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  • Akira Kanda added an answer in First Language:
    Does any one know the connection between Japanese language and Ainu language?

    I am an old timer and so I do not know what happened to linguistics after 1990's. It appears that grammatical classification of human languages do not play role anymore.

    In a forum which is dedicated to the Japanese/Ainu issues, I asked about the grammatical similarity of Ainu and Japanese, I was scolded for being outdated. I was told that these two languages are entirely different languages and it is wrong to say they are similar languages. I am a native Japanese and have Ainu blood in myself. I am a mix of Ainu and Japanese. I speak Japanese as the first language and studying Ainu language as my "next first language". For me they are grammatically almost identical. Phonetically they are almost identical : The former has more sounds than the latter.

    Ainu has no writing system but so was Japanese to begin with. Writing came in to Japanese about 1600 years ago from China. This however did not change the nature of Japanese language at all.

    Akira Kanda · University of Toronto

    I want to discuss the relation between Ezo (Emish) and Ainu. I was taught long time ago that they were the same race. Now I was told that they were different races. I am quite confused about my own identity.

  • Ellyn Charap added an answer in NVivo:
    NVivo 10 transcription service?

    Hi everyone,

    For those of you who have used NVivo 10: their online explanation of transcription services is a little vague, so to answer a call for proposals with an accurately assessed budget, I need some help!

    Q1: Does the program itself transcribe spoken text to written text, or must one send mp3s out to NVivo contractors for transcription?

    Q2: What are the costs associated with this latter step if transcriptionists are indeed involved?

    Thank you!

    Ellyn Charap

    Ellyn Charap · inVentiv Health

    Thank you both so much! I have to admit, I'm a bit mystified as to why no one has incorporated a "Siri"-like capability into any qualitative coding software. I suppose there must be intellectual property issues. Meanwhile, I may very well attempt to have Siri transcribe the mp3s for me. Certainly worth a try, anyhow!

  • Is there any implication between hypertension and cognitive functioning?

    Does high blood pressure affects neuropsychological performance? Do you know any published studies on this subject?

  • Eddie Seva See added an answer in Replication:
    Should current generations allow future generations to discover new knowledge?

    Ambitious scientists wish to solve problems immediately, but what if everything is extremely rapidly known? For instance, what would be consequences for research to be conducted by next generations? Just replicating what former generations did?

    Eddie Seva See · Bicol University

    I guess the actions or decisions of the future generations are not for these generations to make.or decide or allow or not allow.

  • Tomas Kilroy asked a question in Renin:
    Anyone knows eclia/elisa vs radioimmunossay of plasma renin activity comparative studies?

    anyone knows comparative studies of elisa/eclia methods vs radioimmunoassay of plasma renin activity?

  • Paulo Magno Martins Dourado added an answer in eNOS:
    Are the compounds that enhance GCH1 expression a new target in the treatment of atherosclerosis?

    Some studies showed that eNOS-derived reactive oxygen species play an important role in atherosclerosis progression and restoration of eNOS functionality by upregulation of GCH1 is a rational therapeutic approach. GCH1 transcription has been shown to be upregulated by cytokines, insulin, statins and ARBs. Could be this the next frontier in treatment of atherosclerosis?

    Paulo Magno Martins Dourado · University of São Paulo

    Dear Prof. Francisco,

    I agree with you. I think it is necessary to study more the mechanisms of actions of these compounds because the favorable effects that it presents in the setting of atherosclerosis and consequently can bring benefits in the prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease.

  • Is there a solid counter-argument against Dingle's old objection to Relativity Theory?
    Herbert Dingle's argument is as follows (1950):

    According to the theory, if you have two exactly similar clocks, A and B, and one is moving with respect to the other, they must work at different rates,i.e. one works more slowly than the other. But the theory also requires that you cannot distinguish which clock is the 'moving' one; it is equally true to say that A rests while B moves and that B rests while A moves. The question therefore arises: how does one determine, 3 consistently with the theory, which clock works the more slowly? Unless the question is answerable, the theory unavoidably requires that A works more slowly than B and B more slowly than A - which it requires no super- intelligence to see is impossible. Now, clearly, a theory that requires an impossibility cannot be true, and scientific integrity requires, therefore, either that the question just posed shall be answered, or else that the theory shall be acknowledged to be false.
    Zhiliang Cao · Shanghai Jiao Tong University

    Dr. Sergey Shevchenko,

    You can use two high speed trains in China to perform such experiment. Try to reduce the impact of gravity/earth rotation by going south/north direction and during full/new moon at 12 (am/pm) in summer in the Canton area (near Tropic of Cancer). Use RF messaging to exchange the clock readings.

    Such experiment costs less than 1M. You have to do experiment yourself with a successful fund raising. In the attached paper, I collected drifting clock data over a period of time. You can use similar program to observe the clock readings.

