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- We have some Nigella sativa Oil having an acid value of 9. Can someone suggest a method to reduce the acid value using benign reagents?
we want to use it for soft gel encapsulation.Following
- Can anyone suggest me the suitable thermocouple type and details for measuring temperature in a specified heat exchanger?
I am working on a heat exchanger, which is operated under a temperature range of 0 deg Celsius to 200 deg Celcius. I want to measure the inlet-outlet temperatures and all. So, please suggest me the required thermocouple and details for that. Thank in advance.
I think K type thermocouple will best suit for your application. What type of HE r u using?Following
- Is there any Terrace farming and technology development related articles available?
Is there any Terrace farming and technology development related articles available?
It is difficult to get research article on terrace farming or terrace gardening. But you can get many articles on hydroponics/soilless culture/aeroponics/aquaponics/vertical farming etc.,Following
- Is it necessary to have bilingual experts (with formal education) for translating a questionnaire?
While testing a questionnaire for its validation and cross-cultural adaptation, is it necessary to have bilingual experts with formal education? E.g translation of Nordic questionnaire into Urdu (is it necessary that the translators have a formal level of education/degree in Urdu or English?)
Could it be done by someone who is brilliant at both languages but does not have formal education?
Secondly, how is the sample size selected for translation-based studies like this? Inclusion and exclusion criteria and number of participants etc...
Thanks in anticipation.
Yes! I also remember the "under consideration" vs. "under active consideration" joke. So, while I concede Rudy's point, my comment was in reference to a scholar using an existing scale in a new setting or with modifications. We would hope that the scale was developed meaningfully and that item wording reflects the appropriate construct. However, following from that, simply taking it for granted that the modified scale still has good measurement properties without testing the reliability coefficients may lead to unnecessary grief in later data analyses simply because the scale is not a robust measurement of what you are trying to measure.Following
- Why do we stick PLLA composite to screws in extrusion?
My coworkers and I work on fabrication of some bioabsorbable interference screws from composite of PLLA + bioactiveglass 45s5 and also PLLA+ HA(hydroxyapatite) (75/25 weight percent) by injection molding method for research purposes, injection of screws from neat PLLA does not have any special problem but, when we tried to use biocomposite granules, it seems that the compound could not be melted and flowed properly and so could not inject into the die , we prepared the primary compound of the mentioned biocomposites by ball milling and next internal mixing of both powders with each other and next during fed into the injection unit, it is very adhesive and sticks to the mandrel of injection unit of machine, this is really a problem for us and we really stuck with it, so I would really appreciate if I could have your tips about this problem.
I look forward to hearing from you soon
With best regards
we want to use the molded materials in in-vivo assay
PEG is safe for that porpose?Following
- What is the status of AR in 4T1 cells?
4T1 cells most commonly used cells for the generation of syngenic mouse mammary tumor model. Can we use 4t1 syngenic model for AR signaling studies. what is the AR status in 4t1 cells.Following
- My independent variables have certain moderating variables acting on them and my outcome variable is dichotomous. How do I use logit here?
the low/high effect of my moderating variables effect the main independent variable that effects the final output that is dichotomous. Can you please suggest a good model ?
If you have a matched case-control design and a dichotomous response variable, I suggest a conditional logistic regression...see Hosmer, Lemeshow and Sturdivant 2013 - Applied Logistic Regression for methods and examplesFollowing
- Is Sudan 1 a fluorescent dye ?
can anyone tell me the absorption and emission wavelength of Sudan 1.
have a look at the following reference:
Ultraviolet and Visible Absorption Spectra
ISBN 032315977X, 9780323159777Following
- How do you see the non-locality of the wave-function and why it can't be used for the faster than light signaling?
The wave-function describes a form of quantum energy called the quantum potential which propagates throughout space. Disturbing the quantum potential in one location instantly modifies it throughout the whole space. How you see this aspect related to the velocity of light?
"Clearly we don't understand some very basic aspects of quantum theory."
It might as well (and in addition) be that we don't understand the nature of spacetime...Following
- how to obtain a high accuracy when doing maunal injection of GC .
- Which normality test is preferable for small data sets (<10 observations)? There are several commonly used normality tests. I wonder what do you suggest is optimal for small data sets?
the Shapiro-Wilk and the Shapiro-Francia are used to test for normality, in this context, . swilk can be used with 4<=n<=2,000 observations and sfrancia can be used with 5<=n<=5,000 observations.
