ResearchGate Q&A lets scientists and researchers exchange questions and answers relating to their research expertise, including areas such as techniques and methodologies.

Browse by research topic to find out what others in your field are discussing.

Browse Topics

  • Critical thinking vs. truth in education?

    Many educators claim critical thinking as one of the major skills for 21st century students. Students may challenge any 'fact' to construct their own body of knowledge. 

    On the other hand, educators have to build on some truths (e.g., in maths we use axioms) in their teaching. This can be overwhelming students. How do you, as a teacher, find the right balance?

    Paul Louangrath · Bangkok University

    CRITICAL THINKING has always been part of education. Socrates, Plato, Buddha, etc. who lived and taught before our common era all taught critical thinking. To say that critical thinking is the skill we sought in the 21st century would not be correct; critical thinking defines education and it has always been a foundation of education.

    TRUTH is often mistakenly used interchangeably with FACTS. Education involves input + process = output + impact. In all 4 steps, facts are used. Truth is the conclusion from logical reasoning of series of facts. Thus FACTS + CRITICAL THINKING = PERCEIVED TRUTH hopefully. Without critical thinking, facts remain bits of information. With critical thinking, these bits of information may lead to one's conclusion of truth. To say that "truth is not the interpretation of facts" is to deny the distinction between men and beasts. We conceive truth; beats conceives facts. If a buffalo, horse, donkey or elephant can conceive truth they would not be beasts of burden---in their own grunts, they would demand their freedom (if we humans espouse the concept that freedom is a universal truth and beasts can also conceive truth).

    TRUTH NON-ABSOLUTE: One may not argue that mathematics is the language of universal truth. This is a false argument. Suppose we present this equation to a person living in the 21st century: 1 + 0 = ?. The 21th century person says "1 + 0 = 1 because this is the universal truth under the law of mathematics." This is a false conclusion. Present this same equation to the Roman emperor or the brilliant minds of Rome prior to 400 BC, they would not know the answer to 1 + 0 = ? because there was no concept of zero at that time. Does it mean that truth (mathematical truth) did not exist in Rome? The 21st century man in Rome today knows that 1 + 0 = 1 because 0 is part of our inventory of knowledge. See Attached Graphix: Is it a drawing of a face or a landscape? Neither one is absolutely wrong or correct; both may be correct (or both may be wrong---if someone can see a third possibility).

  • Monika Toma added an answer in Cancer Stem Cells:
    Is there a good protocol to select and maintain lung cancer stem cells?
    I have been trying for a while to get lung cancer stem cells (from tumours) and the percentage of success has been close to zero. In some, we obtained nanospheres of 60-100micros but then they are difficult to disassociate (by mechanical means) and to maintain.
    Monika Toma · University of Lodz

    So what you do is just trying to culture them in spheres ?

    Do you have any paper about this subpopulations of cancer stem cells. We asked some other researchers and they said that there are no clear arguments against usage of such stem cells separators (for now) :).

    About fibroblasts now. The are finally detaching from the bottle after 4 days incubation with geneticin in concentration of 100 ug/ml.  

    Do stem cells grow adherently in this Defined K-SFM ?

  • Tahir Abbas added an answer in Alloys:
    Why is the resistance of an disordered alloy so high?

     the resistance of an disordered alloy is found so high and larger than the crystalline alloy of the same composition.

    What is the interpretation of this behaviour? 

    Tahir Abbas · Bahauddin Zakariya University

    First we should know what is order and disorder in alloys. If an alloy is made of two metals, say A and B, and if the concentration of B is small as compared to A, in the crystal of A, the atoms of B will be replaced according to the concentration of B.If that is true in whole of the sample of an alloy, we call it a solid solution or a disordered alloy.If on the other hand, the atoms of B are not randomly distributed in the matrix of B, we say that some sort of ordering is there in the alloy. 

    In any case, the resistivity of alloy has a higher value than the resistivity of metal A because of disorder created in the matrix of metal A due to the presence of atoms of type B.

  • Induction of a mammary tumor in Sprague-dawley rat with rat mammary tumor cell line LA7: is this model is reliable for assessment of antitumor action?

    Induction of a mammary gland tumor in female Sprague-dawley rats by inoculation of rat mammary gland tumor cell line, LA7. I would like to get some advice : Is this model is reliable for assessment of anti-tumor action? I got some references for this model.

