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  • Wanqing Liu added an answer in Pharmacogenomics:
    How can linkage disequilibrium be applied to pharmacogenomics?

    how cyp 2d6 linkage disequilibrium will help to analyse pharmacogenomics of drug metabolism

    Wanqing Liu · Purdue University

    It depends on what area you are looking at. LD describes the genetic structure around the gene, and tells you the relationship between SNPs located within the gene region. Depending on your purposes, it may have a few applications:

    1. For PGx research, the LD between SNP will help you identify the PGx SNPs most likely associated with your phenotype, e.g. in a GWAS, or a candidate gene-based study, you don't have to genotype ALL the SNPs in the genome or within the candidate genes. You can just genotype selected tagSNPs based on their LD level (e.g. R2>=0.8).

    2. To identify the causal SNPs as mentioned by Sook Wah Yee above.

    3. For a PGx test, for the SNPs that are in high LD, you can just genotype a representative SNP instead of all SNPs. e,g, the VKORC1 promoter SNP and the intron 1 SNP.

    4. When there is a PGx polymorphism that is hard to genotype, e.g. a large CNV, if there is a highly linked SNP, you can genotype that SNP instead of the CNV.

    Hope this would be helpful for you.

  • Tausif Alam added an answer in Cognitive Systems:
    Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.

    Tausif Alam · University of Wisconsin–Madison


    "Tausif, the fear of honesty can be a real problem even for a very good scientist, that was my point and your quote was deliberately changed"

    I hate to be blunt, but whatever the above gibberish means to you, I am not buying it and I wish you would stop wasting everyone's time by your similar logic. 

    Thank you for your cooperation.

  • Universe is static!!! Yes or no?

    Space of Universe is static! Yes or no?

    Question: Are there any observations that do not fit into the model static space of Universe, are there any theoretical obstacles to the existence of such a model?

    I assume that the Universe is eternal, infinite and static, it is not expanded and not curved, it is possible to construct a preferred inertial frame of reference in which the CMBR is most isotropic. The matter in this space evolves, but the average density of matter and energy (in large enough volumes) fluctuate within a rather broad range.
    The light in this model is "tired", the speed of light depends on the optical density intergalactic medium. Gravity is also "tired" t.i. weakens a little faster R2. The energy of destroying matter goes into the surrounding vacuum. The excess energy from the vacuum give rise to new particles of matter.

    I state that all the observed cosmological effects can be explained in such a Static Model of the Universe.
    See attached "Basic_Cosmological_Formula_1_En.pdf"

    Dear colleagues, I do not ask, what are the problems faced by other theories (though I would be interested in your opinion on that. The General theory of relativity is not applicable to the entire space of the Universe).

    Erkki J. Brändas · Uppsala University


    Regarding reading the file, I enclosed earlier. Please read it with an open mind as you promised! Your quick scan is not correct!

    In your critique you say: In this badly written book, they start off with the assumption that the times t and t' must be simultaneously different for the same event, and then end up "proving" that these times must be different. Thus, by circular reasoning they end up with their initial assumption.

    Johan, you can do better than that! Please read the "badly written book" more carefully and you will find that the actual derivation only employs the four general axioms,

    1. The velocity of light is the same in all privileged systems.

    2.  Space and time are homogeneous

    3.  Space is isotropic.

    4.  Space is symmetric with respect to velocities

    5.  The superposition of two positive velocities will again be a positive velocity

    and then yields the result (that that the times t and t' must different for the same event) as a consequence of 1-4!.

    I hope you appreciate the difference between a consequence of a mathematical derivation and simply making an assumption!

    Note again that math and physics should not be mixed inconsistently – do the math and interpret the results in physical terms!

    I think Feynman said that he did not trust research results that supported what the scientists wanted to believe. It is easy to fall into this trap! Your reading of the "badly written book" is a fine example. You do not want to penetrate the discussion  unless it will satisfy your preconceived thesis!