- Does anyone know a reference/equation for computing error degree variances from gravity models like EGM08 or satellite only models?
I want to calculate error degree variances of gravity models in order to compute a covariance model to implement LSC. Can anyone suggest a reference for computing error degree variances?
I'd like to appreciate your consideration and the links that you send me. What I was looking for, is the equations that I found it in the first paper (Vergos et al,2004).
- How to dilute Cisplatin (from SIGMA) in 0.9% PBS .?
I have been trying to dilute Cisplatin in 0.9% PBS, but when ever I dilute it instead of completely getting diluted the tube resides some yellow colored minute powdered particles, they get suspended to the bottom even after vortexing.
I have tried using a water bath sonicator to dilute it, once sonicated for 5 min at 10X limit, the particles are not visible, but if the tube is left still at 4 Degree after sonication for about 1 hour or more the particles come back to light.
Due to this I am perfectly not able to figure out if the drug is getting diluted or not.
Kindly share ur experiences using cisplatin (powder form)Following
- Does anyone have experience with imaging Doxorubicin distribution with the Luminex or similar?
I want to see if incorporation of Dox into a particle can promote its entry into the Brain. I am planning to use an exposed brain preparation in the Luminex II. I would like to image the whole body distribution of the particles either in individual excised organs or better in the whole animal?Following
- Is there anyway to estimate temperature gradient in forest fire?
I would like to know if there is any way to estimate the temperature at some distance from a fire front (forest fire, wildfire). We want to know the vertical and horizontal temperature gradient which is generated by the front of a forest fire, to know how the tempearure is modified prior to vegetation burns.
We are interested in knowing how temperaute increases as a fire front approaches.
Thank you very much.
Thank you very much. It's a very complete information and you enclose very interesting papers. I think I have to study hard!!!
- Positive control in qPCR is necessary to include or not?
Is it advisable to run a positive control with unknown samples in qPCR?Following
- What is the relation between Modernization and change of identity ?
Which mean traditional is better then modernization for keeping our identity without change. Or we can change but respect our traditional. Or we respect and like the modernization and neglect the old traditional way.
Dear Dr. Mohd
I hope that our traditional not change by modernization and become disappear . I am looking for how much change can remain from our culture according to the influence of the modernize waves. I am not against modernization but with limitations .
- Which is the best way or method to attract the attention of a new generation on the direction of the ethnobotanical heritage protection?
What is your experience or offer(s)?
I agree with the observations of dear @Narasimha Rao that lack of funding and job opportunities are the stumbling blocks for youth to take up ethnobotanical studies. People are more interested in biodiversity and its protection and conservation. Ethnobotanical studies need to be integrated with modern sciences of information technology, biotechnology, nanotechnology etc. to sustain the interest of funding agencies and the youth.Following
- Do we need to practice microbial inoculation in consortium mode for value added response ?
Intervention of microbes in soil fertility transformation, maintaining soil health , and consequently the better crop response, is a almost a habit for any crop husbandry practitioner . Some of the issues are still not so clear with respect to use of single, dual or multiple inoculation in consortium mode with following issues:
# Whether microbes used as bio-inoculants act as supplement or complement to inorganic /chemical/mineral fertilization ?.
# To what an extent , these bio-inoculants can save on use of inorganic fertilizers?.
# Whether use of microbial consortium could play twin role, addressing two very important issues viz., suppressing soil borne diseases acting as antagonists on one hand and triggering the growth response on the other hand ?.
I call upon my esteemed colleagues to express their precious views.
Very nice . These answers encourage me to flag off few other very interesting points , which we can respond while answering the my primary question . The microbes under any natural system function in tandem with each other , and in the process , they constitute easy heaven like network often called microbial pool . How is such microbial pool identified?. Can a rhizo-competent microbe ( whether or not a member of consortium ) be a equally strong antagonist ? , since the ability of the microbe to trigger off growth response will improve the defense system of plant , thereby , imparting greater flexibility to fight out against diseases.Following
- Interface effect and strain due to lattice mismatch play the role in the growth of epitaxial thin film. Which is more prominent if both are present?
Interface effect and strain due to lattice mismatch play the role in the growth of epitaxial thin film by pulsed laser deposition. Which is more prominent and upto which thickness, in the growth of thin film, if both are present?Following
- How can I calculate thermal properties (conductivity, heat capacity, difussivity) from soil temperature profiles artificially supplied with heat?
