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  • Neem Hakim asked a question in Sustainable Agriculture:
    Is EM and Micoriza helpful and cost effeftive in Organic Agricutire?

     Researchers involved in sustainable agriculture can answer this question.

  • Velina Slavova asked a question in Emotion Recognition:
    Can anyone suggest advanced studies on data minig system for sentimant analyses + possibly cognitive approaches, please?

    The problem is to put together sentiment analyses and emotion recognition as the data mining system should be based on some knowledge construction based on multimodal web. However, the system should be purely textual.

  • Can we consider "healthy practices" as "process medicine"?

    In operations management, business organizations offer either product or service. Can we consider healthy practices as non-product medicine?

    Victor Dorogovtsev · Principal Military Hospital of Angola

    No doubt it can and should be considered. Why? Modern health criteria are primitive. Many diseases begin when an individual is considered to be healthy, regardless of applied technologies.
    In such cases, the diagnosis is performed when clinical signs appear. Prevention becomes impossible ...

    Dr. Victor

  • Do you know of free software to do protein-protein covalent docking?

    The protein of my interest is forming isopeptide bond with another protein. Is it possible to do this with any free software?

    Pruthvi Raj Bejugam · National Centre For Cell Science, Pune

    Dear Manish,

          Unfortunately there is no accurate tool or software for the protein- protein covalent incarceration or docking. You have the options for covalent docking in HADDOCK and ClusPro. But the prediction is not always accurate and you can get more information in these two papers and they have further information on the covalent docking of proteins.

    You can use these tools but before setting constrains for the covalent docking, your input structures must be accurate and make sure your constrains have enough literature data support.

    All the best  

  • Engr. Aamir Nawaz added an answer in Power Systems:
    Where can I find official data of IEEE test power systems?

    I am working economic load dispatch problem and need load, demand and loss coefficients data for evaluation. Can any one recommend me exact url of IEEE or any other standard source of above mentioned electrical data?

    Engr. Aamir Nawaz · Gomal University

    Dear Esmaeil,

    I need generator's upper and lower limits and loss coefficients. By checking the above URL, i can't see generator's data and its coefficients to calculate optimum cost of electricity generation at particular demand. Can you provide some more guidance about that?

  • Mehdi Kargarfard added an answer in Muscle Strength:
    Does anyone want to collaborate on a research regarding the development of a new charge contrast method in order to increase the muscle strength?

    It is about a new method, called "TOP & DOWN", which was experimented in athletics: triple jump, hurdles (short distance) and sprint races. A recent study was conducted on a group of bodybuilders.

    Mehdi Kargarfard · University of Isfahan

    I also will be glad to contribute to this study.


    Mehdi Kargarfard

  • Alimul Haque Khan asked a question in Grid:
    What may be the smallest size of an energy resource that could be integrated with national grid with minimum component needed ?

    1. Target is to penetrate green energy to the grid with fewer time.

    2. Integration of large scale renewable energy is costly also individual level installation is tough. Smaller scale will advantageous for easy installation

  • Has there been research to show that increasing education improves ethics in a community?

    'Students often know the right thing to do. How can schools help them to do it?

    The numbers are in and they don't look good." That was the assessment of the Josephson Institute of Ethics last October, when they conducted a survey about the moral standards of more than 20,000 middle and high school students. Almost half the young people reported stealing something from a store in the previous 12 months. In the same period, seven out of 10 cheated on an exam.
    Should we be worried? Many observers say that we should. We see evidence of more antisocial behavior than ever among our youth—a sort of divorce between personal ethics and everyday behavior.'

    Has there been research to show that with increasing education, there has been improved ethics in a community?  Can you share, give some evidence? Thanks.

