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  • Mahanthi Kishore asked a question in Plant Disease:
    What is the free and best plant disease quantification software?

    Please suggest one best free plant disease quantification software..

  • Carl Robinson added an answer in Market Development:
    What are the major determinants of the level of stock market development?

    For example, what are the major factors that influence whether or not a stock market achieves weak form/ semi-strong form market efficiency?

    Carl Robinson · University of the West Indies at Cave Hill, Barbados

    How important might the degree of ownership concentration be?  I can see that having a major impact on trading volumes for example.

  • Thorsten Cramer added an answer in FFPE:
    Anyone familiar with VHL immunohistochemistry on murine sections?

    We are looking for an antibody that can detect murine VHL (von Hippel-Lindau) via immunohistochemistry, preferably on FFPE sections.

    Many thanks and best wishes!


    Thorsten Cramer · University Hospital RWTH Aachen

    will do, thank you very much. best wishes


  • Stam Nicolis added an answer in Numerical Methods:
    Any numerical methods for solving a hyperbolic nonlinear PDE?

    What type of numercial methods are there to solve PDE of the sorts of:
    $$f(x,t,u(x,t))u_{xx} - g(x,t,u(x,t))u_{tt} = F(x,t,u(x,t))$$
    $$u(x,0)=G_1(x) , \frac{\partial u(x,0)}{\partial t}=H_1(x) ,u(0,t)=G_2(t) , \frac{\partial u(0,t)}{\partial x} = H_2(t)$$
    Where $f,g,F,u \in C^\infty(x,t) , \ G_i,H_i \in C^\infty$.
    Specifically I had in mind the PDE:
    $$u_{xx}u^3-\sin(xt)u_{tt} = u$$

    But the general PDE is as above; I looked at Polyanin's second edition Handbook of Nonlinear PDE table of conetents, and didn't find something similar, obviously I look at numerical solutions since an analytical solution doesn't seem plausible, but if there is I wouldn't mind.

    Stam Nicolis · University of Tours

    The solution of any differential equation involves specifying boundary and initial conditions, too-else the problem isn't well defined at all. The most efficient methods for solving such problems these days are pseudo-spectral methods, where the functions are expanded in a basis that satisfies the boundary conditions and fast transforms are used, when evaluating the terms of the system of ordinary differential equations thus obtained. The qualification pseudo- means that the basis need not be the eigenfunctions of the differential operator that contains the spatial derivatives.

  • Niyaz Safarov added an answer in Medicinal Chemistry:
    What is the best free software for QSAR and molecular docking?
    Apart from ArgusLab
    Niyaz Safarov · Baku State University

    In my experience it works with Ubuntu 12 -14 LTS

  • Mahanthi Kishore asked a question in Free Software:
    Can any one recommend best free software alternative to sigma scan Pro for image analysis of disease symptoms on leaves?

    We would like to analyze some of disease symptoms through image analysis, therefore, please recommend any free software for this pupose

  • Valeria Corinaldesi added an answer in Epoxy Resins:
    Should the mass of the hardener be included in the mass of epoxy resins when calculating the polymer-to-cement ratio of epoxy-modified mortar?

    When calculating the mass of polymers to obtain the p/c ratio of epoxy-modified mortar, what components should I include? Should I include the mass of the hardeners? And will the hardening reaction produce any water which will decrease the w/c ratio?

    Valeria Corinaldesi · Università Politecnica delle Marche

    Jiawei Chen, I think that your interpretation of the sentence of taken from the Handbook of Polymer-Modified Concrete and Mortars is right

  • Zait Ullah asked a question in Decision Making:
    Which variables can be used to analyse financial statements for decision making?

    Hi there,

    Some one can help me for which variables can be used to analyse financial statements for decision making.

  • Sidharta Chatterjee added an answer in Transdisciplinarity:
    Is the tension for unity of knowledge an educated attitude, leading a subject to insert its own discipline in the intentional context of all others?

    Knowledge appears as a system in which understanding and disciplines are subsystems in mutual integration. Fundamental principle of systems science is that systems and subsystems can never isolate their problems, but have to integrate them, because they cooperate with each other to the functioning of the global system and other subsystems. This complexity requires programs and guidelines, drawn together by their mutual cooperation. This processing operation is based on a more profound and decisive reflective level. Hence the importance of reflective interdisciplinarity, or search for the structural relationships of each discipline, which aims at developing a true system of science and of the relationship between theoretical consistency and versatility of the various models. Equally important is the judgment on the fragmentation of the disciplines, which sub-divide their own experience and knowledge. Because knowledge and scientific understanding are intended to overcome the critical immediate evidence, they must update their methods and adapt them to the new requirements.

