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  • Subhash C. Kundu added an answer in Peace:
    Do you think that Import / Export of Intellectuals is good for the society?


    Subhash C. Kundu · Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology

    Brain drain is a balancing factor! Where competent and skilled people are valued and needed more --- will go there!

    Brain drain, refers to the emigration of intelligent, well-educated individuals to somewhere for better pay or conditions, --- causing the place they came from to lose those skilled people, or "brains --- benefits the country where skilled people go.

  • Sofia Cividini added an answer in Mice:
    Inject drug solution into mice , is it invivo

    i have injected sample solution in to mice and same drug solution is added in to a test tube with brine shrimp nauplii,here which one is invivo and which one is invitro?

    Sofia Cividini · Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca

    In my opinion, I believe they are both in vivo experiments because you are treating two living organisms, a mammal and a crustacean. Even though in the first case (mice) you actively inject a drug solution inside the animal, and, in the second case, the animals (brine shrimp nauplii) are passively treated through a drug solution into a test tube.

  • Augusta Jamin added an answer in Docking:
    Dose anyone knows Protein DNA docking?

    My protein having property to interact with DNA but i dont know the binding or interating amino acid. Please any one tell how to find out the interacting amino acids with DNA and what are the tools for finding interactive site with DNA and DNA-protein docking.

    Augusta Jamin · University of Nebraska at Lincoln

    Some DNA-binding proteins do not have any sequence specificity and can bind DNA regardless of DNA sequence. Others (for example transcription factors) bind specific DNA sequence. If there is no previous work done in figuring out the DNA-binding site, then experiments will need to be done to find this out. Nowadays you can perform chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with sequencing (ChIP-seq) for determining DNA-binding sites. 

  • Zheng-Qing Huang asked a question in Density Functional Theory:
    Why just one imaginary frequency is a necessary condition for any configuration to be a transition state?

    In a book, Density Functional Theory: A Practical Introduction, it said that "the Hessian matrix can be defined for any set of coordinates, and in general there is a region around the transition state that has one negative eigenvalue.", which confuses me now.

  • Maral Khosravi asked a question in Barnacle:
    Does anyone know how to analyze the data of bryozoan and the individual sp like barnacle (I don’t want to calculate cove percentage for barnacles)?

    I have many species on my PVC panel and I don’t know how to analyze species like bryozoan and  individual species like barnacle. For example I have 250 barnacle and 185 mm2 surface coverage of bryozoan!

  • Muhammad Niqab added an answer in Educational Leadership:
    Can anyone suggest articles or books on servant leadership theory?

    My research is aimed at bringing a balance in the leadership position in schools (secondary and Primary), in such a way that the female teachers can have equal managerial positions with their male counterparts.

    Muhammad Niqab · University of Malaya

    servant leadership the emergence field showing relationship between leader and the follower, materials can be found in north house books on leadership, also a thesis exists titling, " relationships between servant leadership, OCB and school climate in Alabama High schools"

  • Helena Pestana added an answer in Applied Economics:
    Pluses and minuses of the brain drain and of the capital outflow?
    These are the main problems in many developing countries.
    Helena Pestana · ISCTE-Instituto Universitário de Lisboa

    Dear Joseph, 

    The factors are positive for countries that are receiving those brains and negative for those that let them go ... these become impoverished because of the loss of intelectual resources .


  • Martin Stutzmann added an answer in Functionalization:
    How do I pick up CO from Au(111) with STM tip?

    I want to pick CO molecule from Au(111) surface by STM tip to prepare CO functionalized tip. CO molecules on Au(111) are movable. I tried many times, but it too difficult to pick up CO from Au surface. Do you have any suggestion?

    Martin Stutzmann · Technische Universität München

    CO binds more strongle to Pt than to Au. So you might try a Pt/Ir tip.

  • Sanjay Rode added an answer in Economics:
    Do you have any good recent paper about Wagner's Law?

    I looking for recent works about the relationship between public spending and production in an economy. The idea is test the validity of Wagner's law. 

    Sanjay Rode · Somaiya Vidyavihar

    I think it is the right solution to overcome with such issue. I shall estimate now as per your suggestion. 

  • Dhafer Ben Arbia added an answer in Ad Hoc Networks:
    How do i develop a research problem for hybrid MANET routing algorithm?

    Is it possible to generate a research question in routing algorithms in Mobile ad - hoc networks. I would like to develop an hybrid algorithm for routing in my phd thesis

    Dhafer Ben Arbia · Qatar Mobility Innovations Center

    Hi Wilson,

    What do you mean exactly by generating a "research question in routing" ?

