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  • Maunendra Sankar Desarkar added an answer in Statistical Testing:
    Which Algorithm is good for duplicated data analysis?

    I have data like that

    Individuals                disease                 score
    aa                             disA                      12
    aa                             disB                      12
    aa                             disC                      12
    bb                             disA                      15
    bb                             disC                      15

    1st, 2nd and 3rd columns enlist patients, diease and Test scores, respectively. One patient has more than one disease but only one test score. As test scores are according to patients not diseases. Diseases are of two types (Life threatening [disA and disB] and neurodegenrative[disC])

    I want to see association in between disease and test scores.

    I arranged data like that

    Individuals                        Disease                    score

    aa                                     Life threatening        12

    aa                                     neurodegenrative     12

    bb                                     Life threatening        15

    bb                                     neurodegenrative     15

    here, you can see that Test score for aa and bb individuals is in both groups.

    Is there any data mining algorithm or statistical test for such type of data?
    I can not remove these patients because they are highest proportion of data set.


    Maunendra Sankar Desarkar · Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad

    My idea is similar to the one described by Jochen.

    Consider each individual as a data point. Features for the data points are the possible diseases. Feature values can be Boolean, depending on whether the individual has the diseases or not. The target value for the data point is the score.

    For your example, the features can be the diseases disA, disB, disC. Then the person aa can be represented as a vector [1, 1, 1]. Person bb can be represented as [1, 0, 1]. The target values for these samples (individuals) are 12 and 15 respectively. You may then use regression or correlation analysis to find the importance values associated with each of disease. You may see the following link for an example problem on similar lines: http://www.psychstat.missouristate.edu/multibook/mlt07m.html

  • Taraneh Daryaee added an answer in Anaerobic Bacteria:
    How can I make e. coli breathe anaerobically?

    I need e coli to breathe anaerobically in order to test my inhibitor, how do I do that? Please answer ASAP! 

    Taraneh Daryaee · Stony Brook University

    Patrick druggan, yes that is what I want to do, but I don't know how to rid the media of oxygen. 

  • Satish Kachare added an answer in Popgene:
    How do I make input file for POPGENE software in case of co-dominant markers for genetic diversity analysis?

    How do I make input file for POPGENE software in case of co-dominant markers for genetic diversity analysis?

    Satish Kachare · Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya

    Thank you very much you all,,, finally, I got it..!!

  • Constantine Jeannacopoulos added an answer in Philosophy of Physics:
    The space in which we move and intract with the objective world, is a concept of what nature?

    As I said in a previous RG occasion, the notion of space in physics is not easy to describe. Some philosophical questions concerning the subject include:

    • Space is absolute or purely relational?

    • Space has an inherent geometry, or the geometry of space is just a convention?

    Many scientists have taken part in this debate, including Isaac Newton (space is absolute), Gottfried Leibniz (space is relational) and Henri Poincaré (the spatial geometry is a convention).

    Great progress of thought was the formulation of the theory of relativity ("restricted" in 1905 and "general" in 1916) by Einstein, according to whom time is not absolute but depends on the speed of light which is a universal constant and on the spatial reference taken into consideration. According to Einstein it is more correct to speak of space-time, because the two aspects (chronological and spatial) are inseparably related to each other; it is modified by the gravitational fields, which are able to deflect the light and slow down time (general relativity). So, from Einstein on, the two bodies that seemed primitive become intrinsically linked.

    Quantum theory gave rise to numerous disputes regarding its philosophical interpretation. Since the early developments its systems contradicted many accepted philosophies. However, its mathematical predictions matched the observations.

    In the track  of Newton, most scientists agreed on the assumption that the universe was governed by strict laws of nature, which could be discovered and formalized through scientific observation and experimentation. This position is known as determinism.

    We recall that In philosophy determinism is that conception of reality according to which all the phenomena of the world are connected to each other and occur in an order necessary and invariable (which excludes the presence of free will).

    Determinism concerns the relationship between cause and effect, between universal natural law and single specific phenomenon. According to this relation, in nature, given a cause or a law, a certain effect or a particular phenomenon can only occur, and nothing else. So there is no space in the Universe for the pursuit of goals freely chosen.

    On the path leading to the prevalence of these theses about a unified space, two scientific contributions should be remembered, those given by the two Byzantine philosophers: John Philoponus and Damascius. The first opposed to the Aristotelian definition his own description of place as three-dimensional "interval", corresponding, as a measure, to the volume of the object; this empty repository, in which the body is contained, is immaterial and remains unchanged if the body would come out.

