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  • Eman Sobh added an answer in Telomerase:
    Can I perform Telomere length determination from human whole blood stored for 6 months to one year?

    Dear All,

    Is it advisable to study the the telomere length and telomerase activity from stored whole blood for over 6 months? Please advise appropriate method of storing whole blood for this purpose. We are planning to conduct this study in some extreme climatic conditions requiring us to store the sample for upto a years period.

    I kindly request all your inputs for this. Thanks very much

    Eman Sobh

    you can store whole blood in CBC tubes frozen -80C 

    blood immediately transferred into tubes containing sterile EDTA solution (to a final concentration of 1.6 mg EDTA/ml of blood).  keep in freezer Storage temperature − 80 °C for telomere length keep in mind all samples at the same temperature and nearly same freezing duration to avoid changes of telomere length by different freezing conditions

    look at these papers



    telomerase activity by PCR needs cell separation and rapid assay as it activity is lost as time passes if you need to keep samples you need special tubes I will to find the paper for you 

  • Mutasem Odeh added an answer in PDMS:
    Can I deposit ITO (Indium tin Oxide) on cured PDMS using E-Beam evaporator and anneal it after that? to what annealing temperature does PDMS hold ?

    I am trying to deposit ITO on PDMS, will i be facing a problem in adhesion or annealing or any other problems ?

    Mutasem Odeh

    Thanks Morteza, Really Appreciate it.

  • Bruce Fortado added an answer in Research Papers:
    What is a difference between single case study and a full research paper?

    I wanted to know what is a difference between single case study and a full research paper, can anyone help me?

    Bruce Fortado

    I think you would find the following book of readings helpful: Charles S. Ragin and Howard S. Becker (eds.) (1992). What is a Case?: Exploring the Foundations of Social Inquiry.  Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42188-8.  The introduction to the volume was written by Charles Ragin. It is entitled "Introduction: Cases of "What is a case?"  This seems particularly pertinent (pp. 1-17).   Good luck, Bruce

  • Mahadev Asaram Jadhav asked a question in Docking:
    How can predict the action of docked lead molecule(drug) on target molecule (receptor) after succesful docking performed by docking tools or servers?

    Dear all,

    if we get a result of molecular docking (ligand-receptor interaction), which represent energy, visualization of bonding between ligand and receptor. But it is unable to provide sufficient data which definitely suggest the action of ligand (lead) on target molecule (receptor) whether it act as an inhibitor or activator.

    anybody can suggest me tools/servers/techniques which are useful to decide the exact action of lead on target molecule.

  • Jochen Wilhelm added an answer in Agar:
    How to explain the colony count confidence limit in layman's terms?

    For eg.The precision of the test is dependent on the number colonies that form on the agar plate and may be indicated by quoting 95% confidence limits. These limits define the range within which, with a 95% probability, the true colony count lies.

    Jochen Wilhelm

    This part here is wrong:

    "These limits define the range within which, with a 95% probability, the true colony count lies."

    An individual confidence interval does not have a probability, so it is non-sensical or illogical to state that *this* interval has some probability (of whatever, e.g. to include a "true" value). The probability is a property of the procedure of how to sunstruct such intervals. This procedure guarantueees that - under the given model - 95% of such intervals will contain the "true" value. Whether or not any particular interval of any particular sample will contain it is not a question of a probability that is compatible with the frequentistic definition of such intervals. Such a question is to be answered with: "either yes or no - but we cannot say what is actually the case for this particular sample".

    So the correct wording for the sentence critisized above would be, for instance:

    "These limits define a random interval with a 95% confidence to include the 'true' colony count".

    The key is that you cannot simply substitute the word "confidence" with the word "probability", because this is not the same. You may also say (if you want to use the word 'probability'):

    "We cannot do or learn anything useful from this particular interval (because it is as random as the sample!) - but at least the construction rule has a probability to produce intervals that will contain the 'true' values with at least 95% probability."