    Although I was the director of a Graduate Programme at Uppsala University (Advanced Instrumentation and Measurements, including high energy physics collaborations with CERN) for many years, I am not technologically experienced to guarantee the existence of the Higgs. Nevertheless I keep an open mind for future developments and advances.

  • Gino OLIVE added an answer in Ecosystem Ecology:
    Does a cubic meter of water generate storage in an arid area of 4 kg of carbon through the development of organic matter?

    In the article:Webb W., Szarek S., Lauenroth W., Linerson R.; Primary productivity and water use in native forest, grassland, and desert ecosystems, Ecology, 59(6), 1978, pp. 1239-1247, I understand that a m^3 of water enable storage of 4 kg of carbon, this is call WUE (water use efficiency); am I right? Does any others studies confirm this?

    Gino OLIVE · Lycée des arènes, 31100 toulouse

    Thank you for your answers; this helps me a lot to obtain an estimation, a minimal value to expect of yield of carbon sequestration when fresh water is provided in arid areas. I'd like to expand the discussion; I know it should cost a lot but the first interest would be to use sea water in a very large scale in order to have a significant effect on the rise of sea level . Considering an average rise in sea level of 3 mm per year .This corresponds to approximately e12 m3 of saltwater. The annual production of desalinated water is 2,6∙e10 m3, and should be multiplied by 100 in order that this production have a significant effect on the rise of sea level. Is this feasible?  The debate should be placed. Considering an average consuption of 6 kWh/m3, this represents about one trillion euros annually. Of course we have to consider the environement impact of every euro. The induced sequestration of carbon would be a plus.

  • Akira Kanda added an answer in Special Relativity:
    Does accelerated charge emit photons to all observers?

    We know that a decelerated charge emits photons. So you can visualize an observer in a stationary frame of reference that detects these photons.

    However for another observer in an accelerated frame of reference that is moving, at the same pace as the charge, the charge appears stationary and apparently should not emit photons.

    How do we reconcile these two apparently contradictory positions?

    Akira Kanda · University of Toronto

    > Derek, you have been spending too long in engineering departments if you are going to bandy words like 'deceleration' around ;)

    I think that it was a blessing that Derek did not suffer from the indoctrination of Physics.

    > Deceleration is a word that most physicists (quite rightly) try to expunge from the vocabulary of our students, for the simple reason that it is ambiguous and leads to all kinds of confusion. The physics of the situation you describe is that all accelerating charges emit light (c.f. changes of direction such as cyclotron emission). Here again, we need to be slightly careful, because what we are really concerned about is acceleration that is observed in the frame of reference, i.e. we are explicitly NOT considering free-fall.

    It is not the matter of wording. It is the matter of understanding, Maxwell's em field theory was a summation of what was observed in our lab. So, it was meant to work only for our flame. Obviously, the charge is accelerated in the frame of our labs! Then due to the Faraday induction, the charge emits em wave. According to the Faraday induction, if you are in the frame of this moving charge, the charge does not move and so, we observe no emission of photons. But according to the basic concept of reference frames, an object has a single frame in which it is at rest and it is a moving point in all other frames. The choice of a reference frame will not make the object disappear. So, what Derek is complaining is absolutely legitimate.

    The whole problem came from that Physicist had not enough background to articulate metaphysics of the reference frames. The theory of reference frames is way more complex and subtle than we think.  I do not think we have any working one.

    Physicists should come up with a convincing enough theory of reference frames first and star relativity theory.

  • Jerome Maller added an answer in FSL:
    How can we flip image in left right direction in FSL?

    I have a volume  of MRI which is left hemisphere of brain and I want to flip it in left right direction to perform symmetric analysis with right hemisphere.

    Can anyone suggest me how can it be done.

    Jerome Maller · Monash University (Australia)

    Using FSL, try combination of positive and negative x, y, z.

    e.g. fslswapdim data.nii.gz z y x dataoutput.nii.gz

    I explain this in my handbook on page 50:


  • Nils Ulltveit-Moe added an answer in Fuzzy:
    How do I estimate positive false alarm reduction ratio?