     1.    Evaluation of cytotoxic and chemotherapeutic properties of boldine in breast cancer using in vitro and in vivo models (Drug Design, Development and Therapy 2014:8 719–733)

    2.    Induction of mammary gland tumor in female Sprague-Dawley rats with LA7 cells (African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 9(28), pp. 4491-4498, 12 July, 2010)

      I'm  looking to find out  reliable tumor model  with cell-line as cost and time are limiting factors. Thank you for your attention.

  • Denise Goins added an answer in Attitude to Death:
    Is there still such a thing as death education in schools and universities in USA and other countries?
    What are these courses about? What do they consist of? Do they prove helpful? Are they obligatory or it is a matter of choice to take them?
    Denise Goins · none

    Schools of Veterinary Medicine offer classes on death, dying, euthanasia, & all of the above on the human client.  Research, limited though it is, seems to indicate that those who take the course find the information very useful & therefore helpful.  Some universities are requiring veterinary students to take the course while others have it listed as an elective.

    Various organizations provide CEUs for health care providers on death, dying, and the dynamics involved in both as well as treatment for the dying patient and their families.

    Very interesting topic!

  • Amin Fatoni asked a question in Chlorophyll:
    What is the best chlorophyll source for natural pigmen?

    I am looking for chlorophyll sources with the highest yield or highest color intensity for natural pigment.

    Thank you

  • Subha Das added an answer in dsDNA:
    Alternatives to CF 11 Cellulose powder for dsRNA extraction?

    Whatman CF 11 cellulose powder (Cat. No. 4021-050) has been used to separate dsRNA elements from ssRNA, ssDNA and dsDNA. Column chromatography under 15% ethanol concentration, CF 11 cellulose specifically binds dsRNA fraction. Now the producer of CF 11, Whatman, does no longer produce it. Does anyone has experience with alternatives? I need it for dsRNA-binding purpose. I look forward to hearing from you...

    Subha Das · Bose Institute

    Dear Golam, Do you use Sigma type 101 cellulose for dsRNA extraction purpose? thanks! 

  • Francis Tsiboe asked a question in Energy Pricing:
    How to model volatility in an ECM?

    I am currently trying to estimate the effect of energy crises on food prices. Given the link between energy and food prices, I am inclined to reason that ECM will be best to estimate the relationship between food price and energy price (fuel price). Additionally I would like to include dummy variables in the model to estimate the effects of periods of energy crises on food prices. This I know is simple to do.
    Where am confused is, how to model price volatility in the context of an ECM. I am only interested in the direction where fuel price, as well as the structural dummies for energy crises influences not just the determination of food price, but their volatility as well.

  • Nader D Nader added an answer in Lung Cancer:
    Can any body tell me how tuberculosis might terminated by lung cancer?

    There are so many changes including physiological,histological,biochemical and immunological changes associated with secondary TB.So what is the mechanisms lead to tumour of lung sometimes.

    Nader D Nader · University at Buffalo, The State University of New York

    Mycobacterium TB requires a higher oxygen concentration and has a preference toward the tissue with the highest partial pressures of oxygen, As the partial pressures of oxygen drops dramatically in the tumor tissue, the environment becomes less than optimal for the survival of this bacteria.

  • Nor Atikah Abu Bakar asked a question in Rain:
    Can any one help me on how to calculate the rain distribution on image processing of rain drop to get the percentage?

    Here I attach my result image after process of image.from this I don't know how to coding the calculate the rain distribution to get the percentage of raindrops image. thanks you for any advance

  • Prashant Praveen added an answer in Langmuir:
    Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm parameters for adsorption?

    1. Can anyone provide me the basic step by step protocol of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm parameters for adsorption of pharmaceutically active compound (carbamazepine) from aquatic bodies using plant extract capped mangnetic nanoparticle

    2. how to calculate the Sorption and desorption experiment setup?

    3. how to calculate the absorption kinectics? 

    Prashant Praveen · National University of Singapore

    it is actually quite simple. you just ahve to measure the changes in concentration over time and fit the data to linear forms of the models. You can check the demonstration here:


  • Henry Chen asked a question in Thermal Expansion:
    How to measure CTE of organic layer coating on top substrate?

    I am trying to figure out the misalignment issue during making organic semi-device on top of glass/plastic substrate.However I have no idea how to get the CTE ( coefficient of thermal expansion) of organic layer (Metal and  substrate have data base)? Could anyone give me the way to measure that? 

  • Amin Fatoni asked a question in Anthocyanins:
    What is the best anthocyanin sources for natural pigmen?

