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  • Do we have data for China Stock Market Capitalization from 1980?

    Do we have data for China Stock Market Capitalization from 1980?

    Sivakiran Gupta · Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning

    @ Prof. Paul, I am looking for Stock Market Capitalization in mainland China. The world bank data is gives the financial development indicators such as MCAP, TURN, TVTR etc. 



  • Mohammed Ghanim added an answer in mRNA:
    Do mRNA levels reflect protein levels?

    Do our results measuring mRNA gene expression with RT-PCR can reflect our results measuring protein expression by IHC? I would like to know if my results by RT-PCR should reflect that for IHC.

    Mohammed Ghanim · Newcastle University


    Not always, but for the majority of cases, the answer yes...

    I think it is worthy to remember the following points as possible causes for mismatch between both assays:

    1) Post-transcriptional and Post-translational modifications

    2) NMD ( some mRNA are produced but non functional so they'll disappear) but still there is a possibility of detecting these mutated mRNA in RT PCR... It is a matter of the processing time...

    3) Some proteins retain their antigenicity although they are non functional (and thus stain positive on IHC) creating a potential source of misinterpretation.


  • Karl Cammann added an answer in Voltammetry:
    What are the advantages of different electroanalytical techniques?

    I'd like as sensitive a method as possible to detect nucleic acids. There are many papers using different methods: amperometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, square wave voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, etc. I'm not sure what the benefits of each are, but I am interested in a simple and sensitive method.

    Karl Cammann · University of Münster

    Most of the electrochemical techniques mentioned so far demand an electro-active compound in order to be oxidized or reduced and the current or voltage is recorded. Labelling DNA with a reversible redox-system complicated the situation. In addition the background of the sample should not interfere in this electrochemical process. This favors EIS. However the double layer capacitance is also influenced by other parameters (e.g., ionic strength, unspecific adsorption, etc.) which renders this technique into a method with interferences as long as those are not very well controlled before the analytical measurement. I would suggest a more reliable method working like a molecular switch: allowing the electrochemical reaction of an added redox-couple at a micro-electrode if no hybridization is occurring and stopping this reaction (current decrease) when the latter occurs. The electrochemical switch is based on available nano-magnetical beads. See last chapters of the publication below.   

  • Universe is static!!! Yes or no?

    Space of Universe is static! Yes or no?

    Question: Are there any observations that do not fit into the model static space of Universe, are there any theoretical obstacles to the existence of such a model?

    I assume that the Universe is eternal, infinite and static, it is not expanded and not curved, it is possible to construct a preferred inertial frame of reference in which the CMBR is most isotropic. The matter in this space evolves, but the average density of matter and energy (in large enough volumes) fluctuate within a rather broad range.
    The light in this model is "tired", the speed of light depends on the optical density intergalactic medium. Gravity is also "tired" t.i. weakens a little faster R2. The energy of destroying matter goes into the surrounding vacuum. The excess energy from the vacuum give rise to new particles of matter.

    I state that all the observed cosmological effects can be explained in such a Static Model of the Universe.
    See attached "Basic_Cosmological_Formula_1_En.pdf"

    Dear colleagues, I do not ask, what are the problems faced by other theories (though I would be interested in your opinion on that. The General theory of relativity is not applicable to the entire space of the Universe).

    Johan Frans Prins · Sage Wise 66 (Pty) Ltd



    events can not be transformed. It is system of coordinates (description ov events) which is transformed."

    Please quote me any textbook since 1905 that claims that a relativistic transformation does not transform the coordinates of events! Have you EVER studied the Special Theory of Relativity?

  • Zheng Feei Ma added an answer in Thyroglobulin:
    Should we use Tg (thyroglobulin) CRM-457 as our quality control material when analysing Tg?

    Tg, thyroglobulin, thyroid, iodine.

    Zheng Feei Ma · University of Otago

    thank you very much. 

  • Florian Stein added an answer in Packages:
    Can anyone recommend R packages (or functions) that can handle proportional response in GLMs?

    I'm using a 2-vector response = cbind(number.of.successes, number.of.failure) as recommended in CRAWLEY. In order to figure out variable importance in models including response = abundance we used the function hier.part (package hier.part) which calculates the independent contribution of the variables. Unfortunately, I can't find any equivalent function/package that can handle the 2-vector response.

