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  • Do you think if I can do the product of 320bp for real time PCR with SYBR green?
    Can anybody please guide me whether I can use SYBR Green for the product of 320bp or not? I heard the best product size is usually less than 200bp ( 80-170 bp). but I think a 320bp products seems still acceptable for real time PCR with SYBR green (by increasing SYBR Green in reaction). Has anyone experienced this same problem during real time PCR with SYBR green? Of course, I know probe is suitable for this but it is expensive for me, thanks in advance.
    Christian Praetorius · University of Iceland
    This is a rather long product. Usually I use somethin between 80 and 120, if no shorter products are possible, I go up to 150 in maximum. The longer your amplicon gets, the more negative side effects (lower amplification efficiency, suboptimal reaction conditions such as temperature, amplification time, salt and primer concentrations) will bias your result. Longer amplicons are possible but they need a careful adjustion of the reaction conditions.
  • During manuscript submission online, some journals ask that has the manuscript been previously considered by another journal..
    If yes, the journal asked to please provide any relevant details regarding your previously considered manuscript (e.g., Editor’s name, manuscript ID, etc.) and describe changes made to, and the rationale for reconsideration of the manuscript in your cover letter. Do you supply them with the information or just omit? Why would they asked?
    Ian Kennedy · Independent Researcher
    Are researchers honest? Being silent about previous submissions is being dishonest. The Editors has correctly asked, because the Journal does not want to waste effort to consider a paper that has been rejected elsewhere and not improved.
  • András Bozsik added an answer in Thesis Research
    Should a master thesis contain new results?
    Is it okay for a master thesis to be only a survey of existing results in a topic? Or it must have some new research results? What do you think?
    András Bozsik · University of Debrecen
    Dear All, In my opinion every thesis like work should contain some new results even at BSc level. However, this one mostly does not. As to the master’s thesis, this should show the abilities and skills of a future MSc degree holder for independent and creative activity. Traditionally, a master (a magister at medieval university was a highly skilled and honourable person) had right to teach at university thus Francois Villon would have been a talented university teacher.
  • Revathi Chaganti added an answer in Environment
    Does the responsibility of researchers end with the scientific publication of their findings?
    Or should he or she also ensure that these findings find a way to a) non-scientific public and b) the implementing authorities / institutions (a practical reference provided)? I have made it my habit to any scientific contribution to compose another layman's contribution and to publish in order to create the possibility of practical implementation. All non-academic partners are extremely grateful for it. Without access to databases they would probably know nothing about these results and findings. Other ways to make research applicable?
    Revathi Chaganti · Sanofi Aventis Group
    Scientific Publication of Research findings is only one of the outcomes of scientific research. Because some Scientists with perseverence continue to work on the applicability of their findings, we have many therapeutics,vaccines and other products for human and animal use. It all depends on the choices we make and how we pusue them.
  • What is the advantage of Meshfree Methods over Finite Element / FInite difference method?
    MeshFree methods take more time and provide similar accuracy (sometimes less) as the Finite Difference method. I want to discuss the motivation behind the boost in research in MeshFree techniques. One motivation is the bypass in mesh creation. Could you please suggest a few references where Meshfree methods are compared with Finite difference / Finite Element methods ?
    Gregor Kosec · Jožef Stefan Institute
    Yes of course, gkosec@ijs.si
  • While assigning work to subordinates, do you, in general, 'trust' their sincerety in general, or 'suspect' it and expect them to prove sincerety?
    It has been found that dispositionally most people can be divided into either of these two broad categories in their leadership/managerial style. While some proactively trust every one they work with and behave with them with empowerment and involvement approach; and others indulge in command and control, suspect their sincerity, and use carrot and stick approach in people management.
    Miranda Yeoh · Kolej Matrikulasi Selangor, MALAYSIA (Selangor Matriculation College)
    Normally I trust them (my lab assistants) to do the work they should do, but I still check if it has been done, a day beforehand. This is because they could unintentionally forget, but my practical class must go on. Generally I trust their sincerity, but they are also forgetful humans.
  • Ami Rameshbhai Patel added an answer in Wikipedia
    Citing Wikipedia?
    While Wikipedia is more and more popular with students, professors discourage them from using it and bar them from citing it. What are reasons (to cite or) not to cite Wikipedia? Jul 31, 2012
    Ami Patel · Mansinhbhai Institute Of Dairy And Food Technology
    In my view, Wikipedia is not a authenticate for research purposes but it really provides useful information on any topic. Definitely if you want to out the link or any information from it, you need to refer other reliable sources, too because as MT Abdullah mentioned his own experience, many researcher might have faced the same problem. In research one should follow ethics which is related to trust, ultimately.
  • Jt Velikovsky added an answer in First Language
    What are the cognitive issues with mother tongue for rural Indians interacting with computers?
