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  • Ghada Abdallah asked a question in Antibodies:
    Did the antiplatelets antibodies and ANA antibodies decreased after steroid treatment of the immune thrombocytopenia even if no clinical improvement?

    Anti platelets and ANA

  • Rafik Karaman added an answer in Hydroxychloroquine:
    Why hydroxychloroquine can treat primary ITP with positive ANA antibody and can't if it is negative? and what is the evidence?


    Rafik Karaman

    Dear Ghada,

    Yes. But this paper was reference by a paper in J Med Case Rep. 2013; 7: 91.
    Published online 2013 Apr 4. doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-7-91 entitled "Refractory immune thrombocytopenia successfully treated with high-dose vitamin D supplementation and hydroxychloroquine: two case reports". Please read the introduction of the latter paper and check reference 3.

    Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is thought to be an autoimmune disorder mediated by autoantibodies with no known etiology, and the incidence is approximately 2.5 per 100,000 persons per year [1]. The goal of treatment is to keep the platelet count above 3×104/mm3 to prevent major internal organ bleeding.

    Current treatment involves intravenous corticosteroids, immunosuppressants such as mycophenolate mofetil and azathioprine, Cytoxan® (cyclophosphamide), and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) [2]. Anti-D immunoglobulin can only be given to RhD-positive individuals, thus limiting treatment options for RhD-negative persons [3]. Rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody, has also been tried as an experimental treatment [4], and combinations of therapies have been used with some success [5]. Each of these therapies may be associated with significant side effects and efficacy is often temporary, requiring either additional and/or alternative treatment.

    To read the full text of this paper please use the following link:


    Hoping this will be helpful,


  • Agostino Prástaro added an answer in Gravitational Field:
    Is the non locality of the gravitational field energy a serious problem for General Relativity (GRT)?



    "Although there is no room for such a thing in the energy–

    momentum tensor T, it is clear that there are situations where a ‘disembodied’

    gravitational energy is actually playing a physical role.

    Imagine  two massive bodies (planets, say). If they are close together (and we can

    suppose that they are instantaneously at rest relative to each other), then

    there will be a (negative) gravitational potential energy contribution which

    makes the total energy, and therefore the total mass, smaller than it would

    be if they are far apart.  Ignoring much tinier energy effects,

    such as distortions of each body’s shape due to the gravitational tidal field

    of the other, we see that the total contributions from the actual energy–

    momentum tensor T will be the same whether the two bodies are close

    together or far apart. Yet, the total mass/energy will differ in the two cases,

    and this difference would be attributed to the energy in the gravitational

    field itself (in fact a negative contribution, that is more sizeable when the

    bodies are close than when they are far apart)." 


    The same problem was also rised by Thirring, Kalman and Feynman in the FGT theory, they inserted the gravitational energy in the tensor equations...

    It is a problem of paramount importance which prevents the General relativity theory from describing any motion in which the hamiltonian is time dependent or rather in case of non isolated systems, or in case of non stationary interactions between different bodies.

    The attempt to model a free falling body in a gravitational field for GRT seems impossible.

    GRT has been tested  only for static or stationary systems where there is not a net exchange of energy (excluding gravitational radiation)

    Don't we need another GRAVITATIONAL THEORY which includes the results give by GRT in order to explain with a better accuracy the simple phenomenon like the free falling of a mass in a gravitational field?

    Agostino Prástaro

    No Stam !
    You have a big confusion between two different concepts:
    Invariant and covariant.
    The energy conservation law is covariant ! This is physically important !

    But I cannot indefinitely continue this discussion as you like ...


  • Susan Kirk added an answer in Plant Growth:
    Has anyone done any research on applying sea water to plants?

    Hello, has anyone done any research on applying sea water to plants?

    Susan Kirk

    I probably should have worded this question better.  Has anyone irrigated plants with sea water.  Apparently yield is increased on coconut palms with this treatment

  • Simon Dillon added an answer in Ethanol Fermentation:
    How can I perform ethanol fermentation by using glucose and dry baker's yeast?

    As working capacity of bioreactor is 28 liters. What should be the size of inoculum(considering rehydration of dry yeast ) ?  what should be  the weight (in gm) of dry yeast  for preparation of inoculum ?

