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  • Sandip Chakraborty added an answer in Antimicrobial Peptides:
    Does anyone know to find a suitable target for anitimicrobial peptides ?

    I have a set (apprx 100)  of antimicrobial peptides . I am looking for a suitable antiviral , antifungal , anticancer targets for my peptides

    Sandip Chakraborty

    You can please follow the links below to obtain certain valuable informations:-

    1. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=zucZ_q32Bv8C&pg=PA11&lpg=PA11&dq=a+suitable+target+for+antimicrobial+peptides&source=bl&ots=hzRWnw1Cji&sig=3qoRC0VWLI7wvSKJHSQQE_wVA0A&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjxrZ7SjbjJAhVDwo4KHYhXDU8Q6AEILDAB#v=onepage&q=a%20suitable%20target%20for%20antimicrobial%20peptides&f=false

    2. http://pharmrev.aspetjournals.org/content/55/1/27.full

    3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antimicrobial_peptides

  • Nirjhar Dasgupta added an answer in Chlorella:
    Can anybody suggest phylogenetic analysis and identification of chlorella sp.?

    The methods for identification(molecular ) of chlorella species and their phylogenetic analysis to confirm the identity, could be suggested by anyone?

    Nirjhar Dasgupta

    You can use 16s rDNA primers for this study. Amplify ur sample using this primer set, sequence ur sampl and BLAST it in NCBI website. Or else you can download other sequences from the website and compare using several softwares available (free/ paid) PHYLIP, R, NTSYSpc etc.

  • Imen Gherboudj asked a question in Radius:
    What is the residence time of dust aerosols over the MENA region (below 1.5km, near surface)?

    I am trying to estimate the residence time of dust aerosol over the MENA region. I have tried to compute it using the equation T=fct(radius, normalized_radius,Twet). But, Twet varies with the meteorology (3*1e5, 6.91*1e5). From literature, residence time of dust  is : 1) varying between ~2 and 8 days, 2) varying between ~2.4 and 12.9 days, 3) global mean is ~2.7 days, 3)  average of ~4days, …

    Anyone can suggest more precise season specific residence time for the MENA region. 

    You help is greatly appreciated. 

  • Vy Nguyen asked a question in Adipocytes:
    How can I induce insulin resistance in my adipocytes?

    Is there any good reviews or specific chemicals to make adipocytes becoming insulin resistance? 

  • Mohammad Ali Mosaberpanah asked a question in Concrete Material Technology:
    How modulus of elasticity could be calculated using stress-strain Curve?

    I am looking for practical references to show me how to find modulus of elasticity in UHPC. 

  • Sandip Chakraborty added an answer in Titania:
    What is the impact of hydroxide (-OH) on the reduction of Titania?

    High sintering temperature treatment result the reduction of Ti4+ while low temperature treatment inhibit this process. At low temperature treatment i found the existence of hydroxide (-OH) on the surface of sample, Can any one know the affect of hydroxide (-OH) on the reduction of Titania? Which parameters mainly controlled the reduction of Titania other then temperature?

    Sandip Chakraborty

    You can please follow the link below to get valuable informations:-


    You can also please download pdf of the file attached herewith.

  • Jose Manuel. Carral added an answer in Lakes:
    Any ideas on this material found in a Scottish lochan?

    The material in the photos (natural size and enlarged) was found in a small lake. Any ideas on what it might be?

    + 3 more attachments

    Jose Manuel. Carral

    Hi Julian. I have not experience with plants so I can be able to help you. I will send the images to other colleagues.

    All the best

  • Rafik Karaman added an answer in MestReNova:
    Is this peak area or proton integral in NMR spectra?

    I would like to know what proton integral they have given in the paper I have enclosed below. Its above 500. Is it peak area or something else? (I have highlighted the text in yellow).

    If it is peak area, how can I find it using Mestrenova?

    Rafik Karaman

    Dear Michael,

    Thanks for the correction regarding the 4 C. However, I have a quite good experience with NMR. 


  • Belal J Muhialdin added an answer in Bacteriocins:
    How can I increase bacteriocins?

