Q&A

ResearchGate Q&A lets scientists and researchers exchange questions and answers relating to their research expertise, including areas such as techniques and methodologies.

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  • How do you motivate a negative - minded person?
    We tend to bump with people who gives up quickly or doing things half way, regardless of age. It can be tiring to push them to move further. Right now, I am facing one. After spending money, time, effort and thinking, to a work related matter, that person is thinking of walking away. If you are in my shoe, what will you do?
    Krishnan Umachandran · Nelcast Ltd.,
    Leave alone motivating a negative - minded person; it is better if we can identify that type PERSONALITY and avoid wasting time on such CLOSED people... Every individual is brilliant to identify a OPEN and a CLOSED person, if there are welcoming character to OPENNESS then imparting any input is at ease and motivating to the teacher / trainer...
  • What are the best possible applications of parametric amplifiers?
    The relation of parametric amplifiers are more close with communication circuits and where noise is a critical factor.
    Antti Tanskanen · VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
    If we are speaking about electronic parametric amplifiers (there are also optical paramps) their main area of application is on very high frequencies, where conventional active devices do not provide adequate gain and/or noise figure (~hundreds of GHz currently). In the time of relatively noisy electron tubes, paramps were a practical choice already in VHF/UHF frequencies for low-noise applications such as receiver front-ends in radioastronomy. The frequency limit has been pushed higher by introduction of inexpensive GaAs FETs and high electron mobility transistors. Aside low-noise signal applications, I recall even seeing a quite recent paper on parametric power amplification on submillimeter waves.
  • Arif Sayed Ali asked a question in HFSS
    While designing Microstrip antenna in HFSS, how much thickness of conducting patch and ground plane we should take for better results?
    Is there any thumb rule for that?
  • Where can I download the Google(or OpenStreetMap) Road network as shapefile?
    Is there any site from where I can get Google(or OpenStreetMap) Road network as shapefile? As per my knowledge It is not distributed by google. So anybody can suggest how can I create this road network for a custom use?
  • What would you do if you received a report from the reviewer of your paper asking for a major revision, with which you completely disagree?
    What would be your response? Would you appeal to the editor by asking him/her to make the final decision, would you be weak and amend what you believe is right, would you argue back with facts, would you re-submit the paper to another journal?
    Shafig Al-Haddad · Applied Science Private University
    What would we do if we received two contradicting comments from two different reviewers.
  • András Bozsik added an answer in ResearchGate
    Are hackers in RG authorised?
    I have thought that RG is a scientific forum where honest and decent scientists change ideas, information and discuss scientific as well as important public questions. Yesterday, an anonymous down-voter – whose motivation I cannot know - decided to start a punishing expedition against me. He visited my profile and systematically started to down vote each of my comments in four of my questions. He down voted even when I thanked the contribution of participants. This shows clearly he/she was motivated exclusively “scientifically”. According to the rules of RG these fair people can attack everybody using their anonymity and destroy the operation of RG which is based on openness and confidence. I have asked the editors of RG https://feedback.researchgate.net/responses/how-do-you-like-your-profiles-overview-tab but they have not answered yet. What to do? Do simple RG participants right and opportunity for defence?
    András Bozsik · University of Debrecen
    Dear Michael, You can be right but how long will be this transient phase? I am afraid evil examples are contagious.
  • A K M Mominul Islam added an answer in Allelopathy
    Allelopathy potential of some plants: is it always about the negative effects on receiving components of the ecosystem?
    Is the effect of allelopathy of phanerophytes on ephemerals and other chaemeophyes always negative? Can't the effects be advantageous to other biotic components?
    A K M Mominul Islam · Bangladesh Agricultural University
    Allelochemicals can stimulate the growth at very low concentrations but could inhibit the same at higher concentrations. The stimulatory activity of any compound at lower concentrations is called hormesis. Duke et al. (2006) gave a plausible explanation of hormesis; the availability of some chemicals at lower doses could affect the plant hormones and are responsible for growth stimulation, while they might have growth retarding activity at higher doses due to the same or another mechanism of actions. Anyway, in allelopathic research we always consider the negative effects (inhibitory) of one plant on another. The Novel Weapon hypothesis also consider the negative effects...
