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  • Napoleon Ono Imaah added an answer in FACTS:
    What is intellectual capacity ?

    As it varies between individuals significantly, what in your view influences these differences?

    Napoleon Ono Imaah · Rivers State University of Science and Technology

    Dear Darko,

    Simply, Intellectual Capacity is the ability of the human brain and mind to initiate systematic action with the aim of influencing the human and natural environments either positively or negatively.

    In my opinion, need is what influences humans to use their individual human capacities. However, individual human intellectual capacities and capabilities are nor equal, just as the fingers of an individual are not equal in in proportions and sizes.

    Thus, Humans apply their unequal Intellectual Capacities unequally to realize their unequal needs, with unpredictable and unequal rates of either successes or failures.



  • Can anyone recommend articles or information about the functions and design parameters of a sugar cane harvester?

    because the design of a sugar cane harvester
    It is somewhat complicated, I am looking for articles that will help me about it

    Francelino A Rodrigues Jr · International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center

    It's a paper about a yield monitoring system to sugarcane harversters. You may find some useful references within.

  • Raheema Wamaedeesa asked a question in Graphs:
    Could anyone please tell me how to normalise qPCR data to ease profile matching that obtained from the microarrays?

    I wonder that how to make the same scale beetwen qPCR data and microarray data

    many paper showed the graphs having highe value of y-axis   (some graph has Y scale around 1000-7000) where did these number come from?

    the example of graphs have attaced


    Please , help me.

    Thank you very much

  • How can we formulate Loschmidt's paradox in the quantum domain?

    This question was inspired by the answers and discussions around a previous question,

    What does Loschmidt's paradox tell us about the second law of thermodynamics? (https://www.researchgate.net/post/What_does_Loschmidts_paradox_tell_us_about_the_second_law_of_thermodynamics/3)

    Assume for simplicity a monoatomic gas closed in a container. The container walls are assumed completely reflecting and totally opaque to heat. Assume that all the atoms are identical and spherically symmetrical.

    Then the total state of the gas should be either symmetrical in all the particles (boson gas), or anti-symmetrical (fermion gas). In short, the particles are entangled, not independent. So, we can't represent the state of the gas as a product of the states of the individual particles.

    A first problem is how do we define the entropy of this gas?

    The simplest expression for the entropy is,

    S = -kB Σj pj ln pj

    where kB is the Boltzmann constant, pj is the probability that the system is in the j-th microstate, and the summation is carried over all the possible (orthonormal) microstates ψj of the system. So, if the gas is in the beginning of its evolution in some mixture of states, pj is the probability of the state ψj in this mixture.

    However, as the container is completely isolating, the gas is a completely isolated system and it evolves unitarily. The number of states remains the same all the time. So how can the entropy increase?

    Also, sometimes in discussing the paradox, people speak of reversing the evolution of the system by reversing the velocities of all the particles. But the particles are indistinguishable, s.t. under the quantum regime they loose individuality. Moreover, the indetermination in the particles' positions is as big as the dimensions of all the container. So, where is the particle whose velocity we want to reverse?

    So, bottom line, how we formulate the paradox in the quantum regime?

    Sofia D. Wechsler · Technion - Israel Institute of Technology

    To all the readers who will be so kind as to consider my question, I suggest to keep in mind that there is a big difference between a quantum particle and a classical particle: the latter has simultaneously well-defined position and linear momentum, while the former, if it has a well-defined linear momentum (and in consequence, velocity), then it has no defined position, and vice-versa.

    Thus, a quantum version of the Loschmidt paradox can't be a copy of the classical version.

  • Edgar J. Patiño added an answer in Phonons:
    How do I estimate acoustical phonon frequency of Al2O3 from optical phonon value?

    I am trying to find experimental value of acoustical phonon frequency of Al2O3. In the literature I found the most intense longitudinal optical bulk phonons is reported to be around kn=871 cm-1, from the expression ωexp_optical = kn.c  where c is the speed of light I obtain a value ωexp_optical= 2.61 x 1013 sec-1.  Is this the correct procedure?  From here is it possible to estimate the acoustical phonon and how?          

    Edgar J. Patiño · Los Andes University (Colombia)

    Thanks Christian we did the following, please give me your opinion:

    "we use the measurement of speed of sound in amorphous Al2O3 obtained using picosecond ultrasonic technique by Rossignol et. al.( PRB 70,094102) Here speed of sound yields the longitudinal sound velocity v_Al2O3 = 6.7 x 103 m/s.
    Considering a value of k=Pi/2a at the middle of the first Brillouin zone, from the expression ω = v_Al2O3 * k; a value of phonon frequency ω = 2.24 x 1013 sec-1 is obtained."

