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  • Debashish Das added an answer in Statistical Tools:
    How do I correlate a disease state with a diagnostic value using statistics?

    I have put a numerical value (arbetiary unit) for disease state instead of zero (for unaffected state). On another panel I have cholesterol levels. I would like to know as what statistical tools can be applied to determine any kind of relationship between the disease state and the cholesterol levels before stating that both of them are independent of each other. Please suggest. I have all the data in excel files. Thanks

    Debashish Das · Narayana Nethralaya Hospital

    Thank you all for your suggestions. First to answer Ronan, I am looking at correlation of different degrees of retinopathy with cholesterol levels and other life styles at an objective measure. I can take the data out of excel. It would be of great help if you could suggest any other program (preferably available freely) where I can transfer the data. Now to answer Abuzaid and Pickering, The cholesterol levels are not normally distributed. I feel using either Chi square or Mann Whitney may not provide a correlation of the values with the disease state. Please let me know a tool that can be used for correlation of cholesterol levels with the disease classification, as then we can state a direct or inverse relationship.

  • Arun Khilnani added an answer in Free Software:
    Does anybody know some link on free software for calculatin induction motor parameters from rated- nominal parameters?

    Does anybody know some link on free software for calculation of induction motor parameters from rated- nominal parameters (voltage, power, power factor, moment of inertia-GD2)?

    Arun Khilnani · Larsen and Toubro


    You could try ETAP. But I am not sure about GD^2 parameter.

    Also, most parameters would be vendos-specific. So at best, the software could tell you approximations.


  • Younes Fathabadi asked a question in Induction Motor:
    Why star delta starter is preferred with induction motor?

    Why star delta starter is preferred with induction motor?

  • Yadav K S added an answer in Listeria:
    Is there a commercial kit available to detect Listeria in human blood sample?

    Thanks in advance for your replies.

    Yadav K S · Padmashree Dr. D.Y. Patil University

    There are plenty Isolation kits for listeria from  human blood , QiaAmp DNA Blood Mini Kit, Norgen Genomic DNA Isolation Mini Kit, MoBio UltraClean DNA BloodSpin Kit, Macherey-Nagel NucleoSpin Blood Kit, Gentra Puregene Blood Kit, Norgen Non-enzymatic DNA Blood Kit and Norgen Enzymatic DNA Blood Kit.

    ELISA KIT: Listeria monocytogenes (LM) ELISA Kit - MyBioSource, Human Listeria IgG ELISA Kit - glory science.co.,ltd

  • Can someone help to me identify this ascidian?

    This specimen was collected from Tamil Nadu, can anyone tell that organism name?

    Venkat Ramani · Amet University

    contact  mr. Nandhagopal in your insitution

  • Younes Fathabadi asked a question in Radio Waves:
    Why radio waves is chosen for remote/close range Transmission ?

    Why radio waves is chosen for remote/close range Transmission ?

  • Mansor Zarrabi added an answer in Remediation:
    Which the best manner to increase the quality of the zeolite material in order to use it in water remediation?

    I heart that we can use silanization methode,  but I don't have any details about it

    Mansor Zarrabi · Alborz University of Medical Sciences

    Dear Dr Lotfi

    please contact Dr. Kazemian at Hossein.kazemian@uwo.ca, who is expert in zeolite synthesis and application.

  • Sanjib Das added an answer in Perovskites:
    Does anyone have an idea on the purpose of heating the perovskite precursor solution at 70 C right before spincoating?

    What is the purpose of heating the perovskite precursor solution (PbCl2 and MAI) at 70 C right before spincoating? Is there any other purpose (ex activation?) for heating other than fully dissolving the precursor to DMF? 

    Sanjib Das · University of Tennessee

    If you see your solution is completely dissolved, you don't have to put it on hotplate before spin-coating.

  • Jie Zong added an answer in 1H-NMR:
    Can anyone suggest a program for the analysis of NMR spectra?

    Does anyone have a program to analyse NMR spectra?

    I need to analysis NMR data anyone has a program ?


    Jie Zong · Tulane University

    MestreNova is very good.

  • Arun Khilnani added an answer in Energy Efficiency:
    What materials ensure energy efficiency and contribute to resilience?

    Material efficiency and resilience?


    Arun Khilnani · Larsen and Toubro

    Resilience in this context would mean opposition of vibrating atoms to flow of free electrons ?

  • Arun Khilnani added an answer in Microgrids:
    What are some of the important survey works on microgrid to read to under the role of the individual systems and control?

    I am new to the research area of microgrids (my research background is power electronics in a wind energy conversion system) and I would like to read some of the important papers to understand the state of the art in microgrids and develop some research topics/ideas for future work. Could someone suggest the important papers in this area (or even in relevant sub-areas to catch up to speed)?

