of a matrix A is the dimension of the image of the linear map represented by A; this is the same as the dimension of the space generated by the rows of A, and also the same as the dimension of the space generated by the columns of A.

    The transpose of an m-by-n matrix A is the n-by-m matrix Atr (also sometimes written as AT or tA) gotten by turning rows into columns and columns into rows, i.e. Atr[i, j] = A[j, i] for all indices i and j. If A describes a linear map with respect to two bases, then the matrix Atr describes the transpose of the linear map with respect to the dual bases, see dual space.

    We have (A + B)tr = Atr + Btr and (AB)tr = Btr * Atr.

    Square matrices and Related definitions

    A square matrix is a matrix which has the same number of rows as columns. The set of all square n-by-n matrices, together with matrix addition and matrix multiplication is a ring. Unless n = 1, this ring is not commutative.

    M(n, R) , the ring of real square matrices, is a real unitary associative algebra. M(n, C), the ring of complex square matrices, is a complex associative algebra.

    The unit matrix or identity matrix In, with elements on the main diagonal set to 1 and all other elements set to 0, satisfies MIn=M and InN=N for any m-by-n matrix M and n-by-k matrix N. For example, if n = 3:

    The identity matrix is the identity element in the ring of square matrices.

    Invertible elements in this ring are called invertible matrices or non-singular matrices. An n by n matrix A is invertible if and only if there exists a matrix B such that

    AB = In ( = BA).

    In this case, B is the inverse matrix of A, denoted by A−1. The set of all invertible n-by-n matrices forms a group (specifically a Lie group) under matrix multiplication, the general linear group.

    If λ is a number and v is a non-zero vector such that Av = λv, then we call v an eigenvector of A and γ the associated eigenvalue. The number λ is an eigenvalue of A if and only if A−λIn is not invertible, which happens if and only if pA(λ) = 0. Here pA(x) is the characteristic polynomial of A. This is a polynomial of degree n and has therefore n complex roots (counting multiple roots according to their multiplicity). In this sense, every square matrix has n complex eigenvalues.

    The determinant of a square matrix A is the product of its n eigenvalues, but it can also be defined by the Leibniz formula. Invertible matrices are precisely those matrices with nonzero determinant.

    The Gauss-Jordan elimination algorithm is of central importance: it can be used to compute determinants, ranks and inverses of matrices and to solve systems of linear equations.

    The trace of a square matrix is the sum of its diagonal entries, which equals the sum of its n eigenvalues

  • Marković G. Đoko asked a question in History of Art:
    Which painter is, in the history of art, the most used geometry (mathematics) in his work?

    Is it Wassily Kandinsky (1866 - 1944) or someone else?

  • Natalia S Duxbury added an answer in Fluid Dynamics:
    In fluid dynamics 2d boundary conditions of velocity are given at rectangular domain , How can I get the value of the velocity at the grid points?

    solving incompressible  2d Navier-Stokes equation

    Natalia S Duxbury · George Mason University

    You can download some of my earlier works  from this ResGate, where we've solved  similar CFD in natural coordinates by the FDM.

  • How can I confidently decide if some variables are coming from a non-linear dynamic system?

    I am talking from theoretical perspective, by analysing the source and interaction. I feel like most of the things are from non-linear dynamic system even if the empirical evidence is not enough or states otherwise. Because, the accuracy of measurement can always be doubtable. My intention is to apply the ccm technique by Sugihara in order to find causal link between some variables.

    Akanda Wahid-Ul- Ashraf · Bournemouth University

    problem solved , this paper seems to have the ans, thanks everyone!

    Patil, D. A. S., Hunt, B. R., & Carton, J. A. (2001). Identifying low-dimensional nonlinear behavior in atmospheric data. Monthly weather review, 129(8), 2116-2125.

  • Robert Kast added an answer in Asset Allocation:
    How may I construct asset index for rural households?

    My study is based on primary survey wherein, among others, I have information on the number and type of asset possessed by rural farm households. For eg. number  of mobile phones, radio, TV set etc., no of rooms, type of floor, ceiling etc. Using these information how may I proceed to construct a reliable asset index. Kindly advice.

    Robert Kast · French National Centre for Scientific Research

    I agree with Sergei who completes my suggestions. I may add that there are some clues about your valuation problem in cat-bonds and other contingent assets valued on financial markets, and, more easily applied to your field, in cooperative banks lending rates to poor people, particularly in India.

  • Are perceptions and perspectives the same thing in conducting qualitative research?

    The terms perceptions and perspectives are sometimes used interchnageably in qualitative research, perhaps more so by novice researchers. Is there a distinct difference between these two terms or can they be used interchangeably?

  • Edgar J. Patiño added an answer in Phonons:
    How do I estimate acoustical phonon frequency of Al2O3 from optical phonon value?

    I am trying to find experimental value of acoustical phonon frequency of Al2O3. In the literature I found the most intense longitudinal optical bulk phonons is reported to be around kn=871 cm-1, from the expression ωexp_optical = kn.c  where c is the speed of light I obtain a value ωexp_optical= 2.61 x 1013 sec-1.  Is this the correct procedure?  From here is it possible to estimate the acoustical phonon and how?          