    Miranda Yeoh · Kolej Matrikulasi Selangor, MALAYSIA (Selangor Matriculation College)

    @Behrouz, Umachandran and Marcel, thanks for your points.  I have observed the effectiveness of Parent participation in activities such as parent-teacher organizations, home practices that support literacy development (spontaneous reading), and enrichment activities.  When I was teaching in school, the teachers placed their own children in the school.  All the children of my colleagues were good academically and in their character, although many had to juggle piano lessons, violin, drums and a few of the girls also had ballet classes. The more the children were busily engaged, the better they learned time management.

  • Alain Celzard added an answer in Graphite:
    Can anyone suggest the best solvent for graphite?

    Can anyone suggest the best solvent for graphite?

    Alain Celzard · University of Lorraine

    You may be interested by a former thread dealing with digestion of graphite (see below).


  • Software suggestions for qualitative research (CAQDAS)?

    Yeah, I know that's very generic.  I am after software to manage coding and categorisation of text in general and focusgroup transcripts in particular. Having earned my spores in mathematics and computing, I am a newbie in qualitative research.

    So far, I have tried RQDA, and I guess the pros and cons will illustrate what I am after.


    + fairly easy to install on linux (unfortunately not really easy though)

    + fairly transparent data model, where the SQLite database can be accessed and comprehended using any SQLite tool.

    + simple and straight-forward GUI

    + open source


    - crashes on Mac OS

    - lacks hierarchical coding

    - sparse documentation

    - primitive GUI, where routine operations require many clicks, and with no obvious way to manage by keyboard

    - little recent maintenance or development

    Even though free software is nice, cost is not really an issue if I am confident that the software is going to serve me well. Availability on both linux and Mac OS is not a strict necessity, but some glorious benefits are needed to offset the hassle of not having access on both platforms :-) 

    Any recommendations?


    Achilleas Ioannis Kostoulas · The University of Manchester

    I've used NVivo 8, and have mixed feelings about it. the interface resembles Outlook, so it's fairly intuitive, but there is only limited scope for customisation, and routine actions seem to require more clicks than I care for. When it comes to coding and retrieval of data, it's very powerful, and it comes with some great tools for preliminary analysis (e.g., conceptual mapping, content analysis). It also offers some rudimentary support for transcription, although there are other stand-alone packages that are much better in this regard. A huge drawback is that it stores all the data in one huge file, which seems to put considerable strain on the computer: after a while, performance becomes rather slow. On the whole, I was happy to use the package, as it was provided free by my university - but I am not sure I'd invest in actually buying it.

  • Pierre Cheyssac added an answer in Refractive Index:
    How can I get the refractive index by using UV-Vis if I have %R result only?

    I can't measure absorption or transmittance since my substrate is opaque.

    Pierre Cheyssac · University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis

    Kramers-Kronig relations give excellent results provided you know a correct extrapolation of your spectra outside the measured experimental one's. The main reason is that they are only valid if the entire spectrum from 0 to infinite frequency is known. It means that absorption bands may exist outside the region that is measured and this existence modifies the calculated indices. The way  the extrapolation outside the measured reflectance spectrum is devised is then very important. Generally, these relations are used when one has at hs  disposal results that come from synchrotron light and so on. The quality of the results are bad you you rely only on the visible spectra. Pay attention that no software is doing physics, only calculations and especially when dealing with optical indices.

  • Aparna Srivastava added an answer in LC-MS:
    How to isolate a purified compound from plants extract ?

    I have isolated the active fraction from plant extract. I have done a TLC of the active fraction isoated the spot showing activity. I did the LC-MS of the spot. found to contain many compounds. Now i want to isolate a compound of specific mass  from that spot. how do i proceed now?

    Aparna Srivastava · University of Mysore

    thank you for your suggestions. I will go through those papers.

  • Does any one know that how to synthesize DIMCARB ?

    I want to synthesize N,N-dimethylammonium N’,N’-dimethylcarbamate
    (DIMCARB). Can anyone help me ?

    Andrei Rogoza · Irkutsk Institute of Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences

    Look at

    "Self-associated, “Distillable” Ionic Media"

    http://mdpi.org/molecules/papers/90600387.pdf  - and citation therein

  • Strongly coupled quantum dot systems. Any thoughts?

