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  • Raman Mnatsakanyan added an answer in lycopene:
    How can I prevent lycopene destruction in release media?


    I am studying the release kinetics of lycopene-loaded NLC in PBS using dialyses bag method. During the study I dont see any absorbance value. this observation show that lycopene is destroyed in release media. is any Solution for this problem?

    Raman Mnatsakanyan · Institute of Chemical Physics NAS Armenia

    Dear friend

    I am not specialist in your area, but I want to recomend you 2methods

    Before preparation of solution do degasification of your solution by argon

    If it does not interfere  experiments, add to your system some quantity of antioxidant, which you can select based on the mechanism of your reaction

    Take care system from the light

    Best regards

  • Krzysztof Herman added an answer in DOA:
    What is the difference between the MUSIC algorithm and the EV algorithm in DOA estimation?
    In direction of arrival estimation the MUSIC algorithm differs from the EV algorithm in eigenvalues weight so what is the advantages and disadvantages for each one over the other? Also I would like the MATLAB code for DOA estimation using two methods mentioned above, MUSIC and EV.
    Krzysztof Herman · Wroclaw University of Technology

    Please contact me via mail Icarosix@gmail.com I can provide You some .m files



  • Which are Healthcare Information Sensitivity Constructs?
    Based on HL7 - Security DAM, Sensitivity could be about: Substance abuse, Genetic disease, HIV/AIDS, Psychiatry, Abuse, Sexuality and reproductive health, Sickle Cell, Sexually transmitted disease and Taboo. What kind of evidences can we find in medical reports, EHR Systems and other digital documents?
    Melissa F Barthold · University of Mississippi Medical Center

    Tiago - You have the ontology --(that is a lot of work - wonderful!!)

    If you're working with a data warehouse -- can you write a simple SQL query looking for those words that you've identified as indicators of child abuse?   I think I'd be tempted to make it a 'make-table' query...and let it pull the appropriate data for the records that include the identified words.  Would that work?

  • Is speaking in tongues present in other religions besides Christianity?
    How can those experiences be related to that of Christians who practice speaking in tongues? Are there any examples of schools that teach and train people to come to ecstasy and then speak in tongues? What are the benefits of that experience?
    Emmanuel Buganga · Trans-Africa swahili Christian Ministries

    Dear Ramdas,

    Thank you for your contribution. Are there any known stages the participants must pass in order to achieve that level of speaking into other language of the deities?

  • D K Dwivedi added an answer in Fistula:
    Has anyone had experience with Transshincteric Fistula in an 8 months year old boy?

    Only today we, attended a boy of 7-8 months old, suffering from Trans sphincteric Fistula since 3 months, though the track is radial & complete.This is rare to us. Previously we treated a youngest child suffering from anal fistula was 6 yrs of age. please do comment on it !

    D K Dwivedi · S.R.M. Government Ayurveda College and Hospital, Bareilly

    Thank you Dr Jethwani, kindly share your experiences, as in the age group of  5-8 months Infants, transsphinteric Fistula even any other type of Fistula seems some uncommon to me.

  • Is the stakeholder management theory dead or alive from a managerial point of view?

    I'd like to know what is your current thought on the applicability of the stakeholder theory 

  • Alain Celzard added an answer in Zeta Potential:
    What is the principle to tell the surface charge or zeta potential of a material?

    I wonder some principles to tell the zeta potential of a material such as glass, cotton, paper or plastic.  Why some is more positively charged or negatively charged than the other?

    Alain Celzard · University of Lorraine

    Zeta potential is essential to know if charged species will be attracted toward, or repulsed from, the surface of your material. Therefore such kind of measurement, which most of times depend on the pH, is of key importance for many applications: adsorption, dying, ...


  • Negar Abbasi added an answer in Gromacs:
    How should I edit the index file for the calculation of order parameter of polymer carbon backbone using g_order on GROMACS?

