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  • Parvin Babaei asked a question in PPARs:
    What does circulating PPAR gama mean? Is there detectable amount of this transcriptional factor in plasma? if yes what could be possible explanation?

    what does circulating PPAR gama mean? Is there detectable amount of this transcriptional factor in plasma? if yes what could be possible explanation?

  • Sreekutty Sreekantan asked a question in Phase:
    Can any one suggest some techniques to combine phase in parallel MRI?

    Reconstruction of different coil images to study the effect of coupling in phase

  • Gregory Diana added an answer in Power Systems:
    What is the advantage of using real time simulator in power system analysis?

    Does using real time simulator is essential in large power system analyzing ? why?

    Gregory Diana · University of KwaZulu-Natal

    Dear Manas,

    The real value add is that a physically large and spatially diverse or distributed Power System may be accurately simulated in a single room and then as you note physical devices and controllers and protection equipment evaluated under live conditions with danger or shutdown to the physical power system. PS are now so complex and integrated with the fabric of society, industry and the economy that running tests on a live system is very risky and worth the investment in such controllers which are not cheap by any means.

  • Ram Aero added an answer in FRP:
    Why the absorption of water by FRP composite laminate is reversed after a certain time?

    i need the reason why water absorption is decreases after certain time period.

    Ram Aero · SKP Engineering College

    Dear Alain  Sir,

    in my experiment,The absorption of composite laminate increases up to170 days after that  absorption reversed.Then once again the absorption increases after 210 days.I can understand the first increase and decrease.I could not able to make a comment on second increase.Can you suggest me regarding this second increase of absorption?

  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer in Chimpanzee:
    What makes us human?

    Just looking at our DNA won't tell us – the human genome is 99% identical to a chimpanzee's and, for that matter, 50% to a banana's. We do, however, have bigger brains than most animals – not the biggest, but packed with three times as many neurons as a gorilla (86bn to be exact).

    A lot of the things we once thought distinguishing about us – language, tool-use, recognising yourself in the mirror – are seen in other animals.

    Krishnan Umachandran · Professor

    EMPATHY is required for Human

  • Muhammad Usman Amin Siddiqi added an answer in Conference Proceedings:
    If research is published in conference proceedings, can it still be published in journals?
    Research journals want original contributions not published elsewhere before. It is common to share results in conferences where the paper would appear in their published proceedings. Can we still send the articles to journals after the research is completed?
    Muhammad Usman Amin Siddiqi · Government College University, Lahore

    Yes, you can. It is because conferences are meant to present work under progress. They are usually held by the networks working on some broader projects involving more than one institutions, and thereby, providing opportunities to their researchers to present their work to the co-researchers and get feedback. Therefore, the purpose of the conference is to refine one's research, with the ultimate goal of getting published in journals. 

  • Anish Nag added an answer in Snake Venoms:
    What is the maximum concentration of DMSO that can be used without interfering with the enzymatic activities of snake venom toxins?

    I work with snake venom inhibition by plant extracts and I'm having a problem with a specific extract that is very apolar and don't dissolve in water nor PBS nor DMSO 5% in PBS. Is there any estimate of maximum concentration of DMSO that I could use for solubilizing my extract? Could anyone suggest some other solvents to solubilize my very apolar extract that may be compatible with snake venom enzymes? Thanks.

    Anish Nag · University of Calcutta

    Hi, according to current guideline of ICH you cannot use more than 0.1% DMOS in live cell system. first you make a high concentration dissolved in 100% dmso or ethanol then add water to dilute it

  • Marcel M. Lambrechts added an answer in Publication:
    What is the difference between a methodology-based publication and a non-methodology based publication?

    How do you distinguish between a published methodology-based study and another kind of published study given that all science studies use methods to improve knowledge?

    Marcel M. Lambrechts · Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, Montpellier, France

    According to Maria/Miranda, it is a publication that presents a new method versus according to Marfuz it is a publications that makes use of a method.