    Now, if the '' human being'(in the ethical, existential, social and cultural dimensions) has always been the specific subject of the humanities, for this has always been considered "training" for excellence, I think we should ask whether this can still be considered acceptable. Lost any philosophical – metaphysical foundation justifying the unity and truth of knowledge, the multiple understanding on humans have developed in a process of proliferation similar to that of the natural sciences: law, economics, political science, sociology, cultural anthropology, demography, psychology.

    This proliferation has created, however, the implicit tension of human knowledge towards a certain unity with different forms. One of the first is the modern rediscovery of interdisciplinarity, in its "weak" form of simple multidisciplinary, as "horizontal" approach that promotes better understanding or representation of an object whose full study escapes the grip of a single disciplinary method. Or else in its "strong" meta-disciplinarity or even transdisciplinarity, as an investigation of the "vertical" dependence which methods and objects of a given discipline can have when read and understood in the light of the more general and fundamental knowledge, from which can also implicitly assume, in a manner more or less aware, principles, statements or models.

    The factors of this rediscovery have been manifold. The experimental progress, for example, has allowed the access to more fundamental entities - think of the quantum mechanics and generally  to the physics of elementary particles, but also to the deeper understanding of chemical transformations and biological processes of living organisms - and then recognizing them as an object of disciplines other than that of departure. The need to use tools such as logic, statistics or systems theory, within disciplines traditionally handled by heuristic principles, has encouraged the emergence of new disciplines and the dialogue between the existing ones, often surpassing the fence between science and the humanities. Other times it was the complexity of the object under examination (physical systems that do not obey simple and predictable laws, living organisms, man and his health, social dynamics, economic, communication, etc.) to suggest a coordinated multidisciplinary approach.

    The growth of scientific knowledge does not solve but greatly increases the problems, the uncertainties and contradictions of knowledge. The emergence of complexity has highlighted the need to integrate or change the reductionist models, of simplification of modern scientific thought.

    In fact, the various knowledge multiply the related issues and opportunities to deepen the common roots. These facts have decisive value for an interdisciplinary background reflection: overcome the reductionism of the current conceptual systems; recognizing the plurality and the complex interrelationships; correctly describe the ways in which conceptual schemes and complex mutual interrelations influence our cognitive practices; identify which of these ways form the substrate base.

    Science, reflecting on its procedures and results, do not abdicate its ambition of total knowledge, but project it beyond the old classifications of knowledge. Keep in mind that for the latest epistemology, this assumption is incorrect, as perpetuate the basic mistake of the old scientism, which caused major misunderstandings and obstacles for scientific activity. Abdicate complaints eloquently the old scientist prejudice, negative for others knowledge. Science abandon pure observability, to try systems or operational structures, regulatory, probabilistic, theoretical that bring together different disciplines, through transformations regulated or defined.

    Recall that science and philosophy competed for the roles of the various disciplines, to outline the map or encyclopedia of knowledge. Under such conditions, the unity of knowledge proved unworkable and sciences, more interested in the practical success, ceased to care. Based on these successes, however, they claimed a priority over other forms of knowledge, when their increasing fragmentation in various specializations greatly complicated the relationship between knowledge and culture. Philosophy, in turn, found itself increasingly unable to oversee the unity of knowledge, leaving to be overwhelmed by the demands of the natural sciences, formal and human-social. In this way, in modern times, man, society and culture fell into the hand of scientific interpretations partial and provisional, which ranged between chance and necessity. Partial and provisional knowledge of science in vogue for many philosophies became the "absolute". When the one and the others fell into crisis, postmodern philosophy and weak thought, skeptics or agnostics to reason and truth, proved unable to define their identity in the face of sciences, going to a progressive dissolution. Weak and postmodern thought, then, are not able to understand the positive value of mindfulness, developed progressively by the epistemology of the twentieth century, of partiality, temporariness and falsifiability of scientific uncertainty and identity and role of science.

    Sidharta Chatterjee · Andhra University

    Dear Dr. Jakubowski,

    Thank for your critical analysis and appreciation.  

    I thought I should proceed with an example of our human brain. But first, I would like to draw an analogy of a simple system- since, the notion of complexity is in the mind, not in the system. The system, however complex it might have been, it will appear to work wonderfully simple if well understood. A general notion to avoid; complexity and chaos are not the same principles. Chaos deals with deterministic entities or systems whose paths change exponentially and unpredictably over time. Complex systems may give rise to chaos, and the origin of chaos theory is itself much debated that is still a rich area of investigation. Complexity arises from system-environment interaction: chaos arises from (dis)ordered dynamics of the system. However, disorder and randomness may arise from complexity.

    Human behavior and the future of human behavior is much like an unpredictable system. We cannot exactly foretell with accuracy about the future of humanity or human behavior, but we can genuinely foretell with near accuracy the behavior of an ant, bird or a cockroach. I am not saying human behavior and nature is a chaotic system, but it is unpredictable. Chaos is a component of this (in)deterministic system which is unpredictable. The cause of unpredictability in behavioral repertoire is due to the complex organization of the human brain, and genetic mutations. Had it been simple, we would have never progressed beyond the intelligence of an ant. Leaving ant aside, I come to focus on the real content of this discussion.

