Q&A

ResearchGate Q&A lets scientists and researchers exchange questions and answers relating to their research expertise, including areas such as techniques and methodologies.

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If we assume that every human being has his/her own music, what is yours?
Beata Borowska-Beszta · Nicolaus Copernicus University
Dear Nelson, "Jeux d'eau" is refreshing as cool breese. Ravel named this water but for me is also nice air music. The second piece - "Nights in Gardens of Spain" played by Alicia de Larrocha sounds much warmer however on similar frequencies. Seems epic with beautiful panoramic narrative. I perceive the third piece as also not intrusive music, which enables both listening and thinking. Thank you for sharing.
• Can a metal oxide having lower surface area exhibit better bactericidal property than a metal oxide having higher surface area
Can a metal oxide nanoparticle having lower surface area exhibit better bactericidal property than a metal oxide (same material) nanoparticle having higher surface area?... If so, then what could be the factors which are responsible for this behaviour?
Prashanth Gopala Krishna · Sir M. Visvesvaraya Insititute of Technology
Thanks Anca and Dr. Iva. I am asking about the same material (nanoparticle) with similar chemical composition having different surface area. recent studies have shown that shape of the nanoparticle also affects its antibacterial property, but finally is it the surface area of a nanoparticle only is going to play an important role in its bactericidal activity?
• Would adopting a green lifestyle help save the planet Earth?
In a world dictated by consumerism, how many of us are willing to adopt a green lifestyle to save what's left of nature and leave this heritage for the future generations? Do we actually realise the importance of the environment and its role in our survival?
Yes of course adopting a green lifestyle will help save the planet Earth. So go green.
• where does Intellectual Capital Plays role in Strategic Decision Making Process
process of Strategic Decision making is influenced by Intellectual Capital but where they play a critical part
• Have any paper reference , they said that, the software cost estimation is a problem before requirement collection.
The paper said that the need for the collection of software cost estimation is a problem before. If a paper is called, will be the reference & link please.
Does anyone have any experience/recommendations on a ribosomal RNA removal kit (removing ribosomal RNA from total RNA) for C.elegans?
Has anyone successfully removed ribosomal RNA from C.elegans total RNA using RiboMinus kit (Invitrogen), Ribo-zero (Epicenter)?
Emanuel Wyler · Max-Delbrück-Centrum für Molekulare Medizin
We did some RNA-seq on worm samples once, but I have to look up whether we indeed did ribominus or polyA selection. But, I just realized that you are at the CECAD in Cologne – go to Zisong Chang/Christoph Dieterich at the MPI AGE, I did the expeirments with them, they have the data and should know more about this issue.
Are there mathematicians, scientists or philosophers whose work you view as influencing historical events in a minor or in a major significant way?
C. Lewis Kausel · Mount Ida College
I think Mahfuz is referring to Avicenna, and he's right. He was a polymath and has been credited as the father of medicine and the teacher of Averroes.
• In the definition of the Laplace transform, we are using only e^(-st). What is the reason behind this?
As we know, Laplace transform is the integral of f(t) times e^(-st) from t=0 to infinity. I just want to know, what is the reason for using only e^(-st).
Marcio Eisencraft · University of São Paulo
What more do you want to use? And in fact the definition goes to $-\infty$.
• It is true that most owners of PhD degrees in economics - are the graduates of university physics departments?
I do not know. If that is so, then why ?
K. Singh · Indian Council of Agricultural Research
Not exactly physics, but I personally know many people who have their basic degree in science (engineering) and then master and PhD in economics. Many Research Fellows and Senior Research Fellows working with International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) have such profiles. It is only in developing countries where, people are not moving into disciplines, which are not related to the ones in which they graduate. Otherwise it is common practice world-wide particularly in US of A. What I can infer is that physical sciences are more mathematical and so is modern economics, so it is easier to make a switch, and also there is no harm, as most of us now work into a multidisciplinary mode.
• Does the concept of sustainable development have anything to do with the failure of capitalism?
Concerns pertaining to inequality and social exclusion have been equally important as environmental degradation to development experts. This report of United Nations http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/publications/world-social-situation-2013.html discusses why serious attention should be drawn to inequality. Does that mean the capitalism is failing? or the whole subject of sustainable development is dumb?
