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  • Yoichi Ando added an answer in Aeroacoustics:
    How do I choose the time step for unsteady simulation especially for aeroacoustics related problems?

    I am planning to simulate the aeroacoustic simulation in fluent, to predict the acoustics terms like frequency , how to choose the time step size , because the unsteady problem is based on the timestep size. For closed pipes what kind of acoustics model is suitable.

    Well I don't know  axisymmetric pipe with cavity for different cavity dimensions, but

    our paper could help you to some extent: Ando, Y. and Koizumi, T. (1976). Sound radiation from a semi-infinite circular pipe having an arbitrary profile of orifice, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 59, 1033-1039. Ando, Y. and Koizumi, T. (1976).

  • What is the philosophical bases of indigenous education system of Babotho

    i want to know how to tackle this question

  • Milan Kobes added an answer in Greenhouse Gases:
    Under what soil conditions would the most (or the least) quantity of N2O would be generated from N fertilization?

    It has been reported that N2O production from agriculture contributes significantly to greenhouse gases and global warming. How can we control the N2O release from farming?

    Milan Kobes · University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice

    N2O emissions depends on soil moisture, soil structure, soil sorption complex, on amount and stability of soil organic matter and on C:N ratio (N avaiolability). Low emissions are on drought or extremely wet soils (including organic wetland soils). Higher N2O emissions is on stands with higher coverage of legumes (pastures or field mixtures), it is influenced by nitrogen fixation (also compensed). Low emissions are on grasslands with high amount of roots with high content of C.

  • Djamel Teguig added an answer in Consensus:
    How can I adapt a consensus algorithm for a power spectrum density (PSD) estimation?

    Dear all,

    I want to estimate a PSD of the primary user (PU) using consensus algorithm.

    Do you have an idea of how to adapt a consensus algorithm for a power spectrum density (PSD) estimation??



    Djamel Teguig · Royal Military Academy

    Could you please explain more why?

  • Amit Kumar Garg asked a question in Fiber:
    Which dispersion compensation technique is better??

    For dispersion compensation techniques sometimes we use dispersion compensation fiber(DCF) and sometimes fiber grad grating(FBG) which technique is better and why??

  • Archana Sonawani asked a question in Autodock:
    Autodock tools

    I have downloaded MGL tools but dont know how to run autodock tools with autodock vina?

  • Shiwei Li added an answer in Quartz:
    Does anyone know how to isolate PM2.5 from quartz filters?
    I want to do same work on PM2.5, such as measuring pH, and toxicity test , however I can not isolate it form quartz filters. Could anyone help me?
    Shiwei Li · Nanjing University

    Hi Brink.Thanks for your attention. Just as you say, i will put the Teflon filter in water and deal with sonification.This way I can collect PM samples in the water.

  • F. Valverde-Albacete added an answer in ASR:
    How does phonetic segmentation help ASR in bringing down the complexity from recognition to classification?

    A segmentation process gives phonetic segments of variable length, then this segments are labeled one out of many phonemes(classification). Just i would want to know how this (segmentation+classification) task is  different from recognition process.

    F. Valverde-Albacete · National Distance Education University

    "Acoustic decoding" ( aka "acoustic recognition") is precisely this segmentation + classification process. But ASR (automatic speech recognition) at present involves much more than this. Which amounts, more or less, to seeing whether the labelled segments you obtained make sense within a particular language (or rather a sample of a particular language).

    Hope this helps.

  • Diwakar Pandey added an answer in Estimation:
    What is the best method of determining bioethanol by dichromate which is stable the most?

    Method for bioethanol estimation.

    Diwakar Pandey · Central Pulp & Paper Research Institute

    find attachment for determination of ethanol 

  • Hans-Ulrich Krebs added an answer in X-Ray:
    What might be reasons of reflexes in roentgenogram during the investigation of membrane suspension by X-ray diffraction method?
    We have received reflexes from membrane suspensions under the large and small angles- looking for explanations.
    Hans-Ulrich Krebs · Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

    At small angles reflection can occur due to periodic ordering in the material.

    with best regards, uk

  • Why Mung dahl is recommended to patients?