    We have to stop arguing and start doing some real works.

  • Salah Doma added an answer in Quantum Mechanics:
    How one can describe the corpuscle property of microscopic particles in the linear quantum mechanics?

    According to the corresponding uncertainty relation, the wave packet cannot be used to describe the corpuscle property of a microscopic particle 

    Salah Doma · Alexandria University

    As it is known, in linear quantum mechanics, the crpuscle behavior of a particle is often represented by a wave packet which can be a superposition of plane waves. However, the wave packet always disperses and attenuates with time during the course of propagation. For example, consider a Gaussian wave packet, to show that the wave packet is dispersed as time goes by. The uncertainty in its position also increases with time. Hence, the wave packet cannot be used to describe the corpuscle property of a microscopic particle.  

  • How do I turn a continuous morphological data set into categories for character states so I can make a phylogeny?

    I am trying to create a phylogeny based on morphological data so I can compare it to a molecular phylogeny I have. What are my options for turning continuous data into categories?

    Camilo I Mattoni · National University of Cordoba, Argentina

    Hi Josh,

    You can get more information (explanation, some analyses and algorithms) about TNT and continuous characters here:


    If you need more input, you can contact me.



  • Which is the best computer system, including software, currently available for architects?

    There are many types of computers (hardware and and software) in the market currently. This makes the choice of a suitable computer including software, complex. Please can you advise me professionally on the best buy and why?

  • Agnivo Gosai asked a question in Gromacs:
    How to set up temperature gradient between protein and water by using thermostat in GROMACS?

    Dear all,

    I am 

    I am looking to replicate the figure attached with this post. The paper attached tells that the authors established a temperature gradient between a protein ( which cooled to 300 K from 400 K) where as the water bath i.e. the solvent temperature remained constant at 300 K.

    ​I have prepared my system such that water is at 300 K and protein is at 400 K by using standard equilibration protocols and simulated annealing in GROMACS. The authors of the paper describe that they removed the thermostat from the protein and let it relax keeping the solvent (water) at 300 K.

    But if I remove thermostat , I get GROMACS error and using freeze groups I am not getting any temperatures as the molecules are not moving.

    I can not understand how to model this system. Any suggestions will be helpful. I am doing a literature search but till now it is not fruitful.


  • Md Anwar Hossain added an answer in Strabismus:
    What is the management for teenager sufferring recent onset transient concomitant exotropia ?

    What is the management for teenager sufferring recent onset transient concomitant exotropia ?

    14  y.o. girl's parents revealed  2 yeras ago strabismus in her dauther- transient alternating exodeviation dominantly in her left eye, more prominent when girl is tired.

    VA 1.0

    Concomitant strabismius 10-15 degree . Anterior and posterior without abnormality. The girl has headaches without localization Neurologist reject any pathology.

    What is your opinion ?

    Md Anwar Hossain · Combined Mil Hospital,Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Thanks Eric. So your aim is to improve suppression by increasing the strength of bi medial rectus and streiopdid by by on off flicker motion. But what should be the therapy & how will you follow improvement ? What about addressing the sudden onset onset, intermittent nature of the disorder? Thanks.

  • What is the difference between racism and ethnic discrimination?

    Before answering my question. Kindly read my explanation first.

    Base from two books i read, i conclude that:

    There is no difference between those terms. Ethnic Discrimination is the synonym of Racism.

    Below are my explanations and sources:

    From a book titled "Race and Ethnic relations" published in 2012 by Merger 

    The term Race is hardly use in the research field nowadays. Researchers prefer to use Ethnicity instead. Hence there is no difference between Race and Ethnicity

    In the past, there are difference between and race and ethnicity. Expert usually based different race by the difference of phenotype such as skin color, hair color or shape of the nose. While ethnicity is more into social and cultural category, for example certain kind groups who has the same behaviour consider to have their own ethnicity.

    Later , confusion start to develop to draw fine distinction between race and ethnicity. Below are the paragraph i quoted from the book.

    “As Biologist Daniel Blackburn (2000) as explained, all of the popularly used physical features to define races show gradients of distribution within population groups within which sharp distinction cannot be draws. Despite obvious physical difference between people from different geographic areas, most human genetic variations occurs within population. Michael Bamshad and Steve Olson have explained “individual from different population are, on average, just slightly more different from one another that are individuals from the same population.”

    In the last part of the section the author of the book find a subtle way to settle these confusion.

    “Because of its confusing usage and its questionable scientific validity, many sociologist and anthropologist have dispensed entirely the term race and instead prefer ethnic group.” 

