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- Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?
In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?
“Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."
Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".
Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.
OK, Erkki, I can see your argument is bulletproof, begging the question of what it means in reality. You were talking about the "present representation" though and I thought you meant what everyone else is using, not your own private representation.Following
- For a gas-invaded zone in a naturally fractured reservoir, which EOR methods are suitable?
For a gas invaded zone in a naturally fractured reservoir, which EOR methods are suitable? Can you introduce me a case study where the method has been applied in a real reservoir?
We have thought of gas injection (enriched gas, CO2, increase of pressure) and CO2/foam but no real example has been found for them. Could you please introduce me related EOR projects? or any other recommended methods!
We have matrices saturated with oil, surrounded by dry gas injected into gas cap. How can the by-passed oil be recovered? The oil API is about 30 and viscosity is about 3 cp.
A lot of successful case studies are available in published literature. Mostly, for the gas invaded zone both miscible and immiscible gas injection (hydrocarbon or non hydrocarbon) are considered as best/ideal EOR methods. Above all, other reservoir as well as in-situ fluid characteristics are also considered a screening criteria for optimum EOR.Following
- Can somebody recommend me an article with a list of cyanobacteria producing scytonemin?
I am interested with a publication having a list of cyanobacteria with the capability to synthesize SCYTONEMIN. I have blasted scyF gene from Chlorogloeopsis sp., and only Nostoc punctiforme was a best match for this gene. On the other hand I read in an article that 30 species of cyanobacteria are able to produce scytonemin; however, there was no further details. Please advise. Thanks. Igor
Thank you very much.
- Compassion assigns importance to external circumstances as if human dignity would not be self-sufficient. Could wisdom be enough to make men free?
Compassion is a sentiment by which an individual feels emotionally the suffering of others and tries to alleviate pain. In the fifth century BC the sophist Gorgias used the ‘word’ as a tool of persuasion which derives, not from a Socratic dialogue, but from a skillful motion of feelings. The ‘word’ does not serve to know or to arrange moral action, but it is a persuasive art used for the purpose of establishing a political power for sharing passions in the listener that makes him believe in the poetic deception of the orator. He, says Gorgias, is "better" than those who do not deceive, because the orator is able to create an "aesthetic truth", and "it is wiser who is deceived than those who are not," because through compassion he participates emotionally in this intense truth.
The rejection - instead - of compassion as a political tool is typical of stoicism which breaks down the old political tradition of the Greek world that appealed to this feeling to cure the ills of mankind. Yet the interest for politics originated in the Stoics because of their cosmopolitan dimension, which springs from that very feeling of compassion and participation in world events of ‘sympatheia’, that is of the intimate connection between the human sphere and that of the 'Cosmic Soul’: they are subjects of a universal homeland; there is no event that does not affect and involve them.
It is true that through the feeling of compassion we would be aware of the suffering, for example of a slave, giving birth to our desire to free him but compassion attaches importance to external circumstances as if human dignity is not viable ... Wisdom is what is enough to make men free. (See the works by Martha Craven Nussbaum, for example “Plato's Republic : the good society and the deformation of desire).
How compassion gives strength to the philosophical message is clear in the poetry of Lucretius, the Roman poet and philosopher who - with poetic art - makes the Epicurean thought penetrate not only into the mind but also into the hearts of men. All the poetry of Lucretius is inspired by the consideration of a cosmic pain that led him to sympathize especially with the fate of the unwise man, who lacking the truth revealed by Epicurus, drags a useless and absurd life in trouble and boredom to get lost into ‘nothing’.
The importance of compassion in the formation of morality has been the subject of analysis of the philosophers of the eighteenth century that can generally be identified into two currents: a first one that bases moral judgment on reason and a second one that researches into the origins and passions of human feelings. The debate is also about the innate presence of moral sense, or its assimilation after birth as a cultural element.
The rejection of any feeling of compassion in the moral sphere distinguishes the Kantian ethics. Kant himself tells us that for some time he was attracted by the moral principles of the British sentimentalists that then he left unsatisfied because their method of inquiry was reduced to a simple psychological analysis and because their excessive optimism did prevent what for him was the essential element of morality: compulsion.
Moreover, it is affirmed the independence of the moral act from science and its irreducibility to the feeling that will never be confused with morality. The feeling of compassion is something impulsive, weak, erratic on which morality cannot rely.
On what is Compassion. or Wisdom in Human relations
Compassion is that mysterious capacity within each of us that makes it possible for suffering that is neither our own nor of our concern, to affect us as though it were. It is that instinctive and selfless insight that reveals to us the existence of our own true being in every living creature.