    I am looking for anthocyanin sources with the highest yield or highest color intensity  for natural pigment. 

    Thank you

  • Nader D Nader asked a question in Oxidative Burst:
    What are the reason for higher intra-assay variability in measurement of neutrophil oxidative burst using zymozan or PMA induced chemiluminescence?

    What are the reason for higher intra-assay variability in measurement of neutrophil oxidative burst using zymozan or PMA induced chemiluminescence?

  • Prasanna Waichal added an answer in Biosignals:
    When dealing with Biosignals,Is there a clear cut distinction between what contributes to noise and what to the useful signal?

    Are the properties of noise and signal well defined,and are the algorithms that were originated in the analysis of signals pertaining to other domains faithful enough to analyze Bioelectric Signals?  

    Prasanna Waichal · Fiji National University

    Hello Archith,

    The biosignals, say for example ECG, originate from the body potentials whereas the noise is mainly from the man-made electrical sources. 50-60Hz Power-line frequencies are the worst enemies in bio-potential amplification/processing so you need to filter out these first. Usually a notch filter is applied to remove these power-line components and a low pass filter is used to restrict other high frequency signals entering into your system. This is needed particular to avoid the aliasing effect (filter act as anti-aliasing) in sampled systems with digital processing of the signals.

    The final algos you apply depend on what type of signals you are looking at and what data or information you need to extract from them.

    Hope that I have tried to address your question in a proper way!

  • Any suggestions on PCR quality DNA extraction from zebrafish embryonic trunk that has been stored in 70% glycerol after immunostaining?

    I am trying to extract DNA from zebrafish embryos (48 hpf) stored in 70% glycerol after immunostaining for genotyping by PCR. I have tried boiling embryonic trunk in 50 mM NaOH for 10 mins, cooling and adding 1/10th volume of 1 M Tris-HCl, pH 8.0 ( Meeker et al., 2007) without any success. 

    Thanks and I appreciate any inputs!

  • Raju Chiluvuri added an answer in Paradigm:
    What kind of physical evidence is necessary & how can I provide the physical evidence to expose flawed 1st principles at the root of computer science?

              My objective is to create, accumulate physical evidence and demonstrate irrefutable physical evidence to prove that the existing definitions for software components and CBSE/CBSD are fundamentally flawed. Today no computer science text book for introducing software components and CBSD (Component based design for software products) presents assumptions (i.e. first principles) that resulted in such flawed definitions for software components and CBSD.

    In real science, anything not having irrefutable proof is an assumption. What are the undocumented scientific assumptions (or first principles) at the root of computer science that resulted in fundamentally flawed definitions for so called software components and CBD (Component Based Design) for software products? Each of the definitions for each kind of so called software components has no basis in reality but in clear contradiction to the facts we know about the physical functional components for achieving CBD of physical products. What are the undocumented assumptions that forced researchers to define properties of software components, without giving any consideration to reality and facts we all knows about the physical functional components and CBD of physical products?

    Except text books for computer science or software engineering for introducing software components and CBSD (Component Based Design for software products), I believe, first chapter of any text book for any other scientific discipline discusses first principles at the root of the scientific discipline. Each of the definitions and concepts of the scientific discipline is derived by relying on the first principles, observations (e.g. including empirical results) and by applying sound rational reasoning. For example, any text book on basic sciences for school kids starts by teaching that “Copernicus discovered that the Sun is at the center”. This is one of the first principles at the root of our scientific knowledge, so if it is wrong, a large portion of our scientific knowledge would end up invalid.

    I asked countless expert, why we need different and new description (i.e. definitions and/or list of properties) for software components and CBSD, where the new description, properties and observations are in clear contradiction to the facts, concepts and observations we know about the physical functional components and CBD of large physical products (having at least a dozen physical functional components). I was given many excuses/answers, such as, software is different/unique or it is impossible to invent software components equivalent to the physical functional components.

    All such excuses are mere undocumented assumptions. It is impossible to find any evidence that any one ever validated these assumptions. Such assumptions must be documented, but no text book or paper on software components even mentioned about the baseless assumptions they relied on to conclude that each kind of useful parts is a kind of software components, for example, reusable software parts are a kind of software components. Then CBD for software is defined as using such fake components. Using highly reusable ingredient parts (e.g. plastic, steel, cement, alloy or silicon in wafers) is not CBD. If anyone asks 10 different experts for definition/description for the software components, he gets 10 different answers (without any basis in reality we know about the physical components). Only the God has more mysterious descriptions, as if no one alieve seen the physical functional components.