    Edgar J. Patiño · Los Andes University (Colombia)

    Thanks Christian for  your answer.

    I still want to ask you, if I know the value of speed of sound, which K (wave vector) value should I use? sorry I am no expert in this area. Also I´ve found some data on frequency shifts from Brillouin light scattering, is this  equivalent to phonon frequency? how do I get the frequency of the absorved phonon? I appreciate your help cheers..

  • Pau Rodenas added an answer in Quantum Dots:
    What is the mechanism of semiconductor Quantum Dots generate fluorescence signal?

    Semiconductor quantum dots consist of an inorganic core, whose diameter and constitution determines the optical properties of the particle. Why these QDs can almost be excited by every wavelength below its emission peak? What will be the mechanism of the light emission process, and its light emission principle difference to conventional fluorescence dyes, like Cy3?

    Pau Rodenas · Wetsus

    Fluorescence on a quantum dot is determined by the confinement. To produce flourescence the relaxation process should be through a change on multiplicity. This change on quantum state (example: singlet to triplet crossover) normally by non-radiative pathway goes to a metastable state were the decay of the excitation is produce by a emission. In QD's there are states smaller than the band gap that requires less energy than the absortion. This is why when the energy is release by a non radiative way, the electrons fall to one of these metastable states smaller than the band gap.  Another way of decay is with holes. Holes can go up in energy from the valence band to states in between the band gap, then it can recombine with an electron comming from the conduction band with lower energy then the band gap.

    The size, the shape and the composition of the quantum dot affects the band gap and the presence of intermidiate states with other multiplicities. Tanabe-Sugano diagrams and crystal field theory predict the excitation state for the symetries of crystals from these materials. However, the symetry is broken on the edge of the nano-crystal with its own symetry,allowing the presence of states with different multiplicities than the allowed for emission and adsortion in the band gap.

    Molecular dyes follow the rules of symetry and the emission and absortion processes are much more simpler due to their molecular orbitals composition. 

  • What can be probable sources of error in a 1D FDTD simulation of a Quarter-Wave Bragg Mirror?

    I'm performing a 1D FDTD simulation, using Matlab, of a Quarter-Wave Bragg Mirror consisting of a series of alternate discrete high and low index layers with indices, nh and nl. In this simulation, S= 0.5, Courant number, for dt= S* dx/c0, in order for stability. Nevertheless, the characteristics from reflection coefficient and phase obtained by this method don't match the results obtained by exact transfer matrix and exact coupled-mode theory as shown by N. Matuschek et al., “Theory of double-chirped mirrors.”

    What can be probable sources of error in this 1D FDTD simulation? Or Why these two solutions may not match?

    Raymond Rumpf · University of Texas at El Paso

    For a discussion on calculating reflection and transmission in 1D-FDTD, check out Lecture 7 here:


    Looking at your plots, I see two potential problems.

    1. The grating period is not represented perfectly.  is your period in integer multiple of dx exactly?  If not, that will throw off your results because your dimensions are not represented accurately.  Adjust dx until it the period is exactly an integer multiple of dx.  For a discussion on this, see Lecture 6 at the above link.

    2. Grid dispersion.  Essentially a wave in FDTD propagates slightly slower than a physical wave would.  It is sort of like the permittivity is too high so it has the effect of pushing the response of devices to slightly lower frequencies.  You can compensate for the grid dispersion pretty easily.  See Lecture 10 at the same link above for a discussion.

    A simple test to confirm either of the above is to reduce your value of dx while keeping your grid the same physical size (i.e. will need to add points).  Does the spectra get better after doing this?  if not, you have another problem.  If so, it is probably one or both of the above.

    Hope this helps!

  • Rafael Hsu asked a question in Tail Suspension Test:
    What strain of mice is better for behavior testing (BALB/c or C57BL/6)?

    I want to test behavior (Elevated Plus Maze, Tail Suspension Test and Morris water Maze) in mice after social isolation. Which strain do you recommend for my situaition? Are there any significant differences in behavior of these two strains (C57BL6 and BALB/c) which could invalidate my experiment?

    Thank you.

  • Does anybody knows a good antibody, elisa,... to detect human TGF-beta?

    To dampen immune responses, the anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-beta can be produced by macrophages. However few good detection methods are present or reproducible to detect this cytokine. Anyone used a good antibody to detect the secretion of this cytokine (or a publication)?

    Adrian G Rosas-Taraco · Autonomous University of Nuevo León

    I suggest R&D, it works very well for us

  • Can I get the Golden Propsion in the design shape in the roman, islamic , modern architecture and the relation between each other?

    Can I get the Golden Propsion in the design shape in the roman, islamic , modern architecture and the relation between each other? the answer is very difficult according to the documentation for this example , golden ratio in the present time is 1 --1,67  or 1,2,3,5,8,11,19,21 Golbization and feudalism looking to apply this fact by try and error

    Hossam hassan Elborombaly · Effat university-Jeddah__Ain shams University_Cairo

    Thank you and i feel that we can continous contact each other in the art field...