    At the opposite point of view, that is the doctrine of space as quality relative to the position of material objects, there was the analysis of the neo-Platonic Damascius. For him, in fact, the place or space is nothing more than a measure of the position of the different parts of an object or of the object in relation to others. Contrary to the ambiguous thesis of Aristotle, that while not having an empty place, the place is still "different" from its content and 'remains' the same should it move away. In the more rigid analysis of Damascius relative to the position of a body in motion, it never becomes the position of another object for how many new positions it assumes.

    With the Newtonian theory of absolute space, the relative views as an universal container of bodies seemed to mark an important achievement, though not unchallenged. His main opponent was, as is well known, Leibniz, who to the notion of absolute space contrasted the concept of space as an ideal preparation that rises from the consideration of the change of mutual relations of the bodies, to which only improperly it can confer an objective reality.

    With Lebiniz and Locke, it began to take shape a new perspective in the analysis of space which placed in the foreground the way this concept is part of the world of knowledge of the subject. A road, this, which would have walked with Berkeley mainly the maximum theorists of empiricism, for whom the problem of space was situated in an epistemological and psychological perspective. It would have been Berkeley, in particular to draw the extreme consequences of this line of reflection, radicalizing the position of Locke - for whom the overall idea of ​​space arises from the mental correlation of simple ideas coming from visual and tactile sensations.

    With these arguments, a way is opened for the Kantian critical solution. The need to react to this subjective-empirical dissolution of the concept of space and to give a certain foundation to geometry, mechanics and Newtonian astronomy, led, in fact, Kant to investigate the space itself as a transcendental condition of knowledge.

    Refuting the nature of the absolute reality of space, Kant conceived space as a pure form of the insights of the external sense, and then as a necessary condition of human knowledge, having the function, together with time, of organizing the manifold of sense in view of its unification under the pure concepts of intellect.

    On the other hand, studying the antinomies, Kant did nothing but renew, in his new perspective, the argument with which Zeno showed the contradictory finity-infinity of each manifold and each space (as was aptly noted by Hegel).

    In the twentieth-century philosophy reflection on space was  uncnstrained by epistemological problems. You may recall, e.g., the theory of Bergson, who considered the spatial mode as its proper modality of positive sciences with which time is objectified, projecting the continuous flow of pure life in space.

    Constantine Jeannacopoulos

    Once Einstein said that the problem of the Now worried him seriously He explained that the experience of the Now means something special for man, something essentially different from the past and the future,but that this important difference does not and cannot occur within physics. That this experience cannot be grasped by science seemed tohim a matter of painful but inevitable resignation.

    Some metaphysicians speculate that the tension between presentism and special
    relativity might be resolved by masking up an ontological difference by epistemological
    inaccessibility,  Markosian (2010):

    Perhaps it can be plausibly argued that while relativity entails that it is physically impossible to observe whether two events are absolutely simultaneous, the theory nevertheless has no bearing on whether there is such a phenomenon as absolute simultaneity.

  • José Miguel Ferri Azor added an answer in Biocomposites:
    Why do we stick PLLA composite to screws in extrusion?

    My coworkers and I work on fabrication of some bioabsorbable interference screws from composite of PLLA + bioactiveglass 45s5 and also PLLA+ HA(hydroxyapatite) (75/25 weight percent) by injection molding method for research purposes,  injection of screws from neat PLLA does not have any special problem but, when we tried to use biocomposite granules, it seems that the compound could not be melted and flowed  properly and so could not inject into the die , we prepared the primary compound of the mentioned biocomposites by  ball milling and next internal mixing of both powders  with each other and next during fed into the injection unit, it is very adhesive and sticks to the mandrel of injection unit of machine, this is really a problem for us and we really stuck with it, so I would really appreciate if I could have your tips about this problem.

    I look forward to hearing from you soon

    With best regards

    José Miguel Ferri Azor · Universitat Politècnica de València

    Hello Mohammad

    It isn´t normal for these composites to stick in the screw injection machine.

    The HA increases the temperature of the PLLA/HA composite. Is probably that the melting point of the composite are higher than the working temperature.

    When the size of the particles decreases is posible that the melting point increase.

    Make a DSC of each of the composites to determine the melting temperature of the material. The working temperature should be about 10 degrees higher than the DSC contribution.

    Best regards

    José Miguel

  • Christian Q. Scheckhuber added an answer in Laccase:
    How can I estimate laccase activity by using hydrogen peroxide?