    Jeanan mentions there is a difference in definition of method and methodology.

    Luisiana makes a distinction between a book that does not present a 'material and method' section and an scientific publication that presents a 'material and methods' section.

    Based on what has been written before, is a methodology-based publication ambiguous terminology?

  • Amit Budhraja added an answer in RNA:
    Can I use this RNA for qPCR?

    260/230 looks low to me for some samples. What you guys think?

    Amit Budhraja · St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

    Hello Everyone,

    Thank you all for your advice and suggestions. qPCR really went well. Since 260/230 was not less than 1, I went ahead and performed the qPCR with the best samples I have.


    Amit B

  • Is it possible to explain Special Relativity and Faster Than Light concept using a single theory?

    Special Relativity is valid only at subluminal speeds. It does not provide information about the effects at superluminal speeds. The theories explaining Faster Than Light does not include Relativity as its part. My question is whether it is possible to make a single theory for moving objects irrespective of the speed boundary? If possible, Suggest me such theories.If not, what is the reason? 

    Sathishkumar Gangatharan · Sri Sairam Engineering college

    what if a single theory is available which explains causal events at slower than light speed and explains paradoxes, hypothetical concepts at faster than light speed? Is it possible to create such a theory? 

  • Why do you think that architecture of constructions varies geographically?

    What do you think are the underlying causes of geographic variation in architecture? Potential causes: spatial variation in intelligence, competence, resource availability, local adaptation, cultural expression, motivation, etc?

    Do you think that the same broad causes are responsible for geographic variation in animal versus human constructions?

    Marcel M. Lambrechts · Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, Montpellier, France

    Dear Andras,

    I have seen beautiful plant constructions in insects too, e.g. a kind of container made from plant leaves placed in the soil.

    And think about the big/huge appartments termites can build. They also close and open holes (cf. windows and their placements) in relations to climate/seasonal changes. I've also seen that in ants.

  • How can I measure total ion uptake by plants?


    I am going to measure the Na+, K+, and Cl- ion uptake by whole plants, using two plants whose shoot dry mass is 5g and 2.5g per plant.

    Could you please tell me how I can measure their total ion uptake capacity? Or can you please send me any published papers?

    Mohammad Bhuiyan · Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University

    Thanks everybody who suggested me in various aspects. I know the method of ion analysis from dry mass. However, I am wondering is their any published work where the entire plant's ion uptake capacity has been measured. I would like to compare the ion accumulation capacity in entire plant levels of my two tested plants in regard to salinity remediation. Thanks again.

  • Are the statistical moments of hydrological stochastic processes self-similar at different time resolutions (annual, monthly and daily)?

    I am looking for seminal papers on this topic. The issue is that from my point of view, mathematical expectation and correlation moments (second order moments) are different for different time resolutions i.e. annual data is often IID data while monthly data exhibits auto correlation function of simple Markovian type but daily date usually has more complex correlation structure.

    I need references that could help to clarify this point some of my colleagues stand for probabilistic self-similarity of hydrological processes so I think here we have some common misunderstanding of the concepts.

    Boris Shmagin · South Dakota State University

    Dear Felipe,

    I did not criticize anybody. I like your explanations. However, it works for you. I still have my questions about the structure and general model of time series of natural event.  

  • Chinmay Nayan asked a question in Docking:
    How-to prepare input for use in a covalent docking?

    Please give me detailed explanation and , if possible describe online tutorials if available

  • Lovjeet Singh added an answer in Zeolites:
    Can we control metal loading(%) on support in heterogeneous catalyst?

     I want to deposit 5 (wt%) of Fe on zeolite (ZSM-5) by wet impregnation. I took corresponding metal salt amount for it (Theoretically calculated). But, the resulted metal content was always less than 5% (actual content ~ 2.8%). 

    should i use hit and trial process with higher amount of metal salt to get desirable metal loading (5wt%)?

    Lovjeet Singh · Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

    @Maohong Fan 

    Thanks for sharing valuable information.