    Our brain is the result of grand unification of all the simple organic and inorganic molecules found in nature. It is the integration of all the active processes that is essential for emergence and continuation of the state of consciousness. Simple parts have united to generate organic complexity whose functioning is so complex that even using the most advanced tools and technologies of current day, it has not yet been possible to comprehend completely the whole functioning of the brain. I would accept your theory in relation to the complexity of the human brain that Paradigm boundaries exist. Or, there is still gap in knowledge about the required information necessary to understand the complete functioning of the brain.

    However, I would beg to differ on opinions regarding two, or at least on one point which seems inconsistent with the current fundamental thoughts of physics: the theory of chaos, which you have nullified by stating “There is no chaos in Nature, as well as there is nothing which cannot be understood with our models of Nature”. Well, it might have been so, if indeed there would have been no chaos in Nature. I did not invent the chaos theory, but have learnt about it from reading books and articles, from discussion boards, and from the general media. Had there been no chaos in nature, randomness would have ceased to exist, even though randomness is a pattern; a disordered pattern I would say.

    Again, I am using the word “disordered”. Do you really agree that everything is in order in nature? If that is so, I assume someone would walk straight into a casino, learn few patterns, and come out winning a jackpot every time he visits one. To avoid becoming bankrupt, casinos have programmed their slot machines using algorithms that perhaps have got something to do with randomness. Note that in an ordered system, there would be no randomness, so that everything can be determined. But not all systems are ordered. This is the reason we should refrain from incorporating consciousness in grand unification theory, since the debate between the existence and non-existence of free will, or triumph of determinism- would likely to evade all minds of intelligence.

    From your valued inputs, I would like to refine my ideas about the working of Mother Nature, but what it seems apparent is that, several propositions of yours is confounding. Foremost, I accept your explanation of paradigm boundaries- but it is also factual that this boundary is creating a “gap”. This boundary exists: it is non-continuity. Boundaries exist because it is not possible to have all the knowledge of nature and natural laws on one hand while we failing to explain simple working of complex systems such as the human brain on the other. Gap in knowledge about the understanding of complex systems exists. In fact, systems do exist which are too complex to realize using present day models, which I agree with you, but there are limits of optimizing models for refinement to make them fit the data. The data about several natural phenomena are incomplete: as you have mentioned about the weather. Would you agree that predicting climate and modelling weather is a simple procedure? Why would it require complex algorithms? And yet they fail. Why?

    Weather for instance, is an uncertain phenomenon. Forecasters of weather often fail since information about uncertainty is incomplete and the process too complex. When information will be available, it might reduce the Paradigm boundaries but may not entirely obliterate it. Or, even it might obliterate the boundary, something more complex problem would likely emerge, which would again create a “knowledge gap”. The goal of learning, observation, and experimentation is to reduce this gap and fill it with necessary information in order to understand the system completely. This is unification of knowledge. Knowledge gap exists between systems of understanding, between systems within systems (intersystem knowledge gap) between nations, boundaries, regions, people and practice, etc., since not all places have identical resources.

    As far as I have learnt, all things do not work in the same way. They vary because the underlying constructs of the systems vary. Systems become complex when their organization starts to increase in density and measure.

    Furthermore, I am not competent enough in physics to lend my ideas on grand unification theory, but I would definitely provide a simple analogy: for instance, unification of knowledge in some domains of medicine is a possibility because some sub disciplines of medicine work in unison. Take for example, medicinal chemistry, which involves inputs from so many cross disciplines, e.g., chemistry, biochemistry, biology, medicine, physiology, pathology, microbiology, pharmacology, physics, botany, mathematics, statistics, and bioinformatics. Such an unification of knowledge from all cross disciplines is a possibility if all such sub disciplines have something in common between them: they should be correlated and interdependent, and where fundamental laws of physics or chemistry universally applies to all such distant sub disciplines. We still have doubt about the phenomenal nature of consciousness. So, incorporating it into grand unification theory could be an error unless we fully understand what it is.

    This would perhaps not suffice to disprove your claim that chaos do not exist, since I am not an expert of physics to render or lend my ideas on chaos theory, anyway. Finally, refinement in models would only help to optimize the problem, but of course, new models may seek to understand systems in a more flexible manner. Then why don’t we have all those models right now? What’s stopping us?

    More thoughts follow.

    Best regards,


  • Smitha Gopinath added an answer in Technology Enhanced Learning:
    Are the advancements in educational technology really helpful for our students?

    An article in Psychology Today says that the use of technology can alter the actual wiring of the brain.