    Simon Dillon

    The optimal inoculum will depend on a number of factors including your initial sugar concentration and nitrogen levels. Over inoculating can be as bad as under inoculating if you want to be able to ferment all the glucose and nitrogen is limited. generally 2-5 x10e6 cfu/mL will do a good job. If you have low nitrogen then consider adding something like diammonium phosphate or a complex containing amino acids and ammonium ions. Also consider using a active dry wine yeast that can handle higher alcohol before sticking (rather than a bakers or brewing yeast). Inoculum for active dry wine yeast is in the order of 25-100g per 100 litres depending on temperature , N and glucose.

  • Kunlin Song asked a question in Compressive Strength:
    What experiments or methods could be used to characterize the mechanical performance (such as tensile or compression strength) of hydrogels?

    The better methods or experiments are ones that we use to test mechanical properties of hydrogels in swollen state. How can we prepare the samples and what machine will be used?

  • Luis Bertello added an answer in Manganese:
    How to reduce manganese level from drinking water?

    here some ​of these wells ​have high level ​of manganese (​aprox. 100 μg/l)​, higher than ​the permissible ​limit. ​

    I need a ​solution to ​reduce the ​level of ​manganese from ​these water ​wells. ​

    Please send ​me your ​suggestion. ​

    Thanks in advance.

    Luis Bertello
    Add a little Aluminium (3+) with pH > 5,5 and the Al2O3 pp. will enclose Mn(OH)2.
  • Bujar Hoxha added an answer in War:
    Is it possible to have war without religion, or religion without war?
    Religion and mysticism are proto-ideologies, which can exacerbate existing national tensions
    Bujar Hoxha

    The human conscious identification is something that can be traditional, but also acquired, or even changed. A moment of change marks new realities which sometimes are not essentially seen by those who undertake such a step. 

    yes, there can be both, with or without religion.

    The problem as I usually say is the start of the process of interpretation, to me, a deeply philosophical issue. One can rarely find an objectively acquired identity in such a sense. To me personally, it means almost nothing, as a perceive of our being primarily on our biological and physiological components, which seemingly to us are performed in automatic mode.  This does not seem to be  the case. Human development is procedural, such as is in all beings. Sensationally acquired identities ( but not only) exclude at times, the human ability of a rightful conception, so as to allow for conflicts.

    In one word, religions in such contexts are often mis-conceptualized. Unfortunately, politics, wrong daily politics can cause a war.  However, it seems that the human race has a necessity to identify itself persuasively, frequently... I cannot seem t understand why. Probably because of a wrong establishment of relations among beings ( especially humans). What I mean by "relations" is exactly what prof. Deely means by subjectivity and supra-subjectivity, characteristic of human beings.

    As I said, if such things are a matter of interpretation, then, it may become a mis-interpretation. No evolutionary development of relations there. This is why ethnic dependency and religious ones may cause war. Simply because of unstable relations ( such as in biology in the non-human world).

    Hopefully I have answered. My society is an example unfortunately of a willingness of waging a war. FOR WHAT A REASON?

  • Ashutosh Singla asked a question in eBook:
    Systems engineering and analysis Wolter J Fabrycky, Benjamin S Blanchard ,Does any one have this ebook? please comment?

    Does any one have this ebook? please comment?

  • Francisco J Barrantes added an answer in Receptors:
    Is there a chemical that can block/prevent receptor internalization?

    Some receptors are internalized after binding to their ligands. Does anyone know a drug or chemical that can prevent that process?

    Francisco J Barrantes

    It depends on the specific receptor protein and the endocytic mechanism operating on the given receptor. Reading the result of your Google search, I notice for instance that ...methyl-β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) (Rodal et al., 1999) is listed as an inhibitor of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Indeed, but it works in the opposite direction for other receptors... (see e.g. Kumari, S., Borroni, V., Chaudhry, A., Chanda, B., Massol, R., Mayor, S. y Barrantes, F.J. (2008). Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is internalized via a Rac-dependent dynamin-independent endocytic pathway. J. Cell Biol. 181, 1179-1193). 

    Best wishes


  • Greg Linton added an answer in OPNET:
    Does anyone know about satellite systems in opnet?