  • Satyananda Kar added an answer in Plasma Physics:
    What is pre discharge cleaning in plasma?

    When this process happens and how discharge in plasma become stable?

    Satyananda Kar · Nagoya University

    Normally arcing happens for high frequency plasma (RF and microwave). If the electrode (for both DC and RF) is contaminated, initially for 10-20 minutes arcings will occur and stabilized. you have to mention your exact conditions and type of plasma production.

  • Devyani Samantarrai asked a question in Cell Line:
    Can I use IMR-90 tert (human lungs fibroblast cells with telomerase to maintain viability) as a non tumor control?

    Usually as a non tumor control cell line IMR-90 should be used, but can I use IMR-90 tert cells as non-tumor control cell line? Can anyone help?

  • Eric Lord added an answer in Gravitational Field:
    Is the clock rate of free falling clocks the same?

    In a gravitational field of a homogeneous spherical mass M, a sufficiently small mass B, compared to M,  is left free in the gravitational field of M at a certain distance H from the center of mass, outside his surface. B gains speed, relative to the center of mass M, because of gravitational attraction. Many small objects like B free fall from different heights or from the same height at different instants.

    Every object has an atomic clock on board. Would these clocks have the same clock-rates during the free fall?

    A reference, master clock has to be adopted, otherwise the problem is ill posed. Clock-rates are refererred to an atomic clock on the surface of M for example (negligible M  rotation speed).

    The time elapsed for each body to go from the same starting and ending point counted by the atomic clocks on board is certainly the same (UFF).

    Their clock rate should be different, in general, unless they start from the same position and instant. Not because, , the speed of light takes less time to reach the closest, since they are in different positions, but  because of the  relation between the very small object and the massive object.

    I would like your opinion regarding this problem.

    Eric Lord · Indian Institute of Science

    “…So they had to have different clock rates...”

    No, Stefano! Identical clocks run at identical rates. If that were not so we wouldn’t be able to do physics at all. Time is defined as that which is measured by a clock. The unit of time, one second, is determined by a clock in its own reference frame. Even the question of whether the reference frame is “inertial” or not is irrelevant.

    Theory and experiment both indicate a discrepancy (in the twin “paradox” and in the gravitational red shift). It’s a difference in time elapsed when two clock have different trajectories, not a difference in “clock rates”. If two cars travel from A to B along different routes they will have travelled different distances. Nothing has happened to the unit of measure of length! The phenomenon we are discussing is a precise analogy, applied to time instead of distance.

    Inappropriate and careless terminology creates misunderstanding and confusion. It should to be avoided.

  • Reena Saini added an answer in IL-2:
    Do you restimulate human PBMCs or CD4s to achieve greater proliferation?

    At the moment we are culturing human PBMCs from blood bank buffy coats using plate-coated CD3 for 4 days, as the proliferation plateaus on day 5. We also culture purified CD4s using plate-coated CD3 and CD28 stimulation, also for 4 days.

    Does anyone restimulate human PBMCs or purified CD4 cells a few days after the initial stimulation to achieve greater, longer-lasting proliferation (e.g. adding IL-2 on day 3 or any other method of restimulation)?

    And do you find this has much effect on the extent of proliferation achieved?

    Reena Saini · Shoolini University

    We used to stimulate PBMC with IL15 (50-100ng/ml). IL15 not only stimulate T cells, It will also stimulate NKcells.

    Good Luck.

  • What is Artificial Intelligence ?

    I want to know more about artificial intelligence. How it is programmed? Where it can be used? Can I do programming in MATLAB?

    Rupesh Gosavi · College of Engineering, Pune

    Thank You Danish Jasnaik for link. But can any one explain in short?

  • Rupesh Gosavi added an answer in Kinematics:
    Can anyone help to formulate the equation for a two bar linkage problem?

    I have to design a 2 bar linkage. One of the bar's end is moving in elliptical pattern, while the other bar's end is grounded. I am having trouble regarding its equation.