    Maggi et. al. (2009) have described and evaluated a technique which uses fuzzy sets and measures to fuse alerts reported by the anomaly detectors in an attempt to reduce the positive false alarm rate produced. The authors also have proposed a performance metric for the evaluation of fusion systems. The performance metric is based on the projection of detection rate and false positive rate against the degree of output alarm reduction. The research have defined the alarm reduction rate as the ratio between the output of the alarm fusion system and the original alarm set.
    The question is how to estimate the ratio of alarm reduction from the graph (Figure 11)? Pardon my trivial question... Obviously it can be read from the graph at a desired detection rate (let’s say Global DR is 0.9 the alarm reduction rate is 0.155 which means the system achieved alarm reduction of 15.5%. However, I have a sound in my head telling me my calculation is wrong. If that so, please correct me.

    If you don't have the access to science direct, the authors have made it public and can be downloaded from here 


    Nils Ulltveit-Moe · Universitetet i Agder

    I recommend reading the seminal paper from Gu et al. which defines an information theoretical model of IDS as well as an intrusion detection capability metric, subdivided into two submetrics for feature capability and detection capability. This allows for tuning the performance of anomaly-based intrusion detection systems:

  • Smart Obiora added an answer in Granite:
    What does presence of vesicles in porphyritic granites suggest?

    I would like to know the reason for formation of vesicles and if there is anything published for reference.

    Smart Obiora · University of Nigeria

    Just as others above have said, vesicles occur in shallow-seated intrusions, especially when the magma is enriched in gases. I have made the observation in some dolerites from the Lower Benue rift. ''Moorehouse'' in his textbook on ''Study of Rocks in Thin Section'' gave similar explanation. In the year 2003 when I reported same in a Conference in my country, some older colleagues, however, frowned at it.

  • Do we need to set aside 35% of the planet as Ecological Restoration Preserves?

    Especially in places that experience frequent droughts, like the Western USA, India, Pakistan, the Middle East, North Africa, etc., should we plan on setting aside at least 35% of the area as Ecological Restoration Preserves, so that the watersheds keep produce adequate rainfall for our grazing and cultivated field needs in the rest of the lands?  And then within the natural areas, how much cover needs to be Pseudomonas host plants, to assure regular rainfall?  We are so used to utilizing the natural world to the maximum for human needs, we may have crossed over a threshold recently and accidentally eliminated too much of the natural world that supports us, and we may be undercutting our own future survival ?

    Kamaljit Kaur Sangha · University of Southern Queensland

    I have read a few answers only..so limited in my reply. I feel that its more about quality of the area to preserve natural state. Many national parks are set up on degraded land, so that does not serve the purpose of restoration natural diversity for human livelihoods. It has to be a holistic and mosaic approach wether we think about <35% or >35% of the total area, but the quality should be considered a criterion too. 


  • Tiago Sérgio Araújo added an answer in Biopac:
    Is there any tool to get ECG signal and heart sound?

    Wiggers diagram show relationship in the cardiac cycle. How to get ECG signal and heart sound together? Some papers use Biopac, any other tools are able to get them together?

    Tiago Sérgio Araújo · New University of Lisbon

    Hi Leonard, the market offer you a wide range off solutions in alternative to biopac. I recommend you the PLUX biosignals professional systems and Bitalino. 

  • What will be the price of Carbon in the Australian market (under the current ERF)?

    Under the CFI/ERF Australian Govt. programs, its not very clear what will be the tentative (baseline) price of C for abatement of CO2 emissions or for sequestration of C in the near future. Any idea would be helpful.

    Kamaljit Kaur Sangha · University of Southern Queensland

    Thanks to both of you.

    Re the first answer by Mohammad Imran: C price @23/t was fixed under the labour government (CFI program). The recent LNP govt. changed that program to Emissions Reduction Fund and is proposing to conduct C auctions. However, I am not sure if there is any baseline price set for C auctions?  Its a bit too loose...any idea on C price will be helpful in the current situation please.