    I am simulating a GPS system using opnet. Basically i am trying to locate a cell phone by using signals obtained from 3 base stations and applying triangulation to these signals. Any help to do this would be appreciated

    Greg Linton

    I've briefly tried OPNET. I'm not an expert. OPNET is really used for modelling traffic flows and network loading. By the way OMNET++ is another alternative.


    If you're looking to simulate the GPS constellation and recieved signals I'd suggest Analytical Graphics Systems Tool Kit.


    This will give you more an RF Eb/N0 link budget type calculation from whatever towers you put into the simulation.

    If you we're looking to do something with "time of flight" for the signals from the towers I don't think STK would be your tool.  But if you're looking to model the towers and the received signals at the cell phone, then this may be a good place to start. Additionally, it can connect to MATLAB to do whatever you want.

    Oh yeah, and STK is designed for satellite modelling and has specific tools to add the GPS constellation in and so on.


    To sum up. OPNET (of OMNET++) for network logical layer modeling, STK for RF modeling.

    That help?


  • Valentin Loskutov added an answer in Activation Energy:
    What kind of concentration dependence exists for the activation energy?

    Dear Colleagues! We are interested in the concentration dependence of the activation energy. For example, the activation energy of viscosity or conductivity of solutions. However, we can not find publications on this topic. Tell me please!

    Valentin Loskutov

    Does the interest of such data? Is there a similar study?

  • Makoto Adachi asked a question in Lip:
    What is spindle cell tumor?

    We found spindle cell tumor at the lower lip and excised the tumor surgically.

    If you know about this tumor or some publications about this tumor, please tell us.

  • Ecevit Eyduran added an answer in Z-Test:
    T-test or Z-test? I have two sets of data each over 100 cases. What is the right tool to test whether there is significant difference between the two?

    The size is over 30, but I am not comparing a sample and a population. Thank you.

    Ecevit Eyduran

    A simple solution is t test for your request on comparing between two unpaired or paired means through SPSS program.  

    For comparing two unpaired (independent) means in SPSS, please follow Analyze > Compare Means >  Independent samples t test.

    For comparison of two paired means in SPSS, please follow Analyze > Compare Means > Paired samples t test.

    I hope the explanations will be useful for you.

  • Takeshi Matsuishi added an answer in Sublingual Administration:
    Does anyone know the compounding formula for Oxytocin inhaler or sublingual administration for children with autism?

    Dr. Gordan from Yale wrote the article: “Oxytocin enhances brain function in children with autism” (http://www.pnas.org/content/110/52/20953) and I have not been able to get a response from him. Any information is greatly appreciated.

    Takeshi Matsuishi

    Dear  Donald

    I know well that there are reports to inform the efficacy of Oxtocin.  In Japan there appear such reports.I do not write Dr Gordon, in may opinion, the degree of  brain damage or strange structure is not improved by such a one method. Brain damages are not so simple,  I deny some efficacy by the Oxitocin, but i hear they emphasize improvement of  the personal relationship (It is my knowledge is based on the information in japan).  But autism patients disorder are very broad, for example the intelligence, and sentiment is completely difference. That is my opinion. Thank you.

  • Francisco J Barrantes added an answer in GABA:
    Any advice on CFOS and GABA immunofluorescence in medial prefrontal cortex?

    I'd like to fluorescently stain for activation of GABAergic neurons in the mPFC- but have a few questions.

    1) When looking at the mPFC, would it be best to use antibodies for FOS and GABA, or FOS and GAD67? What are the advantages or disadvantages to each? 

    2) Are there any particular antibodies you would recommend for this?

    3) Any tips and tricks as far as staining goes? TBS or PBS? Dilutions?

    Thank you in advance!

    Francisco J Barrantes

    1. Immunocytochemistry for GABA or the GABA synthesizing enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65/67), or by in situ hybridization for GAD65/67 mRNA.

    2. mouse anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase-6 (GAD-6; 1:75; Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA).or Mouse monoclonal anti-GAD67 antibody (Sigma-Aldrich, G5419), diluted 1:60K (Kim et al., PLOS1 (2012)).

  • Victor Aguilar added an answer in Real Analysis:
    How should I respond to people who invoke Gödel’s name when dismissing my work?

    In 1999 I published a book, Axiomatic Theory of Economics


    Since then I have found that economists who have not read even the simplified exposition will invoke the name Kurt Gödel when dismissing my theory. 

