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  • Tausif Alam added an answer in Cognitive Systems:
    Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.

    Tausif Alam · University of Wisconsin–Madison


    "(d) It is an exception to find very good scientists, and they are unable to implement their plans because of the above reasons.(from Tausif)"

    Please do not misquote me.

  • Andrey Luchnik added an answer in Thymidine:
    What is the proper concentration of 3H-thymidine (spe.activity 6,7Ci/mMol) to label proliferating cells in young rats (1-4 weeks old)?

    Thank you very much.

    Andrey Luchnik · Russian Academy of Sciences

    Don't you ever know?

  • András Bozsik added an answer in French:
    Is mastering culture more than mastering language?

    If you truly master a language (e.g. French, English, etc...), do you truly master a language-dependent culture (e.g. the culture expressed in France, UK, etc...)?

    András Bozsik · University of Debrecen

    Dear All,

    Being cultured is not a privilege of university professors, not even that of university staff. Her at RG on discussed pretty often on the connections of culture and science. Regarding language-dependent cultures the knowledge of the language in question helps to penetrate into that culture. However, visual cultures such as painting and architecture do not need to speak a foreign language. However, Belles-lettres and music are much more language-dependent areas. To be really able to understand a culture of a nation needs language knowledge and the understanding of history, art, science, customs, way of thinking, even the foods and wines of the target country.
    I remark, there are very characteristic nations (e.g. France, Spain, Italy, Russia not to speak on American, Asian and African countries) whose culture unique.

  • Andrey Luchnik added an answer in Cognitive Tests:
    Is there a general cognitive ability measure on the wave 6 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing?

    Previous waves I have seen from the ELSA mention a general measure of cognitive ability which enable the analysis of cognition over all rathern than the singular tests themselves eg. word list immediate recall. Is there a general cognitive measure for wave 6? If there isn't a general cognitive measure is it ok to run several Multiple Linear Regressions on the cognitive tests I am looking at or will multiple comparison issues affect this approach?

    Andrey Luchnik · Russian Academy of Sciences

    Your intelligence.

  • Mehdi Seifollahi added an answer in GAMS:
    How can I write multi-objective with GAMS?

    Dear friends
    I am trying to do multi-objective optimization with the weighted sum -method
    ,but I could not able to find Pareto set solution between two conflict objective,
    from my point of view,maybe there are two problem :
    the first one is incorrect parameters
    the second one is wrong code about multi-objective optimization
    about the second issue I am not sure that I have write correct code for multi -objective
    ,below is some part of my code I am appreciate for any help from you
    objective1.. z1=e=1-d1("k1","j1")+1-d2("k1","j2");
    objective2.. z2=e=c("j1","l1")*dem("l1")*x("j1","l1")+ c("j1","l2")*dem("l2")*x("j1","l2")+f("k1","j1")*y("k1","j1")+c("j2","l1")*dem("l1")*x("j2","l1")+ c("j2","l2")*dem("l2")*x("j2","l2")+f("k1","j2")*y("k1","j2");
    objective3.. z3=e=0.1*z1-0.9*z2;

    models multiplierCCR_model1/objective3,objective2,objective1,const1,const2,const21,const22,const23,const25,const51,const52,const3,const4,const5,const61,const7,const8,const9,const10, const512, const513, const514/ ;

    Solve MultiplierCCR_model1 using MINLP Maximizing z1;
    Solve MultiplierCCR_model1 using MINLP Minimizing z2;
    Solve MultiplierCCR_model1 using MINLP Maximizing z3;

    actually I have done three objective,including two conflict objective and composite one in one model,but I define three SOLVE function at the end of my programme.
    I have used the weighted sum method for composting objective

    Mehdi Seifollahi · Iran University of Science and Technology

    Hi Dear Iman

    I think that you have problem in multi-objective methods for this reason I suggested to study above reference.

    you must convert two objective functions into one objective function by using weights.

    after convert، you code model with one objective function (W1*F1 + W2*F2).