    I have been doing some research into strongly coupled quantum dot systems, where I link individual quantum dots with molecular bridges, while maintaining strong electronic coupling. This shifts the absorption maximum to higher wavelengths and opens up a possibility of creating hybrid quantum-dot polymer systems.

    I would like to hear some of your thoughts/impressions/experiences with these systems. There is not much about them in the literature, but it seems to me that these strongly coupled quantum dot polymer systems could have some exciting properties: maybe in solar cells, quantum electronics, sensors, displays,...

  • Does anybody know an extraction procedure of free sugar analysis from sediments or soil?

    If anybody knows the analytic procedure for the extraction of free sugar or mono saccharides from sediments or soil ? If anybody have standardized any method to quantify total sugar present ?Any one have any reference paper on this?  How to get the sugar analysis procedure by HPLC RI detector?  

    Arun Pandian Chandrasekaran · Kumaraguru College of Technology

    For total sugars analysis, you could try Dubois method. Follow the below link for more details. 

  • Thanh Phan asked a question in Strandings:
    How long is a DNA strand?

    I am trying to measure the length of DNA but I'm having problems. Any suggestions would be very welcome.

  • Making cells competent again after losing competency.
    I have vials of JM109 competent cells from promega. But I believe they have lost competency as they are unable to be transformed even with pUC 19 control. The cells are viable as evident from colonies formed on LB plates without ampicillin.

    The question is can I use these colonies of JM109 and proceed with CaCl2 mediated competent cell preparation protocol for heat shock transformation.
    Supriya Surya Prakash · Christ University, Bangalore

    Hi Rajal! it would really help if you could let us know if it worked.

  • Sandip S. Magdum asked a question in Anions:
    What phenomenon of Zeta Rod (High Voltage Capacitance Based technology-HVCB) converts the particle’s Zeta potential from -50mv to -20mV?

    We have the particles with negative surface charge in a solution of pH 7, some counter ions (anions) caused to form stern layer and shear plane responsible for Zeta potential of -50mV.
    I wish to know the effect of Zeta Rod (HVCB) on particles ionic balance.
    After Zeta rod treatment,
    Is the increases in strength of anions in diffused layer causes to shift the zeta potential of colloidal particle from -50mv to -20mV?
    Any other principle which will decrease the ionic potential for destabilizing the particle?

  • Neem Hakim added an answer in Farming:
    Does anyone know of permaculture farms with similar goals to Geoff Lawton's Zaytuna Farm?


    I want to know of similar efforts in other places of the world. Mr. Lawton's work should be replicated across the globe. His focus on creative, sustainable, low energy solutions certainly deserves more attention.

    Neem Hakim · International Center for Integrated Herbal Research and Development

     I studied Permacuture in Permacutire Institute of Australia(PIA),Ecological Solutions Australia, Sustainable future and Global Eco village Network Denmark. As far my knowledge Dr. Bill Molison and David Holmgren is the father of this sustainable system. For best example you can contact MAX O' Lindegar of Global Eco village Network Asia Oceania. He lives in Crystal Water Permaculture Village,Brisebene,Queensland,Australia. He is also the Director of Ecological Solutions Inc,Australia. We have our own initiative integrating medicinal plants at Shanti Mission Ecovillage,Dist Rajbari, Bangladesh.

  • Where are the philosophers and sociologists of science in the many controversies and social developments around autism?

    There's a lot going on in the so called 'autism world' which could benefit from research and analysis by sociologists and philosophers of science:

    There's been a radical change in the public image of autism, say from 'Rain man' (1988) to 'Big bang theory' (now).

    Since the mid-nineties until now there's been a remarkable emancipation from no voice to many of which quite a few argue autism is not a disease, but a variation within normalcy of people with remarkable qualities.

    The leading (medical and psychological) scientific paradigm of autism as an incurable developmental disease seems to be challenged more everyday by rival views claiming different (partly) curable etiologies.

