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  • Do you think that managers will manage and lead with better results if they inform themselves by reading research done by management academics?
    Often, managers have the impression that research by academics is of no use for them as their problems and the real world is very different from that envisaged in research. On the other hand, some believe that managers need to understand the latest theories to manage with greater impact. Any observations in this regard?
    Krishnan Umachandran · Nelcast Ltd.,
    Managers continuously need new inputs to hone their competencies at work. Knowledge Management for sure is one support to help them in their thinking process....The same input gets transformed as learning's and practices as it comes out form different people/ situations/ environments..... new theories again starts to evolve from there.
  • How to manage the lifestyle as a researcher?
    I don't have idea how the other researchers manage their time? I always feel that I have to compromise a lot with my personal life for doing research. I want to do many things in my personal life but always have pressure to finish my work. I spent more that half of a day on computer doing research stuff. Sometime the things works sometimes not and have to repeat the things. So may task are always pending in my personal to-do list since months. How you all balance with your personal and professional life?
    Ashwani Kumar · Jaypee University of Information Technology
    I am fully agreed to Nageswara sir. there should be balance between personal and professional life for this proper time management will be useful. live your life according to the priorities of your's.
  • Mike Lambert added an answer in Grounded Theory
    Can anyone suggest some most relevant literature about "Grounded theory"? Thank you in advance
    I am using regional innovation systems and grounded innovation analytical framework to study bioenergy innovation in two case-study areas.
    Mike Lambert · University of Wolverhampton
    Bianca, you may find it interesting (and entertaining) to read Thomas and James’ (2006) energetic and wide-ranging critique of grounded theory. In it they claim that there is little in the approach to distinguish it from normal qualitative studies: it ‘oversimplifies complex meanings and interpretations in data … constrains analysis … depends upon inappropriate models of induction and asserts from them equally inappropriate claims to explanation and prediction’ (p.768). Although the article relates to use of grounded theory in education, it is useful for any researchers using the approach to consider how to respond to their critical appraisal. Thomas, G. and James, D. (2006). Reinventing grounded theory: some questions about theory, ground and discovery. British Educational Research Journal, 32(6) December, pp.767-795.
  • Akbar Esfahani added an answer in Geometry
    Are there mathematicians, scientists or philosophers whose work you view as influencing historical events in a minor or in a major significant way?
    Do you think that the interaction between such scholars has led to the success of their work in making an impact? Scholars such as Euclid (geometry), Newton (science), Plato (philosophy) have been very influential in shaping the way we see the world. For example, Euclid’s Elements written in Alexandria around 300 B.C. became a standard work in geometry. It is one of the most widely read, translated and commented on work in European history. It was translated into Arabic around 800 A.D., into Chinese in 17th century and into Sanskit in the 18th century. The first english version of Euclid’s Elements was Sir Henry Billingsley’s translation published in 1570. Euclidean geometry has been enormously influential in shaping our view of the world. For more about this, see http://www.hf.uio.no/ikos/english/research/projects/euclid/ Plato, 428-348 B.C., descendent from kings of Athens and Messenia, student of Socrates, teacher of Aristotle, founded the Academy of Athens, one of the institutions of higher learning in the Western world. He wrote about justice, beauty, equality, political philosophy, theology, cosmology, epistemology and the philosophy of language. For more about this, see http://www.biography.com/people/plato-9442588#awesm=~oBHUNDFF6ggpWQ A central notion in Plato’s philosophy is the theory of forms. The only true being is founded upon the forms, the eternal, unchangeable, perfect types, of which particular objects of sense are imperfect copies. This theory has been enormously influential in science and mathematics. For more about this, see http://www.ams.org/notices/201002/rtx100200239p.pdf Isaac Newton, 1643-1727, son of a farmer, Professor at Cambridge University, taught optics, introduced a theory of colours of light and theory of gravitation, published his Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, 1687, introducing infinitesimal calculus, co-discovered (with Leibniz). During his study of optics, Newton investigated the refraction of light, demonstrating that the multi-coloured speturm produced by prism (see attached image) could be recomposed into white light by a lens and a second prism. He showed that colour is the result of objects interacting with already-coloured light rather than objects generating the colour themselves. He designed the first reflecting telescope, demonstrating his telescope to the Royal Society in 1671.