    The existing descriptions and definitions for so called CBSD and so called software components were invented and made out of thin air (based on wishful thinking) by relying on such undocumented myths. Today many experts defend the definitions by using such undocumented myths as inalienable truths of nature, not much different from how researchers defended epicycles by relying on assumption ‘the Earth is static’ up until 500 years ago. Also most of the concepts of CBSD and software components created during past 50 years derived by relying on such fundamentally flawed definitions of software components/CBSD (where the definitions, properties and descriptions are rooted in undocumented and unsubstantiated assumptions).

    Is there any proof that it is impossible to invent real software components equivalent to the physical functional components for achieving real CBSD (CBD for software products), where real CBSD is equivalent to the CBD of large physical products (having at least a dozen physical functional components)? There exists no proof for such assumptions are accurate, so it is wrong to rely on such unsubstantiated assumptions. It is fundamental error, if such assumptions (i.e. first principles) are not documented.

    I strongly believe, such assumptions must be documented in the first chapters of each of the respective scientific disciplines, because it forces us to keep the assumptions on the radar of our collective conscious and compels future researchers to validate the assumptions (i.e. first principles), for example, when technology makes sufficient progress for validating the assumptions.

    I am not saying, it is wrong to make such assumptions/definitions created for software components 50 years ago. But it is huge error to not documenting the assumptions, on which they relied upon for making such different and new definitions (by ignoring reality and known facts). Such assumptions may be acceptable and true 50 years ago (when computer science and software engineering was in infancy and assembly language and FORTRAN were leading edge languages), but are such assumptions still valid? If each of the first principles (i.e. assumptions) is a proven fact, who proved it and where can I find the proof? Such information must be presented in the first chapters.

    In real science, anything not having irrefutable proof is an assumption. Is such undocumented unsubstantiated assumptions are facts? Don’t the computer science text books on software components need to document proof for such assumptions before relying on such speculative unsubstantiated assumptions for defining the nature and properties of software components? All the definitions and concepts for software components and CBSD could be wrong, if the undocumented and unsubstantiated assumptions end up having huge errors.

    My objective is to provide physical evidence (i) to prove that it is possible to discover accurate descriptions for the physical functional components and CBD of large physical products (having at least a dozen physical functional components), and (ii) to prove that it is not hard to invent real software components (that satisfy the accurate description for the physical functional components) for achieving real CBSD (that satisfy the accurate description for the CBD of physical products), once the accurate descriptions are discovered.

    It is impossible to expose any error at the root of any deeply entrenched paradigm such as CBSE/CBSD (evolving for 50 years) and geocentric paradigm (evolved for 1000 years). For example, assumption “the Earth is static” considered an inalienable truth (not only of nature and but also of the God/Bible) for thousands of years, but ended up a flaw and sidetracked research efforts of countless researchers of basic sciences into a scientific crisis. Now we know, no meaningful scientific progress would have been possible, if that error was not yet exposed. Only possible way expose such error is showing physical evidence, even if most experts refuse to see the physical evidence, by finding few experts who are willing to see the physical evidence with open mind.

    I have lot of physical evidence and now in the process of building a team of engineers and necessary tools for building software applications by assembling real software components for achieving real CBSD (e.g. for achieving CBD-structure http://real-software-components.com/CBD/CBD-structure.html by using CBD-process http://real-software-components.com/CBD/CBD-process.html). When our tools and team is ready, we should be able to build any GUI application by assembling real software components.

    In real science, any thing not having irrefutable proof is an assumption. Any real scientific discipline must document each of the assumptions (i.e. first principles) at the root of the scientific discipline, before relying on the assumptions to derive concepts, definitions and observations (perceived to be accurate, only if the assumptions are proven to be True):  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273897031_In_real_science_anything_not_having_proof_is_an_assumption_and_such_assumptions_must_be_documented_before_relying_on_them_to_create_definitionsconcepts

    I tried to write papers and give presentations to educate about the error, but none of them worked. I learned in hard way, that this kind of complex paradigm shift can’t happen in just couple of hour’s presentation or by reading 15 to 20 page long papers. Only possible way left for me to expose the flawed first principles at the root of any deeply entrenched paradigm is by finding experts willing to see physical evidence and showing them the physical evidence: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273897524_What_kind_of_physical_evidence_is_needed__How_can_I_provide_such_physical_evidence_to_expose_undocumented_and_flawed_assumptions_at_the_root_of_definitions_for_CBSDcomponents

    So I am planning to work with willing customers to build their applications, which gives us few weeks to even couple of months time to work with them to build their software by identifying ‘self-contained features and functionality’ that can be designed as replaceable components to achieve real CBSD.