    Do you need to develop a new routing approach or implement an hybrid existing one ?

  • Vigneswaran Veeramuthu added an answer in Healthy Aging:
    Which of the following neuropsychological battery would you recommend to delineate Mild Cognitive Impairment from healthy controls?

    Which of the following neuropsychological test tools would you recommend for the assessment  of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and to delineate from the healthy ageing controls:

    a) RBANS

    b) CNS Vital Signs

    Or would it be better if I go for domain-specific subtests such as CVLT II, TMT Part A & B, WMS, and etc?

    Kind regards,


    Vigneswaran Veeramuthu · University of Malaya

    Thank you for the thoughts and information shared Drs Joseph Sanford, Jane Lonie and Janet. 

  • Yunhua Li added an answer in Simulation:
    How to perform the accelerate simulation in simulation system?

    In real time system, to realize the accelerated simulation is very important.

    Yunhua Li · Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (Beihang University)

    Set accelerating factor, and the accelerated simulation can be performed.

  • Martin Stutzmann added an answer in LED:
    When is a UV LED for water applications at 250nm applicable?

    Not many LED manufacture enters the spectrum below 300 nm

    Which are they, for what applications, which UV Power..

    Martin Stutzmann · Technische Universität München

    Most of the commercially available UV-LEDs are distributed e.g. by Thorlabs: www.thorlabs.de/newgrouppage9.cfm?objectgroup_id=2814

  • Shahryar Malekie added an answer in MWCNT:
    What dielectric constant of individual multi walled nanotube at low frequency?

    dielectric constant of individual multi walled carbon nanotube at low frequency?which section of permittivity of MWCNT is stand for dielectric constant of MWCNT imaginary part or real part?

    Shahryar Malekie · Atomic Energy Organization of Iran

    I mean relative permittivity of MWCNT.

  • Gyan Chandra Chauthwani added an answer in Nuclear Reactors:
    In lattice codes, cross sections are generated using flux, these xs are used in transport eq and after solving we get flux, is it not contradictory?

    In nuclear reactor lattice codes, effective microscopic cross sections are first prepared from fine-group infinite dilution cross sections based on input data. The effective cross sections are provided in solving transport equation and then multi group neutron spectra is obtained in each divided region.

    It seems to be contradictory to me because to get cross section we use flux , then using cross sections in transport equation we get flux, isn't it ?

    Gyan Chandra Chauthwani · Nuclear Power Corporation of India ltd.

    @ Emmeric Dupont


    In that way cross sections are not weighted with actual flux.

    Even though we get region specific flux with those cross sections, if we change the weighting flux, we will get different region specific flux since now cross sections will be changed.

    This particular fact intricate me.

  • Ahmed Alhilli asked a question in Freezing:
    Hi, Is there a best way to pick up cells from coony in cell line cuture from 6 wells plate ?

    Is there a best way to pick up cells from coony in cell line cuture from 6 wells plate ? I need to isolate some cells from colony /well from 6 plate wells and incubate them, freezing some other.

  • Martin Stutzmann added an answer in Dielectrics:
    What dielectric materials are transparent in visible region and high reflective in NIR?

    I want to design a low pass filter.

    Martin Stutzmann · Technische Universität München

    Transparent conducting oxides like ZnO2, ITO etc. may be right for you. Have a look at http://www.gesimat.de/data/5-05.pdf

  • Muhammad Niqab asked a question in School Leadership:
    How we can validate a conceptual framework of a study in school leadership?

    A quantitative research study done in school leadership field. model fitness show that model fits the collected data. Now the question is that how this frame work will be validated for its implication in school leadership filed to show its effectiveness?

  • Kunal . asked a question in Terminology:
    How to describe Bacteria and Fungi to layman (either person form non science background or uneducated)?

    Several times a person from non science background or an uneducated ask me what is the definition of Bacteria and Fungi? 

    I try to convince him by giving several common examples but still they don't convince. As I can not explain them some scientific terminologies such as prokaryote or eukaryote; one-celled or multi-celled; cell structure; etc.

    I will be thankful to all for providing a simple and easy answer.

  • Max Emmanuel asked a question in Helicopters:
    Can this helicopter design work?

    see attachment please.

    I have successfully come up with a new helicopter design that I call the NOTA MRH (NO TAil Mono Rotor Helicopter). The picture shows it's basic design. This helicopter does not need a tail rotor for torque reaction. The person flying this helicopter will only mind about the single main rotor cause that's the only rotor on the helicopter. It can work well for stealth helicopters. It is not a Mono copter or Coaxial helicopter nor Tandem helicopter and can easily be fitted in a space capsule if required for future landing.