    The gromacs manual says that the order parameter is calculated by inputting the angle between a vector and the z axis into an equation. So, if I would like to calculate the order parameter of the carbon backbone of polystyrene, is it true that I have to create two separate groups containing two different types of carbon atoms in the index file (because in one repeat unit of PS, there are two different carbon atoms)? And if it is so, will the final result show a plot of the order parameter as a function of distance in the z direction?

    Negar Abbasi · Technische Universiteit Eindhoven

    Many thanks Justin,

    yes I did it :)

  • Christian Zerfass added an answer in Cell Induction:
    Anyone have experience in autoinduction?

    I have cloned lipase gene into pET28+ and express it in Rosetta(DE3)pLyss. I have tried to induce with IPTG but I can't spot any difference between the clone and the empty pET. I varied the temperature, IPTG concentration. I have tried whatever I could possibly think of. I happened to read Studier (2005) on the autoinducting medium. I carried it out at 20C O/N. The expected protein size should be around 23kDa but I am seeing a band at around 35kDa. Could someone enlighten me please?

    Christian Zerfass · Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

    Hi Shanice!

    I guess your plasmid will add a His-Tag. Have you thought about confirming the expression with an anti-His antibody ? (e.g. anti-penta His, which is one I used before) Then you know where your protein is in the gel and this detection method will facilitate optimization of expression (e.g. through extended expression times etc.).

    Best regards!


  • Matt Burton-Kelly added an answer in Mac OSX:
    I switched from Windows to Mac. Can't find a software that generates TPS files for morphometric analysis (i.e. TPSdig2). Any suggestion?

    TPS file generator for Mac OSX

    Matt Burton-Kelly · University of North Dakota

    I don't have a chance to check my notes (attached thesis) right now, but I've used ImageJ for capturing points and outlines in the past.

  • Maulasri Bhatta asked a question in RNA Extraction:
    RNA extraction

    I got 260/280 ratio between 1.8-1.99, Also I got 260/230 ratio around 0.6-0.95 and concentration is around 390-400 ng/ul (RNA dissolved in DNAase/RNAase free water). I want to run rtPCR and eventually do qPCR.  Is it suitable/reliable to use this RNA for qPCR? 

  • Peter Poczai asked a question in Plant Genomics:
    How much would it cost to sequence a genome?

    Can anyone tell a price estimate (EUR) how much it would cost to sequence a plant genome with an approx size of 1200 Mbp? Platforms: illumina/PacBio/454.

  • How can minority groups protect their culture and identity in the face of increasing globalisation?

    In a world characterised by increasing integration on economic, political and institutional levels, the notions of sovereignty and independence are becoming somewhat vagues and a number of social entities such as ethnic groups which exist within wider societies are perceiving such integration - which is partly due to globalisation - as a threat to their culture and identity. How can such social groups protect their culture in this context?

    Hanno Krieger · retired from Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen

    If these services are given without an missionary aim in order to convince the wrong believers.

  • Richard E. Watts added an answer in Resilience:
    Is there a unique pathway of resilience from a socio-ecological perspective?
    I think Palestinian resilience interwoven with Sumud culture, this can be linked with the new voices of resilience understanding.........
    Richard E. Watts · Sam Houston State University

    Contemporary Adlerian Therapy is a strengths-based, encouragement-focused approach emphasizing that people cannot be understood apart from their contexts.  It affirms that human knowledge is socially embedded and relationally distributed, and  takes a "both/and" perspective regarding human agency: both communal and individual.  Thus, I have argued that it is a relational constructivist perspective, one that strongly resonates with social-ecological understandings of resilience, albeit using different nomenclature.  If you (or anyone else) are interested, I will be glad to send you some publications that support the ideas expressed above.  My email is rew003@shsu.edu

  • What are the various terms being used to express Phosphorus in swine Nutrition?

    Which terms are used to express the availability of phosphorus in Swine Nutrition. 

    Is there a difference between hydrolysable, available and digestible Phosphorus?

    Martha Aku Boakye · University of Bonn

    Jorge Manuel Rodrigues Tavares I dont know if this pdf can be of help. I came across it

  • Neeraj Kumar added an answer in Reductionism:
    Is Isopropanol effective to reduce the acid value of nonedible vegetable oil in the Pre-treatment process?