    It is learned that technological developments affect the way students think, feel and act. It is also prove that there several other physical and mental changes they are undergoing because of this.

    In view of all these facts, do you think that the technological advancements in education are useful for the overall developments of our students?

    Smitha Gopinath · CSIR Structural Engineering Research Centre

    The curriculum has to be planned accordingly inorder to benefit from the technological advancements and its proper utilization by students.

  • Liem Nguyen Duy asked a question in SWAT model:
    How to estimate sediment from Total Suspended Solids?

    Dear all,

    I am doing a research related to modeling sediment using MUSLE in SWAT model. After finishing run model, I would like to calibrate simulated sediment using observed data. Unfortunately, I just have observed data of Total Suspended Solids. 

    I am wonder how to estimate sediment from Total Suspended Solids? What should i do?

    Thanks for your reading and looking forward to hearing from you!


  • Vitalii Mokin asked a question in Graph Algorithms:
    What is the software for the analysis of the model graph?

    What is the software (preferably free) for automatic analysis of graphs with the following characteristics: 1) the ability to import graph as a vector model (the graph will be exported from the GIS); 2) have a function to find the maximum matching of the graph (it is the main requirement); 3) the possibility of editing of the graph (for optimization of its parameters)?
    Its need to us for complete the construction of a new information technology for optimization of observability of information network of monitoring.

  • Ans Schapendonk added an answer in De-Broglie Bohm Theory:
    How do you see the non-locality of the wave-function and why it can't be used for the faster than light signaling?

    The wave-function describes a form of quantum energy called the quantum potential which propagates throughout space. Disturbing the quantum potential in one location instantly modifies it throughout the whole space. How you see this aspect related to the velocity of light?

    Ans Schapendonk · Philipps-Universität Marburg

    The question of Rita is "How do you see the non-locality of the wave-function and why it can't be used for the faster than light signaling”? She now introduces the 'colors' (i.c. spectral) and above the 'intuition' (i.c. venturi-reaction). The wave-function deals with the 'monkey saddle' (s. Wikipedia). It looks like ‘three‘ or even ‘four‘, but it are ‘five‘ (dubble even ’tan‘ > ’ten‘), what is ‘nat’ (i.c. Eng. ‘wet’, what in Dutch means ‘law’, what is ‘wal’ (Wallonie, Wales), i.c. ‘mot’ > ‘mountain’): BERG (‘hidden’ variable). So, this is the ‘non-locality’ (not visible, although it is there). Now about the ‘faster than light signaling (sin-jaal > ‘zonder sjaal’ in opposite to ‘mat’ (five) > ‘maat’ (De-meter) > ‘maasje’ > ‘shalom’ > ‘sjaal om’ (i.c. tie > tied > tied hands, symbolizing by the ‘snake’ (nat > adder). It are all animals like in ‘religion’ where the ‘lamb god’ is the main one. This ‘lamb’ symbolizes the ‘light’, but there are THREE of them (s. files): the (1) luteoline, the (2) quercetine and the (3) rutine, with the ‘mother’, the pregnant woman,  Luteoskyrine (s. file), in Dutch ‘afval’ > ‘afvallige’ (the ‘devil’ because of the ‘sinn’). Other names are flavomycelin or 8,8'-dihydroxyrugulosin. It belongs to the ‘antrachinon’ (i.c. the holy ghost). But what is AIR (lucht)? There are ‘five’ in it: waterstof (H, hydrogen), zuurstof (O, oxide), stikstof (N, nitrogen), halogen (?) and AFVAL (dross, litter, offscourings, leavings, etc), i.c. dutch ROET (soot, grime, smoke black > black smoker). The N of stikstof comes from Z (lightning, but also thunder) and changes in S (sulfide, sulfur), but is been double SS (disulfur decafluoride, bravail). We get the word SOK > SOCK > SOCKS which is SOX, since X is one of the last (new) letter in the alphabet. Socks is helixing in (to) SUCK (kus > Cush is ‘zoen’ (verzoening: reconciliation, atonement, propitiation). Venturi-reaction deals with ‘to push’ (i.c. Dutch ‘een poets bakken’, i.c. ‘rutine’, the lamb with his ‘pulling us a leg’) and ‘to suck’. This is the ‘migration’ we now have to ‘deal’ with. I told you that the soundhelix is a method not only to reconstruct the past but also to ‘spell the future’, since with the fourth row W and the permutation (both find out by Goropius Becanus, physician of the family of Charles the V and son of a ‘midwive’, a ‘les femmes sage’ > (les fem)mes-sage > the ‘message’ is the ‘kris-mas’ (vi-sable, knife that is ‘cutting’ on both sides), what deals with ‘to share’ > ‘charity’ > HARITY (i.c. stringtheory > i.c. ‘underwear’, s. file of the historical coin with the ‘twins’ wearing the ‘string’ > ‘tring’ (jingle bells) > RING (venture-reaction) > INRI (on the cross of Jesus) > IN RIRE (i.c. lachgas (gas to ‘laugh’ (nitrous oxide) (i.c. helixing out of PAL > LAP (tor, vod > Fotze) > LEF (moed, courage) > LOVE). So, what exactly happens in this RING > GAS INRI > ‘IN RIRE’. This ‘movement’ (migration) is symbolizing by the CATERPILLAR (s. file), which deals with (1) Cush > kussen: ‘pillow’), which was later symbolizing by a FISH, i.c. the SALMON (lax, grilse), helixing out of SAUL (dutch ‘zuil’ > ‘vertrossing’: a lot of little ‘pilules’ (bolus), which deals with ‘druiven’ (i.c. ‘grapes’ > gravitation). Now with the SAUL the COLUMN (coloumbine) is introduced: the TEMPLE with four ‘shafts’ (s. coin of the temple, but one of them ‘goes up in smoke’ (s. the coin of the temple): vanadiumVoxide (i.c. ‘aap V lana’ (melkwol), but also HELIUM (I and II) what means ‘no viscositeit’, since ‘vis’ (fish) > ‘viskeus’ (‘choice’) > ‘viscosity’ (i.o. to ‘vel-osity’: slow > fast) is symbolizing the ‘caterpillar’ (rups, i.c. myristinezuur, Perfluoroctansulfat2, ‘gloei’ > ‘glow’, ‘leuchten’ out of ‘lucht’ (Luft, oxide) now by the ‘movement’ of Dutch ‘kruipen’ (stroperigheid, syrup, tracle, molasses, butter > ‘butterfly’ which is coming out of the ‘caterpillar’), but also of ‘vogellijm’ (explosion, limestone). The ROOMBOTER (roman church, Römisches Reich, Roomse Rijk) is the real meaning of our ‘roman church’, since the PAYES (hair wearing by jewish men along the ‘cheek’ – ‘WANG’ > i.c. ein Kind an der Backe haben) is symbolizing the ‘velocity’ (i.c. spiral spring)! With the CHEEK (wang, Backe) we are back at S, O and X (i.c. hydrogen, oxide, nitrogen (but NO3 is not the same as ONO2 !!!)), halogen and ‘soot’ > Dutch ‘ZOOTJE’ (i.c. CHAOS: ‘chaos out of order’).