    @ Ting- good to know about this aspect, I was not aware of Australia buying C credits from Europe...there will be a lot of Credits available in Australia itself that will help Aus farmers. I agree that there is a lot of difference in price. But, I wonder if this trade can actually happen? -any papers/references pl.



  • Is possible to "measure" social or institutional innovations, or technology transfer procesess developed for small agricultural growers?

    Measuring innovation is cristal clear when a patent, an utility model, a plant variety or a new trade mark is developed by researchers. However, when social or institutional innovations are developed, or technology transfer is done with peasants or small farmers, innovation is very difficult to measure.

    Carlos Olguin Palacios · Colegio de Postgraduados


  • Aleksandar Bojarov added an answer in Plasma:
    Why does the ionization rate in plasma drop with density??

    The ionization rate shows a dependency at the density even if no multilevelionisation processes and ionization depression models are taken into account. My Brain is somehow blocked right now and I do not understand anymore  why that is so?? What is the fundamental Idea behind it?

    does anyone know where to find a reference to get a better understanding of that process

    Aleksandar Bojarov · Institute of Physics Belgrade

    Generally I would say this: higher density -> more collisions -> less free path-> less probability for particles to gain enough energy for ionization (take account the higher threshold energy for ionization than other processes).

  • Can anyone suggest me good techniques for RADAR signal Processing?

    I am currently Working on a project that converts received RADAR signal into its equivalent digital form.

  • Akira Kanda added an answer in Biology Theory:
    What are space and time?

    Space and time are widely used concepts or categories. They play a major role and are critically discussed in physics, natural science in general and in philosophy. A quote of Kant is: "Space and time are the framework within which the mind is constrained to construct its experience of reality.”. But in Einsteins approach space-time is an attitude of the reality. In cosmology space and time began after the big bang. But for MacTggert time was unreal.
    There is no doubt that space and time are basic concepts especially in modern scientific theories. Theories and sciences like cosmology, geology, theory of evolution and phylogenetics as well as developmental theories in biology or psychology, culture theory and especially history are unthinkable without space and time.
    What do you think?

    Akira Kanda · University of Toronto

    Newton made a great step forward by articulately defining what a motion is in terms of time and space. He also axiomatized the relation between mass and force as the second law. He further introduced the third law and the law of gravity.

    It is unfortunate that no physicists who followed him had much idea what  Newton did.  This is how contemporary physics eneded up with where they are now. Kaku Michio will give you an over view of the "status" of contemporary physics, succeeding late Carl Sagan. Vatican cosmology seems to be more scientific.

    However, Newton was wrong too. According to the law of gravity when M and m are under the gravitational pulling force, they are pulling each other with the force GMm/r2. So, for m, M is approaching with acceleration Gm/r2, and for M, m is approaching with the gravitational acceleration GM/r2. So, they are approaching with different speed. This contradicts our knowledge that they are approaching each other with the same speed. Newton knew this problem and so he rejected any form of relativity. He instead defined relative motion as difference between toe absolute motion. But as he was not in the age of articulate logic as now, he missed that this constitutes a logical contradiction.

    This is pretty much the same error as Einstein made in his STR. Confronted with the contradiction between MM's Constancy of the Speed of Light and Galilean relativity theory which proves the Galilean addition of speed, Einstein just added CSL as an axiom of the Galilean Relativity Theory with axioms {d=vt,PR} where PR is the Principle of Relativity. Neither of them knew that this makes the resulting theory inconsistent as adding new axioms will not block the derivation of the Galilean addition of speed.

  • Olaf Schilgen asked a question in Cost:
    Who gets the "dollar" if you pay for energy or materials?

    I really have a question in my mind, still growing:

    The normal saying is "cost of energy", "cost of copper", "cost of minerals" ... or even "cost of whatever kind of matter" ...

    But: Who really gets the money if you try to pay for "such kind of matter"?