  • Should I consider a spliced version of the gene to build the qPCR primers or an unspliced version which has an intron?
    I ran an RNAseq with Brugia malayi worms treated with a drug and untreated. I found a certain number of genes differentially expressed in the treated worms as compared to the untreated. I selected one upregulated gene to conduct confirmatory qPCR. I have selected Actin to be my control for the study as its expression is unaltered. Should I consider the spliced version of the gene to build the primers or unspliced version which has the intron? The aim is to not amplify the background genomic DNA. Many literature articles say use exon-exon span to design primers. What does this mean exactly?
    Berlinda Verdoodt · Ruhr-Universität Bochum
    Human actin has very short introns (like 50-100 bases). In that case, intron-spanning primers are not very efficient in distinguishing cDNA from gDNA. If that's the case for your organism too, use primers on exon junctions if it is possible to design decent primers that way.
  • What products, services, or ideas shouldn't be advertised?
    Ethical issues involved in advertisement. Challenges for advertising practitioners like representing healthy, useful, and ethical products, services, and/or ideas. Your input please.
    Nageswara Posinasetti · University of Northern Iowa
    Unethical practices such as surrogate advertisement, using stereotype images, and using children in advertisement should not be used. For example alcoholic drinks and tobacco products through sponsorship of popular programs. It is also unethical to advertise unverified and false claims such as those used by energy drinks. Stereotyping and using women in compromising way in advertisements is highly undesirable. But unfortunately that is the most common form used.
  • How and what do you learn from student evaluations of your classes?
    I have just collected data on student evaluation of my large lecture class. I find it hard to draw conclusions, because some of the feedback is so contradictory. I do not mean the one person who says that he or she was missing meaning and structure, when 98 % say that the material covered in class was meaningful and well-structured. The specifics of these cases are a special challenge. What really concerns me is what do I make of results like when 30% say that the teacher should ask for cooperative behavior and attention, and, at the same time, 30% say that the teacher should be more permissive on this. In a similar vein: Great examples ... too many examples ... great that you follow a textbook ... do not follow a textbook to control redudancy ... so I assumme that I face substantial subgroups pulling in opposite directions. What is your experience and what would be your suggestion how to handle student evaluations and how to use them for course & curriculum development?
    Krishnan Umachandran · Nelcast Ltd.,
    My personal feeling is that, "How they accept me as a Teacher?", "How much have they can understand my communication to them?"
  • Farid Nasir Ani added an answer in Nanofluidic
    Is the nanofluid in refrigeration systems used as a compressor or as a refrigerant?
    Many papers of nanofluid can not give any detailed ideas about nano refrigerant.
    Farid Ani · Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
    Mixed with refrigerant
  • Can anybody explain to me why the result from BCA protein estimation is not correct between different dilutions?
    I performed protein estimation using BCA FROM thermo-scientific,i did dilution 1:10,1:100,1:1000. i noticed that the three results after i multiply by dilution factor is very far from each other,or sometimes only one dilution is working and the other in negative value.What could be the problem and what is the action in this case? note:
    Isaac Rosa Benito · University of Santiago de Compostela
    You have to use a correct blank-baseline, for each dilution. If you are using the same amount of solvent in each dilution, then with the same blank is not possible to have negative values. I will need more details about what are you doing and then I could help you better. You should have at least very similar results in terms of concentration.
  • Gulnaz Bashir asked a question in Tuberculosis
    What is the status of quantiferon TB gold in India in diagnosing latent Tb.
    We are currently doing TST in our hospital. Before switching over to quantiferon TB gold,want to know other peoples' experience with this test.
  • Any ideas for how to cross-talk from educational psychology to science?