    If you agree I would like to send you via email somehow  longer text on the paper we are writting  as your opinion is very valuable.  Cheers 

  • Nicolas Onofrio added an answer in Gromacs:
    Which free software can I use to generate amorphous polystyrene (PS) sample of certain density?

    Till now I am using Polymer Modeller from nanohub.org. I works fine for polyethelene samples. But I noticed that for PS it sometimes produces "bad" molecules (open phenyl ring or some bonds to long) that after putting such system into Gromacs the calculations end with huge Lincs errors. I can of course (which I am testing now) cut the wrong molecules from pdb file but then I cannot control the density of my system.

    So maybe you know a free software which I can try.

    Nicolas Onofrio · Purdue University

    Hi, no need to install any software, just create an account to nanoHUB.org and use the polymer modeler tool, you can setup the final density, relax the structure, etc. https://nanohub.org/tools/polymod

  • Mckensie Kreutzer added an answer in Ion Torrent:
    Does glycogen adversely affect DNA sequencing?

    We are testing out a new sperm extraction protocol in which glycogen is added. I have read that glycogen causes no adverse effects for capillary sequencing, but does anyone know if it causes any problems for next gen sequencing? We use an Ion Torrent PGM. 

    Mckensie Kreutzer · University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center

    Thank you! We used the glycogen, but will be purifying the sample with AMPure beads prior to sequencing. 

  • Universe is static!!! Yes or no?

    Space of Universe is static! Yes or no?

    Question: Are there any observations that do not fit into the model static space of Universe, are there any theoretical obstacles to the existence of such a model?

    I assume that the Universe is eternal, infinite and static, it is not expanded and not curved, it is possible to construct a preferred inertial frame of reference in which the CMBR is most isotropic. The matter in this space evolves, but the average density of matter and energy (in large enough volumes) fluctuate within a rather broad range.
    The light in this model is "tired", the speed of light depends on the optical density intergalactic medium. Gravity is also "tired" t.i. weakens a little faster R2. The energy of destroying matter goes into the surrounding vacuum. The excess energy from the vacuum give rise to new particles of matter.

    I state that all the observed cosmological effects can be explained in such a Static Model of the Universe.
    See attached "Basic_Cosmological_Formula_1_En.pdf"

    Dear colleagues, I do not ask, what are the problems faced by other theories (though I would be interested in your opinion on that. The General theory of relativity is not applicable to the entire space of the Universe).

    Victor Ostrovskii · Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry

    Dear Alexander,

    Dear All,

    I call you to read and criticize our last works uploaded in our RG pages. Don’t cosmology and astrophysics transform currently from something ephemeral and unusually remote into the instrument for foreknowledge of a rather near future? I would be glad to know that our predictions are incorrect. It is quite possible that the adequate relation to them would be of importance for the coming generations.

  • Stefan Avramov asked a question in Cameras:
    What is the real size of the sensor of Browning trail cameras?

    What is the real size of the sensor of Browning trail cameras?

  • Kenneth M Towe added an answer in Climate Change:
    Is it time we shift emphasis from technological solutions to climate change & focus on the 'Human Dimension'?

    Is it not obvious that nature can heal itself, if only left alone, and it is humans who need regulation? Many natural parks managers do just that; seal off the area from human interference to let nature heal and recover. It is classified as 'Strict Nature Reserve"by IUCN. Complacency is not advocated here, as many have misunderstood, but the shifting of focus from technology to the human being. As technology is no match for human greed, isn't introspection & restraining ourselves more relevant than developing more technology, which caused the mess in the first place, by making it easy for a few to consume more? Since technology is only a short term quickfix which fails after a short time, isn't the real problem our addiction to material consumption & our lack of understanding about human nature? Isn't developing more technology sustaining the addiction instead of correcting it, leading to more complex problems later on, needing more complex technological quickfixes like higher drug dosages, more ground troops & equipment, (along with their debilitating side effects) in the future? Isn't this the vicious addiction circle we are trapped in? As researchers, do we merely buy more time with technology OR go to the very root of the problem, the human being?

    A lot of hue and cry is made about climate change and the environment in general. Public and private money is poured into research to study its effects on the environment, sustainability etc. Should we study nature or ourselves?