    How can I find experts or companies willing to work with us to see the physical evidence, for example, by allowing us the work with them to implement their applications as a CBD-structure? What kind of physical evidence would be compelling, when any one willing to give us a chance (at no cost to them, since we can work for free to provide compelling physical evidence)? I failed so many times in this complex effort, so I am not sure what could work? Does this work?

    Best Regards,


    Raju Chiluvuri · http://www.pioneer-soft.net

    Dear Dr. Page,

                You want a revolution? I believe, the same mistake is repeated in case of neural networks for artificial intelligence. There is no documentation for few assumptions (i.e. first principles) that lead to the definitions, nature and descriptions for neurons.

                It is impossible to invent true CBSD by relying on exiting descriptions for so called software component (i.e. building blocks for the CBSD), where the exiting descriptions have no basis in reality.

                Likewise, it is impossible to invent true artificial intelligence by relying on exiting incomplete or even flawed definitions for the building blocks (i.e. neuron). If the descriptions are flawed, future generations can’t expose flaws to put the artificial intelligence on right tracks (based on reality) to advance on right path.

    Any error in the first priceless sidetracks scientific progress in to a wrong path and no meaningful progress is possible (if it ends up in a wrong path), even mankind invest a trillion dollars (or waste another 50 years in case of CBSD or wasted another 1000 years in case of geocentric paradigm).

    I don’t think, I am capable of solving problems of artificial intelligence or the Church-Turing Thesis. I feel, it is unfair to say that I can’t pursue an area that fascinated me and talk about my findings, I believe to be true. You are free to expose errors in my findings, if there are any errors in my findings. I believe, I can provide physical evidence to back my findings, if you give me an oppertunity.

    Best Regards,


  • Waldemar W Koczkodaj added an answer in Mahout:
    What is the most common software of data mining?

    Orange? Weka? Apache mahout? Rapidminer? R? and which one? If you have any explanation about the topic, I appreciate it.

    Waldemar W Koczkodaj · Laurentian University

    I also know my answer:


    The gap between academia and industry is getting bigger and bigger. The technology is more and more expensive. We are unable to learn fast enough new tricks. Tragic...

  • Tang Tang added an answer in Cellulase Enzymes:
    Is anyone familiar with enzymatic saccharification of biomass?

    Dear All,
    I am performing saccharification of biomass with the help of commercial cellulase enzyme. But when I am treating biomass with enzyme and taking reading at 0 hr it shows a pick of sugar also and with increasing incubation time sugar concentration is lowering.
    So please suggest me any troubleshooting method if any?

    Tang Tang · Jiangnan University

    if your enzyme hydrolysis environment are gentle, it may can be happended that some bacterials, which have the ability consumping the reducing suger at the enzyme hydrolysis time, multiply rapidly in the liver on your sugar. maybe you should put a little ethyl acetate in this system at the first? trying again.

    all the best!!!

  • What Cloud Platform would you recommend to use for teaching software development to undergraduates?

    Possibilities include IBM Bluemix, Google Cloud Platform, Azure, Amazon etc. Have you any experience using these? In particular for A. spinning up VMs that students have been working on and B. Easily creating web service components for mobile apps (Android). Have you participated in Academic Initiatives for Cloud services?

    (My cohort is studying online/by distance towards a BSc. in IT.)

    Ramachandran Nallaperumal · Indian Institute of Management, Kozhikode

    Google cloud

  • The Best Method of Mobile Phase Degassing for HPLC?

    Which one the best method of degassing, is it HPLC (Waters) in-line degasser? or manually degass with sonicator? Please give some facts and reasons.

    M. Farooq Wahab · University of Texas at Arlington

    Sonication of the mobile phase under vacuum is one of the best ways to degas the solvent. Sonicator alone cannot remove dissolved gases. However, keep in mind that under vacuum very low boiling point solvent can actually vaporize if extended sonication is done e.g. if you are sonicating ethanol and heptane mixture, one solvent will preferentially vaporize resulting in a different mobile phase composition. As others have mentioned, in-line degasser + degassed mobile is a good combination. A de-gasser has a finite capacity to remove gases. To test that, generate 50-50 MeOH and H2O mobile phase without degassing or sonicating the solvents from a H2O and MeOH bottle. You will notice lots of fluctuation in the pressure. 

