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  • Samia Elshiaty asked a question in Rats:
    How measure HR in rat?

    I do recording  of HR by oscillograph at 25mm/sec

  • Patricia McMullin added an answer in Reward:
    Incentivised Learning - Any anyone any experience of learners being given rewards to stay or return to education?

    Can anyone point me in the right direction for information about incenitivised teaching of adults who are being encouraged to return to / stay in college. They are being given a reward of money or similar and may be based on attendance or results. Ideally I'm looking for information around the UK but would be grateful for anything anyone could direct me to.

    Patricia McMullin · European University Institute

    I would recommend looking at mature student access program literature. There are program  that provide financial aid to 'mature students',however these programs may be more about removing  financial barriers than rewarding students.  You may find a link to programs that do try to bring their students forward with different types of incentive or the opposite, where students loose benefits if they don't achieve certain goals. I am thinking more about US literature than UK literature at the moment but a good place to start are University access policies for under-represented students.

  • Do you want to publish a chapter about Information Management?

    Publish a chapter!

  • Hello, could anybody point out studies regarding how to measure the IT department personnel capability?

    I am trying develop a set of metrics for IT departments in organizations? First, I would like to investigate the personnel capability?

    Daryn Dyer · York University

    Hi Kadir,

    It might not exist in exactly the way you describe. I think you might consider using two or three separate tools, scales, inventories and from them, choose the items that are the best statistical predictors of what you are looking for. In short,  you might have to invent your own tool:

    Most of the information is out there, it is just not part of a single tool. You might find the following research useful:

    1. Grant, K. P., & Pennypacker, J. S. (2006). Project management maturity: An assessment of project management capabilities among and between selected industries. Engineering Management, IEEE Transactions on, 53(1), 59-68.
    2. Bharadwaj, A. S., Sambamurthy, V., & Zmud, R. W. (1999, January). IT capabilities: theoretical perspectives and empirical operationalization. In Proceedings of the 20th international conference on Information Systems (pp. 378-385). Association for Information Systems.
    3. Michael, W. B., & Colson, K. R. (1979). The development and validation of a life experience inventory for the identification of creative electrical engineers. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 39(2), 463-470.
  • Huda Halawachy added an answer in Literature Search:
    I am about to commence the literature search for my systematic review, any tips and tricks on how this can be a well-documented, smooth process?

    I am a very organised person and already have a risk management plan in place however any tips and tricks which you are willing to share to properly carry out and document the literature search would be of great value. One can never be prepared enough!

    Huda Halawachy · University of Mosul

    Hi Giliane,

    I have just read over  some of my colleagues ' tips and do agree with Nicola 's .I think you should determine  which area of literature  you are after,the main objectives of your review, your corpus,and the like. I sense that the key words in  your questions are some how open for many suggestions .Try to make a scope for your search by raising questions that will be answered by you in the body of your study.For me, this  comes number one in your plan.In your last comment , you mentioned that you want tips for documenting the whole process.Would mind making it more clear for me?


  • Mirroring and its effects on teacher-student relationship in primary school, any suggestions?

    Can anyone suggest me any kind of observational-grid that can help me on the osservation of spontaneous imitative behaviors that occur in classrooms during normal lessons. I'm trying to observe the imitative-behavior between teacher and pupils in primary school (children from six to nine years-old), any suggestions about this work? Thank you!

  • What are the environmentally-friendly methods for the disposal of used engine-oils from garages and industrial sites in the developed economies?

    Interested in the articulation of options for sustainable use of hydrocarbon wastes in emerging economies and third-world countries.

    Mona gamal eldin ibrahim · Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology

    Hazardous and toxic substances inhibit the biodegradation process.

    these oils reused as a fuel in high temp. cement furnaces

  • Richard Dontigny added an answer in Manual Therapy:
    Does anyone know of any case studies or relevant articles on manual therapy in lumbo-sacral dysfunction?

    I happened to treat a case with lumbosacral dysfunction (AS ilum) with spinal lateral shift, differently.... and had unexpected results.... need the study to be published... not finding enough literature support... also it would be great if anyone could suggest a good journal for such a case!!