    Dear all,

    I want to enhance and increase the production of bacteriocins, how can I do it? Thank you for your answers. Best regards

    Belal J Muhialdin

     Dear Amina

    Good day

    Bacteriocins production is directly related to few points including, the selected strain which is very important factor to enhance the production, the substrate which is not less important to determine the acceleration of bacteriocins, and the cultivation conditions, because it is affect the secretion of enzymes that are responsible to convert big proteins into small bio-active bacteriocins.

    Best Regards

  • Yoandri S. Megna added an answer in Historical Biogeography:
    Could anyone please suggest the best method to know the ancestral geographic range in a phylogeny?

    Hi everyone, I want to know the ancestral geographic range in a phylogeny of an insect genus. The genus includes three allopatric species endemic from three different islands. Could anyone please suggest the best method to achieve this goal? I have both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences for two populations in one species and four populations for each of the remaining species.

    Thanks in advance    

    Yoandri S. Megna

    Veo que ya tienes sugerencias, pero no es trivial lo que te toca, sobre todo el dominio de la base teórica, saludos

  • Mina Toma added an answer in Abaqus:
    Can someone help me with the error in my attached ABAQUS model of R.C beam?

    I'm trying to make a non-linear dynamic analysis for a R.C beam using abaqus but I can't solve there error..

    Mina Toma

    Dear Hamid,

    Here is the errors I get..

    How can I solve them..??

  • Ananya Parameswaran asked a question in CST Microwave Studio:
    How to obtain dispersion diagram plot using cst microwave studio?

    i am designing a waveguiding structure. i want to find the dispersion diagram plot to know the variation of the propagation constant with frequency using CST Microwave Studio.

  • Ruediger Burkhard Richter added an answer in Waste Treatment:
    What are the recent research trends in enhancing the thermal treatment of mercury containing waste from Chlor alkali plants?

    I'm looking for the best way for enhancing thermal treatment for mercury containing waste from Chlor alkali plants.

    Ruediger Burkhard Richter

    Dear Yashar,

    I was involved in the remediation of about 11 CAPs, Acetaldehyde Factories and Chemical Plants dealing with mercury.

    Basically for high mercury waste up to 1000 mg/kg (typical for CAP soil) thermal treatment is not necessarily required. It also could be treated by an enhanced soil washing process equipped with flotation technology and other contamination sinks.

    The research on thermal treatment is not running parallel to the remediation technologies applied in praxi. In 1993/4 I was the commissioning manager of the Marktredwitz Plant (Germany), where about 50,000 mt of Hg-contaminated soil and rubble were treated and 25 mt of Hg was recovered. This Plant was a proto type and basically high-tech including a 3 kiln vacuum distillation in combination with a soil washing pre-treatment unit. - This plant was not even widely known in Germany, because at the same time some research times were working on the development of a plant which already existed.

    Currently is no comparable thermal technology on the market, because everything needs to be treated as cheap as possible. In the more recent years such wastes were preferably disposed, only.

    A more recent development is the treatment of mercury in thermal batch plants with a double mantle distiller were thermal oil is used as a heat transfer media or alternatively electric heating (or both).

    kind regards


  • Akas Antony asked a question in Semantic Similarity:
    Can I use Wikipedia corpus to create my Latent Sematic Model model?

    I am trying to find semantic similarities of documents using LSI. I do not have an initial training corpus to train my LSI model. The documents that I'm trying to index come in as a stream. So every time a user adds a new document convert it to LSI vector space using the model created on the wikipedia corpus. Is that the correct way to go about? I am using Gensim to implement LSI.

  • Hala Hazzaa added an answer in Temporomandibular Joint:
    Studies indicates that wearing mouthguard can help athlete improve strength, endurance, reaction time and reduce stress. Is it based on evidence?

    Some studies indicates that wearing customfitted mouthguard helps any athlete improve strength, endurance, reaction time and reduce athletic stress. Authors explain that clenching the jaw triggers the production and release of a cascade of hormones, including cortisol, the stress hormone. Wearing customfitted mouthpiece would prevent teeth clenching and relieves pressure on the temporomandibular joint and so prevent the excessive production of hormones. As a result, the body is able to unlock its full potential. Is it based on evidence?