Dave Modeste · Elevance Renewable Sciences
Capitalism may become a failure if its key practitioners are unable to recognize and adapt the concepts of sustainable development in a way that can on one side preserve this form of economic system, while ensuring that the natural and human resources of the world are not exploited exclusively for the generation of capital. The concept of sustainability is not new. In fact many human societies have mastered the art of applying sustainable concepts in a variety of cultural and geographical regions of the earth. It is ironic that many of these societies have been called "primitive" societies. These two concepts (capitalism and sustainability) clash because some segments of the human family have accepted the idea of "progress" and "development" to mean ever increasing generation of capital, and more rapid invention and application of technology at all cost. Ultimately there is a choice to be made, hopefully we make the right one.
What is the name of the statistical method being used for determination of how does a list of numbers far away from being ordered?
Let's assume that, we have three columns and numbers represent orders. real world_______predicted 1________ predicted 2 1 ________________ 3 _______________1 2 ________________1________________3 3_________________2________________2 I need something like a correlation coefficient to obtain information about how predicted 1 and 2 columns are ordered while compared to real world column. Could you please help me?
• How do prions become infectious, do they can produce their own copies in multiples? Are they living things or any other new forms?
Prions are dangerous misfolded infectious proteins - which I read in an article about mad cow disease. Up until prions I used to think, only nucleic acids could be replicated into this earth. How can prions can do so without DNA? I can not accept it. You know they are crazy like zombies... I feel like investigating more on this topic to find out in which way they are multiplying themselves and becoming harmful. If you know about their mechanism of virulence please share with me..
Robert Eibl · Universität Heidelberg
For the easiest understanding, you may look for the genetic sequences of the proteins... There are Prion genes and there is for example an APP gene, of course different. I guess that after the hype of prion research around the Nobel prize in the mid-1990s there is not so much room for improvement and all those who did not have a chance to become professor in that time had to change their research field. So, I think there are not many opportunities for a career in such a field...
• What are the best kits for RNA isolation?
We usually use the Roche HighPure RNA extraction kit for isolation from cultured cells, but I'm interested to know what other kits researchers have had success with. Ideally we'd like a spin-column kit to isolate from up to 1 million cells.
Reyhaneh Ravanbakhsh · University of Tabriz
As mentioned, it's depend of your samples and what you will do after , But in general, I agree with Ozgecan Kayalar i think RNeasy Mini kit from Qiagen is suitable.
• Vaithianathan Kannan asked a question in Evolution
How do the colonial nesting waterbirds find their young ones after hatching to feed them any papers in this aspect available
Waterbirds nesting and evolution
• Why Egypt has 15-20% prevalence of HCV?
Egypt has highest prevalence of HCV. What is the major risk factor? or history behind it?
Working with the ultra small amount of bone marrow cells - any thoughts?
I will get a sample of bone marrow cells, containing appr. 1000 cells in 200 µl 1xPBS. For my downstream application, I would need to concentrate them down to 30-40 µl volume. Does anyone have experience with such procedure? I would centrifuge them 5 min at 800 g, followed by 5 min @ 1500 g, followed by gentle aspiration of 160 µl of the supernatant. Is it a good idea?
Without immunological markers, what cells can be accurately identified in a simple H&E section?
In the literature, researchers often use antibodies against immune cell markers (CD4, CD11 and CD68) to quantify particular cells occurrence. What cells can be identified without such markers? For example, an atherosclerotic plaque is a hive of inflammatory cells. Other than the distinct foam cell structures, could intact macrophages be identified? Second question, are there any quick special stains that can identify leukocytes in tissue without performing IHC? Thank you!!
Ahmed Mohamedani · University of Gezira
I also agree withElizabith, but using quick stains is simple and give excellent morphlogy of most of the cells you are looking for. Such stains include diff quick, rapidiff and RAL. One can make his own quick stain to cut down expenses.
• Pranav Verma asked a question in Cryptography
Can anyone help me in understanding 'decoy pulse' used in QKD.?
I know its related to multi-photon state and used in QKD to make it more secure than BB84 which used week photon sources. nut i want to know that what is this decoy pulse how it is generated and if possible give me some video links or something please.
• where can I get a XRD image or link for the image for PdSO4 ?
XRD image
Is mathematics a human contrivance or is it innate to nature?