    I know who Gödel is, but I do not see what the foundations of mathematics have to do with me.  I rely only on widely accepted calculus and real analysis results that should be familiar to any practicing engineer.  The antipathy I get from economists has nothing to do with number theory – most of them would be hard pressed to even define a prime – it is all about me stating my assumptions clearly before proving my theorems.  

    So my question is: 

    How should I respond to people who invoke Gödel’s name when dismissing my work?

    I am reminded of Van Helsing holding up a cross to Dracula, except for economists it is Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorems that ward off the evil logician.

    Have other people at Research Gate faced similar criticism?  How did you respond?

    FYI  I am NOT a follower of Gerard Debreu.  I have my own theory.  Something else that I have noticed about economists is that they are incapable of recognizing that it is possible to have more than one axiomatic theory that purports to describe the same phenomena.  I have found it impossible to disabuse economists of the belief that Debreu (who was parroting Bourbaki) fully defines the axiomatic method. 

    Economists claim that the practice of deductive logic rises or falls with the fortunes of this one man, regardless of what axioms the practitioner is using.  I reply that, since Debreu lost all of his followers in 1974 when his theory went down in flames, accusing me (who was eight years old at the time) of having ever been a follower is actually a straw man attack.

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: I have written a book titled Axiomatic Theory of Economics. This book is about a new economic theory. It is not a simplified version of mainstream economics. It does not predict the future, calling neither prosperity or ruin in America. It is certainly not in the "how to be a salesman" genre, nor does it propose to tell the reader how to make money in the framework of current financial institutions. It is an abstract treatise. The purpose of this book is to give an axiomatic foundation for the theory of economics. The success of the axiomatic method employed by Euclid (in geometry), Kolmogorov (in probability), and others is well known and I claim that similar success can be realized in economics. However, by defining economics to be concerned with the creation of wealth rather than the allocation of scarce resources, I have not only solidified it but have shifted its basic paradigm. I address the issue of price and stock. Supply and demand does not work. This is a fundamental departure from mainstream economics comparable to that of Copernicus in astronomy. The purpose of this article is to give a simplified exposition which is not too mathematically demanding. This is accomplished by replacing an axiom to assume away the infinite summations so that readers need not be familiar with real analysis. The essential points remain intact, however, as the theorems apply as well to partial sums (including the 0'th partial sum) as to infinite ones. But the proofs are simple enough to facilitate a cursory reading.
      first edited by Columbus, 09/1999; Nova Science., ISBN: 1-56072-296-7
    Victor Aguilar

    Thank you everyone!  All of your comments were wise, but let me specifically reply to Steve Faulkner and Federico Danelli.

    Faulkner and others have pointed out that I need only be interested in the statements that my axioms do prove; Gödel’s Theorem isn't about the fact that an axiomatic structure works.  This is welcome news and basically what I was trying to say when I responded to critics by comparing my theory to Leonhard Euler founding ballistics where nothing but the wildest guesswork had existed before. 

    I make the comparison to ballistics here:


    Axiom #1:       Constant atmospheric density from the ground to the apogee.

    Axiom #2:       Drag is proportional everywhere to the square of speed.

    Axiom #3:       Gravity is everywhere pointed downwards; e.g. the Earth is flat.

    In point of fact, exactly none of Euler’s axioms are universally true.  The beauty of the axiomatic method is that it can always be extended, as modern artillerists did when their guns became powerful enough to fire projectiles with a muzzle speed over 240 m/s into the stratosphere at targets over the horizon.  But the fact the Euler’s work was in need of extension when applied to long-range artillery is no recommendation to stand calmly on the receiving end of low-velocity trench mortar fire from a kilometer away, even though it is guided only by Euler’s original theory.

    But you are right, Faulkner; I have needlessly allowed economists to put me on the defensive.  Like in a court of law, the burden of proof is on the accuser.  I have dodged their criticism because – I will be the first to admit – I know little about number theory.  I am sure that I remember writing analysis on my résumé.  But, if economists know so much about number theory, then let them explain Gödel to me!

    In the meantime, I purchased a copy of Torkel Franzen's book on Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems and will read it as soon as it arrives in the mail.