    Florian Stein · Universität Potsdam

    Hi Gregg, thanks for your advice! I will have a look into the package.

  • Go J Yoshida added an answer in Viral Infection:
    Is there any kind of change in pH of cell while it is dying due to viral infection?

    Viruses are using cell machinery for its amplification. After  enough number of replication cycle it leaves cell and attack next cell. Is there any chance of changing pH of that infected cell during amplification process?  

    Go J Yoshida · Tokyo Medical and Dental University

    Dying cells might exhibit low pH (acidic) due to the process of apoptosis or necrosis. TLR signal pathway is also relevant. 

  • Is it possible to use the same primary antibody from different species on the same blot and then use the different secondaries to visualize?

    I am using the LiCor Odyssey to visualize my blots. I am trying to decide which primary antibody is the best to use for future experiments. One primary is mouse and the other is rabbit, I have 2 different secondary antibodies and the LiCor lets you visualize two secondary antibodies at the same time. However, I am wondering if there is an issue using 2 primary antibodies that probe for the same protein?  

    Penelope M Tsimbouri · University of Glasgow

    HI, yes I do agree with everybody above.

    I had to deal with exactly the same issue.

    One of the first things you always need to go for is to use an antibody raised to a different species to your sample origin as most times this would lead to increased non-specific background

    Secondly, you need to check if the 2 antibodies you are testing bind in the same site in which case you will have competition issues which will give you false results.

    Thirdly, it depends on the target protein and it's conformation if bound to something else in which case again it could possibly leads to another competition issue.

    what i tend to do when i'm testing new antibodies in general, is load a couple of samples that i have protein to spare,  in multiple wells on a gel, transfer and then cut the blot in multiples i.e. you will end up with 3 little identical blots if you ran a 10 well blot (include protein ladders too) then you can test you antibodies in parallel.

    I hope that helps

  • How can I use nanotechnology in hydrocarbon reservoir characterization?

    What technology, in terms of nano-scale can I use to determine the common features of a hydrocarbon reservoir? Maybe sensors? Nanoporosity? What else? And how?

    Thank you

    Carlos A. Grattoni · University of Leeds

    In the Lab there are several techniques that probe the micro-nanoscale of reservoir rocks. mainly related to pore sizes and structures (AFM, BET, NMR, etc)

    However, I have if you refer to field nanoscale is not always relevant. as the properties  change at different scales (cm, meters or km).

  • Wise Young added an answer in Poisons:
    How many plants do you know which have latex with traditional uses?

    In traditional methods we can see some plant latex in drugs.

    Wise Young · Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

    Many species of plants produce latex, as stated In the Wikipedia article on latex, below.  

    "Latex is produced by 20,000 species from over 40 families occurring in multiple lineages in both dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous types of plant. It is also found in conifers and pteridophytes. 14% of tropical plant species create latex, as opposed to 6% of temperate plant species.[5] Several members of the fungal kingdom also produce latex upon injury, such as Lactarius deliciosus and other milk-caps. This suggests it is the product of convergent evolution and has been selected for on many separate occasions.[1]"


    The three most common products made from latex are rubber, chewing gum, and opium.  Since all three have been used for millenia by many cultures, they legitimately fall under the definition of "traditional use".  

  • Kevin Larkin added an answer in Psychology:
    What is the difference between psychology of mathematics learning and psychology of mathematics education?

    I am writing a review about psychology of mathematics learning. But I found that there is only a international conference in this field called PME. PME is the short of International Group for Psychology of Mathematics Education. So can all these papers published in PME be regarded as research resources in psychology of mathematics learning? What is the difference between psychology of mathematics learning and psychology of mathematics education?

    Kevin Larkin · Griffith University

    Hi Mi,

    My understanding of the difference relates to who has the agency - in mathematics of education the power resides with the teacher - who may enact any number of educational strategies. However, whether these impact on mathematics learning by students is quite a different question. It has been my experience in schools that the focus is very much on education (planning documents, curriculums etc) and less on student learning. Apart from the conferences that Joao has suggested, you might also consider the Mathematics Education Research Journal (MERJ) published by Springer. Hope this helps, Kevin.