    Note that objective functions are normalized.

  • Laura Martin asked a question in Canine:
    Does anyone know of researched Nature and Nurture influences for canine aggression?

    I am doing my dissertation research project on canine aggression. Does anybody please have any information on nature or nurture influences that they could share with me? Many thanks in advance!

  • Peter Kobor asked a question in Hydrobiology:
    Does anybody know opportunity on funded, full-time PhD-program within the EU?

    Getting closer to the my M.Sc.-studies, I started to think about doing a PhD in an other country. Due to mobility issues I'm only thinking about within the borders of the European community.

    Please, if anybody knows about some kind of opportunity, possibility contact me in answer below or via private message here on RG.

    Any information about my studies, etc. are provided here, in my profile, bt if there's a question feel free to ask!

    Thank you in advance,


  • Mario Radovan added an answer in AGRESS:
    Can You mention some European values which are necessary to defend from other (sometimes aggressive) cultures and nations?

    Recent Paris terrorist attacks against freedom of press pose many questions. As Ukrainian-Russian events too. What are European values in Your understanding which are necessary to defend from other (sometimes aggressive) cultures and nations?

    Mario Radovan · University of Rijeka

    What about imperialism? If we consider history (the recent one included), this seem the greatest European contribution to the human civilization.

  • Gholamreza Gholampour asked a question in Validation:
    Hello, can anyone confirm the validity of a questionnaire in field of supply chain performance (Face validity)?

    A standard questionnaire must be validated by experts in field of supply chain performance. Both operational and strategic performance

  • Jordan Robin Yaron added an answer in ImageJ:
    Is any published paper of "using imageJ for blot densitometry analysis" or how to analyse the densitory metry data

    any publication in which used imageJ

    Jordan Robin Yaron · Arizona State University

    An excellent, widely recommended guide can be found here:


  • Aarón Barraza added an answer in RuBisCo:
    Loading control in flower protein extracts from Arabidopsis thaliana. Would "Rubisco" be ok? Do you know any alternatives?

    I am looking for an antibody to use as loading control in flower protein extracts from Arabidopsis thaliana. Would "Rubisco" be ok? Do you know any alternatives? Thank you!!

    Aarón Barraza · Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute

    Rubisco, Actin-2 or Actin-11, and HSP90 might be well for your purposes.


  • Assma Azeroual added an answer in Watermarking:
    Any articles in Fragile watermarking for video?


    Please do you have some articles in fragile watermarking for videos?

    Thank you very much

    Assma Azeroual · University Ibn Zohr - Agadir

    I am very grateful to you. Thank you very much

  • Iryna Palamarchuk added an answer in Blood Glucose:
    How can I reduce the death rate in streptozotocin diabetic rats?

    The dose I use - 65mg/kg i.p.:1.The rats were approximately 240 mg

    2.they were on fasting 12-16 hrs before injection

    3.After induction of diabetes they were given sucrose(15g/L) solution for 48 hrs.

    3. I didnt use slow acting human insulin, while i need untreated rats for control group.In 2 days 25% of rats were dead, 75% have got blood glucose 31-33 mM/L . After 4 days of induction the most were dead.

    Iryna Palamarchuk · Vinnitsa National Medical University

    Wistar rats.The dose I use - 65mg/kg i.p.:1.The rats were approximately 240 mg

    2.they were on fasting 12-16 hrs before injection

    3.After induction of diabetes they were given sucrose(15g/L) solution for 48 hrs.

    3. I didnt use slow acting human insulin, while i need untreated rats for control group.In 2 days 25% of rats were dead, 75% have got blood glucose 31-33 mM/L . 

    My rats died on 4th day after induction with STZ 65 mg/kg.Glucose level was more than 33 mM/l - severe hyperglycemia.

    After that I decreased the dose of STZ to 40 mg/kg and my rats again have more than 33 mM/L (severe hyperglycemia) on day 4.Going to decrease again

  • Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar added an answer in Grammar:
    Should teachers stop assigning homeworks to their students ?

    different  modules literature ,writing, grammar

    Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar · University of Health Sciences Lahore

    No, but the style of homework should be changed entirely to get student's interest.