    Mung dahl is easily digestible with minimum anti-nutrients such as phytates, oligosaccharides, trypsin inhibitors, tannins etc. The cooked dahl can be digested easily even by the infants and patients. It is a rich source of most of the essential amino acids except methionine and tryptophan. Mung is also very rich in folic acid or vitamin B9, essential for pregnant women and infants/children for the development of neural tube and brain. Mung sprouts are rich source of vitamin C or ascorbic acid, which is an anti-oxidant and helps in protecting against cancer.

  • Mapmanager

    I have used mapmaker then later migrated to mapmanager but it seems like it doesn't work anymore. Anyone use it lately? there is an error message about dll file missing. I tried looking for the file online. any other similar softwares to use?

  • Out of ansys and abaqus which one is better for fracture mechanics analysis?

    I am starting FEA analysis in fracture mechanics. I want to know the best software for the analysis. I am familiar with Ansys. can anyone state the points for choosing better software for fea analysis in fracture mechanics out of Ansys and Abaqus?

    Saimohan Neelam · Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

    i want to insert a semi elliptical crack in gas turbine disc and find out the fracture parametres j,g,k. i just started with ansys classic ( based on availability), i have gone through help manual in ansys and understood everything but i couldn't found out the steps regarding creating singular crack tip elements along the crack front in 3d model in ansys classic. but workbench has direct tools. has any one done this in ansys classic? can anyone share the document regarding the work done on crack in 3d model (ansys/wb/abaqus)?? detailed step by step of analysis would be great help. thanks in advance.

  • Stam Nicolis added an answer in Electrons:
    Has a violation of the Pauli exclusion principle been observed?

    It is known that Pauli exclusion principle does not not hold for boson. But there are some recent experiments have been conducted to check whether there is violation of PEP for fermion too. See for instance a paper by J. Marton (2011) on possible test of violation of PEP for electrons.

    So, what do you think? Is it possible to detect violation of PEP for fermions too? Your comments are welcome.

    Stam Nicolis · University of Tours

    The answer is No. What should be understood is that any experiment will give a finite answer, associated with systematic and statistical errors. The issue is, whether, a result is compatible with what is expected, to a given accuracy. Indeed, this is the case. Fiurthermore, if the Pauli exclusion principle *were* violated in this experiment, this should have appeared, more strongly, eventually, in other experiments-which isn't the case.

    In addition, knowing this, it's useful to use such experiments for calibration purposes: since we do expect that the Pauli exclusion principle to hold, to experimental accuracy, we can test the apparatus, that it does work properly.

  • How does one remove the pungent odour of Glutaraldehyde from biodegradable packaging films?

    Glutaraldehyde is a well known cross linking agent widely used in the manufacturing of biodegradable films. The pungent odour of glutaraldehyde even at very minute concentrations may hinder the film's consumer acceptance. Can anyone suggest how to remove the odour after film formation? Also, please shed some light on the detection of excess glutaraldehyde release from film after crosslinking reaction. Thanks in advance.

    Dr. Vallabh Chandegara · Junagadh Agricultural University

    The pungent odour of biodegradable can be  removed by charcoal slurry immersion treatment.

  • In your opinion how can applied mathematics contribute to the development of high-quality assessment?

    There is any experience of mathematics application in the field of educational assessment?

    Peteris Daugulis · Daugavpils University

    Scores should be designed only after mathematical models of 1) knowledge and skill units, 2) learning and teaching processes, are constructed. Without such models "scores" are just numbers used to formalize teacher's evaluation.

  • Brett A Shook added an answer in Adipogenesis:
    Do you know any adipogenic inhibitor apart from BADGE?

    I was wondering if you could name reagents which are routinely used to inhibit adipogenesis in animals ( in my case is rat)?

    Brett A Shook · Yale University


  • Is there any research articals on emotional intelligence and emerging adulthood?

    Is there any research articles present on emotional intelligence effect on emerging adulthood success.

    James Shanahan · Melbourne Health

    Hi Keran,  You might  like to look at research conducted on EI by Professor Richard Boyatzis of Case Western Reserve University in the United States, James

  • How do you best combine focus groups and individual interviews in qualitative research?