  • Ferenc Zádor added an answer in Opioids:
    Can any body suggest an easily usable, relatively cheap and accurate cAMP assay kit?

    I will use CHO cell lines overexpressed with a certain opioid receptors, and I want to characterize the agonist efficacy of certain opioid compounds with this assay. So far I was looking at Cisbio and Promega cAMP-Glo assay. For reading a ThermoScientific Multiskan FC is available with a wavelength range of 340 to 850nm.

    Thank you in advance!

    Ferenc Zádor · Hungarian Academy of Sciences

    No, not yet, but I will! Thank you

  • Dr. Akhilesh Kumar added an answer in Resiliency:
    What do you think of the topic of Fusing imagination into education to produce creative adults?

    My thesis will be looking at infusing imagination sessions into the school life students in grade 4 - 6. I believe that imagination is key and that sometimes most students lose this gift. I want to safe guarding a child’s imagination and making it more resilient in the face of schooling.

    Dr. Akhilesh Kumar · Vardhaman Mahaveer Open University

    Dear Dione Scott

    The topic  Fusing imagination into education to produce creative adults seems nice and innovative from the view point of research. Its a great idea and if it will be included in the curriculum at primary level I personally feel that it will be helpful in preserving creativity. But whether you are talking about guided imagination or random imagination. The problem with imagination is that it is usually unstructured. If it will be guided the natural response will go off. What is your idea of imagination session and how this imagination experience of children of 4-6 grade will be recorded and will be evaluated? The title is no doubt very innovative.

  • Monika Gostic added an answer in Gateway Cloning:
    What do you use as a positive control when performing Tol2 experiment?

    I've created a construct for Tol2 Gateway enhancer assay and am about to proceed with experiments. However, I do not have a positive control (nor negative). Can you suggest me what would be the best thing to use?

    Many thanks!

    Monika Gostic · University of St Andrews

    OK I'll try it! Thank you Melissa fol all your help!

  • What is the most appropriate method of categorical forecast validation?

    Thanks in advance for your replies.

    L. C. Carvalheiro · University of Aveiro

    Please consider this references:

    Jolliffe, I. T. & Stephenson, D. B. (2003). Forecast verification a practitioner’s guide in
    atmospheric science. J. Wiley, Chichester, West Sussex, Eng.; Hoboken, N.J.

    Storch, H. v. & Zwiers, F. W. (1999). Statistical analysis in climate research. Cambridge
    University Press, Cambridge; New York.

  • What is Regional Innovation System (two opposite approaches found)?

    Dear colleagues, please help me clarify the following issue:

    Regional innovation system (RIS) is

    a) a subsystem of a region ‘responsible’ for generation, diffusion and exploitation of knowledge (along with political subsystem, social subsystem, etc.)

    or b) a certain regional context, a certain state of regional institutions, which in total makes a region as a system to be regarded as innovative (i.e. innovation is being present in various subsystems of the region, such as social, ecological, etc.)?

    Any other explanation apart from the two mentioned above are welcome. Please cite your references.

    Andrew Walters · Cardiff Metropolitan University

    We do lots of work (from out Design Policy Group at PDR, Cardiff Metropolitan University) on how design can and should contribute to Regional Innovation Systems. From our perspective RIS is a) i.e. the stakeholders responsible for innovation; however, the aim of our interventions is closer to b) i.e. creating interactions between stakeholders so that the system is more likely to be regarded as innovative. I might be helpful for you to have a look at a report a colleague and I produced for an AHRC project on Regional Design Systems (link below) and to have a look at our EU project website on the same issue (link below).

    Hope that helps,


  • Vignesh Ramar added an answer in Energy Production:
    How do we produce energy from bird droppings?

    There is definitely energy production from all species waste. What kind of energy can we produce? Can it be used to sustain a building? How would we collect and process the waste? 

     I would really appreciate if someone shared they're expertise!

    Vignesh Ramar · Thiagarajar College of Engineering

    They can be used as a soil manure for agricultural land and you can get better yield from that...........

  • Pierre Guy Marnet added an answer in Milk:
    What are the conditions during transport of milk samples to be analysed by milkoscan technique?