Do we invent mathematical forms as we need them and then merely discover their emergent properties later? Or are those mathematical forms innate to nature, and are hence discovered rather than invented? Does it really matter to science, which way around we view this? Is it just philosophy or could there be real consequences? https://www.researchgate.net/publication/256838918 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/derek-abbott/is-mathematics-invented-o_b_3895622.html
Arnold Trehub · University of Massachusetts Amherst
Marc: "Sorry but I don't understand how it is possible to have mood feelings or any emotional feelings 'through our brain as if it were transparent'. To me, our feelings are generated both by the way our CNS works and the way it processes the internal signals from our body and the external signals coming from our perceptive systems." Direct electrical stimulation of particular areas of the brain alone have been demonstrated to evoke emotional feelings. This does not conflict with the fact that "our feelings are [normally] generated both by the way our CNS works and the way it processes the internal signals from our body and the external signals coming from our perceptive systems." In this normal case, the feeling within our body is proximally constituted by the activity of particular brain mechanisms, not by the exteroceptive or interoceptive sensory patterns that evoke the feeling.
• Does anyone have experience with the Akta Start?
It seems that it can do the same purifications as the higher end Akta Purifier/Pure/Avant, it's just that the pumps are peristaltic instead of piston based, but the price is much better!
James Errey · Heptares Therapeutics
We recently bought a couple of pure systems,these are a huge improvement on te old purifiers. Software and the frac really nice we also brought a sample pump which is amazing allowing us to purify a lot more protein overnight in a run. An alternative is the biorad version looks very similar the software is nearly identical although has a few nice tweeks such as iPad control
• Vivek Venkat asked a question in Power Systems
What are the challenges one encounters while integrating a hybrid Energy system to the Grid?
I have prepared a Solar-Wind-Fuel Cell Hybrid System in MATLAB/SIMULINK and also interfaced the hybrid system with the grid as part of my Final year project. I want to extend the work to transient behaviour and stability of the grid with the integration of the renewable energy sources and suggested power quality solutions.
How can we manipulate a nanowire?
People have tried AFM tip, optical tweezer, microfluidics and so on.
Anming Hu · University of Tennessee
Hi Werner, I am serious. But thanks for your answer. I do not think we have found a good solution to this question. Anyway, before we solve this we can not expect to fabricate a nanodevice by using chemically synthesized building blocks.
How can I assess the quality of removable dentures?
I am looking for standardized methods for quality evaluation of dentures. If possible please share references to articles where denture quality was assessed.
Peter Owen · University of the Witwatersrand
Unfortunately there is no such thing as a standardized method though Fenlon et al (2002) and Sato et al (1998, 2000) have suggested fairly comprehensive methods. If you do a search of the literature you will find dozens of articles which have attempted to correlate a clinical assessment of denture quality with patient satisfaction. Not one has found such a correlation, hence the emphasis these days in research articles is to assess outcomes in terms of patient satisfaction, and the method mostly used for that is to use VAS scores. OHIP and other socio-dental indicators show great variance within individuals (and even the time of day) so their reliability is questionable. They can, though still be useful as an indicator (but not a correlate) of denture success.
What are the future and possible replacement of ionic liquids? Is the future of green chemistry Deep Eutectic Solvents?
Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) are a solvents obtained by mixing solid compounds, such as choline chloride and sugar, organic acid, obtaining a eutectic mixture with a melting point that is much lower than that of the individual components. Benefit: Absolutely green solvent. Especially when use is not chlorine compounds such as choline chloride
Duncan Macquarrie · The University of York
I think it depends on how you use them! I dont think there is such a thing as "absolutely green" - as soon as you use energy to make something, it is not absolutely green, and that's before you've even used it. The only genuine way is to fully assess the process in which you use the solvent in comparison with alternatives (to the solvent and also alternative routes). this has to include product isolation (and purification if required, as well as solvent recovery and reusability, and energy costs..Not easy in many cases, and almost never seen in the literature! this will give you a feel for whether one process is greener than another, and where there are areas for improvement.
• Any advice on general non-compete agreements in contracts to publish books?
What is your (copyright) experience related to publishing journal articles with similar themes (research questions, up to a point, similar wording) to those that you have in a published book? Do you have book publishers objecting to publishing a journal article which tackles similar themes to those published in a book chapter, for example, when there is a general, non-competing clause in the agreement for publishing the book? Or in general, do the publishers kindly give you permissions to do so? (i.e. because such permission is customary in trade). Any advice or examples on how you handled this, as well as off list replies would be much appreciated.
Liviu Damsa · The University of Warwick
Many thanks Federico, it helps.