    Rupesh Gosavi · College of Engineering, Pune

    Can you please attach a diagrammatic representation.

  • Divya Artham asked a question in Power Systems:


  • Navjyoti Chakraborty added an answer in Amplicon:
    Why I am getting multiple bands in PCR?

    I set up PCR reaction volume of 50ul with Taq polymerase and I found distinct band of amplicon but when I double the reaction volume to 100ul to get higher volume of amplicon I found multiple bands of different sizes! 

    Can anyone help me to sort out the issue.


    Navjyoti Chakraborty · Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University

    I have encountered the same problem earlier. When we tend to double the reaction volume, normally we add double the amount of each component and that's the problem. Adjust the components according to their final concentration and it just works fine. or as others have suggested, set up multiple reactions of small volume and pool the samples,

    good luck

  • Why does 5' Phosphate come out of binding pocket during equilibration?

    While simulating a protein-ligand complex, during equilibration the 5'-phosphate group of it is coming out of its binding pocket. Few water molecules are crawling in. I have performed two independent simulations in GROMACS and NAMD with the charmm36 force-field for the protein as well as for the ligand and observed the similar scenario. What could be the possible cause(s) for this event?

    Ashar J Malik · Massey University


    20,000?? That big a number is really unnecessary. Usually its between 50 to 500 steps. You can try reducing this number. You can also justify this reduction by seeing that if you plot the energy during minimization with the number of minimization steps - your plot would start to converge around this mark. So start of with this.

    Sorry - I read your original post as phosphate from a DNA part. I realize now that its not related to the DNA, perhaps thats why you didn't get the error. The answer still applies though. Phosphate ions have a -ve charge and the primary reason for it to stay there is because of charge complementarity.   You are looking for arginines and lysines in your binding site and look for those that move away from phosphate during the simulation. If that is happening that could explain why the phosphate sees a drift. 

    Good Luck. 


  • Sandeep. N added an answer in Simulink:
    How can I draw Bode plot or Nichols Chart iniside Simulink for a control system?

    I can get Time-Response when I simulate any control system using Simulink, but I want to see Frequency Response such as (Bode plot or Nichols Chart, etc). 

    Sandeep. N · National Institute of Technology Karnataka

    Dear Hazim,

    As far as SIMULINK is concerned i dont think it is possible. only by knowing the transfer function and using the command bode(), one can get the frequency response.

  • Mohammed R Ahmed asked a question in Social Media:
    What are social media and social networking?

    The link below is my understanding and opinion regarding the phenomenon of social media. What do you know about social media and social networking?

  • Abdul Khaleque added an answer in BPH:
    What is the role of dutastaride in treatment of mild BPH?

    Mild Bph is sometimes treated by watchful waiting so, could one introduce dutastaride if the prostate volume is above 50mls?

    Abdul Khaleque · Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University

    In case of mild BPH, urinary symptoms absent, no treatment need. If  symptoms present it may be use. Dutasteride,is a dual 5-α reductase inhibitor that inhibits conversion of testosterone to dihydro testosterone (DHT). It increases the risk of erectile dysfunction  and decreased sexual desire.

  • Mahesh Patil asked a question in Lammps:
    Has anyone worked on predicting the thermal conductivity of bio-molecules using LAMMPS?

    I am working on topic to predict thermal conductivity of bio-molecule using lammps. I have got read_data file with all angles and dihedrals . If somebody can provide the lammps code for worked out problems like this that would be more helpful (apart from lammps website examples)

  • Abhishek Das added an answer in Glycolipids:
    How can glycolipids be added to gold nanoparticles during their synthesis?

    Is there a simple method of tagging GNPs with glycolipids while synthesizing it by the reduction method?

    Abhishek Das · Bhabha Atomic Research Centre

    Determine the zeta potential of gold nanoparticles at different pH. At point of zero charge, or below add the glycolipids and observe the change in plasmon peak. If there is a shift owing to the change in local dielectric constant of the medium, it can be assumed that glycolipids have got adsorbed.