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  • Phillip J Decker asked a question in Impression Management:
    Can anyone help us research self-handicapping in business?

    Self-handicapping, impression management, goal orientation

  • Mohamad Ivan Fanany asked a question in Science Journalism:
    Lists of Computer Science Journals, Review Speed, Impact Factors, and Open Access Fee from Elsevier, Springer, and Hindawi?

    Dear All, 

    Recently, I did a little research on Computer Science Journals List, Review Speed, Impact Factors, and Open Access Fee from Elsevier, Springer, and Hindawi. Please find them at the attached links.

    Are there any similar lists to add into this repository? Recently, I found this one which is made in 2013,


    but it only list the Impact Factors. Also the list is not only Computer Science journals.


    + 2 more attachments

  • Maria Vasilopoulou added an answer in Band Gap:
    Do the bandgap changes with the extension of absorption edge at higher wavelength side?

    Dear Scholars,

    I have observed change in the absorption tail for the samples with three different compositions. With increase in doping  concentration absorption tail is extending as shown in attached file. However, band edge position remains at the same position. I am curious to know whether change in the absorption edge is due to change in band gap or something else? Which method is accurate for bandgap calculation by absorption data.



    Maria Vasilopoulou

    Dear Chandresh.

    The absorption tail in your case is an indication of the formation of defects.

    About the the estimation of bandgap you may use the tauc plot.

    The absorption coefficient, α, due to interband transition near the band-gap is well described:

    αħω = B (ħ ω – Eg)^2

     ħω is photon energy, Eg is optical gap.  This Tauc plot defines the optical gap in amorphous semiconductors.

    The absorption coefficient at the photon energy below the optical gap (tail absorption) depends exponentially on the photon energy:

     α(ħ ω) ~ exp (ħ ω/Eu)

         where Eu is called Urbach energy.

    In addition, optical absorption by defects also appears at energy lower than optical gap. Likewise α is written as another exponential function of photon energy:

    α(ħω) ~ exp (ħω/Ed),

       Ed belongs to the width of the defect states. C region is rather sensitive to the structural properties of materials.

  • Jibran Khan added an answer in Crop Yield:
    Can anyone suggest a paper in using RS for estimating crop production rather than crop yield?

    I would be very pleased if anyone can suggest me paper for estimating crop production through remote sensing data. I know there are plenty of papers that crop yield has been predicted but I need only for crop production. Your help will be more appreciated.



    Jibran Khan

    Radar remote sensing has been an effective tool for the estimation of crops' production and monitoring. Since you emphasized for the papers pertaining to crops' production only so following article may be useful for your specific query.


    Hope this helps!

  • Jaafar Mohammed added an answer in Tunneling:
    What is the difference between Circular and Double-O-Tube Shield Tunnel ?

    adapting to analyze the inner force in lining

    Jaafar Mohammed

     Dear Mr. Xiangdong ,
    Thanks a lot , your ppt is very helpful and I hope to add more knowledge in seismic load .Brgds

  • Martin A Thomas added an answer in Porous Materials:
    Can anyone help me with the calculation of BJH isotherm?

    I would like to get an idea about the calculation of pore size distribution using BJH isotherm. I am attaching the relative pressure (P/P0) and amount adsorbed got for my sample.

    Martin A Thomas

    While it's possible to calculate mesopore size distribution with BJH, its not appropriate in this case (M. Yates is absolutely right!). The isotherm is quite low resolution in the mesopore region, and in any case it's predominantly type I (micropore) isotherm. Unfortunately there aren't any low pressure points in order to calculate with any sort of confidence the micropore size distribution (by DFT, never BJH).

    By the way, if the analysis was done on a commercial instrument, the same software to make the measurement has the calculation capability also, and is probably described in the user manual. Barret. Joyner and Halenda's (BJH's) original paper is still available here: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ja01145a126 . In addition to CP's attachment (above), a worked example is also given in Chapter 8 of Lowell et al (ISBN 978-1-4020-2303-3)

    The calculation is tedious! Better to just let the software do it and don't sweat the math.

    If anyone is interested, I did run Bindia's isotherm data through BET, BJH and DFT calculations.