  • Jessica Glass asked a question in MEGA6:
    Anyone with MEGA6 (Mac) get the following error message: "A filename cannot contain any of the following characters: /:<>|"?

    I'm trying to import a .fasta alignment exported from Geneious and MEGA will not open it. I've even manually entered sequences and it gives me the same message when trying to save the alignments. The file name has no (visible) weird characters. I've tried re-naming and have double-checked for those characters in the taxa names but there are none. MEGA still opens the example files. Attaching a picture of the error message. Please help! 

  • Francesc González i Planas asked a question in Prosody:
    Can you suggest papers on prosody of Clitic Left Dislocations in Spanish or Catalan?

    Dear colleagues,

    I am interested in research on prosody of CLLD in Catalan and Spanish. Can
    you make any suggestion?

    Thank you very much,

    Francesc González

  • Muhammad Niqab added an answer in Didactics:
    Which are, in your opinion, the most important issues of modern didactics?

    Didactic has long been constructed as a separate field of study, and today is probably the most advanced pedagogical discipline. However, not only in my opinion, but in opinion of most famous educators in the field of teaching and didactics are expected in the present and near future many fundamental review. Compared to most other inherited or new components of school and many relations that exist within the school system, teaching is essentially little changed, although it is constantly upgraded, refined, modernized, etc.

    Muhammad Niqab · University of Malaya

    i would like to extend the comments of the jerinic that teaching is art, some time we say that artist are  the people who have some God gifted characteristics, but this also fact that training and practice make his art perfect. teaching can be improved through training and enthusiasm, that i have to deliver what the stake holders desire for, just fulfilling formality of speaking at a forum without an influence is nothing.teaching is not an easy job, its a demanding job,every day you will present better than the yesterday

  • Tarik Ömer Oğurtani added an answer in Metal Matrix Composites:
    What is the normal conditions for COF and wear rate decreases while increasing sliding velocity.?


    in my aluminium metal matrix composites,i observed that cof and wear rate is inversely proportional to sliding velocity.what is the causes for this nature?please tell me any references.

    Tarik Ömer Oğurtani · Middle East Technical University

    The wear rate decreases  with decrease  in the friction coefficient whereas this coefficient shows decrease with increasing sliding speed before a stable state is reached in many test results. 

    Effect of Load and Sliding Speed on Wear and Friction in Al-Si alloys

    By Riyadh Al-Smarai et. al: Int. J. Scientific and Reseach Publ. V.2 (3), 2012  pp.1-4.

  • S R MANTENA added an answer in Encryption:
    Is RSA encryption algorithm broken ?

    If so, what is the key length ? What attacks are used to break RSA ?

    S R MANTENA · SRKR Engineering College

    The initially proposed algorithm with 512 bit key can be broken now with the present computing power. As pointed by Dr AR Reddy, using Moors law as computing power increases key size can also be doubled ;like 1024 bits, 2048 bits, 4096 bits etc. But this will increase s/w and h/w complexity in implementation. So, increasing key size i hope is not the solution. We should opt for an algorithm that provides more complexity with less key size. That is why Elliptic curve cryptography algorithm is becoming popular.

  • Vishnu Priya added an answer in Big Data:
    What are the algorithms for large scale machine learning?

    I am novice to machine learning algorithms. I  Have a question.

    Can traditional Machine learning algorithms such as ANN, Naives bayes, Decision Tree , SVM etc be applied on Big data or there exsists any scalable algorithms? since computational complexity increases as the size of data increases.

    I read about large scale  SVM solver , core vector machines for very large data .But  How about the performance of  other machine learning classifiers on big data ?

    Any papers about these issues?

    Vishnu Priya · Hochschule für Technik Stuttgart

    Thank you very much  Mehrdad for your reply:) 

    Yes I guess random forests scale well to big data as you said  . The link which you suggested also says about boosting decision trees and random forest.

    Do you have any paper or references which says about machine learning algorithm that scales well to big data?

  • Mahdi Abdeddaim added an answer in Fuzzy Logic Control:
    Why I don't get the maximum output when I have the maximum input in my Fuzzy logic controller ?

    Dear researchers;

    I'm using Fuzzy logic toolbox in MATLAB to develop I fuzzy logic control algorithm, in the rules between the input and the output a linked the maximum input with the maximum output ? but I'm not getting this.

    for example is my maximum input is 10 and my maximum output is 5, the fuzzy logic controller gives an output of 3 if the input is 10.

    Dose any one have a solution to this ? how can I fix it ?

    Best regards.