    Note:  This is in reply to Faulkner’s first comment.  Regarding his recent question, I will have to think about that before replying.

    Regarding Danelli’s suggestion that I find out by myself which of my axioms is a postulate and try to find out what happens if I change it, I have done some work along these lines. 

    Note:  In my own writing I use axiom and postulate as synonyms, though I understand what Danelli means by the distinction between Euclid’s intuitive first four axioms and his more dubious fifth postulate.

    Over the years a number of people have questioned my second axiom, though I thought their counter-examples were a bit contrived.  But just this year I reformulated this axiom in a way that states only the minimum needed to prove my theory while dispelling all counter-examples, even the most contrived.

    In my 1999 book I said that marginal (diminishing) utility is negative monotonic; that is, u’(s) < 0.  Now I say only that the tail need be negative monotonic; that is, there exists an s* such that, for all s > s*, u’(s) < 0.  This is how axiom 2ii will read in future editions.

    But the axiom that is most like the Parallel Postulate is my third one, regarding proportionate effect.  Many people have noted that it is considerably more complicated and less intuitive than the others and that it stands apart from them in the same way that Euclid’s fifth postulate stands apart from the first four.  In my Simplified Exposition (p. 10) I write:

    “The axiom that first-unit demand conforms to the characteristics of proportionate effect is a generalization of calculating interest as a percentage of the amount owed.  In fact, this is how people have calculated interest throughout recorded history, although economics having always been a soft science, they never asked for proof.  Perhaps the value of money decays harmonically over time or in another way besides exponentially?”


    Appendix A of my book is titled Alternative Distributions for First-Unit Demand and here I endeavor to be my own Lobachevski by offering an alternative economics based on the harmonic or some other decay function for the value of money to be received in the future.  I write:

    “The present value of money to be received a year from now is currently calculated by multiplying the amount by a constant near unity called the common ratio.  Under the proposed system, one would invert, add a constant, and invert again.”

    The Law of Proportionate Effect (Theorem 1) states that when every individual changes each day by a small and random proportion, they will eventually all be logrithmico-normally distributed.  In the appendix I prove what I call the Law of Harmonic Effect which states that when every individual changes each day by inverting, adding a small and random amount and then inverting again, they will eventually all be reciprico-normally distributed.  While interesting in its own right, I then prove that this newly-defined distribution does not work for my purpose.

    “To replace our third axiom with the assertion that first-unit demand conforms to the characteristics of harmonic effect would imply that the present value of money held at interest is always infinite.”

    I then define what I call paranormal distributions, of which the lognormal distribution is (so far) the only example; these are the distributions that will work for the purpose of founding an economic theory.

    Next I make a mistake:  I derive what I call the root-reciprico-normal distribution and claim that it is paranormal, but that it is not a viable candidate for founding an economic theory because it implies an almost god-like concern for the future.

    “However, it is interesting that alternative systems exist which contain no internal contradictions but which are still very different from human economies.  Perhaps the inhabitants of another planet organize their economy in this or another way and consider their calculation of interest to be as natural as we consider multiplication by a constant.”

    I call this a mistake because I have since realized that the definition of paranormal distributions must be further restricted for them to actually serve as the foundation for an economic theory and that the root-reciprico-normal distribution, while close, does not meet these more stringent requirements.

    So I failed to be my own Lobachevski.  But perhaps one of you guys here at Research Gate can be Lobachevski to my Euclid.  I do not mind.  It was narrow-minded of old-time geometers to admit no alternative to Euclid; interest in geometry, including Euclidean, increased tenfold after it was realized that there was a second and then a third possible geometry.

    • Source
      [Show description] [Hide description]
      DESCRIPTION: I review Tony Lawson’s paper, “What is this ‘school’ called neoclassical economics?” Varoufakis and Arnsperger also wrote a paper asking, “What is Neoclassical Economics?” I review it here: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/274082175_Review_of_Varoufakis%27_and_Arnsperger%27s_What_Is_Neoclassical_Economics They define neoclassical as methodological individualism, instrumentalism and equilibriation, which Lawson explicitly rejects, writing, “the core feature of neoclassical economics is adherence not to any particular substantive features but to deductivism itself in a situation where the general open-processual nature of social reality is widely recognised at some level.”