  • Is possible to "measure" social or institutional innovations, or technology transfer procesess developed for small agricultural growers?

    Measuring innovation is cristal clear when a patent, an utility model, a plant variety or a new trade mark is developed by researchers. However, when social or institutional innovations are developed, or technology transfer is done with peasants or small farmers, innovation is very difficult to measure.

    Carlos Olguin Palacios · Colegio de Postgraduados

    What is the meaning of MIAF?

  • Johannes Gruenwald added an answer in Plasma:
    Why does the ionization rate in plasma drop with density??

    The ionization rate shows a dependency at the density even if no multilevelionisation processes and ionization depression models are taken into account. My Brain is somehow blocked right now and I do not understand anymore  why that is so?? What is the fundamental Idea behind it?

    does anyone know where to find a reference to get a better understanding of that process

    Johannes Gruenwald · Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz

    That's because you can either have ionisation via electron impact and via electromagnetic radiation, strong electrostatic fields (and here I mean really field ionisation not ionisation due to accelerated charges) or thermal ionisation. The first mechanism is by far the most efficient one.

    Next comes the radiation (or photon) ionisation, but you need high intensities for that and one ionisation process usually involves multi-photon processes (except for really high energetic photons).

    This means that if you have no primary electrons to start with (even microwave or rf plasmas are mainly produced by initially generated electrons that oscillate in the varying field and induce impact ionisations) your ionisation rate will go down with the plasma density.

    The very last type is only related to particles in a thermal equilibrium, i.e. with a Boltzmann energy occupation. Here your plasma density as well as your ionisation rate are pure functions of temperature (dependent on the gas species, of course).

  • What kind of Ionic Liquid can you recommend me for hydrogen generation through water splitting?

    I am looking for a new Ionic Liquid generation to improve water splitting process

    Jose S. Torrecilla · Complutense University of Madrid

    I do not know if this could help you. My research group is able to design custom-made ionic liquids for a given application. If you need more information about it, don't hesitate to contact me.

  • Chris Ryan added an answer in Atlas.ti:
    Qualitative research tools like ATLAS.ti, Nvivo etc. have appeared and more are likely to appear. How good are these tools?

    Despite its popularity increasing, the analysis of qualitative data is cumbersome. Coding, theme development etc. manually consumes lot of time though quite a number of researchers are still using manual methods.  New tools are being developed and the existing ones are getting updated but its diffusion among the researchers are low. Lot of training and practicing is needed before researchers become conversant with these.

    Chris Ryan · The University of Waikato

    I have written that these tools do drive one into a positivist paradigm - but increasingly research is being driven (to be contentious) by mixed methods paradigms according to Cresswell etc.

    Another issue is the pressure to publish - meaning that far too much research in the social sciences is based on small numbers of interviews or samples drawn from secondary sources and time taking ethnographic techniques are far less common than they once were.

  • Harald G. Dill added an answer in Geology:
    What are the benefits of teaching geology in the field?

    I believe we are trying to improve skills, knowledge and attitudes.