    Hala Hazzaa

    Dear Stephane, please add your answer in English as most of the readers need to benifit from your valuable answer .. Thanks dear

  • Eugene F Kislyakov added an answer:
    In simplistic terms Banach tarski theorem means we can get something from nothing ,is it not?

    if true then nothing is  a source not only of Einstein equations but also for every thing. This is in perfect agreement with set thory

    Eugene F Kislyakov

    Dear Mohamed,

    it is possible if we postulate that there is nothing except of information (all is information). Nothing is negation of all, so, in informational sence they are equivalent.



  • Tobias Johner asked a question in Biotin:
    Any advice for 5'-primer modifactions that prevent degradation of PCR products while using circular DNA?

    I'm currently trying to amplify circularized DNA. Only a small sequence of this circularized DNA is known and was used for Primer design. The other part of the circularized DNA is unknown genomic DNA.

    I tried to amplify this circular DNA with the aim to have one part of the known sequence on the left border and the other part of the known sequence on the right border of the genomic DNA. It is necessary to obtain these left and right borders for a following sequencing step.

    Here arises the problem: I tried to amplify the DNA with Taq, but the 5'-3' exonuclease activity made it impossible to obtain the left and right borders. I also tried the same amplification with 5'-Biotin labelled Primer trusting that the Biotin stops the 5'-3' Exonuclease activity of Taq. But this was also not succesful. A third way I tried was an isothermal amplification with phi29 to obtain long repeating linear DNA, which I than used as template for a 2nd PCR with Taq. But somehow this idea also didn't work out. Has anyone of you some idea how I could modify the 5' end of the primer which stops the 5'-3' exonuclease activity of Taq. Or has anyone another idea how to get this linear DNA with the desired left and right border?

    Thank you in advance

  • Belal J Muhialdin added an answer in Lactic Acid Bacteria:
    Are there papers on the use of lactic acid bacteria against mould spoilage of bread?

    I'm about to start a project on use of lactic acid bacteria against mould spoilage of bread. I need to know the materials and methodology suitable for the project

    Belal J Muhialdin

    Dear Williams 

    Good day,

    Not to confuse you with many papers and methods, as there are thousands of methods about LAB and the use against bread spoilage fungi. 

    There are two of my papers dealing with this subject. The first is explained the suitable method for screening and adding the LAB to bread and the other is review that has the summary for all previous attempts to use LAB in bread. The papers are as below

    + 1 more attachment

  • Andreas van Wagenberg asked a question in Mail:
    Dear Joan, I would like in touch with you?

    We have not forgotten you, Arthur and your daughters. I would like to get in touch with you. Please send a mail to andreas@wagenberg.nl. Look forward to your message. Cordially, Andreas (Dries en Silvia, The Netherlands)

  • Mohan Kumar S asked a question in Protozoa:
    How to isolate protozoa?

    Dear researchers,

    Kindly provide me an information regarding how to isolate protozoa


    Mohan Kumar S

  • Bama Andika Putra added an answer in Human Security:
    How do i plan for finding out the relationship between disasters and human security?

    Actually i want to do a research on how disasters effect on human security? what can be the major solutions to protect human security issues regarding disasters ? 

    Please help me to explore some recommendation for me in this regard. Thanks in advance. :)

    Bama Andika Putra

    i would perceive natural disasters and any non-traditional security threat as a process securitization. I would recommend to open up literatures concerned with the evolution of human security that has continuously shown greater importance in international politics compared to state security. you may also look up copenhagen school's securitization theory for a foundational understanding of the securitization process

  • Ali Abbasi added an answer in Osmotic Stress:
    How can I exertion salt stress with NaCl in media MS for germination arabidopsis thaliana without action osmotic stress?

    I want measure germination arabidopsis thaliana under 0, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl concentration.


    Ali Abbasi


    Dear Prof. Abbas
    Thank you for your answer

  • Masoud Hashemi Shahraki asked a question in Baths:
    Is there any difference in power consumption at various ultrasound frequencies ?

    I need to calculate the total power consumption for a cleaning bath and there are different ultrasound frequencies (37 and 80 kHz). I would like to know if the frequency of ultrasound affects the power consumption.