    I am pursuing a PhD in human computer interaction. I am working on the influence of local languages (mother tongues) on data entry errors by rural Indians while interacting with computers.
    Jt Velikovsky · University of Western Sydney
    Look into Steven Pinker's work. eg `How The Mind Works'. (1997) Also, Koestler's book `Janus: A Summing Up' (1978/1979)
  • Do you prefer to work with a male or female fellow researcher?
    Some people are gender biased when working on research projects. What do you think and what are your feelings in this regard?
    Gaurang Sahay · Tata Institute of Social Sciences
    Multi-gender research teams should be preferred. It can bring different perspectives to the research problem.
  • Marc Tessera added an answer:
    Is mathematics a human contrivance or is it innate to nature?
    Do we invent mathematical forms as we need them and then merely discover their emergent properties later? Or are those mathematical forms innate to nature, and are hence discovered rather than invented? Does it really matter to science, which way around we view this? Is it just philosophy or could there be real consequences? https://www.researchgate.net/publication/256838918 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/derek-abbott/is-mathematics-invented-o_b_3895622.html
    Barry, I fully agree with you that "In geological time it could be argued that awareness developed very rapidly but it did not spring fully formed into the world".
  • Jt Velikovsky added an answer in Advertising
    Is marketing communication on social media akin to propaganda communication of the past?
    Propaganda was a form of communication in the non-electronic era that resembles features like viral messages, unidentifiable source, quick awareness, and so on.
    Jt Velikovsky · University of Western Sydney
    One problem is you would need to define what you mean by propaganda. http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/propaganda "Information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote a political cause or point of view:" Maybe some marketing comms can be that, especially when material issues become overtly political, like say fossil fuel companies *lying* that they're somehow good for the environment when this global warming thing has 99% of scientists in agreement. BP and Shell Oil had some pretty laughable advertising like that. Maybe you need to look at memes. http://storyality.wordpress.com/2013/12/12/storyality-100-the-holonic-structure-of-the-meme-the-unit-of-culture/
  • Panayot Tanchev added an answer in Flexibility
    Is there a study or an article suggesting what the safest range of motions are for each joint?
    I am looking for a study or an article, where it is defined what the minimum range of motions for each joint are, in order to prevent injuries. To be able to see if a patient has impaired flexibility or not.
    Panayot Tanchev · Medical University of Sofia
    There are different systems of measuring the range of motion. Probably, the most popular is the Neutral-Zero-System, advocated by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.
  • Should we draw a boundary for each subject in the domain of knowledge?
    Scope of subject, Interdisciplinary value or any other dimensions on this matter?
    Mohammad Firoz Khan · Jamia Millia Islamia
    Marcel has very rightly pointed out, "If you know the boundary for a subject, you know the subject". But question arises what is purpose of the boundaries. For teaching purposes boundary seems necessary to remain focused, but in research boundaries either become blurred or fuzzy.
  • Any suggestions for starting a project on unidentified diseases associated with male infertility?
    Monica Muratori · University of Florence
    Hi, please find the requested paper
  • does whole blood can be preserved for DNA test?
    the equipment is located about 300km from the station. what is the procedures and how long can it last with EDTA?
    Christian Praetorius · University of Iceland
    More information will give you more useful answers. What kind of test do you want to run? What is your extraction method? In principle, yes, this is possible.
  • Decision tree
    Can I use a statistical method called decision tree for 45 cases? I hesitate whetever is it sufficiently large group? I will be gratefull for Your help.
    Christian Praetorius · University of Iceland
    The question which statiscal method you can use depends on a lot of things, not only the number of cases. Since you didn't mention anything else here, look at these articles on Bitesizebio: http://bitesizebio.com/19298/a-basic-guide-to-stats-comparing-two-sets-of-data/ http://bitesizebio.com/19315/lets-talk-about-stats-comparing-multiple-datasets/
  • Is the use of new technology causing a generational divide?
    Current generations make extensive use of new technologies such as mobile phones, PCs, the internet and its associated tools, playstations...etc. These technologies were absent when the parents of these generations were growing up. And although a lot of parents try to adapt and provide those technologies for their kids, there seems to be a widening generational divide. The question that naturally emerges from this observation is: Is technology responsible for that divide? or are there other factors? Parents, for many generations have - to a certain extent - transmitted a legacy of thought and passion to their children, but a significant number seem to be failing at sustaining that transmission. So what are your precious views? have you noticed that with your kids or those of your close relatives? is this point perhaps exagerated?
  • Is it reasonable to compare Luminal A, Luminal B to triple Negative Breast cancer cell lines?
    Iam working in Breast cancer research point on my Ph.D. and comparing Luminal A, Luminal B to TNBC cell lines. I see that some of the Luminals share a characteristics of TNBC .... I wonder if we should compare all Luminals to TNBC or should we Stratify Luminals ... Thanks
    Hamed Helal · Al-Azhar University
    Thanks for your help
  • Jana Roubalová asked a question in Diabetes
    Oxidative damage analysis - option for old samples?