    Fazit 1: the migration we have now in Europe is what we can ‘spell’ (future), since the Jews came from DROP (Jo-SEP(h)) > d’EUROPE, moved to Israel and now we get ‘back’ the SYRIERS > SIER RIRE > SIER RI JERS, i.c. RIESIGE REISE being FLUG (vlucht > vluchteling (re-FU(se)GEES) > FLUCH (vloek) > FLÜCHT(lingen) > FLÜCHTIGE STOFFEN (i.c. lachgas, nitrous oxide), but we will have nothing to LAUGH or do we? We have to learn ‘CHARITY’, we have to PROVE (Dutch ‘proeven’) > PROBE > PROP: opproppen (i.c. so many people on ONE place must give an ‘explosion’ (inflammation): a ‘bombardement aan protonen’. I hope I have illustrated you that we are ABLE to spell the future with the help of the soundhelix. We got this GIFT (regalo > Gallo (France) > Gallier), this ‘POISON’ (helixing out of PUT > PUNT > POINT > POINTE (p-wente > vent > venture-reaction) since we ‘reinigden’ (la reigne), i.c. CLEAN (little), CLARIFY, PURIFY our FOOD (feet > (con)FUSE) what causes illnesses like Alzheimer, but also Chlamydia. FOOD = DOOF > DUIF i.c. PIGEON, i.c. the ‘holy ghost’, the BIRD who is symbolizing in every church PEACE (pis > piss off (i.c. nuclear > nu-cle-aire).

    Fazit 2: I hope I have illustrated you now that ‘RELIGION’ only means ‘SCIENCE’. I am VERY tired from working, and I cannot promise that I can give you the helixes of HELIUM I and HELIUM II what must give us the answers that our THOUGHTS which are COUNTING are faster as ‘light’, i.c. we HAVE to learn ‘charity’ by heaving a lot of Dutch ‘ellende’ (i.c. misery, woes, distress, calamity, impoverishment), since this is the meaning of the ‘LAST’ (we have to carry this ‘load’, burden, encumbrance > CUMBAYA (dutch ‘kom bijeen’) MY LORD) ‘JUDGEMENT’ which is helixing out of JUICE (Jews), i.c. SAP (Saft) > SAPVIS (woman with ‘milk’ in her ‘breast’ (i.c. the ‘mot’ (the ‘word’ of Jesus) > ‘mouth’ > ‘mountain’ or the opposite of it the GAP (i.c. Dutch ‘jaap van een snee’ > ‘sneeuw ‘ > ‘(sn)EEUW’ (i.c. ‘siècle, CLE > the KEY helixing out of MON-KEY (monkey) > MY KEY (i.c. we did found the SECRET (in Dutch a ‘sekreet’ means a BIT > BITS > BITCH > WITCH (a helix analog to the fourth row W of Becanus) > HEXA (i.c. 6 dots), but we have to deal with the SEVEN dots: BAK SEVEN (i.c. the watersnake HYDRA, i.c. a BLACK HOLE) in which the DENSITY is at the ‘highest point’.