    From a book titled "Racism and Ethnic Discrimination" published in 2011 by Lentin page 84

    "Racism becomes a catch-all phrase that can be used to describe almost any situation. It is used to refer any situation of discrimination or unfairness"

    That is all my explanation and sources. I assumed that these terms are the same and the confusion between the two is because maybe some researches still use the old definition and do not follow the update of this topic.

    i am asking this because i am doing my research on this topic and need feedback from other people. You are welcome to contradict my explanation. i would love to read it. However, please write the sources that you are using as the base of your statement.

    Thank you and have a nice day.

    Wilibrordus Wisnu T.W. Endro · De La Salle University

    Dear Stephen Linstead.

    Thanks for pointing that out. I do aware now that racism or ethnic discrimination is not as simple as biological approach anymore, there is a lot more to it. If you see my reply to the previous answers, i am aware that this concern is also about political, power and social prejudice. 

    A simple definition of discrimination or a simple definition of racism or ethnicity is completely different with racism / ethnic discrimination. i have to make a more comprehensive definition about for this variable and how to differentiate between this variable and a simple definition of the race and discriminate. 

    I guess in my current research, i also need to make scope and limitation as to how i conceptualize this variable. I also have to explain the field of science that i use to approach this variable.

    Again, thank you very much, your answer is appreciated much.

    have a nice day.

  • Felix Moronta Barrios asked a question in Rice:
    How can I know all the rice endophitic bacteria sequenced to date?

    How can I do a search for this kind of information? I can not menage the NCBI-Genomes as well. I need to construct a list with this information. Could you help me?

  • Esam H. Mansour added an answer in Fruit:
    What is the compound in prickly pears fruit that could lead an application in treating cancer patients?

    As a folk medicine prickly spears fruit is used for cancer suffering patients. We have prepared the juice from prickly spears fruit and the constituents responsible for cure of cancer  is unknown. Suggest compound.

    Esam H. Mansour · Minoufiya University

    Dear Vallabh,

    Read the attached files.

    Best regards

    Esam H. mansour

  • What do you think, is illegal wildlife trade is cause of poverty or prosperity (2Ps)? And what is required to addressed first in 2Ps to control it?

    Many researches including reports of World Wildlife Fund for Nature Conservation,Traffic International, Wildlife Protection Society of India, Environment Investigation Agency and other national non-governmental organization's report (like:Wildlife Conservation Nepal) states wildlife offenders are from poor economic group and all the wildlife products are deported to China, United States or European nations (developed nations).

    Marvin Alejandro Torrez · Universidad Centroamericana (UCA)

    Is a product of a lack of values more than nothing. Jose Ortega wrote once " we can't expect the high educate societies behave as high if the moral values are poor". So, the problem is not the one who is seeking for money, the problem is the one who has the money and use it in the way he want.

  • How to determine the concentration of ferrous ions and total iron in the presence of chelating agents in an aqueous solution?
    I have been using Ferrozine reagent (0.050 % w/w in 50 mM HEPES buffer) for determining the total Fe and Fe2+ ion concentration (and therefore the Fe3+ ion concentration from the difference). Ferrozine in the presence of ferrous ions, gives a pink-purple color which can be measured in a spectrophotometer. I use a saturated solution of hydroxyl amine hydrochloride as the reducing agent (so that all Fe is in the form of Fe2+) for total Fe estimation. The concentration range for Fe is 0-10 mM.
    However, sometimes in the presence of chelating agents such as EDTA and NTA, the results are different. An equimolar Fe-EDTA and Fe-NTA solution at similar pH range (5-6) gives different color intensities using the same protocol.
    Why is that so?
    Richard K Owusu-Apenten · University of Ulster

    Addition of Zinc sulphate (7mM) to commercial iron determination regents has been proposed for dealing with samples containing EDTA; however - I have not personally tried this. The original publication may worth checking out?  [ Walmsley, T. A., P. M. George, et al. (1992). "Colorimetric measurement of iron in plasma samples anticoagulated with EDTA." J Clin Pathol 45(2): 151-4.]

  • Kw Agashe added an answer in Centrifugation:
    Why do I have problem in reproducing alpha syn aggregation data?

    I am trying to get a reproducible assay for alpha syn aggregation and it was working fine till last month but the last 4 times i tried doing the assay even the controls are not working. any suggestions as to what i might be doing wrong. i use centrifugation to get alpha syn monomers and then add relevant compounds to induce or decrease aggregation and the assay is conducted over a period of 40 hours using ThT

    Hi Francis,  so the way we have it is in a solution which we lyophilize and when needed dissolve in TBS ( freshly made). By degraded do you  mean it has more aggregates in there?

  • Juan Luis Santos asked a question in GPS Meteorology:
    Do all low-pressure areas originate near paralel 60?

    This question should be easy to answer for a meteorologist but there is a lot of controversy among my friends (social scientists). We would appreciate any answer from an expert, no matter if you have time to answer just yes/no. Thanks

  • Stam Nicolis added an answer in Schrodinger:
    What is the nessecary condition for solutions of equation to form equipotential surfaces in space?