Compassion is the tie that binds every human being to each other and to the mystery of creation. It is the common thread of all religions, meditations, and community structures. Compassion does not acknowledge the artificial social, economic, and religious barriers we place between ourselves and others. It acknowledges the common cry of human longings, aspirations, and tragedies. When a reflex reaction causes us to help a stranger, with no motivation other than that person is in need, or maybe in peril of his life, our compassion is in action.Following
- How can I programming a laser sensor in Matlab to avoid moving obstacle?
how can I programming a laser sensor in Matlab to avoid moving obstacle?
Thank you for your answer but I need the first purpose to develop....Following
- What is an example of current dependent current source?
i was asked this question in the class , but i couldnt find it on the net anywhere so i thought of trying it out on research gateFollowing
- Can I compare the expression of two genes only based on their Ct value?
I want to know the expression of target gene in tumor tissue but I don't have normal tissue to control.
So can I compare target gene' Ct value with Ct of GAPDH?
If the mean of target gene 's Ct value > the mean Ct of GAPDH about 1 cycle, it means target gene express less than GAPDH?
Thank you and waiting your response.
Great! I will make a spreadsheet as soon as I have a chance, and I will tell you more about the stats too. What is the column "N/A"?Following
- I am studying the business models that university make profits nowadays, as Massive Open Online Courses. Can one help me with other business models?
I am studying the business models that university make profits nowadays, as Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). Can anyone help me with other best and newest business models different from MOOCs?Following
- Why can't you modify your hypothesis after analyzing data?
My professor always says you can't modify your hypothesis to better fit your data, but after thinking about it I don't see why not. Either way you're analyzing your data. What's the difference if you thought of the hypothesis before or after?
Also aren't you supposed to try and find some explanation for your data if it doesn't match what you expected?
Hypothesis testing has become an integral part of the modern scientific method. The purpose of hypothesis testing is to introduce statistical methods, in particular, to analyze a dichotomous relationship, hypothesis vs null-hypothesis. It detracts from the scientific process, because a dichotomy must be established in order to force an analysis. There are several problems with this approach, which are exacerbated by the need to publish statistically significant results. Two obvious problems are 1) trivial null hypotheses are chosen and 2) efforts are made to manipulate the data to fit some statistical test for significance.
An hypothesis is formed from observations or theory. An investigator, who understands the mechanisms involved, proposes an experiment to demonstrate a phenomenon from the observations or theory. The investigator expects that a given experiment will result in a given outcome. The expectation is the hypothesis.
What is the meaning of failure to meet your expectation at the conclusion of an experiment? You have not shown that the null hypothesis is true however trivial it may be. You have shown that the current experiment does not support your hypothesis. There are several possible explanations for failure to support the hypothesis. The observations in error or the theory is in error. Your interpretation of the observations and theory were in error. The experiment was not adequate to support the expectation. Something interfered with the experiment.
An explanation is required for the failure to support the hypothesis, otherwise, nothing was learned. The explanation could form an alternate hypothesis. There must be an obvious path from the first hypothesis to the second. The first hypothesis was rejected because ... We propose the second hypothesis because ... The second hypothesis cannot be accepted on the basis of the analysis, because it is a new observation. A new experiment must be proposed to test the second hypothesis. The current data may be in error for the previously noted reasons for failure to support the first hypothesis.
The searches for a trivial null and a statistical technique to massage into significance are not science. A scientist strives to disprove the hypothesis in order to ensure its acceptance. Statistical significance is not proof.Following
- I want to model a burning piece of wood, how can I model the generation term? I guess Arrhenius equation is the tool, but how !?
I want to model a burning piece of wood which transfers the generated heat via convection and radiation and conduction to the surrounding.
Apparently the generation term follows the Arrhenius equation. The problem is that for wood the pre-exponential factor is in the order of 10^10 (1/s) and the heat of combustion is 430000 J/kg. thus;
generation: 430000 * 10^10 * exp(-E/RT)
This number is very big. Its bigger that the total amount of energy generates by 1kg wood! How its possible?Following
- Is there are any difference between designing gene specific primers For RT -PCR and qpcr ?
How can i design primer to complete my experiment ?Following
- How is sizing of electric motors done for a motor running at variable load to achieve maximum efficiency?
Motors frequently need to be operated under varying load conditions due to process requirements. Mostly a motor is selected based on the highest anticipated load. But the highest load can occur only for a short period of time. Instead a motor can be selected with a rating slightly lower than the peak anticipated load which can operate at overload for a short period of time. Example: For a particular load cycle, the average load is around 69kW with peak load(180kW) occurring for a few seconds. For this load cycle, it won't be cost efficient if we select a motor with rated power around 180kW. What is the appropriate way to select a proper sized motor that would operate at its highest efficiency for maximum time?