  • S G Deshmukh added an answer in Operations Management:
    How to apply the theory of constraints to service encounters?
    Theory of constraints (TOC) is a well known construct used in operations context. This was proposed by Goldratt. Its relevance in a typical production oriented situation is well known and documented. Can we think of some novel applications of TOC in service encounters?
    S G Deshmukh

    please see this presentation

  • Salamat Burzhuev added an answer in Solid State Physics:
    Could someone be so kind to tell me that under which circumstance 'metal vapor directly without going throgth liquid phase' would occur?

    I was reading some papers about mechanism of ultrafast laser ablation on metal specimen.

    'Metal direct vapor' or ' plasma ' show up several times [1].

    Does that mean that metallic bond has been destroyed due to energy input?

    How could it happen?

    According to solid state physics, metallic bond formed by 'electron cloud and positive ion' holds metal together.

    During laser ablation, photon transfer energy to electron.  Energy received will turn into kinetic energy to accelerate electron. Electron will hit other electron or lattice to transfer energy [2].

    [1] Momma, Carsten, Boris N. Chichkov, Stefan Nolte, Ferdinand von Alvensleben, Andreas Tünnermann, Herbert Welling and Bernd Wellegehausen. "Short-Pulse Laser Ablation of Solid Targets." Optics Communications 129, no. 1–2 (1996): 134-142.

    Salamat Burzhuev

    If you heat metal suddenly to very high temperatures, metal might evaporate without going to liquid phase. It may happen in very short pulse length, because electron-phonon( guess it was ~ps range) recombination time is much larger than pulse duration.  This means that fs pulse can give its energy to small area and heat it suddenly which will lead to evaporation.

  • Muhammad Asim added an answer in TRNSYS:
    How do I create .tmy2 file for TRNSYS?
    I have meteorological data (.txt file) for my station but I don't know how to convert to .tmy2 file.
    Muhammad Asim

    you can down trial version and get help.


  • Vinod Kumar added an answer in TRNSYS:
    How do I design a new component using FORTRAN in TRNSYS?

    kindly mention the step by step procedure please. I've already read the manuals?

    I am struggling to create dll file of my newly designed component in fortran. Kindly send me suitable example please.

    Vinod Kumar

    Thank you very much sir for your kind support.


  • Vithal Rao Chauhan asked a question in Lamins:
    Do thickness of laminates influence on mechanical properties?

    as the by using volume ratio or rule of mixture if we varry the fiber ,resin and filler material in the laminate we cant attain the ASTM standard thickness 

  • Mohamed SABRI added an answer in Cognitive Radio:
    Can we measure the improvement of the spectral efficiency when we use a cognitive radio algorithm ?

    Can we measure the improvement of the spectral efficiency when we use a cognitive radio algorithm ?

    Mohamed SABRI

    Thank you

  • Bob D. Skiles added an answer in NASA:
    Is there a viable warp drive technology in horizon?

    According to recent news, NASa's test with emDrive technology seems to be unsuccessful, but hope is still there. Do you know a realistic and viable warp drive technology in horizon, which possible can be put to test within ten years or so?

    your comments are welcome

  • Akhtar Ali Khan added an answer in Exotoxins:
    Where can I get beta exotoxin protein of Bacillus thuringiensis?

    I need to use it as a stander in HPLC test 

    If you have it please let me know 

    Thank you 

    Akhtar Ali Khan

    NBAII, Bangalore, INDIA

  • Jost Eschenburg added an answer in Riemannian Geometry:
    To what extent are all manifolds with this property classified?

    I asked this question in the conversations on the following question


    So I repeat it here as an independent question:

    I search for a nontrivial compact Riemannian manifold M with induced metric d such that for every x, there is a unique point F(x)\in M such that F(x) is the farthest point to x, moreover F^{2]=Id.

    Is the last condition F^{2}=Id, redundant?

    By nontrivial example I mean an example different from S^{n}.

    Jost Eschenburg

    Dear Ali:

    Sorry for late responding. I do not understand your first paragraph ("regarding the first part of your answer ...") If this is still needed, please, formulate the precise question again.

    Here is a proof why a simply connected Riemannian manifold  M  with  1 < sec  < 4 (this is diffeomorphic to a sphere, according to the differentiable sphere theorem) has a unique farthest point  f(p)   for any  p\in M.