    Hi, I am working on biodiesel. I have read that we can use methanol, ethanol or other higher alcohols for biodiesel production. I tried Isopropanol and Sulphuric Acid to reduce the acid value of nonedible vegetable oil in the Pre-treatment process. but after 1 day i have found no separation in the separating funnel and no reduction in the acid Value. What could be the reasons for it? 

    Neeraj Kumar · IIT Kharagpur

    I am using Bath type water bath shaker (not magnetic stirrer) with temp. 60oC. After optimization of pretreatment process,  alcohol (Isopropanol) and sulfuric acid were selected as 27% and 0.85 % respectively with reaction time around 68 min. The oil is 4-5 years old and its IAV is around 22.5

    Thanks for your comments.

  • Stuart E. Hamilton asked a question in Mangroves:
    Ecoregions / biomes

    I am looking for GIS data that defines ecoregions or biomes. I particularly would like something that is used with the academic literature. It must include the mangrove biome and it must be global.

    I have http://maps.tnc.org/gis_data.html (TNC)

    http://www.worldwildlife.org/publications/terrestrial-ecoregions-of-the-world (WWF)

  • Is it worthwhile doing cluster analysis with such a small sample and if so how can it be done using SPSS?

    I am mostly a qualitative research who has obtained nominal data from interviewing 36 students (10 variables). I would now like to see if the cases (students) can be grouped together into about 3-4 clusters using cluster analysis

    Jacques P. Beaugrand · Université du Québec à Montréal

    are your data qualitative?

  • Robert Stovall added an answer in Survey Design:
    Does anyone know of any child well-being survey instrument that accommodates the child's perception of his/her well-being?

    I am carrying out a survey of children's well-being in a socially disadvantaged area. I am looking for a survey tool that allows for the voice of the child to be heard as recommended by the UNCRC. All the tools I have seen so far are designed to be completed by either the teachers or the parents/caregivers. The children participants for this study are between 6 and 7 years old. The use of qualitative piece have been advised to explore the children's views but time constraint rules this option out. Other self-completion questionnaires I have come across were designed for children from around 10 years upwards. Any help would be appreciated.

    Robert Stovall · State of California




    CCR - PMO - About the YSS and YSS-F.docx

    About the YSS and YSS-F

    The YSS is a 26-item consumer-completed survey designed to obtain participant perceptions of:

    1) access to services, 2) cultural sensitivity, 3) consumer participation in treatment planning, 4) service outcomes and 5) general satisfaction. The surveys were developed through the collaborative efforts of the federally funded Mental Health Statistics Improvement Program (www.mhsip.org), and included the direct assistance and feedback of consumers, their families, and mental health advocates. The YSS-Youth is currently used in a number of states across the United States and can be administered electronically or on paper.  Training materials are available for the implementation and use of the instrument without cost. 

    Each item on the survey is rated by the respondent from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree.”  A total score and scores on each of the five domains are produced from a simple sum of scores of individual items.   The instrument has been widely used in state mental health systems for assessing consumer satisfaction with services.  Of 43 states and the District of Columbia reporting SAMSHA National Outcome Measures (NOMs) data, 24 utilized the YSS or YSSF to address perception of care.         

    Current Use:

    In Department of Health Care Services for mental health services for at least 10 years
    Four participating Residentially-Based Services sites
    In at least 24 states
    Developed in 1999, the psychometric properties have been tested and validated.

    Family members’ perception of services in seven domains in 26 questions (not including 7 demo questions). Internal consistency for the first five domains ranged between .72 and .94.
    access to services
    appropriateness of services
    cultural sensitivity
    family participation in treatment
    treatment outcomes
    daily functioning**  (not in RBS)
    social connectedness** (not in RBS)
    coordination of services**(not in RBS)

    Youth’s perception of services in five domains in 26 questions (not including 7 demo questions). Internal consistency for the five domains ranged between .70 and .94
    access to services
    appropriateness of services
    cultural sensitivity
    participation in treatment
    treatment outcomes

    Additional 16 site-specific questions to measure:
    current and past living arrangements
    utilization of physical healthcare services
    contact with law enforcement/juvenile justice system
    school absenteeism
    what has been helpful about the services and what would improve services


     Check out Comparison of Assessment Instruments (documented by the Virginia Chapter of the Foster Family-based Treatment Association) 

    Robert Stovall DPA,

    California Department of Social Services

    Foster Care Rates Bureau

    Continuum of Care Reform Unit Manager



  • Narasim Ramesh added an answer in Smart Grid:
    Can someone help me with appliance scheduling in smart grid?

