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  • Daniele Baiz added an answer in PCR:
    Can anyone recommend a reliable PCR protocol for the detection of Zika virus?

    I am looking for a tried and tested Zika virus-specific PCR protocol that works - conventional or real-time.

    Daniele Baiz · University of Plymouth

    You Welcome.


  • How do you construct a fragility curve from Pushover analysis?

    I would like to generate a fragility curve based on pushover analysis. If I can use only a single pushover analysis, is it possible to generate a fragility curve from that? How do you do it?

    Ram Krishna Mazumder · Chittagong University of Engineering & Technology

    I want to develop one for RC Frame buildings with masonry infill.

    Yang, Yes, off course.

  • Giovanni Abagnale added an answer in Ohmic Contacts:
    How can I achieve ohmic contacts to p-GaN core-multishell nanowires?

    I am trying to contact core-multishell GaN nanowires with a n-doped core and a p-doped multishell radial around the core via E-Beam lithopraphy. To characterize them I tried to realize ohmic contacts with Ni/Au to the p-doped GaN-shell. Because of the geometry of the wires I need to vapor deposit 30nm Nickel/300nm Gold to make sure, that the contact path doesn't ripp off the wire after the evaporation. Does anyone have experience with contacting p-GaN nanowires with Ni/Au and the formation of ohmic contacts? I tried several temperature steps in the RTA without any big impact on the results (up to 590°C). Thank you very much

    Giovanni Abagnale · Ricerca Sistema Energetico

    About the treatment pre processing we used HF:H20 20:1 for 20 sec. but also the HCl:H2O should be fine. Eventually you can try a combination of the two treatments trying to modify the etching time.About the Mg doping did you performed some thermal threatment before the metal deposition? This one is very important because you need to active the Mg dope (typically to 800 C). Take in account that you active only 1-1,5 % of Mg as dopant, all the rest stay in the material as unactived that is it is doesen't work from eletrical point view.  

  • Ravi Kant Upadhyay added an answer in 15N:
    Using the natural abundance method, is B value estimation necessary to estimate N fixation in annual legumes?

    B value represents the fractionation given by the nitrogenase and the 15N distribution in the plant. According to Höwberg (1997), the fractionation during N2-fixation is generally small. Besides, 15N distribution in the plant is not important when we harvest and analyze both above and below ground biomass. I think B value estimation is important when we harvest only above ground biomass, but if it is possible to harvest all biomass, can we assume B=0? What is your opinion about this?

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay · Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gorakhpur University

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) associated with trees and shrubs plays a major role in the functioning of many ecosystems, from natural woodlands to plantations and agroforestry systems. But it is  difficult to quantify the amounts of N2 fixed. Some of the problems involved in measuring N2 fixation are i.e. diversity in occurrence, and large plant-to-plant variation in growth and nodulation status of N2-fixing species, especially in natural ecosystems; (b) long-term, perennial nature of growth and the seasonal or yearto-year changes in patterns of N assimilation; and (c) logistical limitations of working with mature trees which are generally impossible to harvest in their entirety. The methodology which holds most promise to quantify the contributions of N2 fixation to trees is the so-called ‘15N natural abundance’ technique which exploits naturally occurring differences in 15N composition between plant-available N sources in the soil and that of atmospheric N2. Calculation of the proportion of the plant N derived from atmospheric. N2 (%Ndfa) using the natural abundance procedure requires that both the 15N natural abundance of the N derived from BNF and that derived from the soil by the target N2-fixing species be determined. 

  • Gordon Gates added an answer in Translation Studies:
    Can translators ignore theory in Translation Studies?

    Without knowing or being aware of translation theory one can still translate. But translators  who reject theory  out of hand and only emphasize learning by simply translating, are still following a translation theory of sorts. A theory, however, they are not aware of, and that they cannot, therefore, examine critically and tap for specific occasions or assignments.