    The really big problem in the economic theory: The MONEY is circling only between humans known as inhabitants of the economic system. Some of these humans say to some kind of matter: "That is mine." ... and someone else, wishing such forms of matter, has to decide either to pay for getting such matter in exchange ... or to steal or just take it.

    But how in any meaning can someone say it it the price "for" the matter? The matter was there before - and will be there after ... all we do in economic systems is ... transport some of the matter forms and convert its outer shape (produce a given combination of matter calles product like a car) ...

    But still we take the matter where we find it ... and the energy as well... and we will never be able to really "pay" for matter or energy - since it is the nature who "created" it ... and it is not possible to buy something from nature - since nature has no bank account ... 

    So, looking back to the economic theory: The economic cycle is only a cycle of money between the human inhabitants ... neither matter nor energy really cycles ... (with matter we try that, but with energy we will never able to t´do that because of the laws of thermodynamics)

    So my question remains: As we normally talk about "cost of energy" and "cost of matter" in any forms:

    All dollars always move only from humans to humans.

    So,why in heaven, we call that "price of energy" or "Price of matter"?

    It is always a human owner behind ... so all prices are paid loans or rents at the end.

    All prices. Absolutely all prices.

  • Where can I find the Dow Jones Islamic Market World Index - historical constituent data?

    Dear Colleagues,

    in my research, I am attempting to analyze the financial decision behavior of Shari’ah compliant companies compared to their non-compliant peers on selected countries, i.e. US, UK, Canada, Japan, Taiwan, S.Korea and India. I have chosen Dow Jones Islamic Market World Index as a source for the Shari’ah compliant companies, as it covers starting from 1996.

    For me to conduct such a research it is utmost important to have the historical information of DJIM index with its constituent companies. In specific, this research requires the information about those companies which were included/excluded (joiners/leavers) into DJIM index between the years 1996-2014 (on annual basis).

    Any suggestions from where to collect the data? I would appreciate it very much if anyone could share these data.

    Note: within 'Thomson Datastream' any DJIMxx-Serie, e.g. DJIMUS$ provides the constituent list as of today ONLY. 

    Hope I could express well enough my request and hope for support.

    Best regards and thank you in advance.

    Lukman Olorogun · International Islamic University Malaysia

    Dear Ramzan,

    Wishing you good luck in your research. However, I advise you to use quarterly due to the volume of data involved, unless if you have statistical program that would be able to handle substantial data of such. This makes your research interesting.

    Best of luck 

  • Qihua Xu asked a question in Glide:
    Does any researcher can help me understand: 'the climb and glide dislocation can control the rate of the grain boundary sliding' in creep damage?

    Dear researchers:

    I have difficulty in understand a technical phrase written in (Perrin and Hayhurst, 1996) Creep constitutive equations for a 0.5Cr0.5Mo0.25V ferritic steel in the temperature range 600-675 degree C.

    The technical phrase is:''Due to the climb and glide of dislocations, that controls the rate of grain boundary sliding and hence the overall creep rate. Conventionally, such dislocation creep is described by a power law relationship; however, Dyson and Osgerby(1993) have recently proposed that climb and glide occur as a parallel, rather than a sequential process. this parallel process leads to the creep strain having a hyperbolic sine dependence on the applied stress...'.

    1.  I was wondering if any research can help me to obtain the paper please?It is because of the original concept was proposed by Dyson(1993) but the university library is not be able to obtain the report from the NPL (B.F. Dyson, NPL report DMM A102 Appril 1993)
    2. I was wondering to know why the dislocation behavior can influence on the grain boundary sliding and how? 
    3. I do not understand the phrase'this parallel process leads to the creep strain having a hyperbolic sine dependence on the applied stress', why this can lead to a hyperbolic sine relationship?

    Any suggestion is appreciated!Thank you!

  • Can I only simulate the environment for intelligent traffic signal control in SUMO? Is there any other software required to control the operations?

    I want to simulate the intersection with intelligent traffic lights. I select SUMO for the purpose. But, still confused whether I need more software to visualize the results properly or not.Please suggest and guide accordingly.

