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  • Is there a solid counter-argument against Dingle's old objection to Relativity Theory?
    Herbert Dingle's argument is as follows (1950):

    According to the theory, if you have two exactly similar clocks, A and B, and one is moving with respect to the other, they must work at different rates,i.e. one works more slowly than the other. But the theory also requires that you cannot distinguish which clock is the 'moving' one; it is equally true to say that A rests while B moves and that B rests while A moves. The question therefore arises: how does one determine, 3 consistently with the theory, which clock works the more slowly? Unless the question is answerable, the theory unavoidably requires that A works more slowly than B and B more slowly than A - which it requires no super- intelligence to see is impossible. Now, clearly, a theory that requires an impossibility cannot be true, and scientific integrity requires, therefore, either that the question just posed shall be answered, or else that the theory shall be acknowledged to be false.
    Zhiliang Cao · Shanghai Jiao Tong University

    Professor Charles Francis,

    In fact about the first question answered in relativity is that motion is relative to a reference frame, defined by chosen reference matter.

    I agree with the above statement.

    The result is that I retain the principles of relativity, while still avoiding divergences.

    I understand why you want to do that. If we can clearly explain the meaning of reference frame, then, you still can retain your theory. I glad you accept "there is no inertia reference other than force bonded matter reference available for us."

    If your above statements were typo, you can still take it back and I can remove my comments.

  • How do you see Schools for the Future?

    What should be the criteria for assessing functional, aesthetic, social-physical, ecological, organizational and economical aspects to various parts of the school complex and activity?

    Amir Causevic · University of Sarajevo

    People are able to spontaneously feel positively or negatively affected, touched or accepted by objects, materials, structure etc. 

  • Salam Abbas asked a question in Behavioral:
    High simulated flow compared with obsereved one in ArcSWAT?

    Dear SWAT users,
    I hope this message finds all of you in good health,
    I've created a hydrological modelling by using ArcSWAT package for the purpose simulate a stream flow in flat and dry watershed. I have two river gauge stations. The first one entered in the model as ( added table inlet of watershed)and I've made a table to add the daily flow values to the inlet added point. the second river gauge station as (added table outlet) to make a comparison between observed and simulated river flow. The distance between two river gauge stations is about ( 15.5 km). The region is considered one of the water stressed area as the average daily discharge for ten years in the upstream gauge is about (95 m3/sec) and the average daily discharge for ten years in the down stream gauge station is about (20 m3/sec)

    Recently, I've start use SWAT-CUP for the purpose of making calibration and validation to the simulated model (and I'm new user). The first daily calibration (8 years calibration ) I've made in SWAT-cup without changing any parameter I got a high simulated flow (FLOW_out) compared with observed one with (R2=0.35) see the attached picture
    This is the summary statistics I got in my calibration

    ((Goal_type= R2 No_sims= 100 Best_sim_no= 56 Best_goal = 3.510975e-001

    Variable p-factor r-factor R2 NS bR2 MSE SSQR PBIAS KGE RSR VOL_FR --- Mean_sim(Mean_obs) StdDev_sim(StdDev_obs)
    FLOW_OUT_6 0.00 0.15 0.35 -25666.20 0.0062 8.1e+003 8.1e+003 -359.9 -93.98 160.21 0.22 92.59(20.13) 53.96(0.56)

    ---- Results for behavioral parameters ---
    Behavioral threshold= 0.300000
    Number of behavioral simulations = 100

    Variable p-factor r-factor R2 NS bR2 MSE SSQR PBIAS KGE RSR VOL_FR --- Mean_sim(Mean_obs) StdDev_sim(StdDev_obs)
    FLOW_OUT_6 0.00 0.15 0.35 -25666.20 0.0062 8.1e+003 8.1e+003 -359.9 -93.98 160.21 0.22 92.59(20.13) 53.96(0.56)))

    and this this the parameter information I did not change it at the start of calibration
    (( 3 : Number of Parameters (the program only reads the first 4 parameters or any number indicated here)
    100 : number of simulations