You can choose the RMS value of torque and speed during the cycleFollowing
- Modelling of Residual stress in case of arc welding in APDL?
I am modelling residual stress in case of arc welding. I am not getting proper temperature profile. The main doubt I have is whether center of heat source should be on surface of base plate or on top of weld bead?
I am using Element Birth - Death technique to model it.
Thank you Seergio SirFollowing
- Is developing a new standard corpus for Arabic Information Retrieval possible/necessary? Is there a need to build a new standard corpus for Arabic Information Retrieval? Is it possible in the current state of the art?
yeah, there is always need for such things. Possibility position can depend on the environment but the languages such written from right to left need such things in entirety.Following
- Can Quantum 'Mechanical' Description of Physical Reality be considered Completed?
Simplicity is the key to the interpretation of physics. Nothing more simple in the analysis than supposing the existence of some parameter "hidden," invisible and not measurable which is an integral part of a pair of photons and that tells at the time of their creation: "you are oriented east" or "you are oriented to the west. "This analysis requires us to introduce "hidden variables", a process which in physics is debatable, but allows in a very elegant way to explain everything in realistic terms. The pair of photons has its own objective reality that can describe them completely. Part of this reality is unknowable but never mind, the problem is only human, nature is safe.
We have two options: 1) quantum mechanics is inherently probabilistic; 2) quantum mechanics is not inherently probabilistic, but deterministic. The first position is that of the so-called "Copenhagen interpretation", still very accredited by physicists, while the second was that of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) and of the "hidden variables". Subsequently, Bell showed that the hidden variables can not be there. John Bell in 1964 pointed the way for an experimental verification of the existence of hidden variables, but subsequent experiments, especially the French group of Alain Aspect, have shown the full validity of quantum mechanics.
Then, the second theoretical position is no longer sustainable. Instead it is if we consider the fact that the "ontological materiality" turns out to be greater than the "physical". There are no additional variables that may enter into the physic calculation, but there are physical materials that physics fails to consider which have an impact on theorizing. These factors determine the overall behavior of matter which, therefore, appears inherently probabilistic. It can be said that Einstein was right: the hidden variables exist, only that they lurk outside of physics, in ontology.
Many physicists (Einstein leading) have always refused that indetermination be an inherent feature of physical reality. Consequently, they preferred to assume that the description provided by quantum mechanics was simply incomplete. Their reasoning, in practice, consists in saying: even at the microscopic level physical reality continues to be deterministic, only that we can not know the exact values of the state variables and so we are forced to an indeterministic description. To explain this failure many proponents of determinism (starting from Einstein himself) introduced the so-called "hidden variables". At the microscopic level, there would be some factor that is not yet known which would prevent us from a deterministic description. The moment we knew, we could provide a description of these factors completely deterministic
For many years the debate between the advocates of the hidden variables and the promoters of intrinsic indeterminism remained on a purely metaphysical level. In 1964, however, the physicist J.S. Bell derived a famous inequality (Bell's theorem) that allowed to transfer experimentally what until then had been a metaphysical discussion. Such inequality, in practice, led us to expect different experimental results depending on whether had been true the hypothesis of hidden variables (at least limited to the so-called "local theories") or not.
Now, the Heisenberg principle would not only establish our inability to learn at the same time the values of the position and momentum of a particle. These values are established, before a measurement be made, they are absolutely and inherently indeterminate.
Einstein's objections to quantum mechanics made sense because he was perfectly aware that quantum mechanics is incompatible with determinism. However, his views obstinately deterministic and his attempts to defend them (hidden variables) have not stood the test of facts.
The microscopic reality is inherently indeterminate. However, what is surprising is that the macroscopic reality is instead largely deterministic. To explain this apparent contradiction is a fascinating challenge in theoretical physics. An interesting attempt at a solution appears that provided by three Italian physicists G. Ghirardi, A. Rimini and. T. Weber (in Physical Review D 34, 470, 1986).
So, in this context it became obvious that the description of the states of a physical system offered by quantum mechanics was incomplete and that such an incompleteness was responsible for the indeterministic character of the theory. In other words, it has been assumed that quantum mechanics is indeterministic only because our level of knowledge does not put us in a position to "see" some additional variable, able to "complete" the description of the physical system provided by quantum mechanics. According to this conjecture, if we were able to identify these new variables, currently "hidden", we would recuperate a level of description deeper than the quantum level and at that level determinism could be recovered. "
In fact, the enigma of the "hidden variables" was not solved by a logical-deductive approach, as Popper might have wished, or was it only partially.