    Have these (and other) interrelated developments been the subject of study from the above mentioned disciplines? If so, why do they practically seem invisible?

    Lawrence Broxmeyer, MD · NY Insitute of Med Research

    Unstrange Minds, Remapping the World of Autism written by Roy Richard Grinker, an anthropologist at GWU and a father of an autistic child is a great read. 

  • Sunil Prasad Lohani added an answer in Biogas:
    Can anybody please suggest some feasible ways to maintain sufficient temperature in biogas digester in winter season?

    As its a well known fact that Low range of temperature directly hamper the Biogas Production inside anaerobic Digester (2-3 m3). So it is required to maintain the sufficient temperature inside the same specifically during the winter season. I will appreciate the suggestion by researchers and scientist with practical & theoretical know-how.

    Thanking You.

    Sunil Prasad Lohani · Kathmandu University

    Dear Rishi,

    Its not easy to maintain sufficient inside temperature in winter for our common domestic dig-ester, However, you may try to keep few oC rise with the following:

    1. Insulate while constructing the digester with local insulating materials. 

    2. If insolation is high even in winter, may try solar thermal heating for at least to heat up feed (not the whole digester).

  • Sami Birzhandi asked a question in Optical Properties:
    Which optical properties and specification considered most in choosing optical limiter polymer?

    Which companies introduce these material such as ZnTPP?

    which specification is in more importance for these devices?

  • Vilemar Magalhaes added an answer in Tea:
    What are the medicinal benefits of lemon tea?

    Some excerpts from the article: "Medicinal benefits of lemon tea" by Mala Srivastava:

    "Tea is a good calorie-free substitute for sugary beverages, according to the Harvard School of Public Health. If you add a squirt of lemon juice to your tea, it will not only enhance its flavor but will also provide multiple health benefits. For example, if you are experiencing nasal congestion, drinking lemon tea can help to decongest your blocked nose, reports the University Health Service of Rochester University.

    Vitamin C Benefits

    One fluid ounce of lemon juice contains 12 milligrams of vitamin C. Water-soluble, vitamin C helps fight free radicals -- rogue molecules that damage your DNA. Free radicals may contribute to the development of diseases such as cancer and heart disease, notes University of Maryland Medical Center. By counteracting the negative effects of free radicals, vitamin C helps decrease the risk of developing cataracts by 80 percent, according to the book "The Secret Benefits of Lemon and Honey: Secret Guides.” In addition to healing wounds, vitamin C helps maintain and repair your teeth and bones. Moreover, your body requires this antioxidant to form collagen, a protein used to build skin, blood vessels, cartilage and tendons.
    Bioflavonoid Quercetin

    Citrus fruits, such as lemon, are one of the primary dietary sources of quercetin. A flavonoid, quercetin protects the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas from the damaging effects of free radicals. In addition, quercetin has an anti-inflammatory effect, as it helps stabilize the cells that release histamine in your body. Histamines are chemicals that trigger allergic reactions. According to the American Cancer Society, quercetin can inhibit the growth of cancer cells and can help promote apoptosis, a type of cell death. Animal studies have shown that quercetin may exhibit a protective effect against certain types of cancer, especially colon cancer.

    Blood Sugar Control

    High blood sugar occurs when your body produces inadequate amounts of insulin or when it cannot utilize insulin properly. Hesperidin, a compound in lemons, can modify the function of enzymes that affect your blood sugar levels, according to a study published in the January 2010 issue of the “Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition.” This not only shields your body from the early stages of diabetes but also helps avert diabetes complications if you already have high blood sugar. Additionally, hesperidin has cholesterol-lowering effects.
    Powerful Limonoids

    A study published in the “Journal of Nutrition” in April 2005 revealed that lemons contain compounds called limonoids that have the potential to impede the growth and development of cancer cells. Not only did limonoids decelerate the growth rate of cancer cells, but they also enhanced cancer cell death when tested against human cancer cells. The study further states that these anti-cancer agents have free-radical scavenging activities."