    As an educational psychologist I have been on a task force committee to draft a mission statement for our university. In my view, the paper was based on the state of the art discussion about competence oriented teaching. However, the group absolutely failed to gain the support from the science departments (physics, chemistry, mathematics) and I had the feeling that we were talking in two different languages when we discussed the issues. Now, I am wondering if I experienced a particularly challenging situation or if this is more of a common experience when different academic cultures need to interact. Here is my question: What is your experience in dealing with the challenges involved, when ideas from the mindset (and terminology) of social scientists and natural scientists collide? Any suggestions how to bridge the communication chasm between these parallel universes?
    Krishnan Umachandran · Nelcast Ltd.,
    educational psychology is a informative media of evolving science to implementation. Understanding the abstracts, theories, theorems, postulated views etc., have to transferred to the students in the right acceptable and understandable form of communication and learning.
  • Unexpected results when using the mitochondrial membrane potential dye - JC1. How to explain?
    I treated cells (platelets) to initiate cell apoptosis and used JC1 dye to measure the mitochondrial membrane potential by flow cytometry. This dye, as I read, penetrates the cell and creates red aggregates in the mitochondria but when there is a disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential the dye goes out and the red signal decreases. I have confusing results. In the treated cells the red signal was increased instead of decreased compared to untreated cells. How can I explain such results?
    Efthimios Andronis · University of Crete
    Although that the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane is a pre-cursor of apoptosis, other downstream events also regulate the process. Furthermore mitochondria are dynamic organelles, which under certain conditions both translocate and change in size. I would advice to add florescent or confocal microscopy of cells treated and "stained" with JC-1 to your estimates in order to get a good view of the organelle physiology in addition to determination of the red/green ratio.
  • Why horizontally polarized antennas are not preferred at low frequency broadcast applications?
    What will be the repercussions if we use horizontally polarized antennas connected with high power sources?
    Mir Lodro · Sukkur Institute of Business Administration
    @Giovanni: Low frequency means long wavelength is equally valid for linear polarized antennas i.e. horizontal or vertical polarization. If this is the case then why we prefer vertically polarized antennas over horizontal polarized at LF?
  • Daniel Baldomir added an answer in Biology
    What has been the biggest scientific injustice, fraud or intellectual illegality that you know?
    One of the most known is the cold fusion that Fleischmann and Pons claimed to find in 1989 a chemical reaction at room temperature, which had an implicit nuclear reaction produced at tens of millions of degrees at normal conditions. Their experiment involved electrolysis of heavy water at on the surface of palladium electrode and very soon it was rejected by most of the scientific community. But in spite of that the University of Utah financed one great project on this issue and also Japan opened one program from 1992 till 1997 as other countries. How can it be possible with all the presumed filters fail on such a basic knowledge? Another famous one is Woo Suk cloning human cells in 2005 and making a good publication in Science. Do you know of more recent ones in your own country?
    Daniel Baldomir · University of Santiago de Compostela
    Perhaps pertinent observation, at this interesting state of the discussion, could be to ask how many new ideas in Physics are per number of papers. Or what are the real discoveries and what is its price, because another fraud is to have people publishing always the same idea even if it is proven its usefulness or interest. I know that the "interest" is a very difficult concept and quite subjective too, but the real interest is not in h index or other factors which measures many parameters outside of an individual author. I think that one of more worthy challenges could be to consider the people, even at the end they are wrong, but who can present interesting ideas or solutions risking their scientific reputation or wasting a lot of time within a hard work which likely nobody is going to recognize. What do you think about?
  • Would anyone know of journal papers relating to cyanotoxins that cause ATP inhibition / reduction?
    I am working on a Limnothrix paper and would like examples of other cyanobacteria that may cause similar effects.