    BET area = 1228 m2/g (point selection done using Rouquerol method)
    DFT area = 1099 m2/g (QSDFT carbon slit model)
    DFT area = 1245 m2/g (QSDFT carbon slit/cyliner model)
    BJH area = 1068 m2/g (adsorption)

    Caveat... for fun only! If anyone wants the full calculation report, just let me know.

  • Mohammed Abdel-samie Abdel-Halim added an answer in Motor Design:
    How do I increase the Breakdown torque of an Induction motor in the design phase for EVs?

    I am designing a three phase induction motor(IM) for a required Max. Torque - Speed characteristics (with field weakening upto 18000 rpm). The Knee point from the characteristics is 60 Nm and 4500 rpm which gives a max power of 28 kW . The outer dimensions of the motor is fixed to 140 mm. How is it possible to achieve such a high max. torque with this outer dimension? Also i have read from articles that by decreasing the stray factor of IM, BD torque can be increased to very high values. How can i achieve a low stray factor by changing the geometries of stator and rotor?

    Mohammed Abdel-samie Abdel-Halim

    If we decrease the stator and rotor leakage reactances, the max. torque will increase. How to decrease, the leakage reactance? This may be achieved by increasing the slot opening (width) and decreasing the slot depth. Also, decreasing the airgap length will decrease the leakage reactance.

  • Nicole Gillain-Martin added an answer in Loop of Henle:
    How does “Randall’s plaque” promote renal stone formation?

    Eight decades ago, Al exander Randall identified calcium phosphate deposits at the tip of renal papillae as the origin of renal calculi. The awareness that these “Randall’s plaque” promote renal stone formation has been amplified during the past years by the development of endoscopic procedures allowing the in situ visualization of these plaques. Recent studies based upon kidney biopsies evidenced that apatite deposits at the origin of these plaque originate from the basement membranes of thin loops of Henle and then spread in the surrounding interstitium. In addition, scanning electron microscopy examination of calcium oxalate stones developed on Randall’s plaque evidenced that plaque may also be made of tubules obstructed by calcium phosphate plugs. Hypercalciuria has been associated to Randall’s plaque formation. However, several additional mechanisms may be involved resulting in increased tissular calcium phosphate supersaturation and the role of macromolecules in plaque formation remains elusive. At last, apatite crystals are the main mineral phase identified in plaques, but other calcium phosphates and various chemical species such as purines have been evidenced, revealing thereby that several mechanisms may be responsible for plaque formation.

    Urolithiasis August 2014 Date: 07 Aug 2014
    Randall’s plaque as the origin of calcium oxalate kidney stones
    Michel Daudon, Dominique Bazin, Emmanuel Letavernier

    Nicole Gillain-Martin

    For Urolab India

    What do you suggest as a simple procedure to consider a supersaturation? In practice, using my knowledge, one use  the concentration of Ca, Mg, uric acid, oxalic acid and citric acid in urine.

  • Renardi Gunawan added an answer in Buffer:
    How can I stop the DNA degradation for a long time?

    After the DNA extraction I dissolve it in DNA dissolving buffer (TE buffer pH8.0) after one or two months the DNA degraded..so what is the possible solution to stop the DNA from the degradation for  a long time?

    Renardi Gunawan

    Hello Sadia,

    You can try to store it in -20C and avoid freeze-thawing your DNA to prevent degradation. My DNA sample can remain stable for more than 4 months by keeping it frozen. And make sure your TE buffer is made with DNase free water as well.

    Good luck

  • John David Sanders added an answer in Consciousness:
    Is consciousness giving human beings an evolutionary advantage?
    While having the concept of Self as opposed to others or to the environment seems good for focusing the organism functions on survivability and on DNA spreading, is there any evidence that consciousness has an evolutionary advantage?

    To elaborate further, here I'm talking about consciousness as the first person experience. And for "first person experience" I'm not talking about "experience OF first person": conversly, I'm specifically addressing the "experience IN first person MODALITY" (as a corollary to this question, I'm proposing that the word "consciousness" refers to too many concepts). In this view, I consider self-consciousness "experience of first person in first person modality".
    If we embrace the assumption that consciousness is always consciousness of something, we still lack an explanation for the nature and the purpose ("what is/what's for" rather than "how is it") of the first person experience, and as such why evolution favored it.