    Arun Khilnani · Larsen and Toubro


    Concerning micro grids, there is a lot of reseach involving use of Game Theory.

    I recommend you look up google scholar and researchgate for papers. Many EU universities like DTU, Chalmers, KTH and others have active research programmes in this domain.  


  • Are there any model programs on training novice and experienced teachers to efficiently address diversity in today's classrooms?

    I know there is a wealth of information in the literature on the need to train teachers in becoming culturally competent and sensitive, but it would be great to know if there are any models that have proven to be effective. 

    Bridin Harnett · Abu Dhabi University

    Michael Byram has done extensive work on Intercultural Competence and Intercultural Communicative Competence in Europe. You might like to check his website. He has a lot of material available on line.

  • Bob D. Skiles added an answer in Motion Tracking:
    Does anyone know about a method or software to calculate body segment orientation from marker position according to the Vicon Plug-in Gait Model?

    I do motion tracking with Vicon Plug-in Gait model and I need the orientation of body segments relative to Vicon's global reference frame. I wonder if there is a software where yo input the trajectory of the marker (or any other parameter that Vicon calculates) and outputs the orientation (Rotation matrix or quaternion).

  • Hector Quevedo asked a question in Chondroitin:
    Should sulfate glucosamine+ chondroitin considered DMOAD?

    GLU+CHONDRO  HAVE 3 STUDIES WHERE THEY SHOW TO BE DMOAD (Reginster,2001, Pavelka, 2002 and Study LEG (NIH, Australian).

  • Henmei Ni added an answer in Nanoparticle Research:
    Can anyone help me solve my problem with the preparation of Alq3 nanoparticles?

    I'm not able to prepare Alq3 nanoparticles with proper nano size as they seem to be micro size can anyone help me what parameters should be maintained?

    [email address removed by admin]

    Henmei Ni · Southeast University (China)

    How did you do?

  • Vipul Sharma added an answer in Image Segmentation:
    Which shape description will be more useful and practical for ASM in medical image segmentation?

    I would like to use ASM in mammography images to detect blob like tumor. Which shape description will suitable suit for this purpose and how the shape correspondence will take place?

    Vipul Sharma · Lovely Professional University


    Refer these papers. This will help you....



  • Ciobotaru Anca added an answer in Cultural Identity:
    Does anyone know about linguistic or cultural identity in discourse?

    Interested in corpus made of oral narratives

    Ciobotaru Anca · Universitatea de Arte "George Enescu" Iasi

    I am interesting about  the Theatrical discours, în The traditional puppets show. If  you  are interesting too,  I have some studies. 

  • Libimol V.A asked a question in Purchasing:
    From where we will get the dielectric substrate with resistive sheet coating?

    FSS RCS application requires substrate with resistive sheet coating.From where I can purchase it.Please help.

  • What are the main species of fish that are bycatch in the Pleoticus muelleri fishery in Argentina?

    Not in relation to their frequency of occurrence but in captured volume. Most of the articles show the frequency of occurrence of the bycatch in the Pleoticus muelleri fishery.

    How much each bycatch represents in the total captured.

    Alejandra María Cornejo · Centro Desarrollo y Pesca Sustentable

    The main species caught as bycatch is the common hake (Merluccius hubbsi).

    You can read more:

    1) Fish bycatch in the Patagonian shrimp fishery Pleoticus muelleri María E. Góngora, Nelson D. Bovcon y Pablo D. Cochia. Rev. biol. mar. oceanogr. v.44 n.3 Valparaíso dic. 2009 http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?pid=S0718-19572009000300006&script=sci_arttext

    2) Argentine red shrimp off-shore (English) , Fishery Improvement Project (FIP) http://cedepesca.net/promes/shrimp-and-lobster/argentine-red-shrimp-off-shore/

    Best regards,

  • What is the appropriate test to compare the effects between two countries?

    I intend to compare the effect of some operational practices on performance between two countries using the same questionnaire. What is the appropriate statistical test if the objective is to determine whether there are significant differences between the two countries concerning the effect of those practices on performance? Would a sample of 70 respondents from each country be sufficient?

    Paul Louangrath · Bangkok University

    Various statistical tests, see attached link to 100 Statistical Test book by Kanji Gopal.

    SAMPLE SIZE: n1 = 70 and n2 = 7=. Total n = n1 + n2 = 140. Is this enough? It should be. Minimum sample size to verify data distribution and get fair representation of the population generally is n = 30. See attached.