    Your views are welcome! Thank you - Sundar

    Vilemar Magalhaes · Faculdade Kurios

    The quality of tea in India is very different from mostra of the tea sold, say in Brazil. The taste, the medicinal properties differ with the altitute, method for collecting the leaves, storage, and much more. The black tea is the easiest to export with the same qualities. The absorption of some ingredienties is better if it is served hot. People should avoid tea in aluminum can, especially if it also was added any accidic ingredient to it.

  • Anga Muthu added an answer in Total Organic Carbon:
    Does the concentratrion of hydrogen peroxide affect the TOC (Total Organic carbon) values ? or stabilizers plays any role in the TOC value ?

    Using heterogeneous fenton catalyst, we are degrading the organic content in the water. when we increase the concentration of hydrogen peroxide, we found that there is a rise in TOC values than the initial value. Hydrogen peroxide alone gives around 130 ppm without any prior dilution. (TOC - L shimadzu both NPOC and TOC method) 

    Anga Muthu · VIT University

    Thank you,  we have already done these investigation.we analyzed TOC  of the optimum hydrogen peroxide and our catalyst in our condition (like pH , temperature and time). we did not add any pollutant in it. But, we get considerable amount of TOC. so, we directly injected the 30 %  w/ v Hydrogen peroxide to analyze the TOC. it gave 130 ppm. i would like to know that whether our hydrogen peroxide has any organic content that is responsible for the TOC or This high concentration of  hydrogen peroxide affects the analysis.

  • Cristina Radnea added an answer in Landsat:
    How do you remove cloud from Landsat Images?

    I just want to know if there is any algorithms developed for this purpose. i will be glad to know that please.

    Cristina Radnea · National Research and Development Institute for Soil Science, Agrochemistry and Environmental Protection

    I agree with Mr. Ben Hassen. I also add that the instrument on-board Landsat 8 has a specific band for cirrus clouds detection: http://landsat.usgs.gov/best_spectral_bands_to_use.php

  • How can you get the hourly solar irradiance and wind speed and temperature data for a specific location?

    it is necessary for modelling renewable energy resources

    Alimul Haque Khan · Bangladesh University

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have several observation point for solar irradiance, over the world.

    Through this link anyone could get for solar data.


  • Murat Erguvan added an answer in Teaching English:
    In teaching English as a Foreign Language, how much of the class should be about culture?

    Most teachers agree that teaching the culture of native speaking countries is valuable, but how MUCH should this be done?  Do you have a percentage in mind or other way of saying how much of the course should be about culture?

    Murat Erguvan · International Black Sea University

    In case of English, "language" does not equal "culture" any more (e.g. Indian, Pakistani cases) I'd like to define the language as a means for communication as many people, which automatically produces a question: "What are you learning the language for?" that will hopefully answer your question.

  • Dileep Kumar M added an answer in Family Business:
    What are the 3 core competencies of a family business successors?

    Please tell me the three competencies (features) that are most important for the successor of the family business in your opinion.

    Dileep Kumar M · Universiti Utara Malaysia

    Knowledge about the current market condition, ability to sustain the market relation through better networking and profit oriented decision making. 

  • Mesenchymal stem cell isolation from rats: what are the differences between old and young rats?

    I am doing the mesenchymal stem cell isolation from rats. I wonder whether there are differences between cells extracted from neonatal rats and from those from older rats. First of all, I found that older rats have bigger cells than the younger one by looking under microscope. Do you think it is true in general? And are there any other differences between neonatal MSC and "old MSCs"? Thanks a lot for your sharing.

    Tinte Itinteang · Gillies McIndoe Research Institute


     I do not have any experience with rat MSCs, however our experience with human MSCs, show more stem/progenitor like properties in MSCs derived from infants compared to adults. Which I guess you can extrapolate to your rat MSCs.

     Hope that helps.