I used infrared bulbs (250W) to supply heat on soil columns and measured soil temperature profiles with 30 minute interval at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50cm but not the surface temperature
Your problem is a typical inverse heat transfer problem. In summary, you need to solve an optimisation problem to obtain the thermophysical parameters which minimise the error between the temperature yielded by physical model (e.g. heat conduction equation) and the measured ones. There are several methods to solve this (very often ill-posed) optimisation problem. You may find a review in the publication attached.
I hope it gives you a starting point, but don't hesitate to contact me if you need further details.
- Do you agree that maintainability, maintenance, and reliability of systems and products have become more important than ever?
Various studies have proven that for many large and sophisticated
products and systems, maintenance and support costs account for as much
as 2/3 of their life cycle costs.
Huge number of technical products and systems are unity of software, electronics and mechanical components. Maintainability is the ease in which something can be maintained or restored to its functioning state.Following
- Can a stock solution of beta amyloid in NaOH be kept long and used repeatedly?
I am considering using NH4OH to pretreat beta amyloid instead of HFIP. The usual protocol says that upon removal of NH4OH, the dried beta amyloid is reconstituted in NaOH as a stock solution. Can this stock solution be kept long (at -20) and used repeatedly with freeze-thawing?
You can keep at -20 only upto 2-3 weeks in NaOHFollowing
- Any dynamical monitoring of pistoning?
I am looking for a system to monitor pistoning of residual limb in a prosthetic socket. There is an approach  which relies on motion capture system, but their results are for static monitoring along. Did anyone try this approach in walking trials? Or Sanders's approach  is the only choice?
Gholizadeh H, Abu Osman NA, Kamyab M, Eshraghi A, Wan Abas WAB, Azam MN. Transtibial prosthetic socket pistoning: static evaluation of Seal-In® X5 and Dermo® Liner using motion analysis system,
Sanders J, Karchin A, Fergason J, Sorenson E. A noncontact sensor for measurement of distal residual-limb position during walking.
Dear Ming Liu, in order to solve the problem of pistoning monitoring, the rescent discussion in RG "How do I determine an impact force from a signal of accelerometer ?" may be recommended for your attention.Following
- I am analysing the physics behind necking in giraffe and need to access giraffe fighting videos. Do you have access to any material we can analyse?
If you have access to any films please let me know. Background research on this topic can be seen in Simmons and Scheepers 1996 Am Nat 148:771-
Hi Robert and Lindsay et al.
It is well known that when fighting over a female, the male giraffes indulge in mild to violent "necking". A few violent necking videos for your use could be seen on website. However, the video clip uploaded by Lindsay probably depicts mild necking after which they may caress each other with their necks and have sex - it is reported that over 75% male giraffes indulge in sex with their male counterparts. I agree that "Kicking" with hind legs can inflict a deadly blow and is used to fight off predators.
Do have a look at: Tall Blondes: A Book About Giraffes by Lynn Sherr.Following
- Which is the best seed (innoculating sludge) to be used in the start up of a aerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR)?
Is it good to use cow dung? or is it better to use the sludge from an activated sludge treatment plant?
I would like to use a lab scale SBR for the treatment of landfill leachate.
Kindly provide any relevant papers/ideas if possible.
if you used cow dung its probably take more time for seeding time. for application in watewater treatment plant i think better to use sludge from activated sludge water treatment, but for lab scale research perhaps you could mix them, and count its load .
sorry i didnt have any suitable paper, my opinion based on my experience
- Why Non-probability sampling is the best suited for countries like Pakistan?
There are different ways for taking a sample among which broader categories include probability sampling and non-probability sampling. Researchers argue that sample design is chosen on the base of different sampling criteria and study objectives. However, it is observed that Non-probability sampling is the most suited for research in countries like Pakistan.
Do you agree or disagree with the said observation? Provide your stance with sound justification.Following
- Will TCEP, a reducing agent for cysteines in the proteins, also reduce the iron portion of the heme molecule?
I work in the field of protein-heme interaction and I have a peptide system which has a free cyteine.It looks like two cysteines from two peptides form disulphide bond and this might be a problem for my heme interaction study with the peptide.I might have to use TCEP for reducing the peptide but that might also reduce the iron in the heme molecule.Anybody could tell me here what could be done? Thanks in advance
You may try alkylation of cysteine residue before carrying out any further spectroscopy.Following