    Akbar Esfahani · University of California, Los Angeles
    I think we should also mention some Persian Mathematician from the golden age of Islamic period, such as the great polymath Omar Khayyam whose calender is used in Iran currently and is proved to more accurate than the Gregorian calender and the great mathematician Jamshid Kashani who we owe algebra to. Truly, without the work of all the scientists in the middle east during Europe's dark ages, all the great works of the Greeks would have been lost to time.
  • Amritlal Mandal added an answer in Violence
    Do you observe more crime in your community in times of recession? How does it affect you as a researcher?
    I quote: 'It is a fallacy to paint a beautiful picture that everything is perfect here in Malaysia with 100% full employment as if it is Utopia.'
    Amritlal Mandal · The University of Arizona
    Increasing crime rate everywhere is a common problem as Prof. Kamal already mentioned. Even Tucson where I work and stay in US is also badly affected. Recession, increasing rate of job loss , lack of education and unemployment play important role to commit any criminal activity. Tucson is place where trafficking drug is increasing due to very advantageous geographical location an it's easy accessibility from neighboring countries.
  • How do I form an ester using pentadflurophenol?
    This organic acid also has a relatively non nuclephilic hydroxyl group. I need to activate a carboxylic acid.
    Rastislav SOLÁR · University of Technology in Zvolen
    Ok Sebastien, if you look at the rate and more specific conditions of reaction when eserifying phenolics, R-OH are still easier to esterify. I, and not only me, consider phenols to be aromatic hydroxyderivates. R.S.
  • What statistical tools can be used to calculate the association between vitamin D intake and development of asthma in children?
    Asthma in children of 5-17 years old.
    Anurag Agrawal · Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology
    Do you have longitudinal or cross-sectional data. Assuming that asthma is a categorical variable here (Yes/No) If the former, then you can use cox hazard analysis similar to what Akshay Sood's group did for the CARDIA study (see attached), here treating vitamin D intake as ordinal categories or a continuous variable. If cross-sectional, then you can analyze as a a liner by linear trend analysis of ChiSquare by dividing vitamin D intake into ordinal classes (see http://www.uvm.edu/~dhowell/methods8/Supplements/OrdinalChiSq.html). Else you can go with a logistic regression. If you want to treat asthma as a quantitative variable of some type, then a linear regression / correlation is appropriate.
  • Is it necessary to have published articles to get PhD admission?
    Any opinions are highly appreciated.
    Shafig Al-Haddad · Applied Science Private University
    I don't think its necessarily to publish research before PhD admission. but its very important to publish at least 2-3 researches (Articles) during conduction the PhD research
  • Kaveh Mollazade added an answer in Engineering
    Hello, anyone can help me with state of the art is in the analysis of gear with vibration
    I'm working on building a laboratory for the analysis of gear vibration
    Kaveh Mollazade · University of Kurdistan
    To run a condition monitoring laboratory, you need the following equipments as the least needs: - A gearbox test station - Accelerometer sensors - Data acquisition equipments (A/D converter, data logger, ...) - Programming software for signal processing
  • Mozafar Karamian added an answer in Gravity
    In general relativity, how is gravitational force replaced by space-time geometry?
    How, in Einstein's theory of gravity, can one replace the concept of force with that of the deformations of space time? Why is the orbit of mercury described better in terms of Einstein's theory in comparison with Newton's theory? A reference link: http://www.einstein-online.info/elementary/generalRT/GeomGravity
    Mozafar Karamian · Independent Researcher
    That GR is a geometric theory only represents the universal nature of gravity, something that is not fully appreciated when we talk of 'forces'. Since gravity is universal, it finds an intrinsic connection with the notions of space and time which are applied to all phenomena, and this makes application of the term 'geometry' justified. However, the term 'force' can still be applied for gravity, as follows. The geodesic equation \ddot{x}^\mu + \gamma^\mu_{\nu\lambda} \dot{x}^\nu \dot{x^}\mu = 0 is equivalent to the equations \dot{x}^\mu = \partial H / \partial p_\mu \dot{p}_\mu = - \partial H / \partial q_\mu where H = 1/2 g^{\mu\nu} p_\mu p_\nu. These are just Hamilton equations. So, the old term 'force' can still be applied but it hides the fact that the main characteristic feature of gravity is its universal nature, specially since other 'forces' do not have such a universal character. On the other hand, the term 'geometry' represents the universal nature of gravity directly.