    Please how can i measure laccase activity by using h2o2

    Christian Q. Scheckhuber · Senckenberg Research Institute

    Please check these papers:



    Cheers, Christian

  • Nishit Goradia asked a question in Peptides:
    Will TCEP, a reducing agent for cysteines in the proteins also reduce the iron, part of the heme molecule?

    I work in the field of protein-heme interaction and I have a peptide system which has a free cyteine.It looks like two cysteines from two peptides form disulphide bond and this might be a problem for my heme interaction study with the peptide.I might have to use TCEP for reducing the peptide but that might also reduce the iron in the heme molecule.Anybody could tell me here what could be done? Thanks in advance

  • Biswajit Singh asked a question in Switching:
    What is Switching Frequency and the importance ?

    Benefits of High Switching Frequency?Drawbacks of High Switching Frequency?

  • Anurag Verma asked a question in Damping:
    Features to classify exponentially damped sinusoidal signals?

    I'm trying to classify different classes of exponentially damped sinusoidal signals like dull / resonant / tympanic. I want to extract features from the signals which could be used for training and classification. Which would be the ideal features for this purpose?

  • Leonhard Kurt Kienlein added an answer in Back Pain:
    What are some unusual causes of back pain?

    Patient is a 21yo female active and healthy, she had no previous medical concerns.

    She does have a history of syncope and collapse, saw and ENT, neurologist and cardiologist approx. 5 years ago to rule out major health problems. Test results showed no significant findings and ruled out vertigo.

    6 weeks ago the patient presented with stabbing pain on the left side of L4-L5, no previous history of injury or illness. Pain occurred suddenly in the middle of the day, shortly after muscle spasms followed. Muscle spasms made worse by heat, cold, and touch. Patient has hypermobility and maintains a great range of motion left, right, forwards and backwards. Patient had a fever of 100.2-100.4 for two weeks, however blood work came back normal, no elevated white counts etc. Patient complains of nausea from pain and is unable to sleep due to pain and muscle spasms. During office visits the patient had elevated blood pressure (144/90 to 120/70, her normal is 90/60).

    Six weeks later patient still has pain, muscle spasms, is unable to sleep more than an hour, and still has occasional nausea. Patient has seen two chiropractors, a neurologist, a rheumatologist, a gynecologist, and internal medicine – none of the doctors could provide an explanation for the pain etc.

    Comprehensive metabolic panel - mostly normal, Alkaline Phosphatase low 28, ALT high 35 (both were normal in Dec)

    LDL and HDL - normal

    Vitamin B12 low – 188, Folate-normal


    CBC (includes diff/plt)- normal

    ANA Screen, IFA – negative

    Lyme Disease Antibodies (IGG, IGM), Immunoblot- negative/non-reactive

    Magnesium- normal

    Sed rate by Modified Westerngren- normal

    C-reactive protein- normal

    Rheumatoid Factor, PRP titer – normal/non-reactive

    GLUC-UA HMG- negative

    Urine -routine

    MRI wo contrast– unremarkable

    X-rays – no c spine curve otherwise unremarkable

    CT wo contrast- unremarkable

    Patient has been on: Tramadol, Codine Apa, Vicodin, Toradol, and Morphine – none provided pain relief

    Cyclobenzaprine, Zanaflex, Soma- none helped with muscle spasms

    Two rounds of Prednisone, different dosages- no improvement

    Has anyone heard or had patients with similar symptoms, if so what was the diagnosis? Any additional tests I should run? Thoughts, Comments, Suggestions??

    Leonhard Kurt Kienlein · Detensor Kurt Kienlein e.U.

    Patients like mentioned above have been treated succesfully with Long Term Traction Detensor Therapy since 1978, mostly in Russia.More then 3 000 000 cases are known. Longterm Traction Therapy is costeffective and highly efficient. Up today 28 Dissertations have been written and exepted. Info:www.detensor.co.at

  • Kiran Bobde added an answer in Gravimetric Analysis:
    What is best method of drying total lipid content during the gravimetric analysis?

    Right now according to different literature mostly gaseous nitrogen used for drying extract and some of them they were using the hot air oven (50 degree centigrade) for drying lipid extract therefore I need an expert option from all scientist community. Does temperature affect lipid composition and what temp will be advisable for total lipid content during the gravimetric analysis?

    Kiran Bobde · National Institute of Technology, Durgapur

    Hi Sandra,

    Thank you so much for your kind response, but drying a large volume its bit difficult, expensive as well as time consuming at same time I like to mention that methanol drying using time consuming. I like know your opinion  on the "wht best temp above OºC"? and I didn't find any literature on temp. below 60ºC affect lipid composition.