    r__CN2.mgt -0.2 0.2
    v__ALPHA_BF.gw 0.0 1.0
    v__GW_DELAY.gw 30.0 450.0
    v__GWQMN.gw 0.0 2.0

    v__GW_REVAP.gw 0.0 0.2
    v__ESCO.hru 0.8 1.0
    v__CH_N2.rte 0.0 0.3
    v__CH_K2.rte 5.0 130.0
    v__ALPHA_BNK.rte 0.0 1.0
    r__SOL_AWC(1).sol -0.2 0.4
    r__SOL_K(1).sol -0.8 0.8
    r__SOL_BD(1).sol -0.5 0.6
    v__SFTMP.bsn -5.0 5.0

    example of parameterization:

    r__Precipitation(){1990001-2000265}.pcp 0 0.4
    r__AUTO_EFF{[],11,AUTO_NSTRS=0.6}.mgt 0.2 0.6
    r__BLAI{22}.crop.dat 2 8


    r__CN2.mgt________1 -0.2 0.2
    r__SOL_AWC(1).sol________1 -0.2 0.1
    r__SOL_K(1).sol________1 -0.8 0.8
    r__SOL_BD(1).sol________1 -0.5 0.6
    a__GWQMN.gw________1 0.0 25.0
    a__GW_REVAP.gw________1 -0.1 0.0
    v__REVAPMN.gw________1 0.0 10.0
    a__ESCO.hru________1 0.0 0.2
    r__HRU_SLP.hru________1 0.0 0.2
    r__OV_N.hru________1 -0.2 0.0
    r__SLSUBBSN.hru________1 0.0 0.2

    r__CN2.mgt________3-6 -0.2 0.2
    r__SOL_AWC(1).sol________3-6 -0.2 0.1
    r__SOL_K(1).sol________3-6 -0.8 0.8
    r__SOL_BD(1).sol________3-6 -0.5 0.6
    a__GWQMN.gw________3-6 0.0 25.0
    a__GW_REVAP.gw________3-6 -0.1 0.0
    v__REVAPMN.gw________3-6 0.0 10.0
    a__ESCO.hru________3-6 0.0 0.2
    r__HRU_SLP.hru________3-6 0.0 0.2
    r__OV_N.hru________3-6 -0.2 0.0
    r__SLSUBBSN.hru________3-6 0.0 0.2

    r__CN2.mgt________7,12,15,16-20 -0.2 0.2
    r__SOL_AWC(1).sol________7,12,15,16-20 -0.2 0.1
    r__SOL_K(1).sol________7,12,15,16-20 -0.8 0.8
    r__SOL_BD(1).sol________7,12,15,16-20 -0.5 0.6
    a__GWQMN.gw________7,12,15,16-20 0.0 25.0
    a__GW_REVAP.gw________7,12,15,16-20 -0.1 0.0
    v__REVAPMN.gw________7,12,15,16-20 0.0 10.0
    a__ESCO.hru________7,12,15,16-20 0.0 0.2
    r__HRU_SLP.hru________7,12,15,16-20 0.0 0.2
    r__OV_N.hru________7,12,15,16-20 -0.2 0.0
    r__SLSUBBSN.hru________7,12,15,16-20 0.0 0.2

    v__ALPHA_BF.gw 0.0 1.0
    v__GW_DELAY.gw 30.0 450.0
    v__CH_N2.rte 0.0 0.3
    v__CH_K2.rte 5.0 130.0
    v__ALPHA_BNK.rte 0.0 1.0
    v__SFTMP.bsn -5.0 5.0))

    Can any one help me to improve the output of this model ? or give me any suggestions?
    Many thanks in advance ,
    Salam :)

  • Kåre Olaussen added an answer in Schrodinger:
    What is the nessecary condition for solutions of equation to form equipotential surfaces in space?

    For example for Laplacian in Schrodinger equation the solution is of the form psi=f(r)F(cos^2theta) so we may obtain the radius as a function of theta to be positive. What if it becomes negative? We all know of the lobes being created.

    Kåre Olaussen · Norwegian University of Science and Technology

    Spiros> cut the plane

    You mean that f.i. the line of points satisfying Re f(z) = c, for some real number c, is cutting the plane? Isn't that the equivalent of a surface in two dimensions?