    I have a list of appliances to be scheduled for a day. The appliances should be scheduled during low peak price period inorder to avoid peak demands. I am using optimization solvers from matlab like linear programming solvers and binary integer programming. I dont seem to get any optimized results. I find that the appliances are getting switched during peak price period. Can someone help me in solving this or suggest any other solvers?

    Narasim Ramesh · Sri Jagadguru Chandrasekaranathaswamiji Institute of Technology

    Your question is interesting. is it possible to state the problem / model

    in more detail? i imagine the following on say a 24 hr format.

    1. Say three objects pa , pb ,p c  with operating times (ta, tb ,tc) and power pa.etc

    2.They may be required to operate within   times < t1 ,<  t2 , < t2 (this could be one constraint)

    3. say 3 power tariffs are C1 C2 C3in time band [tc12 , tc12..] (another constraint)

    4. We want to minimize Cost (pa*ta(C1or C2 or C3) + ...

    would this be a model that you are using?

    if so I suggest you try it out with some assumed data first

    either scilab 5.3.3 or open office calc..to understand the algorithm that you intend

    to use.

    hope it is of some help ..


  • Is sugar over consumption the underlying cause of the obesity epidemic?
    The current obesity paradigm is basically behavioural; overeating and under exercising as the cause of obesity. Both true but neither has explanatory power unless people deliberately set out to become obese.

    A single underlying cause is the over consumption of sugars. It fits the descriptive epidemiology: pandemic, both genders, all ages, increasing since the 80's, high prevalence. It fits the biochemistry as causing insulin resistance via glucose consumption stimulates appetite and reduces exercise. It fits the epidemic of Non Alcoholic Fatty liver Disease through fructose. This model supports both individual and public health responses: low sugars diets and low sugars food availability. It also supports recent observational studies and meta-analyses that fats are part of the solution, not part of the problem. Until the paradigm shifts back to the pre-50's diets, we will continue to do the ineffective, calorie restricted diets and increasing exercise, instead of decreasing sugars intake both as individual interventions and public health policy.
    Max Stanley Chartrand · Northcentral University

    Alan, good question. Stevia is not an artificial sweetener. It is a natural sweetener and to the degree it is not debauched by overprocessing it is healthy and a good and ideal choice of sweetener for just everyone. I caution high quantities, however, because of the effect on the liver to receive false signals from gustation. Stevia also has the hurdle to overcome in the taste domain, but seems we are learning of ways of overcoming it, also. But, in summary, Stevia is not among those I've enumerated in my assertion that all artificial sweeteners are poison to the human body over time.

  • Can brain-machine interfaces be evaluated quantitatively using information theory?

    Brain-machine interfaces have become important in rehabilitation with the goal to restore motor function to paralyzed people. The topics discussed in the lecture include: (1) the bits of information generated by a brain-machine interface signal, (2) the superiority of a brain-machine interface signal using single cell recordings versus electroencephalographic recordings, (3) the limitations of including more neurons for generating a brain-machine interface signal, (4) plasticity and brain-machine interfaces, (5) the selection of a neural code as implemented by brain-machine interfaces, (6) the significance of body movements while using brain-machine interfaces, and (7) the role of vision for brain-machine interfaces. During the question period the issue of using information theory to assess studies in behavioural neuroscience is discussed.

    Specific topics covered by the seminar: information theory, systems neuroscience, neural prosthetics.