    For example for Laplacian in Schrodinger equation the solution is of the form psi=f(r)F(cos^2theta) so we may obtain the radius as a function of theta to be positive. What if it becomes negative? We all know of the lobes being created.

    Stam Nicolis · University of Tours

    Of course it's possible-however the discussion is meaningless unless further details are specified. So it's more useful to discuss a specific problem. 

  • What is the difference between a community health nurse and a public health nurse?

    I'm currently in college and I'm not really sure how to define these two.  I have gotten various answers and none have made it clearer to me. 

    Dean Whitehead · Flinders University

    Good feedback Barbara - and clustering the two terms under the same umbrella programme is certainly one way of 'easing the tension'

  • Adam B Shapiro added an answer in Crystallization:
    Why protein become unfold ?? please reasons?

    I have crystallized my protein and It crystallized in a day but then it stopped from being crystallized after several attempt , One of the reason is protein become unfold but why ??

    I have also confirm the unfolded state by run sample using Circular Spectroscopy? and it show unfolding stage in buffer consist of 20mM tris HCL PH8 , 50mM NaCl?

    Adam B Shapiro · AstraZeneca

    How did you store the protein in between crystallization experiments? Was the same sample repeatedly frozen and thawed, or were separate aliquots used each time? Is it possible that the protein stock was not stored correctly for some period of time? Did the refrigerator or freezer break down, or did the stock get left out on the bench overnight? Is it possible that the stock became contaminated? Maybe the precipitant solution used for crystallization became contaminated.

  • Adam B Shapiro added an answer in ELISA:
    Optimized serum dilution for ELISA?

    Is there any standard range or a limit for diluting the serum for ELISA optimizing? If the optimized dilution is about greater than 1:10000 (eg. 1:16000, 1:64000) and still giving a good OD value for positive control, can we take that dilution for assaying samples?


    should we optimize the assay for lower serum dilutions (like 1:500 or 1:1000) by changing (optimizing) the blocking buffer to get minimum non-specific background?

    Adam B Shapiro · AstraZeneca

    That will have to be determined experimentally.

  • Y. J. Masson added an answer in Wave Propagation:
    What is a software for solving biot equations of wave propagation?

    I want to verify a code with the results of a software for a special problem 

    Y. J. Masson · Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6

    I have some FD codes doing this. You can check the Specfem finite/spectral element code as well.

  • What is the relation between geomechanics parameters and seismic quality factor?
    Geomechanics parameters such as Elastic modulus
    Y. J. Masson · Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6

    Check Biot's papers

  • In immunohistochemistry staining, when do we measure/calculate " optical density", "area %" and "% of positive cells "?

    For quantitative assessment of IHC staining, when do we measure/calculate " optical density", "area %" and "% of positive cells "?

    Amal Kamal Abdel-Aziz · Ain Shams University

    Thanks alot Fedchenko  and Bassem for your help and the attached article. It's useful indeed. Thanks again

  • Andrey Luchnik added an answer in Risk Factors:
    Cancer a mere matter of luck? Or is there something under-appreciated?

    It has been all over in the news lately: The majority of cancer is obtained by bad luck, not by lifestyle or inheritance. See attached. 

    Really? The data appear solid and they make sense, but the conclusion seems a bit premature: the observations are based on established risk factors in the USA and I assume (let the experts please come forward!) that these risk factors are based on occurrence. This means we do not see all those cases where the patient's immune system adequately takes care of the anomaly. 

    How does occurrence of cancer relate to failure of the patient's immune system, and can we monitor this based on adequate biomarkers? How will the statistics and the conclusions change when this factor is included in the analysis?

    Andrey Luchnik · Russian Academy of Sciences

    It is very gladsome to hear about "freedom of democracy and science" in our tough international times.

    But everything passes as prophet said. "Ecclesiast" is just another pseudonym or alias of Egypt pharaoh Akhenaten. This pharaoh was multiplied by 'scolars' under numerous names such as Mithra, Zarathustra and numerous Bible names as I write in my article: "Pharaoh double-gangers"  (Doppelgangers).  Or probably another translations from Russian: "Imprints of Pharaoh" or "Die Eindrucken aus Pharaoh" or "Die Drücke aus der Pharao".

    Interesting topic.

  • Raymond Rumpf added an answer in Polaritons:
    Hello my friends.. are SPP's (surface plasmon polariton) without apply light? if yes: Is it moving along the x axis?

    Hello my friends..

    are SPP's (surface plasmon polariton) without apply light? if yes: Is it moving along the x axis? and How is light coupled to SPP's with a frequency equal to plasma frequency?

    Raymond Rumpf · University of Texas at El Paso

    Well they do not need additional light, but remember that an SPP is essentially a photon coupled to an electron oscillation at the surface of a metal.  Can an SPP propagate without light?  It is light.