    " Our studies must begin with our selves and not with the heavens. "-Ouspensky

    Human activities have been found to have a direct correlation to climate change and its impact on the environment(I=P x A x T, the Ehrlich and Holdren equation), in spite of what some complacent sections say to protect their own self interests.

    We hardly know about Human nature. We can scarcely predict human behavior. We need to find out why we think like we do and why we do what we do and why, in spite of all knowledge and wisdom, consume more than what we need, in the form of addictions to consumption and imbalance not only ourselves but also the family, society and environment around us..
    Humanity is directly responsible for all the unnatural imbalances occurring on the planet. Yet we refuse to take responsibility and instead focus on climate change, or fool the public exchequer with a 'breakthrough in renewable energy just around the corner'. We scarcely know what drives human beings. If we had known, all the imbalances around us would have had solutions by now, given the amount of money plowed into finding such solutions. Are we blindly groping in the dark of climate change because we don't know the answers to our own nature?
    Is it not high time we focus on what makes us human, correct our consumptive behavior and leave nature to take care of climate change? Why focus effort on 'externals' when the problem is 'internal'- 'me'?
    Aren't we addicts denying our addiction and blaming everything else but ourselves?

    " We are what we Think.

    All that we are arises with our thoughts.

    With our thoughts, we make the world." - Buddha 

    IMHO, We don't need to save the World. It is enough if we save ourselves from ourselves. The need of the hour is not vain glorious interventions, but self-restraint and self-correction!

    The Mind is the Final frontier.

  • Renzo Bianchi added an answer in Sexual Violence:
    How effective is psychotherapy for sexual offenders?

    There are different kinds of psychotherapy, and different kinds of sexual offences. Does anyone know about empirical studies / reviews / meta analyses for the effectiveness of different kinds of psychotherapy (e.g., psychoanalysis, behavioral therapy, trauma therapy, art therapy etc.) for sexual offences (e.g., sexual abuse, sexual violence etc.?

    Thank you!

  • Stephen T. Margulis asked a question in Reimbursement:
    How do you post a question for the members?

    I want to transfer my 30-year-long collection of articles on privacy to a library, preferably, for use by future scholars. Many are old or unpublished and are unlikely to be online.  Will also consider other requests.  Send requests to Steve Margulis at margulis@gvsu.edu and include contact information.  I'd only ask for reimbursement for the cost of mailing the materials. 

  • Maria Kozlova added an answer in TASSEL:
    Tasseled cap greenness for landsat 8, interpretation from which technique will better?

    Remote sensing 

    Maria Kozlova · State Oceanographic Institute

    .In general, Grenness is an index corresponding to vegetation activity and its data can be processed similar ways to other VIs.If you specify your question, it would be easier to help you.Regards,Maria

  • Anil Jegga added an answer in Target Analysis:
    How to analyse mirna data and construct a pathway based on their role?

    Hi, I am new to miRNA data analysis. I am studying their role in airway biology. I have normalized the mirna data by edgeR software and got about 60 significant mirna's. I tried to use IPA to construct network or pathway analysis. The mirna target analysis gave thousands of gene with multiple functions. Is there any way i can get quick and clean predictions of the role of those miRNA (atleast few if not all) and construct a pathway based on that. Also, if I can merge my proteomics data with mirna data and construct a pathway?

    Anil Jegga · Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center

    You probably have to first narrow down the target list. You can do that either using the target mRNA expression (e.g., mRNA expression in airways) and selecting the reciprocal pairs (i.e., upregulated miRNA and downregulated mRNA and vice versa). If you don't have the mRNA expression data, then try focusing first on validated targets for your 60 microRNAs (using databases such as mirtarbase - http://mirtarbase.mbc.nctu.edu.tw/) and then perform pathway enrichment analyses using the validated targets.

  • Tausif Alam added an answer in Cognitive Systems:
    Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.

    Tausif Alam · University of Wisconsin–Madison



    Please give us some examples of stimuli which cannot be consciously perceived."

    Bright flashes of light >1000nm or <200nm in wavelength or buzzers operating at 20Hz or >22kHz (in my case >18kHz; too much music in my younger days!).

    But I suspect that these are not the examples you are after... ;)

  • Mohamed Raffa added an answer in Arabic:
    Anynone speaking arabic who can confirm that this table indicates that 14 States have ratified the Arab Charter on Human Rights?