    I am no expert on translating languages because I only speak English.  I subscribe to Gadamer's (1986) notion that all perception, and all translation, involves interpretation. Translators don't necessarily need to know theory, but as discussed in the thread on theory and practice, incorporating theory to enhance practice is wise. Driving a car is a technical act that can hardly be compared to interpreting language. How does interpretation best capture the original text? How much personal bias can be filtered out?  What makes a good translation? Linguist and associate professor of classics at St. Peter's University applies translation theory to her attempts to translate her autistic son's communication. She likens it to translating an ancient unknown language and describes the translation theory of Walter Benjamin. For him, apparently, it is important to approach translation not as reproduction but as creating harmony. Chew's interesting paper can be found in Davidson & Orsini (Eds.)  Worlds of Autism (2013). The horizon of sensitivity and context of the translator makes all the difference; why wouldn't theory, not as the rote learning of academic postulation but the appreciation of varied perceptual frameworks, increase the quality and maturity of translation?

  • Aled Jones added an answer in Nurses:
    Which countries or regions currently use laws or regulation to determine safe staffing levels of nurses to patients?

    Please provide examples of ratios used, skill-mix or other means that have been used to set and monitor nurse staffing levels. Thanks.

    Aled Jones · Cardiff University

    That's very kind Tiago, thanks.

    I've saved the document but I would be very grateful if you could provide me with a quick understanding of the main issues. Thanks again.

  • Gert Nolze added an answer in SAED:
    What are the limitations of TEM-SAED in terms of phase discrimination?

    As a non-TEM user, I just came accross the following question: Assuming I have a phase that can be either space group 161, i.e., trigonal (-3m) crystal symmetry, or SG 176, i.e., hexagonal (6/m) crystal symmetry, can I differentiate between them based on SAED reflexes? Are there particular orientations of the zone axes where I can, and others where I can't?

    An additional question: If you were to performe phase ID, what technique(s) would you use in case that high spatial resolution is required, i.e., bulk diffraction techniques cannot be used?  

    Gert Nolze · Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung

    Could you attach the EBSD pattern as well? I could do a dynamical simulation in order to check whether both phases are distinguishable. Of course I need the phases :-).

  • When work culture makes an employee silent, what would be the possible organisational impact?

    Work Culture and individual silence - how do they compliment each other?

    Felipe Guzman · Universidad de Navarra

    Hello Dileep,

    You are rising a very good question! As with many other hot topics, there is some debate going on about the role of organizational silence. However, most of the research that I have seen in this topic sees silence as more negative rather than positive organizational behavior. Thus, this may complement some of the previous answers here. 

    One of the first papers in the topic of organizational silence was a conceptual piece by Morrison and Milliken (2000). The authors developed a model outlining the characteristics of the organization that lead to a collective "culture" of withholding information.

    On 2003 the journal of management studies (JMS) published an special issue on employee silence. I think they publish about 7 papers and most of them where conceptual ones. I strongly suggest you to take a look at them.

    More recently, I've seen a little increase on empirical papers being published in the topic of employee silence. For example, Detert and Edmondson (2011) published a four studies paper on AMJ investigating when and why speaking up in the workplace is appropriate. This papers is absolutely fantastic! I think this paper may may help you because if we understand why people do or do not speak up we can also understand the causes of why people remain silent. On a similar line of research, Brinsfield (2013) investigated what are the motivational causes of employee silence. Lastly, on the topic of leadership and power, you may want to take a look at a recent paper by Tost and colleagues (2013) . They study how negative spillovers from leaders affect team performance. In particular, they show how a leader's dominant position affects the team's communication dynamics.

    I hope you find this comment helpful. If you need further help with the topics of organizational silence or voice, do not hesitate to ask again (or directly send my a PM).

    Good luck with your research!




    Brinsfield, C. T. (2013). Employee silence motives: investigation of dimensionality and development of measures. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(5), 671-697.

    Detert, J. R., & Edmondson, A. C. (2011). Implicit voice theories: Taken-for-granted rules of self-censorship at work. Academy of Management Journal, 54(3), 461-488.

    Milliken, F. J., Morrison, E. W., & Hewlin, P. F. (2003). An Exploratory Study of Employee Silence: Issues that Employees Don’t Communicate Upward and Why*. Journal of management studies, 40(6), 1453-1476.

    Tost, L., Gino, F., & Larrick, R. (2012). When power makes others speechless: The negative impact of leader power on team performance. Academy of Management Journal, amj-2011.

  • Patrice E Poubelle added an answer in Neutrophils:
    Has anyone tried to subtype CD16+ neutrophils based on size (FSc)?