    + 1 more attachment

  • Ilian Peruhov added an answer in Photons:
    How can you explain a possible inconsistency with the Bohr atom model?

    It is well known that Bohr model is not totally right. But I recently discovered a very curious inconsistency (if I am right) which I haven't seen explained anywhere.

    The first postulate of Bohr theory is that the Orbital momentum of the electron is quantized L=mvr=nh  (where h  means the Dirac constant). This means that if there is a transition between level n=5  to n=1  (Balmer series) the orbital momentum changes by 4h  !!! Based on this rule and his second postulate Bohr finds the right energy for this transition (and all others as well). But this transition is a release of just one photon and a photon has spin 1h  . It can add to L as (h,0,−h)  . So it can change the orbital momentum with 1,0  or −1  and not by 4.  I'm very surprised to make such conclusion.

    Am I wrong here?

    Ilian Peruhov

    I think there is no orbital momentum going to the atom-photon system as a whole or to the nucleus neither. This can be only considered if the Bohr model is right.

    According to QM the orbital momentum for energy level n can take any whole number values from n-1 to 0. (already here one can see that the state Bohr totally relies on n, l=n lacks in QM). So further in the example regarded in the question n=4 it can l take values 3,2,1, 0. From this four states to level n=1 l=0 can reach only levels 4,1 and 4,0. The transition for levels 4,3 and 4,2 are forbidden from the angular momentum conservation law, because photon has s= 1,0,-1 and 4,1 must emit s=-1 and 4,0 emit s=0.

    If the Bohr state 4,4 existed it also couldn't emit a photon and get to 1,0. So the Bohr calculation of right formula for E is based on a happy coincidence.

    The model of Bohr has indeed historical importance but is studied even at school and it is worth considering how it has to be taught.

  • Jack Silver added an answer in Toluene:
    If a resolution of 1.75 is desired in separating methylcyclohexane and methylcyclohexene...?

    If a resolution of 1.75 is desired in separating methylcyclohexane and methylcyclohexene:

    (g) How many plates are required? 
    (h) How long must the column be if the same packing is used? 
    (i) What is the retention time for methylcyclohexene on the new column? 

    I have calculated already:

    an average number of plates from the data
    941 plates
    standard deviation for the average
    ± 50
    average plate height for the column
    0.043 cm
    resolution of methylcyclohexene and methylcyclohexane
    Resolution of methylcyclohexene and toluene     
    Resolution of methylcyclohexane and toluene     

    Jack Silver

    Since you know the equations, use some algebra and rearrange the equation for the unknown term.

  • Channon Horne added an answer in Adaptationism:
    What has been your experience with learners' adaptation to a change in the format for the discussion forum?

    I recently had some adult learners' almost "flipping out" over the change in the use of the discussion forum from the regular "comment-on-issue" to a debate. I had tried the latter several times before with adult learners online and was very successful in getting them to complete the three rounds for the debate. Have you had this experience of learners not adapting to the change in format for the discussion forum and how did you resolve it? Your feedback is much appreciated.

    Many thanks,


    Channon Horne

    I love a good debate. As of late, I have been unable to experience significant debates in BSN or MSN courses. In my opinion, during a f2f debate you don't have to open several screens to compose your answer. You don't have to worry about APA formatting or losing the data for your debate. Generally the online debate begans and ends like this...thank you for your post. It was really great. Ghandi (XXX) states, "post like this are great (pp. xx).

    APA reference....

    Most of the time people are only interested in getting their required posts. I believe Universities must elevate the user interfaces in order to substantiate online debating requirements. 

  • Bashir Ahmad asked a question in Social Capital:
    What is the difference between social netorks and social capital?

    I am working on social networks and innovation. I need to test the impact of relational and structural embedded ties on innovation types. While these are the dimensions of social capital. how could I articulate social network and social capital.

    Waiting for guidance in this regard.

  • Leangsrun Chea asked a question in Plants:
    Is it possible to include green (premature) fruits in the total yield of tomato?

    I conducted a variety trial of tomato. However, due to early frost period, I decided to harvest all mature fruits and cut the plants to determine plant biomass while there was some premature fruits (green fruits) which was also weighted separately from plant biomass. I am wondering if it makes sense to include these premature fruits as yield? The proportion of the remaining fruits was about from 10-20% comparing to the harvested mature fruits.