  • Shonam Sharma asked a question in Hydrology:
    What is the easiest methodology for evaluation of hydrology of an area?

    As i have to evaluate the hydrology of an area and it is a huge topic i need a  methodology to do this.

  • There are many opportunities for information technology security researcher . Does someone want to work as IBM software instructor?

    There are many opportunities to become a IBM software instructor (Tivoli, WebSphere, Cloud, IBM DB2, Rational etc.). I'm in contact with few important companies looking for young European researcher. Contact me privately.

    Ramachandran Nallaperumal · Indian Institute of Management, Kozhikode

    In my point of view all good researcher are not good instructor, moreover good researcher may not have time to teach.

  • Shonam Sharma added an answer in Urban Health:
    Innovative area for PHD research?

    Highly appreciate if you can suggest me some innovative area for my PHD research. I am open to all areas from infectious to NCD and urban health to climate change.

    Shonam Sharma · Indian School of Mines

    It will be beneficial for you to first go through the literature and find out your interest area and then it will help you to choose the particular topic of your research.

  • Pascal Paschos added an answer in Matrix Laboratory:
    What tricks do you know in programming by MATLAB to perform programs faster?

    As you know MATLAB stands for matrix laboratory. I like to know, how we can program with matrix method to gain less time duration.

    for example how we can implement for loops with matrix?

    1. %x->row:attribute  column:instance
    2. Distance=zeros(size(x,2));
    3. for i=1:n
    4.    for j=1:n
    5.        Distance(i,j)=sum(abs(x(:,i)-x(:,j)))/numel(x(:,i));
    6.    end
    7. end

    and other situation that we can program better in MATLAB.

    Pascal Paschos · Northwestern University

    look to see if parfor will work in this case.

  • Nadiir Bheekhun added an answer in Slurry:
    What is a typical range of %wt solid fraction needed to obtain a concentrated ceramic slurry?

    Hi all,

    Can anyone suggest me what would be a typical range of %wt solid fraction needed to obtain a concentrated ceramic slurry for spray-drying? I have come across some works wherein 50 %wt of solid fraction have been employed.

    Any justifications will be greatly appreciated.

    Thanks a lot.
    Best Regards.

    Nadiir Bheekhun · Putra University, Malaysia

    Dear Dr. Mohammad,

    Different Oxides. Can you propose me a dispersant as I have been informed before that PVA and PEG might be enough for an initial study. What is your opinion?

    Thank you!

  • Abdelkader Frendi added an answer in Quenching:
    How do we computationally find the quenching distance?

    I am taking a flat rectangular tube with diameter 'D'. I will give a flat ignition at the end. I will try decreasing 'D' until the flame quenches  a few time steps after ignition patch is applied. Now, the thing is does the thickness and the temperature of ignition patch matter. Is it necessary that I keep the ignition thickness as equal to flame thickness and the emperature of patch as AFT. 

    Abdelkader Frendi · University of Alabama in Huntsville

    Well, there are many factors that can affect your answer chief among them is the kinetic model used. One step overall reaction model tends to be a source of error for minimum ignition energy computation, I presume this is the case here too. The rate of heat loss to the wall and the wall boundary condition can be another source of error.

    Deciding weather the flame extinguishes or not after 6-7 mm is also in error. What you should watch for instead is the maximum flame temperature which should steady out at or slightly below AFT. If the max temperature continuously decreases then the flame will extinguish eventually.

    Also the Go No-Go boundary for extinguishment is tricky so....

    Back to the size of the initial ignition zone, if it is too big all that will happen is you will push the flame out farther but it does not mean it will not extinguish so be careful with that.

    hope this helps.

  • Nagaraj E B added an answer in Automotive:
    What is a suitable micro-Inclusion rating (DS-globular type) for bearing materials for automotive applications?

    Bearing materials most commonly observed the inclusion morphology such as sulfide type, alumina type and silicate type, globular oxide type, what will be a suitable limit for globular oxide type micro-inclusions.

    Nagaraj E B · National Institute of Technology Karnataka

    Dear Viktor , Thank you for the quick answer!

    What is the method to measure it in ppm ?

  • Can any one help me regarding current mode control of dc dc Boost converter?

    Hello all,

    I am working on dc dc converters for which I want to design a boost converter in current mode control, can any one help me regarding Matlab simulation and modeling?