    Full lecture as delivered at the University of São Paulo on August 29, 2014:


    Ardalan Alizadeh · Wireless Communications Lab (WCL), the University of Akron

    Dear Edward, This is a really interesting question and I have thought of this approach since a few years ago. At this point, I believe this would be an intelligent approach to consider the training process as a wireless communication system and to utilize information theory for identifying the behavior of brain, also to design an optimal detector. As a researcher in wireless communications, I think this approach would work aside from all details about neurons. For example, when you show an image to user and record the EEG data, the image can be considered as a "symbol" of information and you are willing to detect it among other images by EEG signals. We can discuss more if you are thinking of it seriously as a part of your research topic.

  • Alain Celzard added an answer in Conductivity:
    In electrical properties, how could you determine the AC conductivity to DC conductivity using Power law and the term Aωs ?

    Can you kindly explain the Power law σ ac = σ dc + Aωs ? How could you determine the terms like dc conductivity and  the term Aws? Is there any other method to calculate the ac conductivity and dc conductivity?

    Alain Celzard · University of Lorraine

    Just plot the log of the ac conductivity as a function of log of frequency. You should see a plateau (i.e. the log of dc conductivity, which is therefore determined), followed by a straight line of slope s. Then, everything can be easily obtained.

  • Anil Chauhan added an answer in Electrics:
    Can we separate electric and magnetic component of a Em-Wave?

    We know that they are coupled together. How to separate them? Is this possible to uncouple or not?

    Anil Chauhan · Indian Institute of Technology Ropar

    @Stefano Quattrini..... I couldn't understand from the start means? we don't know exactly anything about beginning of light or about its history. Every thing that we know about beginning is hypothetical except some symmetries and conservation law, which are valid every where.

  • How can I do analysis on tiff data when it only accepts bgd. format?

    my project of master is about developing an open source GIS for agriculture.
    I have problem with tiff data, I want to apply analysis on tiff data but i cant it only accept .bgd format have you any idea.
    thank you very much
    Maher Ibrahim

    Andrew Mercer · Stockholm University

    Sorry, I don't have any experience with .NET and next to none with VB but is it possible to call C libraries from VB? If so then GDAL is still open to you.

  • Hossein Amini added an answer in Microalgae:
    Is anyone familiar with microalgae monod type growth kinetics?

    We know for the Monod model, we need to determine two constant parameters, Knutrient and mumax. I have set a series of experiment and observed that for different initial concentration of Nitrogen and Phosphorus, I get different Ks and mumax. My question now is: Is there really a global monod type model for a specific strain which can always predict the growth using the nutrient concentration in all conditions?

    Hossein Amini · North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University


    As far as I see, this is a more complicated model since it deals with intracellular compositions. Do you think that for engineering projects, I have to go deep into this much accuracy ? then how other people's work are valid according to this model? I mean you think Monod model is far from what is in reality for micoralgae?

  • Alexis Brailas added an answer in Complex Systems:
    What is the minimum number of components in a complex system?

    Complex systems consist of multiple interacting components. Two components is not enough to make a system complex. But would three or four components be enough for a system to become complex? What would be an example of such a system? 

    Alexis Brailas · Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences

    A system is a set of interacting components so a complex system, being a system, requires at least two components in order to have interaction. In logistic map something is interacting with its previous states, so there are at least two interacting components. Thank you guys for the suggestion to read "Two's company, Three is Complexity." It looks quite interesting.

  • What is the best method to estimate dynamic panel model of capital structure?
    Would OLS, general moment method, quantile regression method be appropriate?
    Ngozi Adeleye · University of Sussex

    Muyiwa, which of independent variables - endogenous, pre-determined or exogenous?

  • Muhammed oda Mallah added an answer in Beetles:
    Are there any methods to amplify unknown proteins using PCR?

    We are using beetles within our experiment and having a difficult time extracting enough protein to obtain a good gel electrophoresis result. I am wondering if there is a simple process using PCR to obtain more of these unknown proteins? Or any other advice would be great! Thank you in advance. 

    Muhammed oda Mallah · Al Muthanna University

    Dear Kari

    PCR using for amplify DNA not protein