  • Haneen R. Khreis asked a question in RevMan:
    RevMan forest plots - any way to do it without pooling the data?


    Is there a way to produce forest plots showing risk estimates across the range of studies I collected in a systematic review WITHOUT actually pooling a meta-risk estimate at the end? I don't want the diamond I just want a graphical representation of how results vary across the range of studies. I'm using Revman.

    Would really appreciate any direction.


  • Dmitry B. Kazansky added an answer in CD4:
    Can anti human-CD4 antibody be coated on a 96 plate for capture CD4 cell?

    I want to separate CD4 cell with CD4 antibody from human whole blood. Does antibody bind to normal tissue culture 96 or 48 well plate? Or is there any special plates?

    PS: I had tried to coat CD4 antibody to elisa plate and succeed proved. But when whole blood was put into 96 well, it"s failed to capture cell.Where is wrong?

    THANKS !

    Dmitry B. Kazansky · N.N. Blokhin Cancer Research Center

    Dear Chris, I think, obtaining of perfect results should be absolute priority. Frequently, this is incompatible with adjustment of workflow. It may be, this is the case. It would be better not to do the work at all, than to use methods resulting to compromised results.

  • David Jule Mack added an answer in Eye Tracking:
    How can I set up multimonitor eye tracking with tobii glass 2.0?

    I'm trying to set up an eye tracking for 4 monitors. I do not really need to know where people ar looking at the monitor, but I'd like to calculate time they spend for each monitor

    David Jule Mack · University of Zurich

    Hey Philipp!

    Simplest solution would be to take the calibrated eye position and just bin them according ROIs defined by the monitor setup (e.g. left-up, left-down, right-up, right-down in a grid layout), assuming a stationary observer. From that, you simply computed the percentage of samples within in each ROI, which will give you the time spent on each monitor.

    In an head-free observer, stuff gets more complicated. Here you could compute gaze position from the eye position and the integrated head velocity of the gyro/accelero data (but that depends on the drift and noise of the according signal). If that works, the same approach as above might work. We did with the EyeSeeCam, which worked quite well and should work for your setup, since you are not interest in high accuracy as it seems.

    Lastly, you could tag the monitors with markers, detect them frame by frame and compute the accurate number of samples within each monitor. That would be the most accurate account, but seems like overkill for your approach and needs fairly good programming skills.

    Hope these ideas help,

    Greetings, David

  • Yuri Yegorov added an answer in Marketing Communication:
    Can someone help in determining the dimensions of the destination image?

    I want to know what are the optimum dimensions for study of the destination image Especially as it related to the study of marketing communications and loyalty to the tourist destination

    Yuri Yegorov · University of Vienna

    I think that a lot depends on exact question.

    For example, the cite booking.com (that helps tourists to find accomodation) sends questionnaire after, where tourists rate the quality of service, location, quality/price ratio, etc. Can be several dimensions only for the hotel. You can go to any hotel in any place and read the scores of tourists and also their verbal characteristics.

    But a question for tourism is more strategic: why to city A and not to B? Because a tourist values places of attraction (museums, nice views, possibility to swim, hike, do sports, etc), wants to eat in not overpriced restaurants, wants some security, etc.

    So, the dimensionality can be very high in general. But if you narrow a question, to let say "shall we go to Paris, Rome or London", then you can probably use less dimensions.

  • Erfan Asaadi asked a question in MCMC:
    How to deal with the correlation in the data while we construct bayesian inference to estimated the parameters?

    I am constructing a bayesian  with the following form to estimate the parameters from the responses:

    P(parameters I responses) is proportional to P(responses I Parameters)*P(parameters)

    Then I use MCMC to draw sample from the posterion.

    My problem is that I have more than one parameter and several responses, which may be correlated. since the responses are correlated I cannot use the joint probability for the likelihood like the following: 

    P(responses I Parameters)=P(responses1 I Parameters)*P(responses2 I Parameters)

    I was wondering if anybody can nicely help me with this problem.

  • L. I. Plimak added an answer in Foundations of Physics:
    Do the effects of mind on matter as demonstrated in the experiments of Radin et al (Physics essays 2012 & 2013) herald a new scientific paradigm ?

    This refers to the recent experiments of Radin et al :

    1) D. Radin, L. Michel, K. Galdamez, P. Wendland, R Rickenbach and A. Delorme
    Physics Essays, 25, 2, 157 (2012).
    2)  D. Radin, L. Michel, J. Johnston and A. Delorme, Physics Essays, 26, 4, 553 (2013).