    We are trying to characterize neutrophil sub-types from the blood and BAL fluid of human patients and noticed that some patients have unusual neutrophil populations (CD16+HLA-CD14-) that appear as two separate populations on FSc SSc. Any idea what these separate populations may be (we have ruled out doublets)?

    Patrice E Poubelle · Laval University

    Low density neutrophils have already been found in several pathologies; see Arthritis Rheum 1986, 29:1334 (Low density neutrophils in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and acute rheumatic fever)

  • Joaquín Sarrión asked a question in Courts:
    Can anyone coment the recent negative ECJ opinion on the EU accession agreement to the European Convention on Human Rights?

    OPINION 2/13 OF THE COURT (Full Court) 18 December 2014

    "Consequently, the Court (Full Court) gives the following Opinion:

    The agreement on the accession of the European Union to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms is not compatible with Article 6(2) TEU or with Protocol (No 8) relating to Article 6(2) of the Treaty on European Union on the accession of the Union to the European Convention on the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms."


  • Ren Jie added an answer in SDS-PAGE:
    The band line of SDS PAGE is not straight. What is the problem, and how can I solve it?

    I ran 15 % of polyacrilamide for resolving gel, and the the wavy line comes out after 1 hour of running.

    Ren Jie · Xi'an Technological University

    If you use the  Ammonium persulfate change a new one 

    good luck

  • Aniket Chakrabarty asked a question in Identification:
    Can any one help me in XRD?

    Can any one help me in analyzing albite, orthoclase and microcline for identification of their structural state?

  • Maryam Ghorbani added an answer in Gas:
    What is the relationship between bond strength and the concentration at which saturation occurs on the adsorbent ?

    At low concentration of gas, there is lower coverage of gas molecules on the surface, hence low surface reaction occurs. With increase in gas concentration the surface reaction increases which is due to large surface coverage. Beyond certain gas concentration there is no further increase in surface coverage, hence the response saturates above this concentration

    Maryam Ghorbani · Shahrood University of Technology

    Please compare

    Ethanol and methanol adsorption on tin oxide porous pellet   (as gas sensor element)

    Which soon becomes saturated؟

  • Jan Azarov added an answer in Price Lists:
    Could anybody advise what is the cost for the high fat (or high carb) diet for rabbits per day?

    I am planning the next step of my research from experimental type 1 DM to obesity/metabolical syndrome/type 2 DM. I try to estimate the potential expenses. There is a good deal of information on the web sites concerning the scientific aspects of research diets; suprisingly, I could not figure out the pricings. Does anybody have the experience or suggest some clear price list? Thank you very much in advance.

    Jan Azarov · Intstitute of Physiology, Komi SC, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences

    Thank you very much! Very useful.

  • Yuri Rylov added an answer in Riemannian Geometry:
    How can one determine the metric dimension of a space-time geometry, using only metric?

    Construction of the Riemannian geometry begins from giving manifold, its dimension and a coordinate system on it. On the other hand, the metric (or world function) describes geometry exhaustively. How can one determine the dimension, using only metric? How can one determine the dimension in the case of the Euclidean geometry, using only metric?

    Yuri Rylov · Russian Academy of Sciences

    Dear Eric, Your statement:

    My contention is that, subject to certain axioms including a continuity axiom, the dimensionality of a topological space can be defined prior to any relationship to Rn, and prior to the introduction of a metric

    is not founded. One neads no axioms. One sets a distance function on any set of points. It is sufficient for construction of the geometry, if one uses the method of deformation of Euclidean geometry. All, what one needs, is concluded in the Euclidean geometry.

  • Sainath Aher added an answer in Mining:
    From which elevation data other than GMTED2010, we will get the maximum and minimum elevation?

    If I need to find a landform degradation due to mining activities for a period of 10 years with the maximum and minimum elevation from dem work to interpret the results?

  • Jouko Niiranen added an answer in PMSM:
    What are the working principles of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor according to the angle obtained from rotor position sensor?

    How I can identify the working of PMSM according to the angle obtained from rotor position sensor? For example, suppose the angle is 30 degrees, how can I know which phases are conducted?


    Connect DC current supply plus to one of the phases and the minus to another. Increase the current until the rotor moves and then stops. Read the shaft angle. Repeat with other phase combinations. Now you know what angle corresponds to all possible states of the converter.