    Or, are you searching for closed surfaces? Earnshaws theorem tells us that a solution of the Laplace equation cannot have maxima or minima, that must have some implications.

  • Arnold Trehub added an answer in Cognitive Systems:
    Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.

    Arnold Trehub · University of Massachusetts Amherst

    Toward a Standard/Working Model of Consciousness


    In science, conflicting views are settled by appealing to empirical evidence. I have presented many examples of published experiments that lend support to the retinoid model of consciousness. What is the counter evidence?

  • Ewen A Griffiths asked a question in Survey:
    Do you use prophylactic antibiotics in laparoscopic cholecystectomy?

    The West Midlands Surgical Research Collaborative (http://wmresearch.org.uk/)is in early stages of planning a randomised control trial of perioperative antibiotics based on data from the CholeS Study. To determine if this is feasible, we would appreciate if you had 2 minutes to fill out a survey which can be found at – Antibiotic Survey (this link may not work from hospital computers).


    We would be very grateful for your comments.

    All the best

    Ewen Griffiths on behalf of the WMRC

  • How can I calculate transmissibility ratio TR (closed form) in nonlinear vibration?

    The maximum value of force transmissibility to machine foundation in the nonlinear resonance frequency.

  • Matija Milanic added an answer in Comsol:
    How can I make a model of Near Infrared optics absorption in COMSOL?

    I'm trying to make a model to simulate a near infrared beam going through human tissue in COMSOL to find the Power of the beam after 10cm of tissue. Can anyone give me a help on this?

    Matija Milanic · Jožef Stefan Institute

    A similar question has been recently asked by another RG member. You should take a look at the answers there:


  • How should I begin hydrogen diffusion modeling through Ni-alloys using Finite element method-ABACUS?
    As a beginner, I'm looking to model hydrogen diffusion through bulk lattice of alloy (INCONEL718). What are the preliminary steps that I might follow?
    Viktor Kharin · Universidad de Salamanca

    ABAQUS has a capability of  modelling hydrogen diffusion following the so called non-uniform diffusivity and solubility model (see "Mass diffusion analysis" chapter in the Manual). Apparently, with user programming, it can be extended (relatively easily?) for the Oriani-type model (i.e., the one basing on Oriani's hypothesis of local equilibrium of a diffuser between ordinary lattice sites and traps). McNabb-Foster type models (Krom-Bakker one among them may be a better option depending on your case), which do not rely on this local equilibrium hypothesis, have not been incorporated in commercial codes. They are computationally much more demanding (more unknown fields to resolve), and may be not advantageous at all depending on the diffusion distance-time scale circumstances of your case (that is, if the local equilibrium holds in your case, which does happen at longer diffusion times-distances).

  • Could you recommend an easy GIS modeling tutorial for begginers? (ARCGIS)

    GIS is being used almost in every field. For new user it is necessary to have good knowledge not only for understanding the software but also for its implementation. Kindly guide me in this regards. Imran A Khan

    Matej Vojtek · University of Constantinus the Philosopher in Nitra - Univerzita Konstant’na Filozofa v Nitre

    Dear Imran,

    I would take a look at ESRI´s training websites with free courses: http://www.esri.com/training/main 

    and at ArcGIS resources center: http://resources.arcgis.com/en/help/ 

    Also try to search youtube.com for videos with ArcGIS lessons.



  • Mehdi Afsar asked a question in Community Networks:
    Hi, please suggest some up-to-date and useful topic in the area of wireless communications and networking?

    My current research area is WSNs; however, I want to continue my education in PhD level and intend to move to other types of wireless networks. Based on my research, I found SDRs (Software-Defined Radios) and Wireless Industrial Networking are hot.

    Thank you

  • Purvi Kikani added an answer in Plasma Treatment:
    Why extended plasma treatment time gives rise to water contact angle on polymer surface ?

    I am functionalizing polymer surface with oxidative plasma. Initially water contact angle reduces with plasma treatment time. After that it increases partially and again reduces a bit. Want to understand this phenomena.