  • Is there any theory to explain the mechanism of increasing the intensity of host material instead of the rare earth dopant in the PL spectra?
    in the PL emission spectra, intensity of host increases but weak emission of the rare earth dopant and i cant find accurate explaination from the literature.
  • How can I find out coupling constant values from a Gaussian output file?
    Adding "spinspin" keyword calculates J values but how can i find them in an output file?
    Muhammad Ali Hashmi · COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
    I need NMR Spin-spin coupling (J) values. I searched with keyword "Spin-Spin coupling constant" but it gave such results... How can I find J values in Hz from this information? Please help... Total nuclear spin-spin coupling K (Hz): 1 2 3 4 5 1 0.000000D+00 2 0.253803D+02 0.000000D+00 3 0.188030D+00 0.231527D+02 0.000000D+00 4 -0.460896D-01 -0.126514D+01 0.214649D+02 0.000000D+00 5 0.219531D+00 -0.838524D-01 -0.734692D+00 0.207107D+02 0.000000D+00 6 -0.425207D+00 0.198366D+00 -0.604211D-02 -0.160762D+01 0.258271D+02 7 0.268156D+02 -0.118450D+01 -0.803874D-01 0.675198D+00 -0.486055D+00 8 0.256364D+02 0.414036D+00 0.150723D+01 0.951856D-01 -0.878294D-01 9 0.150794D+01 -0.113492D+01 0.151693D+01 0.279338D-01 0.348769D-01 10 -0.205998D+00 0.221709D+02 0.457998D+00 0.142058D+01 -0.588497D-01 11 0.160638D+00 0.158267D+00 0.187757D+02 -0.271280D+00 0.314558D+00 12 -0.362130D-01 0.886543D+00 -0.236476D+00 0.178036D+02 -0.258767D+00 13 -0.590362D-02 0.255862D+00 -0.277046D+00 0.175654D+02 -0.257212D+00 14 -0.444936D-01 -0.190890D-01 0.913884D+00 -0.233168D+00 0.179173D+02 15 0.119403D-01 -0.150743D-01 0.411754D+00 -0.295908D+00 0.180095D+02 16 0.177757D+00 0.280304D-01 -0.391436D-02 0.639639D-01 0.203598D+00 17 0.107998D+00 0.345826D-01 0.389017D-02 0.218582D-01 0.216853D+00 18 -0.104364D+00 0.394814D+00 0.270855D-02 -0.609386D-02 -0.260644D-02 19 0.532021D+00 0.819120D+00 -0.881451D-02 0.165748D-01 -0.738432D-02 20 -0.983792D-02 0.344047D-01 -0.248082D-01 -0.798413D-02 -0.543065D-02
  • Do you think that general relativity needs modifications or it is a perfect theory?
    It's been a long journey for researches which tried to unify quantum mechanics with general relativity but with no valuable clear result until now. Do you think that the fault may be in general relativity because not all its assumptions are proved until now?
    Charles Francis · Jesus College, Cambridge
    Mozafar, I need to correct that. Byers was completely correct. Spacetime does not need to be flat. The laws do become identical at the origin of a Minkowski frame with all Christoffel symbols zero. This is true in an inertial frame. Of course this means they are only approximately identical near to the origin, but the meaning of local is that this is not detectable within a region. It does not follow that spacetime is flat because the Riemann tensor contains derivatives of Christoffel symbols. Thus we do have a "proper" conservation law under the conditions in which we test conservation laws. The important thing here is to choose an inertial frame. We don't specifically have to choose Cartesian, or Minkowski, coordinates as the Div operator is not coordinate dependent. It just has a rather easier form in those coordinates.
  • In general, should a new CEO of an organization be brought from outside or should s/he be promoted from inside? Any examples to support your views?
    Some companies strongly believe in promoting insiders as CEOs. Others believe that an outsider CEO can make better decisions as per need and not be cowed down by inside pressures. What do you think?
    Krishnan Umachandran · Nelcast Ltd.,
    This has both pro & con. Internal leaders would mean home-grown talent to take on the reins very quickly then an outside leader who needs to settle or study the climate before initiating rightful progressive decisions. However, new thoughts and outside best practices would be an added advantage. The potential of a new external leader is better felt and accepted, till (even before) when people gets acclimatised to them... otherwise it is FAMILIARITY BREEDS CONTEMPT.