    My work involves transportation of milk samples from the farm to the lab. I would know, how should I conserve my samples, knowing that, the lab is approximately 3 hours far from the farm, and sometimes, I'll have to conserve it during the night when samples are taken late after noon (analyse are done to determine fat and protein content in the milk)

    Pierre Guy Marnet · Agrocampus Ouest

    Hi  again Hossem, you can use also some milk conservative as bronopol that can help to keep in good form sample at room temperature during transportation (i.e. in a fridge or cold box it is always better!). It is a classical way to do here in some country. To evaluate degradation and impact on milk quality, You can make also a standard curve between fat/protein or lactose content during time and at different temperature. That can help to correct data.

    best regards

  • Lester D. Taylor added an answer in Central Banks:
    How can Greece repel austerity without abandoning the Euro and the Eurozone?

    Without forming a national central bank of its own, and thus reestablishing its own currency, how can Greece escape neo-liberal structural adjustment?

    Lester D. Taylor · The University of Arizona

    Unless Germany undertakes policies to reduce its saving rate and export surplus, it can't.  See Michael Pettis, The Great Rebalancing.

  • Kerem Karakuş added an answer in Polysorbates:
    Techniques to analyse chemical composition of nanoparticles composed of Polyamidoamine, Polysorbate 80 and Albumin?

    I would like to determine exact weight ratio of each polymer in the nanoparticles. Can UV-Vis spectroscopy be usefull for this purpose?


    Kerem Karakuş · Koc University

    If you could find a suitable solvent, you can use liquid chromatography since they all are polymers. Due to their retention time in the column you may get a useful result with a proper detector. The column material should be carefully chosen since you are working with a protein. 

  • Andrei Iakimov asked a question in Cadaver:
    What is the prevalence of such anatomical variant?

    We dissected such cadaver.

  • Bojidarka B. Ivanova added an answer in Diatoms:
    Has the overtone transition probability for diatomic molecules been derived?

    For anharmonic potentials, such as the Morse potential,
    higher order transitions with Dv = ±2, ±3, . . .
    are also observed. Such overtone-transitions are, however,
    much weaker than the fundamental transitions with
    Dv = ±1.

    Bojidarka B. Ivanova · Technische Universität Dortmund

    Mr./Miss/Mrs. Jabbari,

    They are really wery weak, but well distinguishable experimentally. Please pay attention on the attachment, where the region of the overtone and combination bands has been shown, using the spectrum of C6H6 as an example. 

    Furthermore, when the overtone coincides with a basic frequency and there have, the last one is splitted, and in fact you have observed two very well defined bands corresponding to this basic frequency (Fermi resonance). It is shown splitting of the nsNH2, due to coinciding of the basic frequency with the dNH2 mode and the same symmetry class. As far as the nsNH2 are very intensive bands, you may determine their common origin easy, like those ofnes of the overtones and the combination modes in C6H6 as well as any other molecule, using polarized vibrational spectroscopy.   

  • What is the alternative test of Chi-square, if there exist many cells have expected frequency less than 5. ?

    Chi-square is a statistical test commonly used to compare observed data with data we would expect to obtain according to a specific hypothesis. If we have two categorical variables both of them have 3 levels  and the (33.3%) have expected count less than 5, so the result of chi-squared test will not be accurate. What is the alternative test? 

    Zangin Zeebari · Karolinska Institutet

    Fisher's exact test. However, for tables a bit larger than 2x2, the computations might be exponentially time consuming (sometimes a few hours or even a few days). Therefore, the test is recommended with some modifications, like joining some categories together.

  • Jing Liu added an answer in pH:
    What PH control strategy can I use for cell cultures?

    Rencently I want to control pH with two different bases when pH is below set-point during lab scale cell culture. The problem is that when the first base (little fixed amount) has been automatically added completely by the controller, the second base  automatically starts to be added closely follow the first base. How can I connect the two base in series? I think that perhaps I can use a very long silicone tube and full fill it with the first base, then connect the silicone tube to base bottle, the second base is added to the base bottle. But in large scale cell culture the amount of the first base increases and certainly can not be added to the silicone tube completely. Anyone has some good idea?