    I found in Artois the grave (mot feudal) of MAT (VanadiumVoxide, but also AMAVADIN) > MOT > MOSA (since Moses was not a man but a woman). The word ‘MOT’ means the WORD (of Jesus) which is helixing out of KAT (katalysaTOR, scarabee) > KUAT > (q)WAT > WORT > WÜRZ (Gewürz) which is in Dutch KRUID (plant) but also KRUIT (Schießpulver, gunpowder). Here we will find the documents of SAP > SAPVIS (Mosa) > SFINX > i.c. SPHINX > PHOENIX (i.c. (p) HOEN (iks), the ‘chicken’ (KAP > ‘KIP’ on the ‘tower’ (torenspits) of all CHURCHES. This CHICK (i.c. BELGICA > la belle chica (s. the beauty and the beast in ‘polarlight’) is the ‘hoen’, the ‘turkey’: the KEY of the DOOR (> d’or), but we should not look in TURKEY but in TURK > KORT > KORTRIJK (Wallonie)! With the ‘chicken’ we have the SWAON (starconstellation) with the SADR (sata > sater > i.c. ‘devil’) who will come out as the ‘second sun’ (Phoenix out of the ashes), another ‘prove’ for human being to deal with this ‘heath’ > ‘his eater’ > ETERNITY.

    Ans Schapendonk (05.09.15)

  • Kobi Michael added an answer in Defense Industry:
    Can we say that the policy of militarization of Israeli is forced by its geopolitical situation?

    Israel is one of the most militarized country in the world. It is caused by experience and the fact that the country is surrounded on all sides by openly hostile countries that deny its right to exist. Israel explains that there is no other exit and policies of militarization and increase to the highest level the defense industry and defense capability is a condition for the survival of this country. That's why according to Global Peace Index Israel is one of the least peaceful country. Is Israel really has no other way out? Are the skeptics of the theory of the contract against Israel?

    Kobi Michael · Institute for National Security Studies

    Jessica, the idea of militarism comples a deeper discussion because there are many definitions of militarism. Generally speaking we have to distinguish between three types of militarism: political militarism which means use of military force in order to resolve political probelms, cognitive militarism which concentrates on the conceptual systems in use in order to interpret and analyze reality and cultural militarism which relates to societal norms, ceremonies, symbols and language.

    Which militarism do you refer to? Israel is a unique case that does not follow the classical Western patterns, as well as other democracies, like India for an example. I recommend you reading Rebecca Schiff's "concordance theory" in order to find out different types of civil-military relations. In order to deepen your knowledge regarding the Israeli militarism I recommend reading Moshe Lisak in the epilog chapter in Oren and Shefer's book about the Israeli Militarism, published by Indiana University Press.

    With regard to the comment by one of the discussants about the presence of military elites among the political elite, it is worth mentioning that Itzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Ehud Barak, Amnon Lipkin Shahak and others among senior Israeli politicians where statesmen who promoted peace agreements and acted against the military recommendations in different contexts although they came from the core of the military establishment.

    Life is more complicated than general theories with all their importance.

  • Kursat Efil added an answer in Molecular Interactions:
    Is there any free software for modeling of interactions between metal (Fe) and molecule?

    Is there any free software for modeling of interactions between metal (Fe) and molecule. I want to calculate interaction energy between iron surface and an organic molecule.

    Kursat Efil · Canik Başarı Üniversitesi

    Dear Özlem,

    Thank you very much for your interest.

    I will examine SIESTA software but I do not use linux.

    Best Regards

  • Jaywant Singh added an answer in Information Literacy:
    What is a single word to express a condition that is neither healthy nor unhealthy?

    I have developed a questionnaire to assess healthy and unhealthy practices in Information literacy. For categorizing the data into three categories,  what term will be appropriate to express a condition that is neither healthy nor unhealthy( that sounds like indifferent)

    Jaywant Singh · Kingston University London

    I'd use 'normal/neutral practices'.

  • Marinko Barukcic added an answer in Power System Control:
    Can any one help me for Multi objective PSO code in power system?