    Richard Dontigny · Independent Researcher

    This was from a competent chiropractor who has investigated his own body for some time for the source of his problem.  I am not familiar with the piece of equipment that he used although it is simple enough to correct this joint without any equipment.  This is all available on http://www.thelowback.com.  How it works, why it hurts and how to fix it. 
    I discovered and published on the sacral axis in 2007 and dysfunction at this axis is prevalent just distal to the PSIS and easily self-corrected with a posterior innominate rotation.

    1.  DonTigny, RL:  A detailed and critical biomechanical analysis of the sacroiliac joints and relevant kinesiology: the implications for lumbopelvic function and dysfunction.  In Vleeming A, Mooney V, Stoeckart R (eds): Movement, Stability & Lumbopelvic Pain: Integration of research and therapy. Churchill Livingstone (Elsevier). Edinburgh, 2007, pp 265-279

    2.  Gracovetsky S: Stability or controlled instability.  In Vleeming A, Mooney V, Stoeckart R (eds) Movement, Stability & Lumbopelvic Pain: Integration of research and therapy. Churchill Livingstone (Elsevier), Edinburgh, 2007, pp 279-293

    3.  DonTigny, RL: Sacroiliac 101; Form and Function; A biomechanical study.  Journal of Prolotherapy  3:561-567, 2011    Available in full text from  https://www.researchgate.net

    4.  DonTigny, RL: Sacroiliac 201; Dysfunction and Management: A biomechanical solution.  Journal of Prolotherapy 3:644-652, 2011   Available in full text from https://www.researchgate.net

    5.  . DonTigny, RL:  Measuring PSIS movement. Clinical Management 10:43-44, 1990

  • Sudev Naduvath added an answer in Mathematics:
    What are the core features of mathematical reasoning among children aged 5-11years?

    What are the core features of mathematical reasoning among children aged 5-11 years old?

    Sudev Naduvath · Vidya Academy of Science & Technology

    The very first and the most important concept that is developed the lower primary school children is the concept of numbers. Types of numbers, fundamental operations of numbers etc. are the concepts developed on the basis of the concepts of numbers.

    Another important mathematical concept developed among primary school children is about geometry. The idea about shapes, figures, concepts of dimensions, perimeter, area, volume etc. of various figures are developed in final stages of primary school education.

  • Asma Khalid asked a question in Websites:
    Where to find template of a journal?

    If template of a journal is not being properly downloaded through the website of the journal, can it be found anywhere else?

  • Anu Kuriakose added an answer in Gender:
    Is there any studies on constructive nature of gender from South Asia? Any critic or theorist?

    Gender and Queer Identity theory parallel to Butler

    Anu Kuriakose · Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology

    Thank you sir. I'm keenly interested in identity politics of Transgenders in literature and cultural productions, especially films. Would mind spreading some light on the same?

  • Arnold Trehub added an answer in Cognitive Systems:
    Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.

    Arnold Trehub · University of Massachusetts Amherst

    Tausif, you're welcome! ; )

  • Does anybody know something about Bertrand spaces?

    Bertrand's theorem  can be found in some textbooks on classical mechanics (e.g.Goldstein) . It says that in flat space closed (not necessarily circular) orbits can be created either by harmonic oscillator or by Newton potentials. Surprisingly, this result was embedded into  the formalism of general relativity. If  this is so, why then we still need to keep/to use the classical mechanics formalism?

    Arkady Kholodenko · Clemson University

    Not at all! Treating Solar system  withing GR-this is all what I am interested in.  If you are interested in references, please, contact me directly via string@clemson.edu Thus far these are as puzzling for me as they are for you. Still, Bertrand spaces is interesting development in GR and, even in Newtonian mechanics.

  • Ivan Kanchev added an answer in ImageJ:
    What image analysis software can handle very large images?

    I'm trying to analyse images of animal tissues produced with a 3DHistech slide scanner. I usually use ImageJ but have problems fitting large enough images in the memory. Are there any other free alternatives, or tricks that could be used with ImageJ? My analysis is simple, just detecting & measuring circular holes of certain size (adipocytes). The images are like 25000 pixels x 25000 pixels.

    Ivan Kanchev · Institute of Molecular Genetics AS CR

    You just need a powerful computer. ImageJ can run the Large TIF(TIFF) files but needs a lot of RAM. Extract the files in like a 50% resolution or even 25% TIFF and load them to a computer which is at least 4 cored and has 64 GB of RAM with ImageJ installed. Should work! I do the same trick with my Zeiss scans.