    In a lot of other Q/A about self and consciousness people are talking about consctructs that may function even without consciousness. Two examples:
    -self: a neural network comprising semantic concepts about the world could very well include the concept of self as a non-other or non-environment, or even a concept of self as an independent organism with such and such features; why do we need consciousness to conceptualize it? Would a machine decoding all the concepts coming across the node of (or the distributed knowledge about) self be considered conscious? We do not have to attribute consciousness to the machine to explain the machine processing its concept of self.
    -thinking: processing is certainly different from consciously elaborate something, as all the studies on automatic and subconscious processing show. On the other hand, this point address the free will problem: when we consciously elaborate something, does it mean we are voluntarly doing so? Or are we just experiencing a first person "show" of something already happened subconsciously (as Libet's studies suggest)? Without touching upon the ad infinitum regression problems, this poses the question if consciousness is useful without free will: if the conscious experience is just a screen on which things are projected, no free will is needed and thus what's the whole point of consciousness? As such, do we also need free will for accepting consciousness? If we are working with the least number of assumptions, it seems unlikely the we can accept consciousness.

    It seems to me that the general attitude of cognitive theories in a biological information processing/computational theory of mind framework is to try to explain everything without putting consciousness in the equation. And indeed it seems to me that no one is actually putting consciousness in the equation, when explaining cognition or behaviour (at least in modern times).

    All in all, it seems to me that all the above reasonings bring the suggestion that consciousness is not needed and has no evolutionary advantage over automatic non-conscious entities. Or that we should make more and more assumptions (such as accepting free will) to make sense of consciousness.
    I think that asking why we have consciousness could lead us to understand it better.
    John David Sanders

    Word and symbols  - the product of internal reflection  - after so many words and so little attachment to empirical observation I am almost ready to believe that that no advantage comes from such reflections! It is possible for an evolving species to evolve right past a successful niche on on it  a blind alley. Human consciousness is product of living matter which is turn is a product of complex interactions in a miraculous Universe that has no resolvable reason for existance It is not a denegration of human consciousness to see it in terms of a mechanical process simply because mechanical processes are equally miraculous - try as an example: Understanding Quantum Mechanics , Roland Omnes Princeton University press.  This shows how difficult it is to pin down observable reality with words.

    The answer is still YES but memetic processes can eroded our viability. Words on their own are insufficient they must coincide with our experience as define by our senses.

  • Dipak Kumar Nayak asked a question in Pyridines:
    What is the best to prepare Pyridine-Sulfur trioxide complex , how to purify it and avoid its hygroscopic nature ?

    I had already prepared it with Pyridine and chlorosulphonic acid. Assay up to 95% and SO3 contain 45%. How Can I prepare 99%?

  • Sebastian Freeman asked a question in Histological Staining:
    What staining can I use to show cells dividing cells, or cells that have high mitotic activity?

    Hello everyone,

    Does anyone know of a histological stain that will show cells with higher mitotic activity?

  • Hulya Cakmak added an answer in Zeta Potential:
    How do I decide the emulsion stability from a broad zeta potential distribution?

    Zeta distribution of my emulsions are wide also the std deviation is higher than average zeta potential value. I need to decide which formulation is much stable among them however the average values are quite similar and around +/- 1 mV. Some of them have only one peak, some of them hem 3 peaks but one of the peak is 70% or more have some stable results. As can be seen in the attached zeta distribution.

    Will you also help me, can I use 13.8 mv (73.6% peak area) value as the average for comparing other samples? If not the values will be closer and they are not stable because of coarse emulsification, then how can I discuss about the results?

    Hulya Cakmak

    I measured separated oil phase percent from emulsion by accelarated shelf life procedure,however I am asking if I can add zeta potential as one of the stability responses.

  • Harsha Mysore Prabhakara asked a question in MIN3P:
    Hello all, Can Anybody tell me what is the procedure to install/Run MIN3P software. Is it compatible with Windows 10??

    I have the database files, component file and initial value files. 

  • Haim Baruh added an answer in Timoshenko Beam:
    Is there exact analytical solution for a FFFF plate bending problem under point load?