    (1) Since the curvature is smaller than 4, M  is less curved than a sphere of radius 1/2 + \epsilon, hence two geodesics of length \pi/2  starting from p will not meet again (not even infinitesimally). In other words, the injectivity radius is bigger than \pi/2.

    (2) Since the curvature is bigger than 1,  M  is more curved than a sphere of radius  1 - \epsilon, hence the closed Riemannian ball  B  of radius \pi/2 (which is a smoothly embedded disk by (1)) is strongly concave, i.e. its complement  C = M \setminus B  is convex (on a sphere of radius smaller 1, the meridians start converging beyond the equator which is at distance < \pi/2).

    Thus the farthest point f(p) for p is the point of C with largest distance from its boundary dC,, and this is unique by strict convexity of C (using  sec \geq 0).

    For details, see my paper  "Local convexity and nonnegative curvature -
    Gromov's proof of the sphere theorem",  Invent. math. 84, 507 - 522 (1986).

    I am not sure if  f(f(p)) = p  but I don't believe so.

    Best regards


  • D. R. K. Reddy added an answer in Big Bang:
    Are particles created from the energy released during the Big Bang? During expansion, does the energy continuous converted into matters?

    We have learnt from the big bang cosmology that all the particles was created after the big bang explosion. My question is that whether these particles was created from the energy released due to the big bang? If yes, the energy density must be decreases during the course of expansion as it is continuously converting into masses or matters. Again if it happens so, the mass of universe must be increasing with time or expansion.

    Please some give some light on it. I'm working on a solution of Einstein's field equations and I got an expanding solution with an initial singularity. As the time increase to future, its mass and radius increases. So I need to explain the increase in mass with time.

    D. R. K. Reddy

    Yes, it is true. We are not considering the cosmological constant which represents vacuum energy.

  • Amr M. Bakry added an answer in Fuel:
    Has anybody got the following articles?

    1. A Comparative study on hydrocracking and hydrovisbreaking combination for heavy vacuum residue conversion

    2. fuel, vol 94, april 2012, p:457-464

    3. fuel processing technology, vol 30, issue 1, feb 1992, p:69-81

    If yes, please send them to nonahal@ripi.ir


    Behrouz Nonahal

    Amr M. Bakry


  • Muhammad Asim added an answer in TRNSYS:
    Can anyone help me to start with trnsys?

    I want to simulate the windgenerator comportement with trnsys. Can anyone help me to just start and have the initial idea?

    Muhammad Asim

    for wind generator you can use  Type 90 and Type 15 (depends upon which weather data type you want to use?). further you can get help in the menu under ? sign next to tools menu.

  • D.B. Jani added an answer in TRNSYS:
    How do you convert TMY2 weather data into excel data?
    I have imported a weather data file in TMY2 from trnsys. How can I now convert it into xls?
    D.B. Jani

    please follow the link:


  • Ivo Carneiro de Sousa added an answer in World War II:
    Does anyone know any publications that deal with the local residents experiences of the Holocaust?

    Looking to see how the social life of the local residents near camps such as Auschwitz were impacted by the activities of the extermination camps. 

    Ivo Carneiro de Sousa

    Dear Alex, I send you the books that I have and I hope they can be helpful.

    + 6 more attachments

  • Hussin Jose Hejase added an answer in Innovation:
    What are the stages of the formulation of an innovation strategy?
    • This question is related to "Innovation Strategies" in companies
    Hussin Jose Hejase


    I have read earlier 2 short articles as a start. Nice to read.


    + 1 more attachment

  • Vincenzo Riva added an answer in XRD Analysis:
    How accurate is Quantitative analysis using High score Software?

    Dear Scholars,

    I have calculated amount of two phases present using X'Pert High score software. However, I am not sure how much accurate my results are? Though the results are fairly matching with the observed XRD patterns. Can anybody comment on the accuracy by which the software calculate the percentage of phases. Is that data enough accurate to publish?