    Harald G. Dill · Leibniz Universität Hannover

    Dear Mrs. Dohaney,
    there is no geology without field geology, and no medicine without a patient. I have been combining field and class room geology (is true also for geomorphology or other disciplines in geosciences) for almost 40 year from the evening adult school to university level. Many aspects have already been mentioned in the Q&A, I can fully agree with them and I need not reiterate them. I fully support and place a bit more weight behind them by listing a few basics which can be employed in different parts
    1. Do not replace the classroom by an open-teaching or giving a lecture in front of the outcrop. Do the practical part in the field and the theoretical part in the lecture theatre. Discussing the geochronology or dating of Hf/Lu in front of the rock section is not to everybody´s taste, especially if they cannot avail themselves of this method.
    2. Do not try and find a solution in the field with a hand specimen only, for the orogeny of the Himalaya. Take care of the scale you are working on and consider the background or group level
    3. Let the audience come to grips with the 3-D imagination, take time to present and provide time to them to digest. Not much but good.
    4. Go through the field rather than drive through a section
    5. Use the pencil rather than the shutter release button or only in combination of the two
    6. Guide your partners to use their eyes, work nose-on-rock and assist them to make discoveries of their own
    7. In view of the progress made in the last years, carefully bridge the gap between the hammer and the laptop and encourage people also to capture digital data in the field.
    By keeping an eye on these essentials I think you will improve the practical experience, the skills, and broaden the knowledge of your audience in the field. Moreover, you might also strengthen or change the attitude of your group members towards the good when it comes the geosciences in general; it si some kind of promotion. Irrespective of the level you are teaching on, your partners will enjoy that and I am convinced that they are fond of joining you again during your next field trip.
    I wish you much success
    Harald G. Dill

  • What is effect of bubble waiting time coefficient in the Boiling-RPI mechanism in Fluent?

    In modeling Boiling-RPI, there is a constant coefficient in the boiling mechanism, named bubble waiting time coeff. The default value of it is 1, but it can be changed to correct the waiting time between  departures of consecutive bubbles.

    In my case, by increasing this value, the wall heat transfer coefficient increase. How does this value affect the heat transfer coeff?

    It relates to quenching heat flux from wall heat partitioning, Does increasing it mean that heat transfer from vapor to liquid increases, instead of departure of bubbles? Can we deduce that this heat transfer enhance the liquid temperature and evaporation occurring instead of super heating bubbles?

    How does this value affect the heat transfer coefficient of the mechanism?

    Sahar Sharifi · University of Guilan

    thanks Mr Rahimian

    your deduction is true. the smaller departure diam result in higher frequency of bubble departure, and finaly the evaporation heat flux increase.

    but how about the effect of bubble waiting time?this coeff correct the waiting time between departures of consecutives bubbles.higher value of It means that bubbles depart later.but what is the influence of this on heat transfer coefficient?


  • Sayem Zafar asked a question in Water:
    What is the appropriate ratio of refrigerant to water to form R134a clathrate hydrate ?

    I would like to know the right proportion of refrigerant R134a and water to form a calthrate hydrate ? The "right proportion" is something that would allow refrigerant to be completely consumed to form the clathrate hydrate; no excess refrigerant or water. 

  • Paul Crump asked a question in Frogs:
    How do you calculate the number of true negatives using an automated acoustic classifier?

    I’m working on an automated frog call detection problem. I’m trying to determine a good way to estimate the number of true negatives within a given sample. The true and false positives, and the false negative are easy, but to perform some of the more sophisticated analyses, one needs a value for the true negatives. True negatives in this context can be defined as the sample space within which the automated classifier could have made an incorrect classification, but did not.

    My thought was to sum the time taken up by the true and false positives then add the time taken by the false negatives (determined by multiplying the number of false negatives by the mean time of a true positive). Then subtract that value from the overall time, leaving the time that was “at risk” of incorrect classification. Then divide the remaining time by the mean time of a false negative (with the logic that if it did make a hit, it would have been incorrect) to get the number of true negatives.

    The problem with this method is that it does not work when there are lots of calls, frequently the summed time exceeds the recording time, which makes sense. I am going to explore the use of the median, but I was curious if anyone else has gone down this particular path with any degree of success?



  • Tyler Middendorf added an answer in Immigration:
    What are they key aspects of the influence immigration on the architecture of new country?

    Relating to architecture, what should be concerned? Architectural style, elements, details?

    Tyler Middendorf · Kent State University


    Very good question.  I have been interested in similar topics, especially in relation to the development of St. Louis, Missouri, United States.  The city experienced several immigration booms in various periods of development.  First, the French explorers and fur traders, then Germans, Irish, Polish, Italians, and several others.