    It has been suggested that for multiple regression there should be at least ten sample counts per indicator variable. (Nunnally, (1967, 355). According to Nunnally, in single regression, minimum sample size may be as little as ten counts. Nunally's suggestion is consistent with the Anderson-Darling test for data distribution where the minimum sample size is or at least 6 counts for data distribution test in non-parametric case. (Anderson and Darling, 1954, 765-769). Other writers proposed 30 counts in order for the study to avail itself to the full benefits of the Central Limit Theorem (CLT). (Agresti and Min, 2012).

    [1] Westland, J. Christopher (2010). "Lower bounds on sample size in structural equation modeling". Electron. Comm. Res. Appl. 9 (6): 476–487.

    [2] Nunnally, J. C. (1967). "Psychometric Theory". McGraw-Hill, New York: 355.

    [3] Yamane, Taro. 1967. Statistics: An Introductory Analysis, 2nd Ed., New York: Harper and Row.

    [4] Stephens, M. A. (1974). "EDF Statistics for Goodness of Fit and Some Comparisons". Journal of the American Statistical Association 69: 730–737.

    [5] Anderson, T.W. and Darling, D.A. (1954). "A Test of Goodness-of-Fit". Journal of the American Statistical Association 49: 765–769.

  • Motivational leadership involves presenting a clear organizational vision and inspiring employees to work towards this vision. What do you think?

    Transformational leadership can be defined as “a motivational leadership style which involves presenting a clear organizational vision and inspiring employees to work towards this vision through establishing connections with employees, understanding employees’ needs, and helping employees reach their potential, contributes to good outcomes for an organisation” (Fitzgerald and Schutte, 2010, p.495).

    My question is how to inspire others? any solid techniques?

    Thank you so much.   

    Intangible assets such as leadership styles, culture, skill and competence, and motivation are seen increasingly as key sources of strength in those firms that can combine people and processes and organizational performance

  • Paola Escudero added an answer in Speech Perception:
    Is anybody aware of recent research on individual listener variablity, especially in second language speech perception?

    It has been pointed out to me that in some recent research individual listener variability has been found to be high and I have been asked how precise I can be in predicting learner difficulties in purely phonetic terms in my second language perception experiment without understanding more about individual listeners..

    Paola Escudero · University of Western Sydney

    Hi Anna,

    I have a few papers that directly analyze individual differences in L2 speech perception:



    Also, the Second Language Linguistic Perception model (L2LP, references below) was designed to describe, predict and explain individual differences in L2 perception. Let me know if you'd like to discuss any of these issues further. I would be delighted to talk about predictions in your specific L2 perception case.




    All the best,


  • Emma Tumilty added an answer in Professional Ethics:
    Could anyone provide examples of cases of transgressions of medial professional ethics?
    The purpose of this question is to add examples of lack of integrity, respect, compassion, accountability, and other values towards patients and their families, in which staff physicians, residents, and students have been involved. A selection of these examples will be added to a paper concerning medical professionalism and values-based practice. Would anyone be willing to share their own experiences of such instances, or experiences of colleagues, friends, and/or relatives?
    Emma Tumilty · Otago Polytechnic

    Dear Carlos, if you want medical practitioner transgressions specifically of varying severity, then here in New Zealand the Health and Disability Commissioner (the body that deals with complaints) shares it's decisions and the reasoning behind them openly online. There might be something of interest there. Best of Luck! Emma

  • Can anyone suggest some literature on crustal formation and craton amalgamation in relation to Africa?

    Part of my research is based on African Geology and so i would like to know if there's any information i can get on crustal formation and craton amalgamation in relation to Africa

    Vladimir Malkovets · Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy

    Dear Sandile, 

    check this paper:

    G.C. Begg, W.L. Griffin, L.M. Natapov, Suzanne Y. O'Reilly, S.P. Grand, C.J. O'Neill, J.M.A. Hronsky, Y. Poudjom Djomani, C.J. Swain, T. Deen, and P. Bowden
    The lithospheric architecture of Africa: Seismic tomography, mantle petrology, and tectonic evolution
    Geosphere, February 2009, v. 5, p. 23-50.



  • Yuvaraj Ar asked a question in Coupling Reactions:
    How to remove the excess halogen substituted compound (starting material) after "Suzuki Coupling reaction"?

    Suzuki Coupling reaction:
    Is it possible to remove the starting material (halogen substituted compound) completely by workup?

  • Denise M. Barbulescu added an answer in TUNEL assay:
    How can I improve reproducibility of the TUNEL assay in plants?

    Dear all,

    is anyone of you experienced how to improve the reproducibility of TUNEL assay in plant/moss cell culture? I am trying to establish this assay to visualize DNA damages in nuclei.