    Thanking you


    Vincenzo Riva

    The software HSplus is not specific for QPA analysis. For QPA is better GSAS with Rietveld method. For make this you must add at your sample ( powder) the one STD material. The choice of the STD and the percentage, depend of your Sample and  after you must homogenize your sample with the STD. Time of milling depend of your sample. Also the  instrumental parameters are very important.

    Read my paper.

  • D.B. Jani added an answer in TRNSYS:
    Has anyone solved examples (step by step) in TRNSYS?

    I’m planning to investigate heating load for innovative greenhouse integrated with solar air heaters. I read about TRNSYS software and I need some advice about learn this program. I’m really looking to find solved examples which learn me step by step in order to complete my planning.

    D.B. Jani

    Please go through the following link for further details of simulation


  • Zameer Hussain Shah added an answer in PEAKS:
    In which case the TEM and XRD can not identify supported metal or metal oxides?

    I have prepared Manganese oxides insitu grown during the synthesis of silica nano spheres with fibrous morphology by one step hydrothermal process. MnOxides concentration shown by XPS is 0.13% while by ICP-AES is 1.1%. EDS also give the peak. XRD only gives the standard peak for Silica at 22 but there is no peak of Mn-Oxides. If compare the pure Silica TEM with Mn oxides incoporated Silica, there is only a little distortion in the samples but no Mn oxides can be observed. so i believe that Mnoxides may be well dispersed or embedded or  without any aggregation to be visible by TEM or detected by XRD. Please anyone can comment that TEM and XRD results are mutually consistent or not?

    Zameer Hussain Shah

    Thanks Biswal. its composite just

  • Ragupathi Thennarasu added an answer in Primer Design:
    What are the best softwares for primer design?

    Polymerase Chain Reaction is widely held as one of the most important inventions of the 20th century in molecular biology. Small amounts of the genetic material can now be amplified to be able to a identify, manipulate DNA, detect infectious organisms, including the viruses that cause AIDS, hepatitis, tuberculosis, detect genetic variations, including mutations, in human genes and numerous other tasks.

    Now I want to design primers for detection of cancer cells apoptosis by myself, and need help to guide me for a good soft ware. TQ

    Ragupathi Thennarasu

    use Primer 3 or NCBI primer BLAST tool best tool mean time easy way.......

  • D.B. Jani added an answer in TRNSYS:
    How does one simulate solar thermal AC system in TRNSYS?

    I would like to simulate a 2 storey building with Cylindrical Parabolic trough collector in TRNSYS. But it says invalid parameter. Can anyone help me out?

    D.B. Jani

    Please go through the following link for further details of simulation


  • Haris Memisevic asked a question in AMOS:
    How to interpret covariation of errors in the confirmatory factor analysis?

    My question regards Confirmatory Factor Analysis (performed in AMOS). I want to check the fit of 8 variables on three latent factors in a sample. I created the model (theoretically driven) with 8 measured scales and 3 latent factors but the model fit was very bad. I checked the modification indices which pointed to the fact that i needed to covariate two sets of errors (say e1 and e2; and e7 and e8).  These errors are on the same factors so that is not the issue. After covarying the errors I get the acceptable model fit. Now, the question is: how do I interpret these covariation of the errors, how should I report it and what does it practically mean, especially in comparison to the model which did not have covariation of the errors. Thanks

  • D.B. Jani added an answer in TRNSYS:
    Does anyone know how to properly use type 62?

    I'm working on a simulation in TRNSYS 17 and whenever i try using type 62 to export the data to an excel file something goes wrong.

    D.B. Jani

    Please go through the following link for further details of simulation


  • D.B. Jani added an answer in TRNSYS:
    How can I define a model of the solar parabolic dish collector in TRNSYS 17?

    how to define a model of the solar parabolic dish COLLECT in TRNSYS

    D.B. Jani

    Please go through the following link for further details of simulation


  • D.B. Jani added an answer in TRNSYS:
    Is there any way to define holidays in the simulation in TRNSYS?

    I want to simulate a system which turns off on holidays like Saturday and Sunday. How can I define it in the simulation in TRNSYS?

    D.B. Jani

    Please go through the following link for further details of simulation