    Xana Bermúdez · University of Vigo
    In recent bibliography I consulted for a research related with cyanobacteria, I found a paper where they talk about the inhibitory effects on ATP synthase of Microcystins: A. Mikhailov, A.S. Harmala-Brasken, J. Hellman, J. Meriluoto, J.E. Eriksson Identification of ATP synthase as a novel intracellular target for microcystin-LR Chem. Biol. Interact, 142 (2003), pp. 223–237 I hope you find it helpful and interesting Kind regards
  • Problems with alpha synuclein Western Blot
    I am trying to perform western blots of alpha synuclein (14 kDa), using wet transference 1h 15min at 85 V, but I get this weird "patchy" pattern, the band isn´t a whole defined band. What could be the problem?
    Luciana Sampieri · National University of Cordoba, Argentina
    Thank you !
  • Are you interested in a Hands-On Training in NGS Data Analysis?
    Do you think your skills in sequencing data analysis could need some improvement? Then our NGS workshop series taking place in October 2014 might be interesting for you. As usual, these hands-on workshops have a strong focus on practical experience meaning that you analyze typical NGS datasets. Our trainers will directly interact with you and give valuable feedback. Our workshop series 2014 will consist of four separate courses: For beginners, we have the RNA-seq Bioinformatics: A Practical Introduction course which will cover all the basics required for NGS analysis like file formats, quality control, read processing and read alignment, all based on an example RNA-seq dataset. We are very happy that we could convince Dr. Michael Hackenberg, the developer of one of the most-used microRNA gene prediction tools for small RNA-seq data (miRanalyzer) to join us for our microRNA workshop. This course titled microRNA Analysis Using High-Throughput Sequencing will cover the essential steps of small RNA-seq analysis from microRNA prediction to extensive downstream analyses. We also have a workshop on DNA Methylation Analysi where Helene Kretzschmer will show you how she took care of her data in the MMML-Seq study of the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC). Lastly, there is the workshop Discovering standard and non-standard RNA transcripts where Gero Doose will train you on advanced methods of transcriptome analysis. Gero has a strong background in transcriptome analysis, finding different isoforms, fusion-transcripts or circularized RNAs. NOTE: There is an early-bird discount which applies until end of april. ================================================================= SUMMARY: Upcoming NGS data analysis workshops 2014 October 13-14, 2014: microRNA Analysis Using High-Throughput Sequencing http://www.ecseq.com/workshops/workshop_2014-02.html October 16-17, 2014: RNA-seq Bioinformatics: A Practical Introduction http://www.ecseq.com/workshops/workshop_2014-01.html October 20-21, 2014: DNA Methylation Analysis http://www.ecseq.com/workshops/workshop_2014-03.html October 23-24, 2014: Discovering standard and non-standard RNA transcripts http://www.ecseq.com/workshops/workshop_2014-04.html Find more information about our upcoming workshops on our website: http://www.ecseq.com
  • Wojciech Stępniowski added an answer in Materials
    Ranking of researchers by Researchgate indicators
    Recently, I found in the Web a ranking of researchers from a public research instituion built from the impact data collected from the ResearchGate social webtool. Because the impact factor of journals focused on more basic aspects of materials research is several times larger than those dedicated to technological aspects, I wonder what kind of conclusions may be extracted from this type of ranking. S.
    Wojciech Stępniowski · Military University of Technology
    Well, the RG indicators are really far from really impact of researchers. Imagine a researcher who has dozens of well cited papers, but doesn't take part in any discussion. On the other hand - imagine a researcher who has few papers, but takes part in many discussions - the RG rating will be similar! And the second guy put much less contribution to the science (just chatting). Therefore, we shouldn't take into account the RG numbers seriously, and put attention only to Scopus, Web of Science etc. On the other hand, RG is a great platform to make contacts with other researchers - it is much cheaper than going to the conferences :) Due to the RG I have fruitfull collaboration with other researchers which soon will be turned into publications - without RG I wouldn't meet these people. Thus, there are two sides of RG - one, the serious one, where people can meet, chat, exchange experience, or papers - the useful one! And the second one - while, especially young researchers, think that many point on RG derived from anwsers, questions and followers will make mature researchers of them - only hard work and critical view on own research will make of researcher a valuable one, not the RG points:)
  • Susan Rigali added an answer in Cereal Technology
    GMO crops. Is there any peer reviewed scientific evidence that questions their safety?