    Thanks in advance.

    Sutanto Soehodho · University of Indonesia

    For specific analyses it would be good if you could make your own programming on computer. Intelligent control on intersection would need somehow dynamic and responsive properties. So I would suggest your to research on those corridors by all means of specific computer programming.

  • Bradley Wilson added an answer in Questionnaire:
    What technique is used to reduce a large number of items in a questionnaire to a small number of items?

    It is not desirable to have many questions in a questionnaire. Is there any way by which we can reduce the number of questions in a questionnaire without affecting the purpose of the study?

    Bradley Wilson · RMIT University

    it depends....

    if they are reflective (mode A) or formative (mode b) item measures. You cannot reduce the measure from mode b as it assume your items captures the universe of the conceptual meaning for the defined construct.

    see bollen and lennox (1991)

    or also any Wynne chin article/chapter in the late 1990s

    I would recommend never using cronbach's alpha. use maximised reliability. Werts, linn et al.

    Cronbach's alpha is unitary weighted and as such is a lower bound estimate



  • Shahrukh Khan asked a question in Data Analysis:
    Looking for a Statistician for Data Analysis of large cohort of Aging Study?

    We are looking for large cohort data analysis expert. We are apart of aging related research and looking for a statistician.


  • Annie Klaus asked a question in k-means:
    What influences the number of clusters generated?

    Different methods of clustering needs varied approximations to find out "optimal" number of clusters for compound classification. What operation influences the number of clusters in k-means, Jarvis Partrick(K-NN) and hierarchical clustering?

  • I. Yu. Popov added an answer in Fluid Dynamics:
    How does the presence of corners affect the 3D boundary integral equation?

    It is well known that corners require a special treatment in the 2D boundary integral equaiton. The factor 1/(2pi) appearing in the equation should be replaced by 1/(2 alpha), where alpha is the corner angle (see the problem 2.6.4 in the book of Pozrikidis on the boundary integral methods for viscous flows). Here I am concerned with a 3D viscous flow problem where the geometry is composed with several planes that form sharp edges. Right now, I am excluding those nodes from the computation but I get dubious results. I wonder if the nodes at the corner need a special treatment as well. Any help will be highly appreciated. Thank you in advance.

    I. Yu. Popov · National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics

    Edge singularity is rather old problem. To find the type of the singularity you should deal with the Green formula. You can consult with books in Diffraction theory (acoustic, electromagnetic) in which the problem is described in details. Shortly, the edge leads to the singularity but you need uniqueness of the solution. From this condition one obtains the appropriate singularity type. For the Laplace or Helmholtz operator it is so-called Meixner's Edge Condition (convergence of integral of the square of gradient over domain containing the edge). You can follow the scheme of obtaining the Meixner's Edge Condition for your operator and come to proper condition. If you have only planes intersection the condition will be, really, the same as for 2D case (with natural correction taking into account the third coordinate). Conical point gives another result. 

  • Shahrukh Khan added an answer in Oral Health:
    Does any one know researches focusing on Obesity and Oral health related quality of life?

    I am looking for research papers which have published work on Oral health related quality of life in obese populations

    I am basically looking in epidemiological comparisons

    Shahrukh Khan · University of Malaya


  • Shahrukh Khan asked a question in Periodontal Diseases:
    Looking for some reviewer and coauthors for my study on periodontal disease, oral health quality of life and its risk factors?

    I am looking for coauthors with expertise in periodontal disease and oral health assessment. I have data related to pakistani population and would like to draft a high quality paper with some collaborators.

  • Okechukwu Ogah asked a question in Manuscripts:
    Sir, I mistakingly uploaded a wrong version of a manuscript on my page, please how can i replace?

    Sir, I mistakingly uploaded a wrong version of a manuscript on my page, please how can i replace?

  • Timothy A Ebert added an answer in ANOVA:
    I am looking for SAS software code for Augmented Design. Can someone guide me out?