  • Peter J Richerson added an answer in Climate Change:
    Are there authentic published work confidently pinpointing the sole anthropogenic factors contributing to Climate Change?

    Combined natural and anthropogenic factors (geologically recent phenomenon) govern Climate Change. It is, therefore, of paramount importance to discretely recognize the role of humans in Climate Change and to plan efficient strategy to mitigate it.

    Peter J Richerson


    I don't understand what you mean by "evidence" I guess. The AOGCMs that form the basis of the IPCC reports are tested for their ability to replicate past climate variation. AOGCMs have also been used to investigate the last interglacial which was somewhat warmer than the Holocene. Masters' simple calculation use empirical estimates of key parameters. In that sense these models are all evidence based. They diverge in their predictions of future climate for reasons that as far as I know are poorly understood. In any case, in an uncertain world even the best projection we can do will be flawed. As Neils Bohr said "Prediction is hard. Especially the future."


  • Juan Diego Sández added an answer in Media Law:
    Do you know an example of a broadcasting Law which imposes the subtitling of foreign films instead of the dubbing ?

    Article 16 of the EU Audiovisual Media Services Directive provides that "Member States shall ensure, where practicable and by appropriate means, that broadcasters reserve for European works a majority proportion of their transmission time".

    The Directive hasn't provided anything about the possibilities of subtitling/dubbing foreign programs and movies. It is a controversial issue, according, on one side, to the objective of multilingualism, which supposes to encourage subtitling, and, on the other side, to the will of protecting national identity, for which the dubbing is an appropriate way. That's why it seems that this article has been transposed in different ways by EU members.

    For example, Romania recently excluded dubbing of foreign programs (http://merlin.obs.coe.int/iris/2011/7/article38.en.html). On the contrary, French Law is very poor on that point. A 1994 act provided that television and radio shall use French in their programs, with some exceptions for foreign programs. The problem is that the scope of these exceptions is very limited or not defined at all. So, most of the foreign programs have been dubbed in French medias.

    What do you know about it ? Do you have any example of such kind of Laws in your country ?


    Juan Diego Sández

     I can tell you, Philippe, that the Spanish case is very similar to the French one.

    The Spanish Act on audiovisual communication (Ley 7/2010, de 31 de marzo, General de la Comunicación Audiovisual: https://www.boe.es/buscar/act.php?id=BOE-A-2010-5292) promotes the knowledge and diffusion of the official languages in Spain.

    The use of subtitles in Spanish TV is common, but they are used for deaf people, not for translations into Spanish.

    Spain is clearly a "dubbing country" -and I must recognise that we have here extraordinary dubbers with amazing voices-, although many young people here are used to watch movies/series/documentaries in original version with subtitles -or even without them- thanks to the Internet.

    You can read an interesting article about Spanish dubbing history here: http://translationjournal.net/journal/29movies.htm

    I hope this information is helpful to you.

    Juan Diego

  • Takeshi Matsuishi added an answer in Intellectual Disabilities:
    Has anyone done any work in training of the healthcare providers to improve the hospital experience for the adults with intellectual disability?

    There is a plethora of evidence to support the need for increased training of healthcare providers to improve the care, and decrease the healthcare disparities of adults with intellectual disabilities. I am interested in any studies that have implemented training of the healthcare provider and the impact it had on the care and experience of the adult with intellectual disability in the acute care setting. 

    Takeshi Matsuishi

    Dear Donna

    Yes, it is a troublesome problem. if explain the situation in Yokohama city, we established two sort of hospital, One is for general hospital for the disabled. For patient with ID, the concentration of antepileptic drugs and sedation by using a large quantity antipsychotic drugs, sometimes we need ICU because of  side effect,e,g,respiratory arrest. And this is almost general hospital, for example, dentist or oral surgery and neurosurgeon etc. Nurses are regard as quotidien works. Nurse must use very simple word. If MRI examination is necessary, in advance they show photography and make them same circumstance many times.

    Other is a psychiatry hospital for intellectual disability. We use this sort of hospital in the case of prolongation is anticipated. These sort of patient and schizophrenia etc  cause  frictions and nursing cares are necessary. Sometimes support staff who live together and are taking care of them.