    These experiments show that observers can affect the outcome of a double slit experiments as evidenced by a definite change in the interference pattern.

    It requires urgent attention from the scientific community, especially Physicists.

    If these observed effects are real, then we must have a scientific theory that can account for them.

    L. I. Plimak · Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy

    Heaps thanks to everyone who answered my previous post.

    The thing I am really after if it makes sense to spend time on reading the papers in question. For instance, there is no point whatsoever in wasting time on "demonstrations" of superluminal propagation, so far as the results concerned are discussed within Maxwell's electrodynamics. The author is either illiterate or a quack. Similarly, there is absolutely no point in looking at any paper that would claim explanation of the black-body radiation strictly within classical mechanics and probability theory.  And so on. You may add your own examples where inconsistency of the claim is evident without looking into details.

    To resolve my dilemma, I would be ever so grateful if someone who did read the said papers could tell me if any of them contains something even remotely reminiscent of the following sentence: "Since 'mind' as a physical concept is not present in the standard formulation of quantum mechanics, we have to start the discussion of our experiment from amending the conventional quantum equations of motion."

    Tons of thanks in advance. A simple 'yes' or 'no' will do.

  • Deepak K Jha asked a question in Nanosystems:
    How to calculate molecular weight of glutathione capped FePt and FePt@CdTe core-shell nanosystem?

    Currently, I am working with the nanosystems which are used as an MRI contrast agent. In MRI experiment, If Fe concentration as mg/ml then the relaxivity unit expressed in mL mg-1 s-1. I want to express my relaxivity unit in mM-1S-1. For expressing the relaxivity unit in per millimole per second, I require the molecular weight of the sample. I am unable to find a way to calculate the Mol. Wt. of as synthesized FePt@CdTe which is coated with glutathione.

  • Nadezhda Filipova added an answer in Information Systems (Business Informatics):
    Which UML tool do you use in your researches or for your classes?

    Could you please recommend a UML tool (preferably, a free one). I am especially interested in business modeling  features, and I would like to use the UML profile for business modeling. The UML <-> BPMN conversion features would be a good advantage.

    My best regards!

    Nadezhda Filipova · University of Economics - Varna

    Dear Noufel,

    Thank you so much for your profound reply. I appreciate it!

    My sunny regards from from the Black sea :)

  • Georgia Aslanidou asked a question in Himalayas:
    Does any one have suggestions of readying related to early photography on the Alps and the HImalaya?

    Does any one have suggestions of readying related to early photography on the Alps and the Himalayas?

  • Jingjing Guo asked a question in Enzymes:
    Does anyone know the relationship between the correlation and flexibility of a protein?

    I found an enzyme becomes more rigid after binding with another protein, however, it seems the correlation between CA atoms is stronger in the apo enzyme than in the complex? Are they conflicted? 

  • Annette Piorr added an answer in Food Security:
    Do you have examples of composite indicators in the area of food security?

    An indicator can be seen as something that provides a clue to a matter of larger significance or makes perceptible a trend or phenomenon that is not immediately detectable. An indicator's main defining characteristics are that it quantifies and simplifies information in a manner that promotes the understanding of environmental problems, to both decision-makers and the public. Above all, an indicator must be practical and realistic, given the many constraints faced by those implementing and monitoring projects. They are often a compromise between scientific accuracy and the information available at a reasonable cost.

    Annette Piorr · Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research

    Hi Stefan,

    maybe this reference is interesting in this context:


  • Rajeev Roychand added an answer in Nano-Silica:
    Could anybody help me in identifying the amorphous hump in the attached XRD spectra between 5 and 10 deg 2theta?

    The attached image shows a 28 day XRD spectra of a mix containing Cement, Fly ash, nano silica and alumina powder. There is an amorphous hump between 5 and 10 deg 2theta. The peak that i have identified in search/match option central to that hump is tobermorite. Just wondering if tobermorite shows a sharp peak or an amorphous hump and if the selection made is right. Also, at 29.4 deg 2theta another C-S-H peak is identified with a broad peak i.e. Rosenhahnite. Could anybody please help me in checking if the selections made are correct? The search/match was done with PDF2-2001 database using Bruker's Diffrac.eva software. The instrument used for data collection was Bruker's Endeavor D4 with X-ray source of CuKa. 