    FTIR results confirms the presence of functional groups in all cases and in fact, concentration of which increases with plasma treatment time.

    Please help me to understand this.

    Purvi Kikani · Institute for Plasma Research

    Thank you all ... I will carry out AFM, SEM  and Surface Energy analysis to understand it more deeply.

  • Can researchers use the perceived behavioral control as the mediator variable between attitude and intention?

    Can we use and focus the perceived behavioral control as the mediator variable between attitude and intention?

    Based on the theory of planned behavior, perceived behavioral control and attitude are used as the predictors of intention. Even though, some scholars pointed that, perceived behavioral control is considered as the unique and better predictor of Behavior directly without having intention. These issues make me raise the question in my research mind like

    Can we use and focus the perceived behavioral control as the powerful mediator variable between attitude and intention?

    Attitude, it is the evaluation towards subject or object or issues (may be favorable or unfavorable). Beyond attitude, perceived behavioral control is taken the important place in the creation of intention, which refers to the extent to which individuals believe that their actions make a different in solving problem.  These facts make me think that, perceived behavioral control might give the better pathway to create the intention from the attitude (Attitude – Perceived behavioral control- intention).   Or, other way, PBC might bridge the gap between attitude and intention successfully.

    Please guide me perfectly with recent empirical findings!

    Sivapalan Achchuthan · Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka

    Is it possible to mediate the relationship between attitude and intention via Perceived behavioral control based on TPB?


    Can we use the Perceived consumer effectiveness as the mediator between environmental attitude and green purchase intention ?

  • Can someone help me to vectorize this matlab code?

    help me in vectorizing this matlab code

    function X = IDWT2DCT(x,Dct_matrix,IW_matrix)
    block_size = 8;
    X = zeros(block_size,block_size,K);
    temp = zeros(block_size,block_size);

    y = (Dct_matrix'*x);

    for k = 1:K
    temp = reshape(y(k,:),block_size,block_size);
    X(:,:,k) = IW_matrix*temp*IW_matrix';

    Markus Durst · Technische Universität München

    Dear Mr. Lindner,

    i am afraid you are wrong about the dimensions, in my humble opinion it is likely to be

    x = rand(10,64);
    Dct_matrix = rand(10,10);
    IW_matrix = rand(8,8);

    since otherwise the loop over K will only consider the first few rows of y. Pulling out the reshape will not significantly increase performance.

    Regarding the initial question, you can perform a slice-by-slice matrix multiplication of 3D matrices using pagefun on the GPU or you can use the mtimesx library (http://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/25977-mtimesx-fast-matrix-multiply-with-multi-dimensional-support)

    Since your question is poorly formulated i will not further elaborate on examples how to proceed with these options.


    Markus Durst

  • Navaneet Chaturvedi asked a question in Gromacs:
    How can I refine an unusual bond in the protein structure?

    I have attached flexible linker to a protein but found some unusual bonds (at attachment point 3-4 extra bonds found in attaching amino acid residue) at the point of attachment, I used coot for attachment. Gromacs can't read it properly and not being proceed further. Energy minimization wrote energy after 14 steps that I know insignificant (Potential energy is also positive). I might be sure that is because of improper attachment of linker and protein.

    Could anyone please help me to refine the structure. or another things should I care about.

  • Synthesis magnetic NaY zeolit??

    I am looking for a method to synthesis magnetic NaY zeolit and have question about it . is there anybody to help me about it ?

  • Can someone help with normalizing the output of Naive Gaussian Classifier?

    I'm not a machine learning expert, but I'm working on a visual recognition problem and I'm using a Naive Gaussian classifier. I initially train the classifier with positive and negative samples and then test new data using the trained classifier. I get meaningless +ve and -ve values from the classifier.

    How can I get meaningful normalized output (confidence) from this classifier ?

    One more thing, is there another strong classifier to use knowing that my data is Gaussian.