As already said, “in 1964 the issue was a crucial turning point: J. Bell showed that for a large family of theories and hidden variables, the so-called local theories, it is impossible to reproduce with media operations on hidden variables all the predictions of quantum mechanics. "" the result of Bell had the great merit of showing on the experimental ground the theme of possible deterministic completions of quantum mechanics, and a great interest aroused for the realization of experiments sensitive to discrepancies between the predictions of quantum mechanics and that of the local theories of hidden variables . "(Enrico Beltrametti)
In 1981, Alain Aspect was able to realize the first of a series of experiments of high quality. In practice, the experiment showed that Einstein had been wrong in suggesting the idea of hidden variables.
As for Popper, we could say that he lost a game: the one with LQ,
Criticism of Popper was wrong from a logical point of view, but in many ways it had some basis. Popper did not want to admit a weakness of logic explicit in theory LQ. For Popper's logic was to remain an ‘a priori’ science, having as main feature the absolute independence from any content. Therefore, he refused to consider the possibility of choosing logics different from the logic, most suitable than this to the empirical character of particular situations.
Already in the Logic of Scientific Discovery, which was finished in 1934, then prior to the writing of Birkhoff and von Neumann, Popper anticipated: "... replacing the word" true with "the word" likely "and the word" false with "the word" unlikely ", nothing is gained.
However Popper earned another no less important point. The revolutionary discovery of Bell and Aspect was not from a pure inductivism, but from experiments carried out in the light of a theory already formulated ‘a priori’, then from a hypothesis to be subjected to strict scrutiny, identifying the elements and data that could refute it. At least on this ground, Popper took an important rematch.
At the time of the article in Einstein's death, the controversy was still strong and "philosophical" issues had a great weight, so much so that an American physicist was the victim of McCarthyism and lost his job for supporting a deterministic model with hidden variables. Today we tend to minimize the importance of our imperfect knowledge on the subject; theories are used as they are reaping the fruits without worrying about a coherent understanding of the underlying laws. Most physicists do not interpret more the principle of indeterminism in a metaphysical way. It is considered as a simple impossibility of knowing at the same time position and momentum of the particles in a system still felt completely deterministic. After all, beyond the supposed wave-particle duality, also in the macroscopic world there is a kind of uncertainty: for example, I can not measure my speed with accuracy higher than my reaction time to press the button on the timer.
I agree that we need to describe what is, rather than what is not, but first we need to understand the language in which it is described. My paper on the construction of qed, is based on the one I referenced, and is very much about describing the underlying structure of reality.
Quantum mechanics is not deterministic because nature is not deterministic. That is simple enough. I don't think it is a bitter pill. I would much rather live in a universe in which the future is not determined by the past and in which free will is possible.
We don't need more maths than we have already. I continue to work on improved descriptions, with a lower level of maths, but the formal maths is needed to prove the veracity of what is said.
You will see that I have discussed entanglement in the paper, section 6.2. The problem here is that we cannot assume the concept of frame before we can make the measurements necessary to establish a frame. When the particles have not interacted, they are not properly a part of a frame. Even when they have interacted, nothing can be said about the other particle outside the light cone.
You will see that I have also discussed delayed choice experiments in my paper, section 6.3. I do not conclude that it is necessary for the future to influence the past, but only we may have to wait for the future before a description becomes possible.Following
- Which works perfectly to gain your mental strength sympathy or moral boosting?
Sometimes due to unforeseen circumstances people looses mental stability. Society laughs, relatives tease, friends become sympathetic, foes clap- Are these the perfect ways to fight back again? or you need moral boosting from someone?
Time is cure for everything. Hard work and and company of both family and friends will bring to better mental strength. Sometimes the doctor's help may be necessary.Following
- Can anyone provide the UMAT subroutine with some explanation/tutorial about how to use it in conjunction with ABAQUS?
Hi, I am working on shape memory polymers and their glass fiber composites. I need to analyze their thermomecahnical behavior in structural application. At the moment I need to use ABAQUS for the analysis which needs the user material define subroutine UMAT. It will be very helpful if any one can provide me with the UMAT and some explanation/tutorial about how to use is in conjunction with ABAQUS.
For your specific material properties you will have to modify the code. My point was that even if you get a ready-made code you will not be able to debug it until you understand it. and who will know more about your material than you.
For e.g. if its a temperature dependent property (which property, stresses or E or hardening exponent, suppose plastic part, then write the hardening exponent as a functions.