    Mahdi Abdeddaim · Université de Biskra

    Dear Monica;

    now I'm getting the maximum value of the output, but the response reduction I'm getting using fuzzy logic controller is not very important compared to a fixed voltage at maximum value strategy, can you help me with this ?

    Best regards

  • Sudev Naduvath added an answer in BibTex:
    LaTex to Microsoft Word - any ideas?

    My literature review is written in LaTex and the references are in BibTex - however I frequently need to send documents to my supervisor in Microsoft Word. So far I have rendered the LaTex document into pdf and then back into Word, but it plays havoc with the formatting.

    Does anyone know of a program/writing language that can render text written in LaTex reliably into .doc file?

    Sudev Naduvath · Vidya Academy of Science & Technology

    There are certain softwares to convert LaTeX files to word format keeping mathematical term and page styles and fonts in a good form. I usually use the software Tex2Word for the conversion. It is not a freeware and one has to spend almost  $50-$60 for purchasing its licence.

  • Vladimir A. Kulchitsky added an answer in Climate Change:
    Is it time we shift emphasis from technological solutions to climate change & focus on the 'Human Dimension'?

    Is it not obvious that nature can heal itself, if only left alone, and it is we humans who need regulation? Many natural parks managers do just that; seal off the area from human interference to let nature heal and recover. It is classified as 'Strict Nature Reserve"by IUCN. Complacency and inaction are not advocated here, as many have misunderstood, but the shifting of focus from technology to the human being. As technology is no match for human greed, isn't introspection & restraining ourselves more relevant than developing more technology, which caused the mess in the first place, by making it easy for a few to consume more? Since technology is only a short term quick fix which fails after a short time, isn't the real problem our addiction to material consumption & our lack of understanding about human nature? Isn't developing more technology sustaining the addiction instead of correcting it, leading to more complex problems later on, needing more complex technological quick fixes like higher drug dosages, more ground troops & equipment, (along with their debilitating side effects) in the future? Isn't this the vicious addiction circle we are trapped in? As researchers, do we merely buy more time with technology OR go to the very root of the problem, the human being?

    A lot of hue and cry is made about climate change and the environment in general. Public and private money is poured into research to study its effects on the environment, sustainability etc. Should we study nature or ourselves?

    " Our studies must begin with our selves and not with the heavens. "-Ouspensky

    Human activities have been found to have a direct correlation to climate change and its impact on the environment(I=P x A x T, the Ehrlich and Holdren equation), in spite of what some complacent sections say to protect their own self interests.

    We hardly know about Human nature. We can scarcely predict human behavior. We need to find out why we think like we do and why we do what we do and why, in spite of all knowledge and wisdom, consume more than what we need, in the form of addictions to consumption and imbalance not only ourselves but also the family, society and environment around us..
    Humanity is directly responsible for all the unnatural imbalances occurring on the planet. Yet we refuse to take responsibility and instead focus on climate change, or fool the public exchequer with a 'breakthrough in renewable energy just around the corner'. We scarcely know what drives human beings. If we had known, all the imbalances around us would have had solutions by now, given the amount of money plowed into finding such solutions. Are we blindly groping in the dark of climate change because we don't know the answers to our own nature?
    Is it not high time we focus on what makes us human, correct our consumptive behavior and leave nature to take care of climate change? Why focus effort on 'externals' when the problem is 'internal'- 'me'?
    Aren't we addicts denying our addiction and blaming everything else but ourselves?

    " We are what we Think.

    All that we are arises with our thoughts.

    With our thoughts, we make the world." - Buddha 

    IMHO, We don't need to save the World. It is enough if we save ourselves from ourselves. The need of the hour is not vain glorious interventions, but self-restraint and self-correction!

    The Mind is the Final frontier.

    Vladimir A. Kulchitsky · National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

    I wonder what happened to the temperature in the old days, when people are not able to accurately measure the temperature? In addition to the glacial period there were other disasters shifts in temperature.

  • Matteo Lanfranchi added an answer in Bubble Dynamics:
    Can someone provide help regarding equation of state for liquid metal (sodium)?


    I am solving the Gilmore bubble dynamics equation for liquid sodium.  Tait's equation is used to relate pressure and density while solving the equation.  In the case of water the constant in Tait's equation is 3000 and the exponent 7.  Are there similar values for other liquids eg. liquid sodium ?


    Matteo Lanfranchi · Politecnico di Torino

    I also am wondering Tait parameters of other compressibility state equation for lead-lithium, for studying shock waves at 80 bar in a loop at initial 5 bar. I think I will try to deduce the parameters fitting the density equations reported by Schultz 1991 and by Hadbook of lead and lead bismuth eutectic, 2007