    Hi everybody, we would like to analyse an oxidative damage in a tissue of mice. Could you suggest some marker, which would remain stable in samples frozen in -80°C for a year or even more? Obviously, enzyme activities or TBars are not an option, as they degrade after a month or so, but what about some DNA modifications etc., do you have any experience? Thanks a lot!
  • How to quickly determine the component of MeOH / Acetone solvent mixture?
    Solvent mixture MeOH/Aceton (about 1:1 volume ratio) is evaporated after reaction and condensed in recovery for using in the next reaction. So we are looking for a simple method for quickly determine the ratio of these two components in the condensate. We would like to use something which are simpler than GC, for ex. Any body have an idea? Thank for your attention!
    The-Nguyen Dong · Université de Toulon
    Dear M. Andre Verhecken, Thank for your answer! Do you know if there is a handheld devices or ... for this analysis? It is practical if it could be operated next to our pilot production system without taking the sample back to the laboratory which is quite far from. Thế-Nguyên Đồng
  • Vitaliy Roman added an answer in Multichannel
    Which is the best method of integrating the velocity applied to multi-channel ultrasonic flow meter?
    There are several methods: Gauss-Jacobi, Chebyshev ...? How to do it in practice in the manufacture of multi-channel ultrasonic flow meter?
    Vitaliy Roman · Lviv Polytechnic
    Thank you for your reply and for the link to the patent! In some ways I have dealt with the work of these scientists only in articles. Yes, I meant the the flow in the pipes. In my research I encountered with the method of Gauss-Jacobi and OWICS (Optimal Weighted Integration for Circular Sections). Basically I'm interested in the limits and possibilities of these methods, or they can be modified and how to take into account prior to the distribution of velocities. Based on the weight function of Gauss-Jacobi and some resemblance in form to a power law distribution, I modified Gauss-Jacobi method. In this case, the coefficient k in the formula weight function Gauss-Jacobi in my case 0.2 or 0.3 (depending on the Reynolds number). And the method OWICS k equal to 0.6. And so the question arises whether it is possible to factor k could vary from 0 to 1 for example?
  • Candace Lee asked a question in Antifungal
    How to conduct the bioautography assay ?
    Hi, I would like to conduct the bioautography assay on the TLC plate. What kind of TLC plate should I use, as in glass or the aluminium TLC? And the agar can I just spread it on top of the TLC plate? Actually I'm using Ganoderma, and apparently it does not have any spores. I'm not sure how to inoculate the pathogenic fungus on the TLC plate. Can anyone suggest me what should I do? Thanks.
  • Anyone know a good model to induce hypothalamic inflammation?
    I am looking for models to induce hypothalamic inflammation in mice. The most common model is through high-fat diet administration, but I'm looking for something related to TNF-alpha or other cytokines (intracerebroventricular). Does anyone know or have used another induction model?
    Alain Aubourg · French National Institute for Agricultural Research
    Hypothalamic Inflammation: Marker or Mechanism of Obesity Pathogenesis?Joshua P. Thaler , Stephan J. Guyenet , Mauricio D. Dorfman , Brent E. Wisse et Michael W. Schwartz ⇑
  • Guido Bongi added an answer in Plant Genetics
    Can we change rice from C3 plant C4 plant under changing weather situations to boost up yield levels
    Since from decades due to global warming the rice yield levels are declining due to increased temperature and CO2 concentration. So, can we change rice from C3 to C4
    Guido Bongi · National Research Council
    Some transgenic rice is on progress but the subject of integrating it in some high productive cv is treated by a specific consortium led by prof . Susanne von Caemmerer of ANU. You may get info from a Sclence magazine issue on 29 june 2012 or by the IRRI C4 rice page that seems not working today. C4 evolves for the gain in combining fast growth bundle sheath anatomy and low photorespiration and 14 genes are about it. Paul Quick at IRRI drives the complex genetic tests. We do not really know why and how to solve stupid questions like using other C4 crops or the confidence with transgenics, but a huge effort is on the road. Try to get more from IRRI when available
  • how can we analyze overlapping in fringes is observed in HRTEM of core shell nanostructures structures.
    Here the hrtem image is enclosed in which at two places a kind overlapping is observed.
  • Jt Velikovsky added an answer in Pedagogy
    Tiger Nation is a fantastic initiative for the conservation of Indian tigers, will a purely transmissive approach to ED help tiger conservation?