    The popular media and a lot of groups with apparently "green" agendas are opposed to the use of GMO crops and often cite safety concerns as an argument to stop their production/development/use. However, is there really a difference between selectively breeding for pest resistance and genetically modifying a crop to be pest resistant and does this really present the consumer with food safety issues?
    Till now no effect? A lie! http://www.nationofchange.org/monsanto-s-roundup-linked-argentina-s-growing-health-problems-1382882609
  • Mohd Sadaf asked a question in Literature
    Can anybody prove that destiny is a reality?
    I believe I can
  • What is the current whereabouts of a radiate head of Apollo, bought by John Dick British consul in Leghorn in the third quarter of the eighteenth c.
    See p. 44 fn. a and pl III of this book: https://archive.org/stream/delusagedesstatu00guas#page/44/mode/2up https://archive.org/stream/delusagedesstatu00guas#page/n541/mode/2up
  • Gabriel Negreanu added an answer in Energy
    What is the favorite reference book on renewable energy?
    We have 40 to 50 years dedicated to research on renewable energies. I would say the first big impulse was the oil crisis of the early 70s. But previous research existed. Many books and articles and other texts were produced in this period. What would you say is your favorite?
    Gabriel Negreanu · Polytechnic University of Bucharest
    Wind Power, Paul Gipe, James &James 2004
  • Divya Matta asked a question in Genomics
    If somebody have access to nature genetics kindly download the following paper
    "In silico tools for splicing defect prediction: a survey from the viewpoint of end users", please download follwing paper and mail me, I m in urgent need thank you
  • suggest me a website where can i find the image features(color,shape,texture...etc) information as numbers as data set in Excel
    Data set of an image
  • Laura Mills asked a question in Microbiology
    What is the best possible way to plate one bacteria on top of another?
    I want to try and plate Klebsiella on to Escherichia coli. Would growing a lawn and pouring an overlay on top be sufficient?
  • Is poultry manure used with out composting? How i compost the poultry manure?
    I want to use the poultry manure to improve the growth of plants.
    Thank you for the question! It brought us all to this age old question of manure versus compost. Not all fresh manures are the same, and not all composts are the same. Poultry manure tends to be nutrients-rich, perhaps because birds' excreta is a condensed mixture of urine and faeces. Its balance in C:N is relatively low, which means that it will not contribute to building stable humus in the soil. However, the combination of high nutrients, and low C, means that it will serve as a quick fertilizer when used correctly (in the appropriate dose for the type of soil and type of crop used). In order to avoid pollution (nitrate leaching in the groundwater), root burning because of excessive ammonia (excess ammonium results in excess ammonia), the incorporation into the soil of fresh poultry manure with C-rich material (biochar, sawdust, woodchips several weeks before planting (in-situ composting) might be an option. This could counter humus depletion mentioned by others, while at the same affording bio-available NPK. However, this could be also done in a compost pile, in which case it would be easier to control the composting process. It is hard to come up with a formula that works everywhere (in a diversity of "soil-crop" systems. This means that some experimentations of your own will be needed. Which is not a bad thing. This makes of each of us an expert in his/her own environment. Guillaume
  • Wojciech Stępniowski added an answer in Catalyst
    How to do 1 side anodization for metal?
    Some journal paper mentioned in experimental part, they used Kapton polyimide tape to cover 1 side of foil in order to prevent reaction with electrolyte/solution. 1). So, is it 100% can be trusted that polyimide tape won't react with the solution (just afraid if it will contaminate the electrolyte & may change the chemical reaction inside)? 2). How about if the electrolyte/solution is acidic base or contain small amount of fluoride (HF or NH4F)? 3). Or is there any other suggestion to use other tape which is more inert for anodization pocess?
    Wojciech Stępniowski · Military University of Technology
    I'm using acid resistant, insulative dye. It works (experience: over 5.000 samples anodized!). You can also use the 3M sticking tapes.