    When I compare different biological replicates and samples, the variation is very high. Because of the high variation of nuclei with TUNEL-signal (Fluorescein) of all nuclei (DAPI) between different biological replicates (same line, standardized growth conditions in liquid culture, no changes in the protocol or chemicals used) the setup obviously needs improvement, has anyone suggestions? I always include a negative control (no TdT enzyme) and a positive control (DNaseI digested sample) which look fine.

    I start with fixation for 3h, followed by removal of chlorophyll by a EtOH series (50%, 70%, 96%), 2 times wash with PBS. Permeabilization is done overnight, wash in PBS once, the TUNEL reaction using Fluorescein-12-dUTP and TdT is incubated for 1h30, afterwards the samples are washed twice in DAPI solution.

    Thanks a lot for any suggestions!


    Denise M. Barbulescu · Department of Environment and Primary Industries

    Hi Gertrud,

    Maybe specific pre-tretments as per attached link may help reduce the false positive staining. Hopefully you can translate it to your tissue sample.


  • Rosi Goldsmith added an answer in Mindfulness:
    What are the risks of practicing mindfulness?

    Mindfulness is now widely accepted practice for improving physical and psychological well-being. Recently, one participant in mindfulness-based interventions who is trying to integrate mindfulness in every-day life experiences reported to me that she had experienced palpitation and headache during her mindfulness practice. This rare observation leads me to ask about the risks (negative consequences) of mindfulness practice!  

    Rosi Goldsmith · Integration Massage

    Although mindfulness practice and meditation are different, there is some overlap. Meditation has been known for a long time to be contraindicated for people with schizophrenia or active psychoses, and possibly some personality disorders.

    There may be similar concerns for mindfulness: http://media.rickhanson.net/home/files/SlidesIntegrativePsychiatrySept2011.pdf. The need for cautions, and a highly skilled therapist, as well as preventing adverse events with MBSR are reported here: http://aoc.mcgill.ca/wholepersoncare/files/wholepersoncare/P.Dobkin_2012.pdf

  • Vishnu Chari added an answer in Electrodes:
    Anyone familiar with silver/sliver electrode redox?

    what's the redox in Ag/Agcl electrode? i'm confused,because i know redox must contain two electrodes,one is anode and the other is cathode,but in Ag/Agcl which is anode or cathode it seems only one electrode here. In other words, in this electrode immersed in KCl solution , how the redox work ,who lost electrons and who get the electrons?

    The total reaction online is not so clear 

    Vishnu Chari · Goa University

    The reference electrode reactions are reversible see ( pg 7-9 of Handbook of Reference Electrodes edited by György Inzelt, Andrzej Lewenstam, Fritz Scholz 

    https://books.google.co.in/books?id=tfI_AAAAQBAJ&pg=PA9&lpg=PA9&dq=Iupac+reference+electrode+notations&source=bl&ots=HWqtfwXlRD&sig=l8y5R29mAGo3Q13mGAw8Cyf1kjU&hl=en&sa=X&ei=iiBtVcKwBszX8gXgq4GIBQ&ved=0CCQQ6AEwAjgU#v=onepage&q=Iupac%20reference%20electrode%20notations&f=false )

    therefore when a material which can get oxidized easily eg Zn  (-0.76 V vs SHE) will donate its electron through external circuit to the Ag/AgCl and the reduction of AgCl will take place, whereas when material such as Cu (+ 0.34 V vs SHE) which has tendency to get reduced easily, will take electron from Ag through external circuit oxidizing it to AgCl. Remember this are redox reactions and individual half cells don't have any meaning as such..

  • Santosh K. Tiwari added an answer in QSAR Studies:
    Name of best Software to QSAR for the molecules ?

    Hi Everyone 

    With due respect, 

    I would like to know in detailed about QSAR study (Including name of software, type of study, scope of work and reliability of this method).

    I have no information about the QSAR, so please help me 

    Santosh K. Tiwari · Indian Institute of Technology, Dhanbad

    Thanks Dr. Martín Indarte

    I will see it ... oky thanks 

  • Can science provide solutions for the main problems of the world?

    Nowadays, there are some high priority problems at a global level, such as: poverty, limited energy resources, limited food and even drinking water (especially related to the population growth phenomenon), global warming and rapid climate changes, the gap between developed and undeveloped countries. 

    Michael Issigonis · Brandon University

    Scientists have done wonders so far and I think, solutions for the main problems can be found. However, scientists have to become more vocal towards the public, displacing Hollywood who is the most popular popularizer of scientific achievements (by giving erroneous messages though), at least in North America. Informing the public (by education) is more important than trying to convince politicians. After all if people adopted a reduction in emissions for example, that will reduce the climate change effect, no matter whether their Government has signed a Climate Treaty or not.