    Dear all,

    I'm looking for an analytical solution for a plate bending problem with free edges (FFFF), supported at four corners and under the action of point load. The problem is very much similar to http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/19373261003607907 but uniformly distributed load now replaced by point load. Any help is highly appreciated.

    Best regards

    Haim Baruh

    Also, look at the textbook by my colleague William J. Bottega.

  • Sadeem Fadhil added an answer in Gravitation:
    In GR, can we always choose the local speed of light to be everywhere smaller that the coordinate speed of light? Can this be used in a theory?

    It seems that many, if not all, solutions of Einstein's equations, such as black holes and grav. waves, can be given coordinates x\mu in such a way that the local speed of light is always slower than the coordinate speed of light. Think of gravitational lensing: the index of refraction of a gravitational potential always seems to be >1, in practical examples, so a gravitational potential slows light down, and never speeds it up (if coordinates are chosen carefully). This wouldn't be true for a negative-mass Schwarzschild solution, but that seems to be outlawed in nature.

     Now this was only a conjecture, I have not attempted to prove it. How would a rigorous mathematical theorem be formulated? And did anybody - and here I mean a wise person, not the average blogger - ever try to do something interesting with this observation? Like constructing a “hidden medium” for curved space-time?

    Sadeem Fadhil

     Dear Prof. Gerard t Hooft 

    Thank you for this important question.

    I think the best way to get the unification between QM and GR is rewritting the space time metric in a form that can conserve the constancy of speed of light. I started to do that by assuming a general metric that applies for all objects massive and zero rest mass particles at the same time. The new metric conserves speed of light and at the same time can predict the delay in light waves, but this time due to longer paths that light needs to pass before reaching the observer. 

    With best regards


  • Ahmed Almeldin asked a question in Monocytes:
    Isolation of monocytes from bone marrow and differentiation into macrophages?

    I would like to isolate monocytes from BM and differentiate them into macrophages. is there any protocol to do so? as i found that you only get macrophages after 7 days of culture with M-csf. 

  • Nisreen Sulayman asked a question in Digital Image Processing:
    Can we deactivate RG account for a while?

    I want to deactivate RG account for a while, Is the "deactivation " available on Research Gate?  

  • Mahbobeh zamani babgohari asked a question in Lipid Droplets:
    How does Nile Red color the nucleus or it's membrane, better to say?

    Hi Dear Researchers,

    I am using Nile Red to visualize the lipid droplets of the cell membrane after applying stress on tobacco cells. I suppose not to see the nucleus but there is a clear fluorescent signal around the nuclei. I was wondering if it should be like that? or I should see just the cell membrane an it's droplets?


  • Shantilal Mehetre added an answer in Graphene Quantum Dots:
    Is there any practical way to synthesise graphene quantum dot with IR peak nIR region?

    As you know graphene quantum dots have luminescent properties. I'm looking for an applicable method which yields graphene QD with emission in IR or NIR  region!

    Shantilal Mehetre

    Dear A. Aghaei,

    Will you please send PDF of these above articles?

    on shanm191@gmail.com

  • Manuel Morales added an answer in Philosophy:
    Can ethics be measured objectively?
    Ethics, ethical committee, ethical approval and other ethical related words are extensively used on Researchgate and other places. How to define and measure ethics in objective bases?
    Manuel Morales

    I have hopefully illustrated a better way for the public to understand the fallacy of using omitted-variable bias as a method of inquiry of the natural world.

  • Yousef Tamsilian added an answer in Polyacrylamide:
    How do I perform DLS particle size measurement of an inverse emulsion of polyacrylamide dispersed in cyclohexane in the presence of surfactant?

    Could someone offer advice on how to DLS particle size measurement of a inverse emulsion of polyacrylamide dispersed in cyclohexane in the presence of surfactant? As some literature said, I take a droplet from this inverse emulsion and dilute it by mixture of cylohexane-surfactant into a glass vial for DLS analysis. But, I cannot obtain a routine results from it. Z-average and also PDI are very high.

    Is there any method to measure the size inaddition of SEM and TEM?