    Has anyone experiences in combining focus groups and individual interviews in qual.research?

    I am wondering about what the most fruitful approach would be to investigate into how cancer coordinators contribute to cooperation in interdisciplinary cancer care:

    Starting with focus groups (different stakeholders in the HCS), and going into depth in follow-up individual interviews (with CCs); or starting with individual interviews and basing the focus groups on knowledge derived from individual interviews?

    I am specifically interested in existing literature on combining these methods, and thankful for any input / shared experience or link.


    Caroline Ritchie · Cardiff Metropolitan University

    There is one further pragmatic point that you may want to consider.  In another context, wine consumption in the UK, I became aware that 10 people were responsible for 90% of all the wine imported into the UK in the off-trade. I also knew that they would all know or know of each other though many informal channels I would not have access to and that they would only agree to individual interviews because of confidentiality.  If I didn't get the first interview right the rest would almost certainly not see me. So in this research I developed the themes to be investigated with this small essential group (possibly your CCs) by holding a series of focus groups with consumers, of whom there are many, testing theories from secondary research and identifying new themes that they brought forward.  Focus groups was an appropriate setting for this group of stakeholders as wine consumption is usually a shared activity..  You might want to look at the following paper for more detail but my point is that the interview method and order used should be that which best replicates natural situations (if possible) and or respects the individual needs of the group you want to extract data from in order to maximise the richness and depth potential of the data collection.

    Sobaih, A.E., Ritchie, C., Jones, E. 2012. Consulting the Oracle? Applications of Modified Delphi Technique to Qualitative Research in the Hospitality Industry International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. Vol 24 [6] 886 – 906

    In my opinion there is no 'right' order it depends upon the aim of the research, populations to be sampled, finance available and the time that you have to undertake the project in

    Good luck

  • S.s. Das added an answer in Constitutional Law:
    If the legislative time is continuously wasted by the the elected members of Indian parliament ,is it a mechanism to question the same?
    Nowadays in Indian parliament a number of bills are passed without debate or discussion and enormous legislative time is wasted due to the various political reasons. Is it a mechanism to stop this or question the same ( functioning of parliament) by the citizens ?
    S.s. Das · Dibrugarh University

    We should develop a training programme and trained members of indian parliament,

    how to make deep empirical study before enacting any law. Study of Pro and Cons of that law without any personal attachment.

    It will do Volk Geist itself. Time to come in motion.

  • Tim Tolentino added an answer in Cell Biology:
    What is single cell biology

    Dear Friends,

    I came across a question from my superior "what is single cell biology". I tried answering him saying that studying the biology of cells that are obtained from a single cell and he is not happy with that answer. Can any body help me  

    Tim Tolentino · University of Georgia


    I like to keep things simple, so my answer is going to be simple.  You were asked, "What is single cell biology?" 

    Well, since Biology, at its core, is 'The study of life' or 'The study of living things' or 'The study of living systems' etc....I would say that Single Cell Biology is 'The study of the life of a single cell' or 'The study of the systems within a single cell and how they maintain the life of a single cell.'

    I noticed that the question did not say, "What is the biology of A PARTICULAR cell?"  or "What is the biology of this very specific cell?"

    I love studying biology at the cellular level.  To me, each and every cell is a very real LIVING thing.  Whether it is a single-celled organism, or a single cell of a very complex animal.  Whether we look at a bacteria or an epithelial cell from a human being or a lung cell from a cheetah or whatever, the ALL are living systems; They ALL:

    - reproduce in some way- use energy- have complex structures- respond to environmental stimuli / interact with their surroundings

    So, if the question of, "What is single cell biology?" were addressed to me, my first response would be, "The study of the systems that maintain and make the life of a single cell."   Every cell is a living thing that on some level eats, sleeps, breathes, metabolizes, reproduces, and basically tries to keep doing so as long as it can...

    Good luck to you.