    Jing Liu · Hec Pharm, Guangdong, China

    Dear Marcel Kuiper, I agree with you that for simplicity a single base solution is better, but for me there are some reasons why I need two bases: one of my base is my feed, because the low solubility of some components in water, they must be dissolved in NaOH solution, so I want first use my alkaline feed (fixed amount) to control pH to reduce the addition amount of base in case of that the osmotic pressure is too high, in addition, pH will not fluctuate too much. The two bases have the same concentration of NaOH.

  • Jamal Gardezi added an answer in Transformers:
    What is the difference between ridgelet transform and curvelet transform?

    Ridgelet is First Generation of Curvelet Transform

    Jamal Gardezi · Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS

    The ridgelet transform has limited directional features ,it only works for line singularities.The idea of ridgelets is to transform line singularities in to point singularities using projection slice theorem on radon transform. The finite ridgelet transform FRIT) works in two steps: Calculating the discrete radon transform and then applying a wavelet transform. The finite radon transform (FRAT) is computed in two steps: calculate 2D Fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the image and(applying 1D inverse Fourier Transform (iFFT) on radon projection.then applying  1D wavelet on it we get the finite ridgelet transform (FRIT) .

    while the curvelet has superior directional representations as compared to other multiresolution representations such as wavelets or curvelets. It uses the scaling law in its construction .That is why you can decompose an image at different scales and angles to represent more curvilinear objects and have better edge representations.The details about these you can find in Candes and Donho paper on curvelet scaling law. 

    There is also a good book spars

    Sparse Image and Signal Processing Wavelets, Curvelets, Morphological Diversity..

    you can download various implementations mentioned in this book ,in http://www.multiresolutions.com/sparsesignalrecipes/

  • Joydeep Pal added an answer in Phosphorus:
    How the N/P ratio control the phytoplankton in shrimp ponds?

    I want to konw the ratio of N/P,is the total nitrogen and total phosphorus or the dissolved inorganic carbon and dissolved inorganic phosphorus? In shrimp ponds, how the ratio of N/P control the phytoplankton ?Who can give me some literature about this? Thank you.

    Joydeep Pal · Indian Statistical Institute

    Please download the paper in the link provided.

    I assume it will definitely help you a lot in understanding the basic knowledge about your query in a broader way.

    Prof.Tang in right in pointing out the Redfield ratio it is a crucial factor for the phyto plankton and marine autotrophs. 

  • Alistair R Anderson added an answer in Ranking:
    How can i find prospective supervisors for PhD relevant to my research area?

    I need scholarship for PhD in top ranked universities and supervisors relevant to my research area.

    Alistair R Anderson · The Robert Gordon University

    See who is writing articles in your selected topic

  • Atta Ullah Khan added an answer in Refining:
    How to change the pattern marker style permanently in WinPlotr?

    I don't like the pattern style which appears after refinement. I want to change it permanently but whenever I make changes, these are only temporary. Could you please guide me how to change it permanently?

    Dear Missyul,

    Thanks a lot. It wasn't working by any way, even with your .set file. So I uninstalled it and installed again and now it works perfectly. But still, I learned by your suggestions how to change the setting. Thanks a lot for that.

  • Kevin Larkin added an answer in ICT in Education:
    What are the current studies / researches are going on in the field of " ICT in education / ICT in Teachers Education"?

    What are the current studies / researches are going on in the field of " ICT in education / ICT in Teachers Education"?does anybody have any sources or any link please ? I'm Teaching ' ICT in Education' course to the Masters in Education students and interested to conduct research on my pre and in service teachers, looking for the standard tools ( if there any ) to justify the participants perspective or attitude towards ICT in Education, any kind of help regarding this issue will be appreciated...thanks

    Kevin Larkin · Griffith University

    Hi Ziaul,

    I have taught ICT in Education courses at two universities. Can you please clarify what you mean by standard tools. Are you referring to Learning Management Systems or ePortolios etc?

    Cheers, Kevin

  • What are the herbs or medicinal plants used for the treatment of blood diseases?

    Herbs are medicinal plants. they are used for the treatment of different diseases in traditional system of medicine. So if anyone knows the medicinal plants used to purify blood inside the body, then provide the list and methods of use.

    Venkateshwarlu Bandi · National Institute of Indian Medical Heritage

    Pl go through the following publication on blood purifiers.