  • Elio Conte added an answer in Hilbert Space:
    Is quaternionic differential calculus a proper tool for both quantum physics and general relativity?

    Two different kinds of multidimensional differential calculus exist that can cope with parameter spaces that contain elements, which are constituted from a scalar and a three dimensional vector. These sets of differential calculus differ mainly in the choice of the scalar part of the parameters.

    Quaternionic differential calculus uses a parameter space that has quaternions as its elements. Thus, Its parameter space corresponds to a quaternionic number system. This situation is complicated by the fact that several versions of quaternionic number systems exist, which differ in the ordering of their elements. For example, the ordering can be applied via a Cartesian coordinate system, but a Cartesian coordinate system can be ordered in eight mutually independent ways. A spherical coordinate system usually starts from a selected Cartesian coordinate system. It can then proceed by first ordering the azimuth angle or it can start with ordering the polar angle. These angles can be ordered up or down. The radius has a natural ordering. Half of these orderings correspond to quaternions that feature a right handed external vector product. The other half corresponds to quaternions that feature a left handed external vector product. These orderings appear to influence the behavior of elementary objects.

    These ordering choices also appear in the parameter spaces of the other set of differential equations that we will indicate as Maxwell based differential calculus. The Maxwell based equations use a spacetime model that has a Minkowski signature. Where the real parts of quaternionic parameters can be interpreted as representing pure progression, will the Maxwell based equations interpret the scalar part as coordinate time. In comparison to the quaternionic parameter space, the coordinate time plays the role of quaternionic distance. This difference may explain the differences between quaternionic differential calculus and Maxwell based differential calculus, but this is not the fact. Trying to convert the quaternionic differential equations into Maxwell based equations is only partially possible.

    The difference between the two sets is far more subtle, than just a change of the scalar part of the parameter space. The difference between the two sets clearly shows in the second order partial differential equations. The Maxwell based second order partial differential equation is a wave equation, while the quaternionic second order partial differential equation does not feature waves as its solutions. Physics is full of waves, thus this fact might classify quaternionic differential calculus as unphysical. That conclusion is not justified. The clue of the difference is hidden in the Dirac equation for the free electron and free positron. That equation couples two sets of equations. The usual formulation of the Dirac equation uses spinors and Dirac matrices. It is also possible to formulate these equations in quaternionic format and then it becomes clear that the Dirac equation splits into two coupled first order partial differential equations. In this way the Dirac equation couples solutions that use different quaternionic parameter spaces. One of these parameter spaces uses right handed quaternions and the parameter space of the coupled solution uses left handed quaternions. For each of the solutions a second order partial differential equation can be derived via the coupling of the two solutions. This equation is a wave equation! Still both solutions separately obey a regular quaternionic second order partial differential equation. That equation does not accept waves as members of its set of solutions.

    The quaternionic second order partial differential equation  accepts other solutions. For example the homogeneous version of this equation accepts shape keeping fronts as its solutions. Shape keeping fronts operate in odd numbers of spatial dimensions. Thus, a one dimensional shape keeping front can travel along a geodesic in the corresponding field. These objects keep their amplitude. Three dimensional shape keeping fronts diminish their amplitude as 1/r with distance r from the trigger point. The wave equation accepts similar shape keeping solutions, but apart from that, the wave equation also accepts waves as its solutions.

    Both sets of equations do not reach further than second order differentials. As a consequence they cannot handle violent disruptions of the continuity of the considered fields. Also the coverage of longer ranges will require higher order differentials.

    With other words the considered fields will be the same, but the conditions can require methodology, which covers higher order differentials. GRT covers only slightly higher differentials. It neglects the simpler and more localized causes of disruptions of the continuity by point-like artifacts. That should be the task of quantum physics. However, also quantum physics ignores the mechanisms that generate the point-like artifacts, which cause the discontinuities of the physical fields. The equations only describe the behavior of the fields and Physicists seem to interpret the discontinuities as the artifacts that cause the behavior of the fields.