  • Mahmoud Abdelaal added an answer in Animal Biology:
    What are the appropriate collagen levels in the testis tissue?
    Dose anybody know the collagen level in the testis of animals, specifically mice? And if there is any difference in the level between human and mice testis?
    Mahmoud Abdelaal · Northwest A & F University

    you can read this paper maybe help   Synthesis and distribution of type IV collagen in mice testes    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12569652

  • Azzam Ahmed asked a question in Lamins:
    Damage chracterization in composite lamiantes

    If you fabricate composite laminate consist of 8 ply [0,90,45,-45]s how we can detect the damage which occurred in laminate after impact test . I know C-scan method (NDT) but  only detect the damage in surface of the composite, delamination  and size of the failure area ,so some one help to do that experimentally not numerically. .

  • Kosma Jurlewicz added an answer in Antibody Drug Conjugates:
    Is there any kit that I can use to make antibody drug conjugate?

    We want a simple way to screen our antibodies for ADC.

    Kosma Jurlewicz · University College London

    There is no kit to make ADC.
    There are however simple techniques that you can use. Key thing however is the chemistry that you use to do that. Let's assume maleimide chemistry, which is the most common one nowadays.
    You have to have a toxin with appropriate linker (such as MMAE and maleimide) and appropriate conditions to conjugate it to an antibody. Then you have to purify, as you will have a lot of various species, so called DARs (Drug Antibody Ratio). DAR 0 is an antibody with no payload, DAR 1 is an ADC with one toxin and so on...

    Depends what you want to do really. Do you want to to see efficiency of your reactions, do you want to see if your antibody can be conjugated, do you want to produced some ADCs and use them for something?

    One of ways to detect ADCs is analyse them by HIC (hydrophobic interaction chromatography), but that depends on the toxin and its hydrophobicity.

  • Alessio Bosio added an answer in Solar Cells:
    How do you make a single solar cell?

    For my research in solar cell I want to know some simple techniques to make single solar cell

    Alessio Bosio · Università degli studi di Parma

    Please, give a look to this article.

  • D.E. Aspnes added an answer in Polycarbonates:
    Can we generate micro or nano structures on polycarbonate sheet without loosing its optical properties?

    To fabricate transparent and superhydrophobic polycarbonate surface.

    D.E. Aspnes · North Carolina State University

    No.  Look up effective-medium theory.  This is not a new topic.  The effect of nanostructure on optical properties of materials has been known for over 100 years.

  • John Cronin added an answer in Papers:
    Should we question the credibility of international conferences?

    We see most of international conferences accept more than 90 percent of the papers that they receive regardless of the quality of the papers or plagiarism possibilities. Shall it make us think that the conferences are only business?

    John Cronin · Catholic University of Louvain

    I'm speaking on a bit more general level but the tendencies are frightening. Among european univ assistants there's a movement against the 'endless meetings cycle' whereas the decisions've all already been made in some 'smoked filled room' by higher-ups.

  • Widad Dantoft added an answer in Drosophila:
    What is the best method for extracting RNA from Drosophila heads?

    Hello, I am looking for the best strategy for extracting RNA from Drosophila heads. Can anyone recommend a homogenization procedure?

    Widad Dantoft · Stockholm University

    I completely agree with Deepti. For RNA isolation from Drosophila intestines, I personally get better results from manual homogenization than from bead beating. For the homogenization step, I wouldn't use more than 100 microliters of Trizol (or equivalent) since the larger the volume, relative to the tissue, the more difficult is it to homogenize the samples. I homogenize my tissue samples using disposable polypropylene pestles, which we re-sterilize by washing them in DEPC water (over night) followed by autoclavation.

  • Vaibhav Kaware asked a question in Compilers:
    How to compile/use parallel CRYSTAL14 ?

    Does anyone have experience in using the MPPcrystal or Pcrystal (CRYSTAL14) ? How does one compile and start using it?

  • Calin Alexe Muresan added an answer in Complexity:
    Anybody know about the computational complexity of calculating a real power?

    Like x^r where both x and r are real numbers, in terms of the number of multiplications and additions required.

    I will be very much thankful with detailed explanation or some link to literature. BR

    Calin Alexe Muresan · Petroleum - Gas University of Ploiesti

    See the article attached.