    Abdelrahman Mohammed Eldesokey · Nile University

    @ Shehroz S Khan : I using NB classifier in Visual Recognition problem. Hence, I need a measure of how correct the result is, because I update the classifier with its prediction. So, I need to specify a threshold value for the output of the classifier, if the output falls beneath this threshold, then the classifier is not updated. And I watched the likelihoods as you suggested, but it doesn't also give a measure for the correctness of the solution. So what do you suggest ?
    And thank you very much. I really appreciate your time and help.

  • Andy D. M. Dobson added an answer in Ixodes:
    Can anyone provide data on the parasitoid wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri in the UK?

    I'm interested in general information about this species, which is a parasitoid of Ixodes spp. ticks; I can't even find firm evidence to suggest that it is present in the UK, beyond a specimen or two listed in the Natural History Museum. Does anyone know of it in the UK?

    Andy D. M. Dobson · University of Stirling

    Ah - yes, I'll try that - thank you! 

  • Is anyone doing research on Educational Integration of students with Autism Spectrum Disorders that focuses on their abilities to hyper-systemize?

    I have been doing some lit reviews of Hyper-systemizing and Hyper-sensor conditions in ASD students looking for educational systems that "exploit" and include ASD students exceptional skill sets.  Also, potential school systems that might be employing unique programs for their ASD populations around Hyper-systemizing - and exceptional skills.

    Rama Cousik · Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne

    I agree 'savant' was an old word choice. And as I understand, the question was about those persons with autism who do have average or above average intelligence and how we could use their strengths or high interest in one or two areas to help them learn other subjects. In my experience, every child has a gift, not matter how 'severe' the diagnosis is. This is not to deny the social and academic challenges that children labeled as such encounter, but as teachers, we must 'presume competence' and look earnestly for the gift. 

  • Hana Batmani asked a question in Literature:
    Can anyone recommend literature on the synthesis of (+)-streptazolin?????????????

    What is the best method for the preparation of (+)-streptazolin??????

  • Farhan Baloch asked a question in PCR:
    Hello everyone, I want to know what is the best tissue presevative for PCR and maximum for how much time it can be preserved for better results?


  • Helena Pestana added an answer in Likert Scale:
    Analysis lukert scale using Anova?


    I am trying to analyses my questionnaire. It includes three components; students' experience which have 15 items, students' feeling which have 10 items, students' background which have 10 items. All these items measuring by 4 likert scale. My independent variables are; gender and students status.

    I want to run Anova with my data set but I couldn’t figure out how to treat lukert scale in SPSS, and do I have to consider all these items as dependent variables?

    Thank you


    Helena Pestana · ISCTE-Instituto Universitário de Lisboa

    Dear Rana, Tameem and Senthivel, 

    In my opinion:

    1) In statistics we should never make "subjective judgments". It is the theory that should explain the correlation between variables. We must never analyse  the correlation because our output shows that  in our example it was significative, leading always to the "acceptance of the null hypothesis that there is correlation."

    2) According to Rana you would have to do (10x15x10 / 2 -35) correlations and would apply R pearson to see if they were significant because she"feels they are significant." !

    3) In each group of items there are advantages in representing them in a smaller number of variables, using for this the factor analysis (must have previously explored the data to know if you have logical interpretation of averages, one of the statistics used in the factor analysis) . You should always complement FA with analysis of iternal consistency.


  • Mushtaq Ahmad added an answer in Corrosion:
    What is the relationship between the Zero-Potential Energy and corrosion inhibition ?

    the latest researches in corrosion inhibition had included the ZPE, I would like to understand what is the significance of that parameter and how it could be calculate.

    Mushtaq Ahmad · Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission

    potential of zero charge has relation with corrosion inhibition.

    Please read the article attached; CORROSION PROTECTION OF METALS

  • Does anyone happen to know why frequency domain echo grating AI-s are not used for gravitational acceleration measurements?

    There are AIs using time-domain echo grating for g measurements, so I was wondering if anyone happens to know if there is any information on frequency domain echo grating AIs on g measurements. Is it even possible?Any published articles would be helpful.

    Heleri Ramler · University of Aberdeen

    Thank you so much!

  • Wilson Fusco added an answer in Stocks:
    Re- and Transit-Migration


    Does anyone know a good source of global re- and transit-migration rates per nation? A list of >150 nations would be prefered.