    I am interested to work with Multiobjective PSO, as I am familiar with standard PSO. But difficult to understand MOPSO, as after random generation of position and velocity of particles then run power flow, so either for all objectives or for individual objectives....and how to pareto or weights technique........needs help 

    Marinko Barukcic · University of Osijek


    hm, yes, of course the MOO can be converted into SOO, but if it is done it is not MOO more actually, but it is really SOO now. So question is what I need (want) MOO or SOO? There is big difference in MOO and SOO solutions. In the case of SOO only one solutions is result of optimization, but in MOO more solutions, solution set so called Pareto front is result of optimization. In case of MOO decision maker has choice to chose one of more peer solutions from Pareto front. In the literature, the more objectives aggregated into one objective function are very often called as MOO, but it is SOO actually, and it is not real MOO, because there are not Pareto definitions of nondominated and dominated solutions.. 

    Short example:

    -two objective MOO, all objective are minimizing

    -I get three solution: A = [200 10], B = [220 8] and C = [250 12]

    -In MOO, according to the Pareto domination definition, A and B are both better then C because A and B have both objective lower then C.

    -But if compare A and B, both are good, equal, peer solutions. Why? Because, A has lower the first objective than B and B has the second objective lower then A.

    If I aggregate this MOO solutions into SOO by using weighting coefficients, for example: 0.8 and 10 I will get:

    A = 0.8*200+10*10=260 and B = 0.8*220+10*8=256 so B is better then A, and B is solution in the case of SOO.

    But if I use different weightings, for example: 0.7 and 5:

    A = 0.7*200+5*10=190, B = 0.7*220+5*8=194, so A is better then B, and A is solution in the case of SOO.

    with regards,


  • Paul Howard Riley added an answer in Impedance:
    When it comes to PLC networks, what is the difference between the input impedance and impedance access ?

    how to calculate each of the two

    Paul Howard Riley · University of Nottingham

    Have a look at this reference:



  • Henrik Rasmus Andersen added an answer in Wastewater Treatment:
    Why does ciprofloxacin have a higher degradation rate at pH value of 3 rather than pH=8 or pH=10.84?
    Ciprofloxacin (CIP) exists in different ionic forms due to its deprotonation (zwitterion effect). In my study it has a higher degradation rate at pH value of 3. I guess that this is because at pH = 3.56 (k = 0.55 min-1), the degradation is higher than at pH = 8.40 (k = 0.41 min-1) and at pH = 10.84 (k = 0.38 min-1), when the main part of the CIP molecules carries an overall positive charge. These positive charge molecules will accumulate at the negatively charged liquid-bubble interface where the concentration of the reactive radicals are higher and hence the degradation process is faster at pH=3. Am i right in my supposition?.
    Henrik Rasmus Andersen · Technical University of Denmark

    I think the main reason is the scavening of hydroxyradicals by carbonate and bicarbonate which will be at higher concentration at higher pH.

  • Peter T Breuer added an answer in Modal Logic:
    Do these 14-connectives of the Kanban cell neuron map as truth functions to a modal logic in the literature?

    091    (◇p & ◇q) <---> (p ---> q)
    095    ◇p
    106    ◇(◇p <---> ~□q)
    111    ◇p <---> (q ---> p)
    123    q v (◇p & ~□p)
    127    ◇p v ◇q
    149    □(□~p <---> □~q)
    159    ~◇p <---> (~p & ~q)
    167    ◇p ---> (p & ◇q)
    175    ◇p ---> p
    183    ◇p ---> (◇p & ◇q )
    191    p <---> (◇p v ◇q)
    213    (□p v □q) v ( ~p & ~q)
    234    ~□p & ~□q

    Peter T Breuer

    If you know that he's talking about a machine of some kind, you know more than I!

    What machine? Are you perhaps guessing that he's talking about the modal logic of states in a finite (or infinite!) state machine, modelling the Kripke structure that is provided by the unlabelled transition relation between states? Maybe, but I'm a bit dubious.

  • Irfan Shakir asked a question in OriginLab:
    Best way to aggregate the gridded data of climate on different spatial scales?

    Hi friends

    I am looking for the effecient and effective method to aggregate the gridded data of climate on different spatial scales.

    It will be more good for me if any one tell such method which can be use on arcgis, originlab or on adobe illustrator plateform.

  • Sofia D. Wechsler added an answer in Quantum Entanglement:
    Is it justified to consider moving frames when analyzing quantum entanglements?

    In working with entangled particles we use to test them simultaneously. Consider for instance a pair of entangled particles. The meaning of the word "simultaneously" is not that the two particles are tested at exactly the same time with infinite time-precision. To the contrary, since the moment when one of the particles is detected, the other particle is detected within the pair-coherence interval, τ_{pair}. Outside this interval what we detect is particles from different pairs. The order of magnitude of τ_{pair} for down-conversion photons is the same as the coherence time of the single photons.