In your case its probably Stress Induced Transformation then, perhaps you may add a part for volumetric expansion when stress causes transformation,
trace = trace + a.(stressOld(k,1) + stressOld(k,2) + stressOld(k,3))
or something like that.
Dont take it otherwise, but what I am saying is once you try it you will get the flavor of it and will be able to turn the code around for new materials.
Othewise, what I can advise you is to buy a solution. You may go to PolymerFEM.com where Jorgen can write your code for you, perhaps.
- Has any analysis been done on the economic benefits of using probiotic or direct fed microbial products on livestock farms?
These benefits might include:
• Improved livestock performance such as live birth weight, reduced mortality, egg/milk yield etc.
• Improvements in animal health that translate into reduced veterinary and pharmaceutical costs and improved food safety.
• Reduced feed costs due to improved feed conversion.
I am interested to know about farm level trials which may have attempted to put an economic value on these benefit? Are there any other benefits?
Thanks for your responses!Following
- Why cyclones occur only in gujarat in western part? what is the mechanism of formation of cyclones in this region?
more vulnerability of Gujarat to cyclones in western part of India
Dear Sureshkumar Nekkala you mean tropical cyclones?
If so, the Arabian Sea is one of the centers of origin of tropical cyclones.
Did you mean specifically abnormal amount this year?
Specifically, specify question please.
- What are your favourite apps for early childhood?
While there's debate about early childhood and use of digital technologies, there's growing interest in identifying apps which are appropriate, including apps which can be repurposed for specific learning experiences.
For example, there's sites which provide the '15 Must Have iPad apps for Preschool Teachers' - see http://www.earlychildhoodeducationzone.com/best-apps-for-teachers/. What are apps which you would recommend?
Any developmentally appropriate apps.
Please click on the flowing website for more info
- What are the most used housekeeping genes for C.elegans qPCR?
For human material I would use something like GAPDH or Actin as a reference gene in my RT-qPCR assays. Is GAPDH also a housekeeping gene in C.elegans? Or should I search for something else?
what are the genes associated with the reproductive system of C elegans?Any body has idea about it?Following
- What is the most likely cause for retention time variability in UPLC-MS between samples knowing that the flow rate and pressure was kept constant?
I have a run a series of rat urine sample using a basic gradient elution profile and I have encountered some retention time variability for several of my analytes in the order of up to 0.1 minutes. There is no pattern to the change in retention times to suggest a gradual change in instrument performance. Can retention time change depending on the characteristics of the sample? All samples were prepped in the same manner in organic-aqueous solution.
Changes in temperature (column) and elution solvents composition could introduce some variability to chromatographic retention time particularly if they contain volatile solvents or volatile modifiers that evaporate over time thus changing the ratio in the solvent composition. To minimize this, always prepare fresh solvents. Hope this helps, Ana.Following
- What DEM should I use for modelling Urban Flood ?
I am working on Urban flood. Can i use a 5m contour/Dem for modelling and delineation of watersheds ? does the 5m contour serve the purpose?, as it is difficult to procure sub meter DEM.
For delineation of watersheds within a city, a 5 m contour is okay, but for modeling purpose, a much finer scale would be better, if you could please...Following
- Is there a german lab that works on plant extracts with anthelminthic properties?
This question is with regards to justification of the baction mechanism.
Probably at Munster university, laboratory of phytochemistry.Following
- How can I quantify the amount of carbon diffused in metal carbide nanoparticles where carbon coating & free carbon are also present?
The carbon coating and free carbon are partially crystalline and partially amorphous.
I dont know much about your work but i can suggest you to go for a XPS spectroscopy you might get some idea.Following
- Can anyone help with research on corporate governance and the quality of disclosure?
Looking specifically for a statistical analysis done and methodology employed on this topic.
Followings links might be helpful.Following
- Is it wrong to use 16s rRNA sequences of strains other than the one you want to include in your phylogenetic tree?
Hi everyone. I am trying to create a phylogenetic tree, however NCBI lacks 16s rRNA sequences for some of the strains I am looking for although it does provide sequences for the other strains of the same organism. Is it legitimate to stablish my tree based on the sequences of these other strains?
you can copy the above mentioned website and paste into URL.
.then u can search sequences according to species name,accession number, strain,publication ID. it also provide facility to submit sequences for alignment.
- Predictors for need of shunting Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus????
What are the best predictors for the need of CSF shunting in a case of NPH???Following
- Predictors for need of shunting Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus????
What are the best predictors for the need of CSF shunting in a case of NPH???Following