    I worked in Environmental Conservation for nearly 20 years at various Zoological Societies and other organisations and I have always been concerned that people never really learn or understand the conservation message that they are given, there is obviously something going wrong with the communication or the instructional design. Tiger Nation is a web page that uses crowd sourced conservation: its mission is to find and follow India’s tigers and connect them with people throughout the world via stories. Is this enough to impact tiger conservation or do they need an education component, specifically a MOOC. Tiger Nation's web page uses technology to identify each individual tiger, social media to connect with people around the world and experts in the field to help explain tiger conservation. Tiger Nation calls it “people Powered Conservation”. They use the voices of people who work in the parks and the images of people who visit the parks and the knowledge of experts to explain tiger conservation. However, they need an education component. They have: o A website to transmit the information o A social network to discuss and share experiences o ID software to identify individual tigers o Massive database of tiger photos. Do they need: o An education platform o A platform for scientists, NGOs and the public to learn more about tigers. o A MOOC Is learning the missing component to the conservation story?
    Jt Velikovsky · University of Western Sydney
    They need a film, to turn the idea into a viral meme. Like a Trojan Horse of the mind. See: for example, the thriller film `The Jungle' (Traucki, 2013) which is about saving endangered Javan leopards. http://www.jbhifionline.com.au/dvd/dvd-genres/horror-thriller/jungle-the/700778 It was released on DVD today. See also: http://storyality.wordpress.com/2013/12/12/storyality-100-the-holonic-structure-of-the-meme-the-unit-of-culture/ Just my $0.02
  • Andrew Sorensen added an answer in Sediments
    How might one recognize tornado occurrence in the rock record?
    Would shredded plant material be an indication?
    Andrew Sorensen · Leiden University
    Considering 1) tornadoes are largely indiscriminate in the size of materials they pick up and 2) you are looking at lacustrine strata, I would think you would potentially observe a pulse of sediments (poorly sorted, no directionality indicative of flow) including larger clasts amongst the fine lacustrine layers (i.e. dropstones), as well as possibly large fragments of "shredded" vegetal material, as suggested.
  • Thom Baguley added an answer in Statistics
    Paired or un-paired t-test for my experiments?
    My experiment is to compare the cell survival rate between control cells and a specific gene knockdown cells. I would usually do a set of control and KD cells in parallel and then repeat it two more times in different days. So in total 6 data points. Strictly speaking, I think I should use paired t-test to compare the control and KD samples because every set is done in different days. To mitigate day-to-day variation of experiment, a paired test may be more powerful. However, for my data, it is the unpaired test that gives me a very small p-value, rather than the paired test. I am wondering what people usually do in this kind of experiment? Any explanation? My data is control 1.9, 2, 2.6 and KD 3.8, 7.8, 6.7, which is obviously different even by eye.
    Thom Baguley · Nottingham Trent University
    If data are correlated you should use a paired test. Generally the correlation between pairs is positive and the paired test thus has a smaller error term by excluding the shared variance between pairs. However, the correlation can be negative - in which case the paired t test is still the correct test, but switching to an unpaired test would produce a spuriously low p value. Here there correlation between pairs is low but the general principle is that treating paired data as unpaired is never a good idea. Jochen's advice about the data being skewed seems appropriate. The t test then becomes (via R): > t.test(log(c(1.9, 2, 2.6)), log(c(3.8, 7.8, 6.7)), paired = TRUE) Paired t-test data: log(c(1.9, 2, 2.6)) and log(c(3.8, 7.8, 6.7)) t = -5.1389, df = 2, p-value = 0.03584 alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is not equal to 0 95 percent confidence interval: -1.8377196 -0.1627603 sample estimates: mean of the differences -1.00024 That said, when n = 3 (the number of pairs) there is very little you can conclude ... These findings are suggestive of an effect, but barely stronger than anecdotal evidence.
  • Gordons Abwajoh added an answer in Agronomy
    Is it possible to meet the food requirement of future population without genetically modified crops under indian conditions
    the Indian food grain production is near 256 mt but to meet the future food requirement of growing population (500 mt) contribution from genetically modified crops is required or not.
    Gordons Abwajoh · ANGLICAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES-NYANZA. Student MA Development Studies
    While straight answer is tricky,i believe a number of variables are in the play.There are countries producing enough though not dependent on GMOs.However,GMOs presents more convincing prospects for higher production.Still a number of factors will serve as determinants of GMOs production eg the country,majority producers - small scale or large scale,cost of GMOs adoption and GMOs performance in all parameters...Currently technologies frameworked for high production are not achieving the anticipated high yield per unit area especially with smallholders..is GMO an exception to this trend,in this regard GMOs as a single siver bulllet may miss the bulls eye as population baloons and production units decline...
  • Researchers use three words: Growth, deposition and synthesis. What are differences between them physically?
    For example growth NiO/Si , NiO/Si synthesis, and deposition of NiO/Si.
    Kaveh Shoorideh · University of California, Los Angeles
    Have in mind that growth can sometimes consume the substrate, e.g. when growing SiO2 on Si. This does not happen with deposition.