    The Table is in the attached file

    I'd be very greatful If you could tell me which countries have ratified the ACHR.

    Mohamed Raffa · University of East London

    Dear Thomas

    Both Sirinivan and Suleman are correct in the information they provided you with. 

  • Anthony Foris added an answer in NMR Metabolomics:
    Is it possible to NMR to distinguish between the different isomers of chlorogenic acdis?

    I am interested in the analysis of chlorogenic acids with NMR. I would like to know if is it possible to differentiate between the different isomers in a crude extract or one will need to first separate these isomers i.e on a HPLC/capillary electrophoresis before analyzing then on NMR. 

    Please if you to have papers on NMR metabolomics specially isomers analysis where chemical shifts have been used to distinguish isomers send them to me. 



    Anthony Foris · Dupont, Retired

    I agree with Niko's, Fidele's and Paul Anton's comments. 1H vicinal cis couplings are   6-14 Hz, typical ca. 10 Hz; trans coupling constants are larger, 11-18 Hz, typical ca. 16 Hz. Chemical shifts and coupling constants for chlorogenic acid are listed in Phytochem Rev (2007) 6:3-14, available on the Internet. Availability of high-field NMR spectrometer, and knowledge of advanced techniques are necessary for analyzing crude extracts by NMR. Prior separation of complex mixtures into pure compounds should be carried out. 

  • Is it useful to consider LF as a vagal predictor of endurance exercise for frequency domain parameters of heart rate variability?

    LF can be consider as a consistent data for overtraining process?

    Does the ratio LF/HF give us any important info? 

    Evgeny G Vaschillo · Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

    Respiration affects HR through vagus (RSA phenomenon). Oscillations in respiration volume produce same frequency oscillations in HR (HRV). The amplitude of these oscillations is higher when vagus activity is stronger.  Since respiration spectra contain frequency components not only in the HF range but also in LF and VLF ranges (we usually do not breathe rhythmically), vagus may influence all HRV frequency ranges. Baroreflex also modulates HR, but mostly in the LF range. Thus, LF HRV relates to the baroreflex activity.

     LF/HF ratio usually does not work as an estimate of the autonomic balance, but can be very informative in evaluating dynamical changes of a condition. Thus, common reaction of HRV to emotional, cognitive, or physical loading consists in depressing HF and enhancing LF power. We assume that this is an adaptive reaction. The magnitude of the reaction evaluates one’s adaptability.  Baroreflex activity and vagus lability define the strength of this reaction and human adaptability. Comparison of the LF/HF ratio in baseline and in response to loading can be useful.

  • Can we use Zometa ( Zolindronic acid 4mg) for osteoporosis?

    Can we use Zometa ( Zolindronic acid 4mg) for osteoporosis?

    Lawrence G. Jankowski · Illinois Bone and Joint Institute

    Burkhard makes a good point.  But in active Paget's there is tremendous localized bone turnover, and zolendronate concentration will mimic the brightness of the 99mTc tagged methylated diphosphonate used in nuclear medicine bone scans and thus much more of the infused dose will be deposited within the areas affected and incorporated into the Pagetic bone matrix. This likely explains the much longer remission times for Paget's than the suppression of bone markers in a systemic disease like osteoporosis where bone turnover is depressed and the drug is diffused evenly over an entire skeleton. 

  • Pule Raleaooa added an answer in Spectroscopy:
    Is there a conversion from %Reflectance to %Transmittance in spectroscopy? 

     I'm under the impression that this is not as simple as an inverse relationship.   Thank you for your help.

    Pule Raleaooa · University of the Free State

    I am using a Perkin Elmer Instrument ,and its software (I can give the details) has a conversion componet of the spectra between the two.....That is from %R it can give an ''inverse' of this spectra by ploting log(1/R(^-1)) v/s Wavelength...Can anyone help to answer this question on this basis ?

  • Jack M Gallup added an answer in cDNA:
    What is the difference in cDNA and RNA in gene expression assays?

    I know that cDNA is more sensitive than RNA, but what exactly does that mean? I compared the same set of samples using both RNA and cDNA. The relative gene expression using RNA was higher than the cDNA. Is this what is expected? 