    My project is conducted as Augmented Design at filed. For doing ANOVA I am looking for SAS software code. I could not find a complete SAS code for ANOVA and means comparison. Can someone guide me out?

    Timothy A Ebert · University of Florida


    Just FYI: I tried the link and had no problem, except that it just took me to the SAS-Stat manual. There were no examples with an augmented design in the examples, and it is difficult to read the manual and figure out how to do this sort of analysis. You could see the article by going to the SAS.com home page and working through the SAS-STAT manual.

  • Akira Kanda added an answer in Set Theory:
    Is the foundation of Set Theory also the foundation of Intelligence and logic?
    Dear Colleagues, I am working on a new theory named Prelogic or Crealogic that uses the idea of sets and their creation for explaining the mechanisms that assemble intelligence and logic.
    More interestingly, using Prelogic as the possible foundation of Set Theory, the Russell Paradox is no longer a contradiction or inconsistency of math and logic, but rather a clear illustration of the set forming dependency of an intellect.
    Additionally, this so called Prelogic, can explain the reason why neurons connect and communicate the way they do to create intelligence.
    Noteworthy, we have assembled a computational prototype of the above, that also uses sets for representing Language with mathematical-like proficiency, and soon, we hope to begin assembling the representations for Images.
    For example, in language, Prelogic claims why is it that when we say "the red car and the yellow submarine," the car is red and not yellow, while the submarine becomes conceptually yellow but not red. What happens is that the meaningless entity representing "car" forms a SET with the meaningless entity representing "red." A similar thing happens to yellow with submarine, and therefore the reason why the submarine is not red nor the car is yellow. In this fashion Grammar becomes nothing more than binding rules (reason why grammatical elements are not freely exchanged) which only purpose is to acknowledge complex concepts (which concepts/words from SETS with other concepts/words)
    So in the case of biological intelligence, neurons (meaningless cells representing concepts) form SETS which are identifiable only when communications travel along their connections (dendrites). Noteworthy, neurons can not draw areas around them like in Set Theory to create sets. The only way they can do this is by connecting with each other and identifying this connections by communicating.
    Akira Kanda · University of Toronto

    > An another important area has been neglected, that is continious computation (for example, many simulating computers) which is related less to discrete variables, so less to set theory for that set theory is only for discrete variables. Consequently, for some continious intelligent system, you can't say it is laid on the foundation of set theory.

    It was Cantor who investigated the continuum in the transfinite ordinal chain, aka the Continuum hypothesis which was shown to be independent of a scaled down version of Cantor's set theory, aka ZFC.

    Without the concept of set, there is no way to capture the continuity. Without set, one can do quite well up to rational numbers. Using set theory, we can prove that the set of natural numbers have the same "number" of elements as that of  rational numbers. Using set theory, we can prove that the set of real numbers contain way more numbers than the set of rational numbers. Without sets we can define real numbers and we can not define what 2pi is. Without sets, we can not prove that (ax)*(ay)=ax+y.

  • Yuan-Yeu Yau added an answer in Cucurbitaceae:
    What might be the reason of getting different leaf structure for the plant obtained from the seeds of same fruit?

    Dear All,

    I have sown some seeds of a Hodgsonia heteroclita fruit from Cucurbitaceae family, but the leaves structure which is thought to be the most important key feature for identifying the two species of this plant shows different morphological feature. It is recorded that H. macrocarpa leaves are three lobed and that of H. heteroclita are five lobed. However the seeds of the same when germinated produced two lobed, three lobed and five lobed leaves. What might be the possible reason and how can it be resolved?

    Yuan-Yeu Yau · Northeastern State University

    Don't know during which plant developmental stage you observed these mixed leaf structures. But, as Biswapriya suggested, probably you need to wait and check the fully-matured leaves, as the young leaves are still growing and the remaining lobes have not formed yet.

    Also, Mohamed raised a good point, what if a plant organ phenotype is controlled by allelic genetic segregation, how can a Plant Taxonomist document it?