    But, what becomes τ_{pair} when judging according to moving frames? In a frame F_A which moves in the direction from Alice's lab to Bob's lab, it is likely that τ_{pair} becomes two-fold. That means, one value for Alice's particle and another value for Bob's particle.

    I think - and I am not sure - that for Alice's particle τ_{pair} appears as shorter and for Bob's particle as longer. And the faster is the movement of F_A, the longer appears τ_{pair} for Bob's particle. Does such a situation has physical meaning, is this an entanglement anymore?

    Sofia D. Wechsler · Technion - Israel Institute of Technology

    Beloved Prof. El Naschie,

    There is a difference between wormholes and entanglements - so we think: through wormholes we hope to pass information quicker than following the geodesic lines (so I understand). To the difference, entanglements pass nothing from one particle to the other. The mechanism of the entanglements is different. The two particles are connected by a common (joint) phase with respect to the vacuum. For instance we add exp(iα) |u>|v> + exp(iβ) |u>|v>

    and obtain [exp(iα) + exp(iβ)] |u>|v>.

    If α = β + π , the 2-particle waves cancel one another, but if  α = β, the total amplitude is doubled, while the total intensity is 4 times the intensity of each one of the 2-particle waves, and so the detection probability.

    You see, the joint phases α and β are like solid rods, invisible, however joining the two particles and handling them at once, as if we have a single particle. Multi-particle interferometry is based on this phenomenon.

    As to wormholes, it is a VERY interesting idea. If I could live a second time I would devote my life to searching for a way to "cheat" the light-velocity. But we aren't given such chances.

    May Allah bless you and give you health!

  • Ingrid Vindel added an answer in Philology:
    Is it possible that the Crónica de 1344 had directly followed the source of De Rebus Hispaniae, rather than through the Estoria de España?

    History. Medievalism. Medieval Philology

    Ingrid Vindel · Autonomous University of Barcelona

     My question has the purpose of know if this chronicle coul be follow the spanish sources directly from their texts or not. Or if it followed only the Estoria de España.

  • Vitalii Mokin added an answer in Traffic Control:
    Trrafic simulation?
    What is the best traffic simulation software?
    Vitalii Mokin · Vinnytsia National Technical University

    Overview of the best traffic simulation software (on the GIS model as geometric network) is in my monography (subsection 1,4 "Application of GIS soft to work with geometric networks)" (Ukrainian language)

    Best regards

  • Dragan Marinkovic asked a question in Posture:
    2D posture analysis?

    Does anyone measure and analyse postural status of body with 2D camera system and how?

  • Ingrid Vindel asked a question in Philology:
    Is it possible that the Crónica de 1344 had directly followed the source of De Rebus Hispaniae, rather than through the Estoria de España?

    Medieval Philology. History

  • David O'Brien added an answer in Reptiles:
    Can anyone identify this Draco sp?

    It was in a collection of Victorian butterflies, with no geographic background and it would seem that the taxidermist was not kind to it.

    David O'Brien · Scottish Natural Heritage

     Thank you both, that's much appreciated. It is very dried out as you can see and having the opinion of people with more familiarity with Draco spp is very valuable. It keyed out different ways in different keys too, possibly because, for example, the orientation of the nostrils has changed due to desiccation. Based on Musters (1983), the hind-limb to inter-limb ratio would also suggest D. volans, so I think the large thorns may artifacts of the preservation process.

  • Vitalii Mokin added an answer in Traffic:
    How can we solve the traffic jam problem?

    the traffic light sometimes is easier to cause the traffic jam problem, if the designer don't make to many change to the both side of the road,such as the house and block building, what other aspect of things can be done to mitigate the traffic jam problem.

    Vitalii Mokin · Vinnytsia National Technical University

    You must to build an information model of the road network of the city, to develop an estimation algorithm of parameters of it using modern and long-term observations of road traffic characteristics. Identify areas with increased risk of traffic jam problem (for different periods of time, seasons). Simulate different scenarios for optimization of traffic management system to reduce the risk of traffic jam problem.
    But always there is a problem of accidents (road traffic accidents, a breakthrough of a heating on road, road repair, etc.).
    Solutions of some of these questions you can be found in my monograph (Ukrainian language only).

    Best regards

  • Sajid Hussain added an answer in Econometric Methods:
    The materials-capital, materials-labor, and materials-energy have negative value of coefficients?

    i run the translog cost function of four variables KLEM. The values of coefficients KM, EM and ML is negative. in my view, When firms purchase more materials, average price of the materials increase. The higher price (more quantity) of materials reduces marginal cost of labor, capital, and energy. The values are quite small but statistically significant.

    Do you agree? Please share your views and suggest some references.

    Sajid Hussain · University of Lahore

    Sir prices are exogenous variables. EM means coefficient of energy-materials. the coefficients   of translog cost function are second order derivatives of the function. I want to know if coefficient of prices of energy-materials is negative. How should i interpret it?