    The German population seems to have had the greatest long-term physical impact on the way the city formed, in part because they created masonry buildings while the French before them built with wood and stucco (materials susceptible to decay and fire).  There were many great German brick masons that came to the city, especially in the early to mid 19th century.  In Germany, these masons may have worked more with stone, but with the abundance of clay deposits along the Mississippi river, brick was readily available.  These masons then built in a style that was common to their cultural heritage, but with a material that was local to the area.  There are even certain styles of German crenulations that are exhibited in higher budget projects, including the Anheuser Busch, St. Louis Brewery (fun fact: the german word for this style of crenulation translates to "donkey's ears.") In a way, the material was adapted to their traditional style and skill set, and their style and skill were adapted to the material.  You can see a wealth of remaining examples of this style (commercial, industrial, and residential) in the Soulard Neighborhood.

    The book St. Louis: Evolution Of American Urban Landscape talks about this briefly, but may not be explicit enough in regards to your question to warrant a purchase.

    There are also obvious differences in the ways that different communities socialize, worship, etc., which inevitably weigh in on the shape a city takes.  For example, in some cultures, socializing is done in a parlor of a home, in others on the porch, and still others socializing in the home was nearly exclusive to the blood-family, with all other communications done in more public spaces.

    I hope this is of some benefit to you.  Best of luck in your research!

  • Joy Meyer added an answer in South Africa:
    How do I determine the amount of cases in a multi-site case study approach?

    Hi everyone. 

    I am planning to conduct a multi-site case study for my masters. I have three cases in various parts of South Africa. 

    The one case(s) in which I am a complete participant, I want to investigate our teaching at two children centres. These two centres are in the same community, within 1 km from each other. Is it correct to see this as one case with two sub-sites?

    Help will be greatly appreciated! Thank you!

    Joy Meyer · University of South Africa

    David and Bahram - The cases are three because the teachers involved as participants have training in the Suzuki violin teaching method that is provided by the European Suzuki Association. Another reason is the fact that these teachers teach violin using the Suzuki method in community music programmes. When I consider those two factors in South Africa, there is no possibility to include more cases, unless some of the other qualified teachers start use the Suzuki method in community music programmes, which I think is unlikely. 

    David - Stupid question, what is the differences between explanatory and multi-site case study?

  • Prakrthi A N added an answer in Gold Nanoparticles:
    How can I control the shape and size of gold nanoparticles?

    How can I control the shape and size of gold nanoparticles?
    Which factor in the production of operating and maintaining the shape and size of nanoparticles is more important?

  • Can one explicitly calculate the function corresponding to a 2-dimensional discrete Cosine Transform supported on a ring?

    Probably it is trivial, but is it possible to calculate explicitly f(x,y) = \sum \cos(kx)\cos(ly), where the sum runs over all (k,l) such that r2<k2+l2<R2 for large values of r and R?

    Saso Tomazic · University of Ljubljana

    My remark about units was only to explain to you, that large is relative. Something can be large only when yo compere it to something else. For instance earth is large compared to size of human beeing and very small compared to galaksy.

    if you have only one real number youvcannot say if it is parge or small. Did you mean that R>>1 ? But although you did, it cannot help.

    Your condition 0<a<1 gives no bounds to the rng exept that r is not equal to zero. So of what help it could be to simplify the equation?

    sorry for all the typos. I write on my iPhone.

  • Nabawia Khalifa asked a question in Quaternions:
    How do quaternions operate and how they can be used for stability analysis of spacecraft rotational motion?

    stability analysis of rotational motion using quatrenions

  • Viktor Chernii added an answer in Organic Chemistry:
    Can anybody suggest an efficient synthesis of dehydroacetic acid ?

    I require DHA (Dehydroacetic acid). can anyone ,if possible, suggest simple and better yielding procedure for it?

    Viktor Chernii · National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine


    DHA also DHAA, DHS, Biocide 470F, preservative E265 - the cheapest and commercially available product. You can buy in China.

    Best regards