    Jack M Gallup · Iowa State University

    I've always used one-step qPCR with great sensitivity.  Generally the RNaseH activity of many RT enzymes (when making cDNAs) degrades the RNA during and slightly after the cDNA synthesis.  This is called "first-strand synthesis" as it is assumed that only one copy of each RNA (in the form of complementary DNA or "cDNA") is usually being made here (due to the RNAse-degrading co-activity of the RT enzyme) per each RNA transcript.  Many RT enzymes have a dumb-downed RNAseH to allow the RT enzyme to make longer complementary DNA (cDNA) transcripts from the RNA before its RNA-devouring activity does its job.  RT rxn  components have sometimes been blamed for interference with the downstream PCR/qPCR, and so your higher 'sensitivity' with RNA in a two-enzyme mix may be on account of that.  On a ng/uL basis, do you still calculate more 'signal' from your 2-step cDNA/qPCR or your 1-step RNA/qPCR?  Perhaps that may be a good way to look at things as well. 

    I've personally never seen lack of sensitivity with 1-step qPCR (RNA sample in a RT&Taq-containing mastermix) when compared to a 2-step approach.  I have gotten 1-cell resolution with 1-step.  Heck - even 1 -copy resolution (although Poisson noise wobbles the Cq values in Heisenberg-uncertainty-like fashion at that point).  Also remember that each RT enzyme favors certain transcripts over other transcripts during a separate RT preceding PCR (and this also depends on priming -- whether one is using a mixture of oligo [dT]n + random primers, or just oligo [dT]n, or just a random primer of some kind (hexamers, nonamers, pentadecamers etc.)... the separately-executed cDNA synthesis in 2-step qPCR is always a point at which one can get a skewed version of the transcriptome (a warped snap-shot if you will), "3' bias" with just-olgo [dT]n primed reactions, etc.

    On the other hand, with one-step qPCR, you are using the gene-specific reverse primer during the RT step preceding the PCR phase to make your cDNA in each reaction; so you have great specificity of the "1st strand" cDNA, and thus a more faithful/specific amplification during the PCR phase.  When one is lucky, and accidentally uses an RT enzyme and system that faithfully takes a snap shot of the transcriptome in the form of cDNA, then there should be no great differences whether sythesizing cDNA beforehand, or using RNA in a two-enzyme [one-step] qPCR mastermix to perform the final qPCR.

  • Could anyone suggest proliferation markers of hMSCs?

    Hi everyone,

    I am working on human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Could you please suggest me about the proliferation markers of hMSCs?

    Is there any gene that indicate the self-renewal ability of hMSCs?

    Thank you.

    Saleh Alkarim · King Abdulaziz University


    yes ,  ki67  also RUNX1 in regulating proliferation and differentiation in both marrow-derived and tissue-resident MSCs

    Good Luck

  • Edwin A. Locke added an answer in Education Science:
    How can researchers be defined as 'skilled' when they focus research on the 'unpredictable unknown'?

    It's all in the question

    Edwin A. Locke · University of Maryland, College Park

    I do not think you need prediction at all times--a lot is discovered by just trying stuff--then when you find something you can make predictions--modern chemistry was pre dated by centuries of alchemy--they were mostly wrong but they discovered enough by trial and error to lay some ground work--now as to global warming: not so fast--this field is about 80% political--every single climate model has failed repeatedly-- there has been no average warming in 17 years--I am not saying what will happen one way or the other but the political aspect of this is no secret--if you question the status quo your career can be ruined--there is data hiding, threats to those who oppose the majority, fudging of analyses, lies--even threats from politicians--I have been around long enough to be skeptical when politics tries to trump science--

  • Which medium is suitable for the endophytic fungi especially dark septate endophytes?

    Keerthi Mandhyam, Ari Jumpponen

    Laia Guardia Valle · Autonomous University of Barcelona

    Other mdia you can try, for an initial isolation, are  Potato-Carrot  agar and MEA. These also work fine. Good luck!

  • How can I best evaluate the performance of an MPC?

    I am currently working on a problem where I need to evaluate the performance of a model predictive controller whose control objective is predictable disturbance rejection. The optimization is based on a linear state-space model and I have successfully shown the improvement of the closed loop with experiments, but am curious to the limit of the MPC. Does anyone know a good way to evaluate this? thanks! 

    Ali Chaibakhsh · University of Guilan

    please see the attachment,

  • What is the best method one can use to analyse consumer preference for an agricultural commodity using choice experiment?