  • Louis Phipps added an answer in Camera Trapping:
    Software for processing and collating camera trapping photos?

    Hi everyone,

    We are about to start processing photos from a camera trapping study. There are many many thousands of photos and I cant help but think there must be some neat programs out there to speed up or automate the process. So far, 'Camera Base' (CamBase) appears to be the wildlife ecologists' tool of choice. Anyone out there have any other recommendations?

    UPDATE: The identification of species will be done by eye (human). What I am looking for is  suggestions of programs that would facilitate the process of going through many photos and that would generate a database based on our identification.

    Thanks a lot!


    Louis Phipps · Nottingham Trent University

    Hi Chris,

    CameraBase is definitely worth getting to grips with - it can be a lifesaver but there are a few glitches here and there!

    Richard, "Snoopy" sounds and looks much more powerful / useful - I would be very keen to receive any updates too.



  • A. R. Karbassi added an answer in Project Work:
    Need literature on phytoremediation of coal mined wasteland ?


    A. R. Karbassi · University of Tehran

    Dear Palit

    It seems that such studies have not been carried over there.


  • Monica Kufa asked a question in Forage Crops:
    Can somebody tell me the characteristics of Jancao a forage crop that has its origins in China ?

    can somebody tell me the characteristics of Jancao a forage crop that has its origins in China ?It is grass pasture that can be reproduced from cuttings and suckers

  • Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.

    Eugene F Kislyakov · Belarusian State University


    please, down vote me. I want to see, how it looks like in RG.

  • What is the main function of fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for peptides?

    See above

    Idris Mohamed Saeed · University of Malaya

    C=O at region 1600 - 1700 cm-

    -NH at region 3500 - 3300 cm-1 


  • What is the consequence of supplementing iodized salt for an endemic goiters population in the context of low iron and selenium status?

    School-aged children in a rural area where a new salt iodization program supplements iodine through USI; Studies in the area indicated children are also both iron  and selenium deficient. What is the biochemistry and the proper management issues and procedures towards prevention and control of such concurrent deficiencies.

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay · Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gorakhpur University

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for structural development and optimal functional activity of the thyroid gland and central nervous system. Iodine deficiency has been shown to be associated with endemic cretinism, endemic goitre and subcretinous mental subnormalities.Despite being iodine replete, goitre continues to be prevalent in mild to moderate degree of endemicity in most states of India. There might be other goitrogens or deficiency of other micronutrients responsible for the persistence of goitre despite adequate salt iodization.Selenium as a causative factor for goitre formation has been explained by diminished activity of selenocysteine enzymes in thyroid, notably glutathione peroxidase and deiodinase type-1 in selenium deficiency.Iron deficiency state is an important cause for persistence of goitre in the iodine replete population

  • Cindy Woods asked a question in Journal Articles:
    Can anyone advise how to report the results of multi-level random effects modelling using SPSS?

    This is a three level nested model. The fixed efffects were not significant but several of the random effect factors were significcant. Do I just need to report the coefficients and p values? Does anyone know of any journal articles using multi-level random effects modelling using generalised linear regression that could guide the reporting of results?

  • Does anyone have the experience of amplification of 2.5 kb plus gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis??

    I am trying to amplify a 3 kb gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is of high GC rich..

    study halophilic and alkaiphic bacteria

  • Grace Mugumbate added an answer in Docking Studies:
    Can someone help me with the interpretation of results obtained by docking study (SwissDock)?

    Could anyone help me in the interpretation of results obtained in SwissDock. What I am not sure is how FullFitness is related to Delta G and which of these two values is more related to the true affinity of ligand to target. Besides, I would like to know if I can compare affinities of the same compound toward different proteins.

    Thank you in advance.

    Grace Mugumbate · EMBL-EBI

    When comparing different binding for compounds to a particular protein it helps to standardise the scores by calculating ligand efficiency index (could be binding score/number of heavy atoms).

  • Sivasankar Palaniappan asked a question in Cell Wall:
    Can any one help me for chemotaxonomical characterization of my actinobacterial strains?

    Can any one help me to analyse my actinobacterial strains for chemotaxonomical characteristics (Cell wall Amino acids, Fatty acids and Polar lipids). Collaboration is expected. Will be very much grateful if any one is willing to collaborate.

    Thanks in advance