    Or a suitable method to calculation such a variable by using population data like: 
    - Migration-rates
    - Migrant stock
    - Annual rate of change of the migrant stock
    - etc.?

    Thank you, David Becker.

    Wilson Fusco · Fundação Joaquim Nabuco

    The CEPAL site provides accurate and up to date migration data, but restricted to Latin American and Caribbean countries. You will be able to find it here: http://www.cepal.org/en

    On the other hand, it is possible to find migration data in a broader, but less accurate, list of countries here: http://www.migrationpolicy.org/topics/international-data.

    I hope this can be useful.

  • Andreas Paul added an answer in Paleoclimate:
    What can make terrigenous input increase abruptly in short time? Plentiful rainfall or other climatic changes?

    The δ13Corg and δ13C values of n-alkanes as well as δD of n-alkanes are clearly in positive excursion at the same time, so we interpret that it may be related to the abrupt increasing terrigenous input  of the paleo-lake, which may be a result of regional paleoclimate change, but we don't know what the exactly reasons.

  • How can I verify the calibration of a digital balance using calibrated weights?

    Dear Chemists and Physicists, I need a detailed procedure/ SOP for verification/ performance monitoring of a calibrated digital balance using reference calibrated weights to meet the requirements of ISO 17025.

    Ashraf E. Sayour · Animal Health Research Institute

    Thank you Sir for this valuable addition.


  • Can any body suggest how to solubilize bacterial protein extracted by acetone precipitation?

    I am working to extract the whole protein from staphylococcus aureus. the steps include treating cell pallets with lysostaphine followed by  water bath sonication. The collected supernatant is treated with acetone (4 times volume of supernatant)

    The protein precipitated collected by centrifuge. So now the precipitate has solubility problem. I can not use any salts or SDS or urea for making it soluble as the sample to be sent for in solution digestion of proteins for mass spectrometry. 

    please suggest what would be better to sort out this problem?

    Thanking you

    Kamil Krawczyński · Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences

    Hi James,I found similar problem with my proteins. I can't use anything that is not working with MS so the problem is how to prepare the sample. I was adviced to use amonnium bicarbonate as a solution in wich protein should be resuspended. But still such small volumes as 50-60 ul make it difficult to handle. Since proteins do not want to "dissapear" in the solution they can adhere to walls of eppendorf and is not easy to take them off from there into such small volumes. I heared that few thawing and freezing steps could be done (but of course keep in mind that protein could be destroyed as weell, so 2-3 times). For me, it did not work, there are still visible "powder" (proteins). Then i was adviced to add deoxycholate into such sample, which increases solubility. But i do not know how much, what molarity etc. And do not want to make a guess to not get lost my samples. So what are your other attempts?

  • Anthony G Gordon added an answer in Schizophrenia:
    Why do many delusions and hallucinations have paranoid or persecutory content?
    If we consider all the different types of delusions and hallucinations that are theoretically possible, why do most of these types not manifest, while paranoid ideation presents so frequently? For example, it is possible to believe that ants are actually very small reptiles. It is much more likely, though not common, that a patient might believe that ants are an alien race preparing to conquer the world. How can we explain the danger that psychotic patients attribute to the world?
    Anthony G Gordon · Independent Researcher

    "I have evidence of knowing that some persons who do not suffer from tinnitus but have also had auditory hallucinations exist."

    Thank you Margaret for this highly pertinent question.  You cannot imagine how difficult it has been for me to find data on this point.   Modern sources are useless, and even if patients were specifically asked, it is doubtful if the findings would be reported.  Checking historical sources has not helped resolve the issue, since there are enough cases reporting both tinnitus and verbal hallucinations to keep the matter alive.  So does anyone know of a dataset showing no link between tinnitus and hallucinations?  Obviously, most persons with tinnitus are soon able to gain insight into it and not go on to develop complex hallucinations or paranoia.

  • Hossein Nourmohammadi asked a question in Navigation:
    Which kind of inertial sensors' biases are more important in the navigation accuracy? run-to-run bias or instability bias?

    inertial navigation system