  • Can we have OPC as a control mix for a mix containing High early strength cement, fly ash and silica fume
  • Ennio Giordano added an answer in Epigenetics
    How can I search gene sequence of histone demethylase "jumonji 8" in Arabidopsis?
    I searched in NCBI and Arabidopsis database but I couldn't find it
  • Does electron spin quantum number + 1/2 and -1/2 mean the electron will revolve clockwise or anticlockwise in full or halfway around nucleus?
    Beside regarding nuclear spin quantum number, suppose for 51V is 7/2 what is it mean. It will help to understand the basic principles of electron spin resonance and nuclear spin resonance spectroscopies.
    Krzysztof Tadyszak · Adam Mickiewicz University
    For an electron with spin S =1/2 in the magnetic field thanks to Zeeman splitting we get two energy levels with ms = -1/2 and ms = 1/2. That does not mean that the direction of rotation in the vector model is changed. The direction depends from the sign of gyromagnetic ratio and that is a constant for an electron, proton, neutron. In addition, the next level of theory is the density matrix model which is much more advanced and without rotating vectors that appear only in the classical model.
  • Mohammad Ib. Khalil added an answer in microRNA
    What types of RNA should I extract for reverse transcriptase PCR, miRNA or large RNA (Total RNA)?
    What types of RNA should I extract for reverse transcriptase PCR, miRNA or large RNA (Total RNA)?
    Mohammad Ib. Khalil · University of Mosul
  • Abdelahhad Barbour added an answer in Cell Culture
    Why is the incubation time for probiotic cells to grow in milk shorter than in MRS broth?
    I am wondering why the incubation time for probiotic cells to grow in milk is shorter than in MRS broth. According to the protocol, the bacteria strains need to culture in MRSB for 3 days before transfer to milk. Why do we need 3 days in MRSB but only 1 day in milk?
    Abdelahhad Barbour · University of Malaya
    Milk has less nutrition than MRS, so you have to start with very good inoculation starter with big CFU value to inoculate the milk. However, you have to keep in mind that MRS contains glucose as a carbon source while milk has mostly lactose. you have to determine with what carbon source your strain grows better then investigate growth time accordingly.
  • Dmitry Bourdetsky added an answer in Tumor Biology
    Any suggestions for research articles on personalized peptide vaccines for cancer treatment?
    For a presentation in college A&P class on the future of cancer research.
    Dmitry Bourdetsky · Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
    Exploiting the glioblastoma peptidome to discover novel tumour-associated antigens for immunotherapy
  • Mohd Sadaf added an answer in Turbulence
    Do numerical solutions explain the origin of turbulence?
    Has the Navier-Stokes equation explained the origin of turbulence?
    Mohd Sadaf · Indian Oil Corporation Limited
    I m not fluent with numerical solution, but talking about the mechanics I believe turbulence generates because of the roughness of the surface on which it flows. As the fluid that flows over a surface having roughness(peak & valleys) experiences forces that deflect the chunks of the fluid in different direction(similar to reflection of light falling on a rough surface(unpolished) giving DIFFUSED reflected light). At low Re, this disturbance damps out, at high Re the chunks of the fluid acquire higher energy that is not completely damped & complex flow profile results, with fluid chunks moving in random directions. This I believe causes turbulence
  • Is it possible to refactor the code automatically in Java?
    As we know that it is easy to refactor the code manually but can it be possible to refactor the code automatically.In other words, I want to write the code in such a manner that whenever I will give some code to system then it will do the refactoring automatically. It can be possible in only one way by using of file handling but how I don't know. I had tried a lot about automated refactoring of Long Method but i didn't get any scope from where i will start. S
    Ebenezer Isaac · Association for Computing Machinery
    I am very comfortable in using NetBeans IDE. I refactor my code quite a lot . It typically does all types of refactoring that you may require from pulling-up and pushing-down methods to regular variable or method renaming.
  • Cristina Krause added an answer in Database Design
    Which software is good to handle database setup from the beginning?
    I need to set up a database with the following requirements: - easy handling (data entry, read out / statistics, changing the data entry interface and adding new parameters) - in best case it should be web based --> the db file is on a server in our network and can be accessed (for data entry) by a web browser What do you recommend? Filemaker or MS Access, or any other solutions?