    Just be prepared for quite a time consuming jobs. Image analysis is proportional to computer power.



  • Do you know about projects to test or implement ideas or instruments from ACT (Acceptance and Commitment Therapy) in Career Development or Guidance?

    In 2012 Hoare, McIlveen, and Hamilton published a plea to use concepts and techniques from ACT (Acceptance and Commitment Therapy) to Career Development or Guidance. At that moment there were strong arguments, but not yet empirical evidence. What is the situation now? Is there any research that confirms the theoretical arguments? Are there new theoretical insights? Are there projects intended to develop tools for Career Guidance based on ACT? Is anything known about evaluations and/or effects?

    With my colleague Albert de Folter I developed a toolkit. It consists of tools, based on or inspired by ACT, for career guidance in schools. We are interested in developing similar tools for adults.

    Hoare, P. N., McIlveen, P., & Hamilton, N. (2012). Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) as a career counselling strategy. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 12(3), 171–187.

    Tom Luken · Luken Loopbaan Consult

    Thanks for your suggestion, Tahereh. I found very much valuable information and ideas on ACBS websites, but there is only little specifically about career development…

  • Greg Danko asked a question in Electrophysiology:
    Do I need to chloride a concentric electrode for electrophysiology?

    I am putting together a stimulating electrode for electrophys. recording. Do I need to chloride a concentric electrode the same way I would a bipolar electrode?

    Thank you! 

  • I'd like to kindly ask a question: is there a feasible description method for occupant behaviors of the indoor environment?

    I consider that different behaviors or lifestyles need different energy saving technologies. Is there a feasible description method for occupant behaviors of the indoor environment?

    Xu (Wayne) Wang · Macau University of Science and Technology

    Dear Prof. F. Javier Martinez-Solano,

    Thank you for your enlightening ideas. I appreciate so much.

    Best Wishes,

    Wang Xu 

  • Is Laboratory Operations Engineering significantly different from Business Process Management?
    Found an interesting recent paper - that I'm in the process of digesting - while Googling around the idea that what I'm calling "Laboratory Operations Engineering" might also be considered "Business Process Management" (for laboratories). This paper, "Professionalizing Business Process Management: Towards a Common Body of Knowledge for BPM," suggests there might not yet be widespread consensus around a BOK for BPM. I wonder if there would be sufficient difference between this BOK and what might be formulated for the specific case of BPM for Laboratories to warrant a separate BOK for the later ....

    I may pose this question to the "Process Knowledge Initiative" on whose site I found the paper.
    I found the paper at http://www.processknowledge.org/BandaraHarmonRosemannEdited.pdf
    Joe Liscouski · Institute for Laboratory Automation

    David, the link you referenced is no longer valid, do you have a copy  of the paper you could send?  -- j.liscouski@institutelabauto.org

  • Julianne Koval added an answer in Microsatellites:
    Why did Microsatellite amplification succeed in some samples of the same species and failed in others?

    Hello every body

    I am working in a project involving screening of spiny lobster using 100 microsatellite groped into multiplexes.. During my research, I faced some markers that succeed in some samples but not amplified in others. I am sure it is not due to experimental mistakes since I manage my protocol to be uniform with all samples.. I repeat it several time with same observations. I sequenced the amplified PCR products and Blast it. I found some similarity with part of the mRNA in other species.. I found some literature giving reasons of this phenomena in cross species amplification. But my observation is in the same species from the same geographical area.

    Julianne Koval · Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne

    I understand you managed your protocol to be uniform with all samples.  However, did you check the melting temperatures of your primers?  Some may be different than others by several degrees and as such may not amplify if they are subject to inappropriate annealing temperatures.  Use an annealing step of 5 degrees below the Tm value and add MgCl as Amy McMillan suggested.

  • Ori Elad asked a question in Chickens:
    Where can I find an immunohistochemistry picture of chicken spleen stained against CD4?

    I can not find a paper that published pictures of slides with a chicken spleen stain against CD4. If anyone knows to direct me to such a picture, that would be great. Thank you 

  • Luis Sánchez-Vázquez added an answer in Tourism:
    Can anyone recommend litterature about the creation of conflicts linked to the development of tourism?