    Am an agricultural economics student studying cross country consumption of an agricultural commodity. my interest however is in analyzing preference with dataset that followed choice experiment. I have noticed a number of methods being used making it hard for me to tell which best suits a choice experiment study. Kindly help

    Isaac Sitienei · Louisiana State University

    stata should work. Also try LIMDEP if available

  • Can any body explain to me that how wave number component is effected of electromagnetic wave when it transfers from one medium to another medium?

    you can consider second medium more denser for simplicity. Actually I m interested to know that  for example if  k1 =[ 1  1 0]  be the wave number vector in one medium so  is it  possible that wave number also changes  the component when waves travel in other medium. or if can any body write for me wave number in second medium k2=????

    Muhammad Naveed · Frederick University

    thanks for such clear answer. 

  • Has anyone applied structuration theory (Giddens, 1984) in his/her study?

    I would like to know if any of you has used or is thinking to use structuration theory to his/her study and in what way (e.g. to explain what).

    Thank you


    Arnold Windeler · Technische Universität Berlin

    Giddens‘ structuration theory has been and is used extensively in organization research. See for example:

     1.     Own empirical studies (see full list under publications):

    Sydow, Jörg/Windeler, Arnold (1998): Organizing and evaluating interfirm networks: A structurationist perspective on network processes and effectiveness. In: Organization Science 9 (Special Issue: Managing Partnerships and Strategic Alliances), S. 265-284.

    Windeler, Arnold/Sydow, Jörg (2001): Project networks and changing industry practices - Collaborative content production in the German television industry. In: Organization Studies 22 (6), S. 1035-1061.

    Sydow, Jörg/Windeler, Arnold/Schubert, Cornelius/Möllering, Guido (2012): Organizing R&D Consortia for Path Creation and Extension: The Case of Semiconductor Manufacturing Technologies. In: Organization Studies 33 (7), S. 907–936.

    Manning, Stephan/Sydow, Jörg/Windeler, Arnold (2012): Securing access to lower-cost talent globally: The dynamics of active embedding and field structuration. In: Regional Studies 46 (9), S. 1201-1218.

    Schubert, Cornelius/Sydow, Jörg/Windeler, Arnold (2013): The means of managing momentum: Bridging technological paths and organisational fields. In: Research Policy 42, S. 1389– 1405.

     2.    Overview articles

     Bryant, Christopher G. A./Jarry, David (Hrsg.) (1996): Anthony Giddens. Critical Assessments. 4 Bände. London: Routledge.

    Pozzebon, Marlei (2004): The influence of a structurationist view on strategic management research. In: Journal of Management Studies 41 (2), S. 247-272.

    Pozzebon, Marlei/Pinsonneault, Alain (2005): Challenges in conducting empirical work using structuration theory: Learning from IT research. In: Organization Studies 26 (9), S. 1353-1376.

    Englund, Hans/Gerdin, Jonas/Burns, John (2011): 25 Years of Giddens in accounting research: Achievements, limitations and the future. In: Accounting, Organizations and Society 36, S. 494–513.

  • What is your view on Fermat's famous and notorious claim that he had a truly marvelous proof of what came to be known as Fermat's Last Theorem?

    In my modest of opinion, this paper provides a very simple proof of Fermat's Last Theorem using methods that were available in Fermat's days. If correct, it follows that this proof squashes any criticism against Fermat's claims.

    It took 358 years (1637-1994) to get Professor Wiles' complicated proof, but this paper shows that one could achieve this in a simpler manner. I am sure this proof is flawless as I have gone through it very thoroughly.

    I think Fermat had the proof.

    It looks like we have climbed a high mountain to look for something that is right at the foot of the mountain.

    Fermat's claim: there does no exist integers x,y,z greater than unity for any (n>2) for which the equation:


    has a solution. He went on to say:

    "I have discovered a truly marvelous proof of this, which this margin is too narrow to contain."

    Patrick Solé · Institut Mines-Télécom

    Dear Luiz,

    let me ask you some simple questions.

    1) Why do you try to verify a proof that is not in your domain?

    2) How can you expect a problem open for three centuries to admit a proof that is elementary or easily verifiable?

    Let me observe that Wiles proof has been checked by the referees of Annals of Math plus by the many number theorists that have run seminars written books on the topic, etc

    I believe the interest for any of the members of the small group of people you describe to find a mistake is much larger than to promote the proof of another member of the group.

    Eventually the likelyhood of a tacit conspiracy between all the members of this group (easily a thousand people in the world) to promote Wiles proof for another reason than the belief its true is very very low!

    Sincerely Yours