    This outcome shows the need to be able to treat fields independent of the equations that describes their behavior. This is possible by exploiting the fact that Hilbert spaces can store discrete quaternions and quaternionic continuums in the eigenspaces of operators that reside in Hilbert spaces. The reverse bra-ket method can create natural parameter spaces from quaternionic number systems and can relate pairs of functions and their parameter spaces with eigenspaces and eigenvectors of corresponding operators that reside in non-separable Hilbert spaces. This also works for separable Hilbert spaces and the defining functions relate the separable Hilbert space with its non-separable companion.

    + 1 more attachment

    Elio Conte

    the other question I pose is the following : Clifford algebra holds about a so restricted number of axioms. only two. How may we explain that a so restricted number of axioms enables us to describe so large fields of physics from quantum mechanics to relativity ?

  • Barrie Gilbert added an answer in Electronic Engineering:
    Can anybody tell me which type of biasing circuit is preferrable for Inductively degenerated common source amplifier?

    Low Noise Amplifier, IDCS topology

    Barrie Gilbert


    Note: The above answer was - somehow - greatly truncated.

    But I think you will see the point I am striving to make, here.



  • Ariff Zol added an answer in Lymnaea:
    When is the convenient time to look for an intermediate host freshwater snails, Lymnaea rubiginosa, at a grazing area?

    Recently, we when to the paddy field in early morning, about 6.30 am, to look for the freshwater snails. During observation, there were no Lymnaied snails was present there. Before this, studies have been done in that area, the liver fluke infection has occurred in cattle. But, still did not find the presence of snails that act as intermediate host for this disease.Therefore, we want to know when and where to find the snail intermediate host that causes liver fluke disease in cattle. Thanks. 

    Ariff Zol

    Thanks Will K Reeves and Subair KT Mal for the answers. I'll take this point for further study on how to searching these Lymnaied snails. Thanks. 

  • Yambem Tenjing added an answer in Salts:
    Can anyone identify this species collected from salt marsh?

    Can anyone identify this species collected from salt marsh?

    Yambem Tenjing

    Dear Roctim, that is true, but I just want to know that in the genus Heliotropium, what the exact species is. 

  • Michael Smith added an answer in Polymer Brushes:
    How does the friction coefficient of two polymer brush coated surfaces change with Refractive Index of solvent?

    I'm interested in understanding how the Stribeck curve for two polymer brush coated surfaces might change if the refractive index of the liquid is tuned across a range of values including the value of the polymer brush.

    At low normal forces does friction effectively just involve the VdW forces between the ends of the polymer chains? Presumably this force would vanish when the RI of solvent and brush match.

    At high normal forces the brushes may interpenetrate but it should still be easier to slide them apart.

    Any good classic tribology literature which explains this process in detail? 

    Michael Smith

    Thanks Salah, that's useful but I'm particularly interested in the effect of the refractive index of the liquid. Does anyone have information on studies where the liquid RI has been changed to match the polymer brush and compared with experiments where the two were different?

  • Marcus Heide added an answer in Guided Waves:
    What stops us from using ultrasound for high blood pressure diagnosis?

    I am a newbie in the field of medical technology - so please be kind ;-)

    I would love to push this scientific field with my guided wave knowledge.

    And yes I am a bit naive.

    Thanks in advance!

    Marcus Heide

    Dear Carlos,

    not all ultrasound devices are based on echo principles, mine for example not ;-)
    Guided waves are fulfilling field aside of classy pulse-echo-ultrasound, you may only so far.

    Consider for example the dispersion of a guided wave ultrasonic impulse inside a vein.

    I'd like to know more about your dielectric permittivity measurement. Please post a common source of information.



  • Marković G. Đoko added an answer in Didactics:
    Which are, in your opinion, the most important issues of modern didactics?

    Didactic has long been constructed as a separate field of study, and today is probably the most advanced pedagogical discipline. However, not only in my opinion, but in opinion of most famous educators in the field of teaching and didactics are expected in the present and near future many fundamental review. Compared to most other inherited or new components of school and many relations that exist within the school system, teaching is essentially little changed, although it is constantly upgraded, refined, modernized, etc.

    Marković G. Đoko

    Not only in my opinion, but in opinion of most famous educators in the field of teaching and didactics are expected in the present and near future many fundamental review.