    But because of financial problem,the hospital is plant to scal-down. But educational a curriculum of MD, nurses and other comedical staff, PT,OT,ST ect  must be obligatory training is decided(it will be not always sufficient). Social case worker (in Japan, all is servant and training for the disabled are natsural duty).

    I am happy that you refer to our experience .

  • Agnieszka Barbara Najda added an answer in Urtica dioica:
    Can flavonoids be effective in the treatment of diabetes?


    I am working on extraction of urtica dioica L. I want to know what the biological composition in that is useful in the treatment of diabetes?

    Agnieszka Barbara Najda

    Dear Fatame,

    Diabetes is a disease known to civilization diseases. There are many plant material rich in active compounds useful in the treatment. It seems to me that among polyphenols and flavonoids, phenolic acids are actively supporting factor for diabetes. They present a high biological activity and show varying effects on cell metabolism. It is known that the formation of diabetes involves
    impaired production and secretion of insulin or the insensitivity of the target cells to the hormone, which results in abnormal glucose levels in the blood. In vitro and in vivo has been found that (-) - epicatechin can stimulate insulin synthesis and increase levels of cAMP in pancreatic β cells that intensifies the secretion of the hormone. In addition, the conversion of proinsulin to insulin is intense and consequently the level of insulin in the blood is higher. In turn, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibit glucose in hepatocytes, indicating a hypoglycemic action. 

    Daidzein, luteolin and the 7-O-glucoside, luteolin, inhibiting the activity of the enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase, and quercetin glycosides diminishing the activity of glucose transporters, eg. SGLT-1 in the enterocytes can slow the absorption of glucose in the intestine. This prevents a sudden increase in blood glucose after a meal.

    Jachak S.M.: Herbal drugs as antidiabetic: an overview. CRIPS. 2002, 3, 2, 9–13.

    Sanderson J., McLauchlan R.W., Williamson G.: Quercetin inhibits hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidation of the rat lens. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 1999, 26, 5/6, 639-645.

    Steffen Y., Schewe T., Sies H.: Epicatechin protects endothelial cells against oxidized LDL and maintains NO synthase. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 2005, 331, 4, 1277-1283.


  • Bohdan Lenyk asked a question in Microwave Engineering:
    Please tell me what are the promising ways of experimental research of metamaterials in microwave band?

    metamaterials, microwave engineering

  • Sneha Sant added an answer in T Lymphocytes:
    Has anyone used clone B1 to block TCR of gamma/delta T cells?

    Has anyone used clone B1 to block TCR of gamma/delta T cells? 
    Has anyone used clone B1 to block TCR of gamma delta T cells and used clone 11F2 to stain these cells? Reckon there is steric hindrance between these two clones? Help appreciated 

    Many thanks. 

    Sneha Sant

    Agreed that it activates since it sits on the tcr but eventually it blocks any antigen mediated activation of tcr. It has been used as blocking ab in couple of papers.

  • Elif Aktar asked a question in Property:
    What does 'postmitotic projection neuron ' mean?

    projection neuron properties and posmitotic projection neurons properties and differences between them

  • Pascal GALON added an answer in Finite Volume Method:
    Can you help me to find a good refrence about FVM?

    I need a good and easy to explain reference about Finite Volume Method except Leveque. I'm greateful about helping me to find it.

    Pascal GALON

    Some good reference for FVM that i recommend you are :

    - Computational Fluid Dynamics: Principles and Applications, 3rd Edition.Jiri Blazek 2015, Butterworth-Heinemann

    The companion website contains the sources of 1-D and 2-D Euler and Navier-Stokes flow solvers (structured and unstructured) and other tools

    - An other interesting book you can download from this adress :

    - Numerical Computation of Internal and External Flows (Second Edition) : Charles Hirsch

    - Toro E F. Riemann Solvers and Numerical Methods for Fluid Dynamics: A Practical Introduction.Third Edition. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2009, 721 pages.

    More Mathematical Approach

    - Numerical Approximation of Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws (Applied Mathematical Sciences -Edwige Godlewski , Pierre-Arnaud Raviart - Springer

    - Finite Volume Methods for Hyperbolic Problems - Randall J. LeVeque -

    Best Regards


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