    Yousef Tamsilian

    Dear Peyman,

    Thank you for your helps, certainly they're useful. However, today, I diluted my inverse emulsion (polyacrylamide aqueous solution in cyclohexane in presence of the TW85) in mixture of cyclohexane-TW85 for DLS cell. In this way, I have some questions:

    1- I put viscosity of cyclohexane in the software setting. What's your view about this? or is it better, first, I measure the viscosity of diluting cyclohexane-Tw85 mixture, and then put the real ones?

    2- I obtained the results in range of 130-200 nm by above diluting method. The count rates were 200-300 kcps, but you said 500-5000, is it possible to be wrong the data?

    Thanks in advance

  • Seyed Mohammad Reza Razavi asked a question in Fouling:
    What is the best method to giving the anti bio fouling properties to marine equipment?

    for marine application like: ship hull,......

    I want to suggested to me a new technical method


  • Nazar Kuzo added an answer in Muscle Fiber:
    Nonspecific staining of certain fiber types by rabbit primary antibodies in mouse muscle?

    I am staining frozen 10um cross sections of mouse skeletal muscle and frequently run into a problem when using rabbit primary antibodies.
    It looks like rabbit primaries non-specifically label muscle fibers by fiber type, but specific staining is always brighter. Does anyone have any experience with this/know why this might be happening/know how to prevent this from happening? Any input is helpful. Thanks - Paul . 

    Nazar Kuzo

    You should always check your primary antibodies with specific blocking peptide (usually provided by your AB provider) with aim of negative controle of the specificity of immunal reaction. Also you can try to wash your slides X5 or even X7 changes after primary AB application. From the other side if your nonspecific staining is usual and constant from slide to slide, and if you're going to make some statistical analysis of data obtained, the general system error (in your case - nonspecicfic staining) definitly affects your absolute numbers, but will not affect your specific numbers and trends.

  • Manuel Morales added an answer in Education Science:
    Are collaborative tech tools enough for developing collaborative skills?

    There are any number of collaborative tools (e.g., Wikis, blogs, Google Sheets/Doc, Skype) for students to use in developing their collaborative skills for group projects. But, are these tech tools enough for effectively developing collaborative skills that include interpersonal and communication skills? What are your perspectives on this issue?

    Manuel Morales

    I have hopefully illustrated a better way for the public to understand the fallacy of using omitted-variable bias as a method of inquiry of the natural world.

  • M. Tarokh added an answer in Cognitive Robotics:
    Have you ever thought about temptation as a mathematical function for stimulating the behavior of a robot ?

    Maybe Afforts to create a model for human behavior and movements and even feelings and reactions based on a mathematical equations is one of my interests in my future research life.
    So I wanna see if there were any clues on this area which help me to make robats that just act like a human do on different situations to start my investigation on it??

    M. Tarokh

    In my work on decision making for security robots, I have defined and implemented such notions, which I call "motivation" and "enthusiasm".  These are defined in a fuzzy  system setting.  I am attaching my paper on this topic. You can contact me (mtarokh@mail.sdsu.edu) if you like to work on this topic.

  • Nilmini Kumari added an answer in Homologous Recombination:
    What are the possible methods of homologous recombination of a foreign bacterial gene in to a chromosome of an E. coli host strain strain?

    Bacteriophage transduction is a common method for this.

    -Are there any simple method of doing this without using phages?

    -To check the activity of a gene do I need to integrate it into the chromosome of the host ?

    -can I get the same function using a transformed vector with that gene?

    Nilmini Kumari

    Thanks Mr Dhenugen for your suggestions. Yes I am aware about yeast homologous recombination and there are suitable vectors for that. But I am not aware about bacterial vector for such recombination. Only heard about phage transduction. Is it enough plasmid transformation to a host without gene integration to the chromosome in order to check the activity of gene knockout. The articles I have read always worked with a homologous chromosome recombinant having disrupted gene. And to check the function they have introduce a vector with functional gene. Need more suggestions please...

  • Carlos E. Ganade de Araujo asked a question in Lithosphere:
    How long does it takes for a “MORB” lithosphere to cool down to a temperature where it starts to deform in a brittle way?

    Does ridge push can reactivate oceanic fracture zones?