    Cristina Krause · Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
    MYSQL database. You can administrate it with phpmyadmin. It is easy to manage.
  • Yang Luo asked a question in Image basic knownlegde
    what does mean Picture Rate Conversion?
    when I read paper in IEEE,I often meet " Picture Rate Conversion",like "Optimization of Hierarchical 3DRS Motion Estimators for Picture Rate Conversion".Can you give me a deep explanation?
  • What are your top five values in order of importance; do they facilitate or hinder your research? How?
    Some times one's values are highly helpful in undertaking and conducting research; but sometimes they may hinder it as well. How is it with you?
    Shafig Al-Haddad · Applied Science Private University
    - Originality - Transparency - Trust - Scientific integrity - Regulations
  • Why do researchers cite older publications that are not supported by recent publications?
    Knowledge is evolving fast, which also implies that contents of older publications are not supported by recent publications. Why do people continue citing older publications not supported by recent publications? - Those that cite older publications do not believe the contents of recent publications - Those that cite older publications do not know the content of recent publications - Older publications that are not supported by recent publications can mention aspects that are not handled by the recent publications.
    Nicholas Rowe · University of Lapland
    The sceptical view point: we are in an era where we often ask ill-thought out questions. Asking questions supposedly shows we have an inquiring mind, and if taken on face value they support our roles as 'academics', 'professors' or 'philosophers' (great comments above). Put many of these questions in front of an objectively critical panel however (like a funding stream) & see how many of them are considered 'worthy' of investing in. It is normal to see instructions for 'recent' references or 'references not more than 10 years old', but what is important is not their age, but their relevance. If a certain element has been adopted into the common orthodoxy of the field, then unless a specific angle of the original work is being raised, then IMO, there is no need to cite 'dated' work. On the other hand, if 'modern' literature does not show its provenance, then simply being 'recent' does not make it of any greater value. Martin Schulz covers this point well (above). An important point in Marcel's question is the bit about 'Why do people continue citing older publications not supported by recent publications?' I think that 'not supported by' could perhaps be better interpreted as the more modern publication actually takes issue with or contradicts this earlier work. Simply not mentioning an established thinker that relates to the field does not mean you are offering unsupported opinion. Lots of superfluous references are seen in university-driven papers (especially to methodology textbooks ;-)), often by students who have been told to 'support' their statements with references. To me, a 'supporting reference' shows that the author has based their thought on information drawn from x,y,z, and that is how they reached their conclusion - their sources contributed to their 'new' perspective. We have plenty of current examples however, where the practice of 'repeating' the words of others is in conflict with demonstrating new knowledge. I think relevance is a key issue here.
  • Ebenezer R.H.P. Isaac added an answer:
    What book would you recommend for teaching Android Development?
    I am looking for suggestions for good books (and any other interesting resources) you or your colleagues use to teach mobile app development (Android) to undergraduates.
    Ebenezer Isaac · Association for Computing Machinery
    I would suggest any (or both) of the following: Android in Action - 3rd Ed - Manning Hello Android - 3rd Edition
  • Ebenezer R.H.P. Isaac added an answer in Java/J2EE
    How to convert the C, C++ code to java?
    Can anyone help me to convert this code to java or javascript?
    Ebenezer Isaac · Association for Computing Machinery
    Before suggesting a solution, I'd just like to make clear the actual definition of JavaScript and Java. Java is an OOPL that may be perceived as an extension to C++ with cross-platform support developed by Sun Microsystems. It is a programming language. JavaScript was originally called ECMA Script used to integrate clent side scripting usually in conjunction with HTML files. It is developed by Netscape and Mozilla. It is a scripting language. Your code looks what seems to look like a graphics code with some aspect of time included in it. I doubt there would be a standard language converter for such a code. So, in my opinion, it would be better for you to take a look at the graphics methods in Java along with multithreading.
  • Debi S. Saini added an answer in Lifestyle
    What is your music?
    If we assume that every human being has his/her own music, what is yours?
    Debi Saini · Management Development Institute Gurgaon
    Beata Thanks for asking this very important question. I love reading all these answers and knowing what and how researchers enjoy their music. I especially liked James' answer. In the same vein I would say: My work is my music. I love working, which relaxes meeven when I am in a hurry doing it sometimes.