    My research paper deals with use conflicts in tourism (such as conflicts over natural ressources, social conflicts due to tourism), and I'm trying to find some articles / books about the creation of these conflicts. I would like to focus on one part on the fact that maybe some conflicts existed before the development of tourism, and tourism made them worst. I am wondering if tourism is not more like  the straw that broke the camels back,  than the real reason that provoked the emergence of conflicts. 

    Luis Sánchez-Vázquez · Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja

    Regarding socio-environmental conflicts/impacts related to tourism activities, you can check out these studies:

    -Howard Green, Colin Hunter, Bruno MooreAssessing the environmental impact of tourism development: Use of the Delphi technique. Tourism Management, Volume 11, Issue 2, June 1990, Pages 111-120.

    -René van der Duim, Janine Caalders. Biodiversity and Tourism: Impacts and Interventions. Annals of Tourism Research, Volume 29, Issue 3, July 2002, Pages 743-761.

    This one is also interesting, although is not specifically focused on the tourism impacts (open access):


    I hope this helps!

  • How to test the (PZT) piezzo electric disc performance ?

    We have an application using a PZT disc to evaporate water mixed with essential oil for aromatherapy purpose. The unit works at 2.4 MHz and the mist performance (ml/hour) varies with the PZT performance. We want to be able to characterize the PZT parameters for quality control. Can someone help me set a lab test to qualify the good PZT for this application? For a stable consomption?

  • Vikas Khairnar asked a question in Microstrip Antenna:
    What is the significance of axial ratio bandwidth in wireless applications?

    What are the methods used to increase axial ratio bandwidth in microstrip antennas

  • Abhishek Raj added an answer in Journalism:
    Can anybody tell me recent advancement in Pulse Tube Refrigerator?

    It will be more useful if journal are made available.

    Abhishek Raj · JECRC Foundation

    Thanks sir for this useful information.

  • Vishnu Kiran asked a question in Copolymerization:
    Where from can I get free samples of functionalized PEGs or PLGA-PEG copolymer in India?

    We are working on nanoparticle systems and conjugation. Kindly suggest who can support by providing free samples of mPEG amine or PLGA-PEG copolymer. Thanks

  • Do you have publications / cases about Bottom-Up Pyramid's Sustainability-Disruptive Innovations?

    Do you have publications / cases about Sustainability-Disruptive Innovations from Bottom to Top levels of the socio-economic Pyramid? Thank you! 

    Jose Manoel Fernandes · Universidade Federal do Paraná

    Dear Farley,

    I don´t have any publications concerning Bottom-up Pyramids´s Sustainability-Disruptive Innovations.



  • Which is, in your opinion, the most relevant paper (from an economic or management perspective) about Total Quality Management and why?

    No more than 100 words. Thank you.

    Javier García-Bernal · Universidad de Zaragoza

    I think the best paper is Wruck and Jensen (1994) paper. It is the first paper about TQM from an economic and organizational perspective. It defines TQM like as organizational design option that solves coordination problems in firms. It explains economic nature of TQM.

  • Can anyone help identifying this organism?

    The following organism was found coming out from a AIDS-patient with a skin ulcer.

    Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales · Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira

    Daniel as I already mentioned it was not used for that, was found accidentally involved in a skin lesion of patient with HIV/AIDS: Thanks Scott.

  • What is the average pileup number for good peaks in CHIP-seq data validation?

    Hi everyone,

    I'm currently trying to find some good peaks in my CHIP seq data (with the aid of UCSC genome browser) which I could use for data validation (primer design, qPCR) and wondering how many (average) reads a "good" peak should have. They look quite nice when the pileup is around 20-50, but can I trust a peak with about 5-15 reads, too? And what do artifacts look like?

    Does anyone have some examples or knows about good help-webpages like tutorials etc.?

    I unfortunately do not have experience in validation yet, so I would be happy to get some tips.

    Thank you!

    Paul F. Cliften · Washington University in St. Louis


    I agree with Diego in that you should test a few peaks with different intensities and characteristics. Additionally, you can learn quite a bit from the "negative" peaks that MACS generates from the control or input sample. These provide a good representation of what false peaks look like in your data. The "fold enrichment" can also be an important statistic in that you might find lots of peaks, but only those over a certain fold enrichment are real. Finally, the "diagnostic" file is also useful, because it shows how many peaks the software would call if it used only 10% , 20% ... etc of the reads.