    Rajeev Roychand · RMIT University

    Thanks Helen, Riza, KArina, Holger and Wolfgang for your valuable answers.

    Dear Holger,

    No wax was used in sample preparation. The sample holders were made of some metal probably bronze, i don't think they were low background sample holders. I plan to do rietveld refinement quantitative analysis. I will go through the article you suggested. That might be of help in the analysis part

  • Cristina Andrés Barrao asked a question in Bacterial DNA Extraction:
    Bacterial DNA extraction from stationary phase?

    Hi everyone.

    I'm trying to extract DNA from Gram-negative bacteria through a metabolic process, and using the GeneElute Bacterial Genomic DNA extraction kit (Sigma)

    My set of samples covers the entire growth curve. At the beginning of the process, during the exponential growth phase, I don't have any problem and although sometimes there is some degradation, I can observe a nice chromosomic band at the top of the gel when running agarose gel electrophoresis. The problem is when the process is more advanced, because the bacterial culture enters into the stationary growth phase. At this stage, DNA appears to be degraded.

    Does any one any tip to improve the quality of the material obtained? 

    I attached an image of the last extraction

  • Miguel Ángel Montes added an answer in Natural Numbers:
    Is it logical to say: “real number set has more elements than natural number set”, so “real number set is more infinite than natural number set”?

    Why we say mathematically something is more or less, bigger or smaller … than the other (different grade)? One of the main scientific reasons is because of different quantities (not being bijective).

    So, just by different quantities, it is logical to say mathematically “real number set is bigger than natural number set”; “real number set is more infinite than natural number set” ….

    1, what is the definition for “infinite”, just one definition or many definitions? If only one, what is it? If there are really many different definitions for “infinite”, what are they?

    2, how can we judge different “infinites” in our real operations, especially when they are with value meanings?

    The modern versions of Zeno’s Paradox------ Harmonic Series Paradox, is a typical example.

  • Victor Lopez added an answer in Ethnobotany:
    Which is the best way or method to attract the attention of a new generation on the direction of the ethnobotanical heritage protection?

    What is your experience or offer(s)?

    Victor Lopez · Universidad San Jorge

    Dear Seyit,

    In my case I teach pharmacology, pharmacognosy and herbal medicines and I always tell my students that Ethnobotany/Ethnopharmacology is a useful tool for drug discovery and some companies are now showig interest in this field of research. It is also very important that in many countries people rely on traditional medicine to treat diseases; in this sense, ethnopharmacological studies will help to valide some of the traditional uses of the plants.

    Best regards

  • Surender Pratap added an answer in Graphene Nanoribbon:
    How can I model the self energies of Zigzag graphene nanoribbons?

    I am simulating graphene nanoribbon. It is working when Transmission is a function of energy, but i want to calculate transmission as a function of different applied bias, I have done it for zero bias, when transmission is a function of both applied bias as well as energy then how to calculate transmission function. Please share your views if any idea.

    Thanks in advance


    Surender Pratap · Birla Institute of Technology and Science Pilani

    Thanks a lot sir for your kind reply,i have done it for zero bias as ,but i dont understand how to do it for different bias voltage as well as energies.


  • William M Connelly added an answer in NMDA Receptor:
    How can we analyze the weighted decay time constant of NMDA receptor EPSCs?

    Hi, I am struggling to analyze the decay time constant for NMDA receptor function using Clampfit. The way I want to analyze is the method used in the paper, "Developmental profile of the changing properties of NMDA receptors at cerebellar mossy fiber-granule cell synapses", J Neurosci, 2000 by Cathala L, Misra C, Cull-Candy S.

    Thye averaged the traces and then normalised the traces so NMDAR EPSC recordings done in different conditions can be compared. However, I am stuck where they use double exponential fit with fast and slow component of amplitudes and so on. I have no idea how this is done (or even able to be done) in clampfit.

    I know clampfit has its own category of decay time and slope (under selected % of current given like between 90% to 10%) under analyze > statistics botton but I just want to follow the method of the paper that I mentioned and really struggling.

    Please anyon who has done it or knows how to do it, enlighten me and your help would be much appreciated!

    William M Connelly · Australian National University

    Don't put your first cursor in front of the event! Only during the decaying phase.

  • Gemma Cockcroft asked a question in Marmosets:
    Protocol for cressyl violet staining marmoset brains?

    Looking for any tried and tested protocols anyone has for cressyl staining marmoset brains (currently fixed in 4% PFA then switched to 30% sucrose before cutting, mounting and staining). Looking for validation of/improvements to our current protocol.