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  • Please can someone recommend online articles in relation to application of strategic management and performance of tertiary institutions?

    Strategic Management in Tertiary Institutions

    Vilmar Antonio Gonçalves Tondolo · Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS)

    Hi, you may find interesting the following journals:

    - Journal of Educational Administration

    - Educational Administration Quarterly

    good luck

  • Hilal Ahmad added an answer in Aldehydes:
    Can anyone suggest a suitable method to oxidise the aldehyde group of salicylaldehyde whose OH group has been esterified?

    I tried KMnO4, NaClO2/H2O2/KH2PO4/CH3CN and oxone but none of the methods is working.

    Hilal Ahmad · Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur

    Thanks a lot sir..

  • What is the mechanism behind the tip splitting in viscous fingering with no heterogeneity present in the system?

    What is the mechanism behind the tip splitting in viscous fingering with no heterogeneity present in the system?

    J. M. Guevara-Jordan · Central University of Venezuela

    Hi, your question is too general. In the context of Hele Shaw Cells the tip splitting  is a function of surface tension, this is a well known result.  Regards

  • Salim Heddam added an answer in ANFIS:
    Genfis2 waring message?

    Hi every one, I'm writing an ANFIS model using genfis2, six inputs , one output, I receive a warning message "warning: Rank deficient, rank=0, tol=Na", what does it mean, and how can I solve this problem?

    Salim Heddam · University 20 Août 1955 SKIKDA 21000

    Dear khaled

    you will recieve as soon as possible a detail answer for you problem

    sincerely your

  • Mohamad Akbari added an answer in Autodock:
    Autodock tutorial for beginners?

    I'm new to autodock. I need proper concept of autodock as well as some tutorial with example.

    Mohamad Akbari · Damghan University


    Use my answer in this topic.

  • How Can I use Mediating Model if I want to include control variables?

    I am wondering if we still need to include control variables in Mediating Model

    David L Morgan · Portland State University

    If you are doing a standard regression analysis, enter the variables into the equation in three "blocks." The first group would be the background variables, then the second would be the variables with direct and indirect effects, and the third block would be the mediating variables.

    If you are correct that there are "direct" effects, you will see stronger coefficients when the second block of variables are added, which will be reduced when the final block of mediating variables are introduced.

    This kind of "hierarchical entry" of variables into regression models is widely reported, so you should be able to find examples when you look at the kinds of journals where you are hoping to publish your results.

  • Zainab Jaafar asked a question in English:
    Looking for resources by George Rooks. I wonder if anyone has them, please?

    - The Non-Stop Discussion Workbook: Problems for Intermediate and Advanced Students
    - Let's Start Talking: Conversation for High Beginning and Low Intermediate Students of English

  • Thiago Wendt Viola asked a question in PFC:
    What is a normal concentration of RNA/DNA using Qubit measurement for mice brain tissue?

    Using Qubit assays, I've been found RNA/cDNA values around 10 ug/ml from tissues of 10mg of weight (PFC of adolescent mice). Are such values ok?

  • Does Rayleigh Scattering really explain blueness of sky?

    This question may sound a little funny to most of us, since it is presumed that the 1/(lambda)4 formula for Raleigh scattering does really explain the blueness of sky.

    However, there must be additional factors responsible for the "Perceived" blueness, since the lowest wavelength is violet, and not blue, in the visible spectrum. To answer this puzzle, it is sometimes stated that the human eye is more sensitive to blue than to violet, and thus we perceive the blue and not the violet. But, we could have perceived INDIGO even! Why not?

    If the eye were most sensitive to Green or Yellow could we have seen Green or Yellow skies?

    Next, what are the particles that scatter the blue wave lengths predominantly? Are they nitrogen molecules which form more than 75% of all constituents of air?

    Can anyone give quantitative details on these issues?

    Serge Grabtchak · University of Prince Edward Island

    How about this explanation, for example:


  • Paul C D Hawkins added an answer in Halogen Bonding:
    To what extent (if any) do different small molecule docking programs take into account halogen bonding and pi-pi stacking interactions?

    I am working with small molecules that seem likely to facilitate pi-pi stacking interactions and/or halogen bonding. I am curious to know whether any small molecule docking/screening freeware takes these types of interactions into account. Furthermore, what are the best ways to characterize them in the resulting docking results?

    Paul C D Hawkins · OpenEye Scientific Software

    There is no good evidence that including halogen bonding terms will improve VS performance by docking tools. For the other two problems however there may well be an impact that might even be positive ;-). If you have good system specific evidence that these terms matter in your problems, then you may have to look elsewhere for your scoring function.

    just because aryl halides make good inhibitors does not mean halogen bonding is the cause; the aryl halide inhibitors of serine protease work probably work due to water displacement in a highly geometrically specific fashion, not because of halogen bonding.

  • Guillermo Reales asked a question in Papers:
    What does it means when an article status is "In press" after a long time since published online?

    Searching for papers I found one which, after a year (it was published online in Nov 2013) still has the label "in press" with no volume or pages assigned within the Journal. May it be a signal that there's a problem with it - in which case I should better not use that paper? Maybe just publication overload in the journal that makes them postpone its assignation to a specific issue? Thanks for your ideas!

  • Liudmila Belenki added an answer in Aerodynamics:
    How can one investigate flutter for a coupled bending and torsional of beam due to follower force?

    In the case you are investigating the beam flutter subjected to aerodynamic forces, you will get to variables in the characteristics equation (critical  air speed and critical frequency), in the case of the absence of aerodynamic forces and the coupling is caused by an external force ( a follower force) what is the procedure of determining the critical force from the characteristics equation that includes two variables (the force and the frequency). It is also highly appreciated you could recommend a reference.

    Liudmila Belenki · University of Freiburg

    Could you send the characteristics equation as pdf- or png-file ?  

  • Sven Zebel asked a question in Victimization:
    Which studies compared the effects of face-to-face versus indirect (letters, shuttle) forms of victim-offender mediation on victims and/or offenders?

    I am preparing a paper on the effects of different forms of VOM in the Netherlands; so far i only came across the report of Shapland and colleagues (2007) in the UK that compared face-to-face with indirect forms of mediation.

    Does anyone know other studies / papers that compare the effects of direct versus indirect forms of VOM?

  • What theories can I use as a lens to knowledge management and implementation?

    I tried diffusion of innovation s theory,  but I might have to use quantitative research which I am not strong at.

    Irene Nelufule · Regis University

    Thank you wilfrid

  • I am looking for software for simulation of wind for Mac OS.
    I am looking for software for wind simulation for Mac OS. I use Ansys but I heard that there is no version for Mac. Is there any other software that you are satisfied with using? Is there a free version for students?
    Ivana Oleksakova · Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava

    Thanks..I am already learning to work in OpenFOAM... but I will check Comsol as well :)

  • Francesca Cansani added an answer in Arthropods:
    Which according to you is advanced circulatory system: circulatory system of star fish or that of prawn?

    Arthropods are said to bear advanced characters. But in case of circulatory system is it true always?

    Francesca Cansani · University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland

    Very appealing Question indeed. Which Circulation are we talking about? Do we need a sort of Heart to allow Circulation? Or Things circulate by themselves [i.E. Fluids]. Maybe at this Stage, external Pressures are needed: then, which is more subjected to Pressures? The Star Fish or the Prawn? I don't know! And I don't even know if Circulation and Sentiency are strictly related [Circulation brings Sensations around the Organism]: if so, which is more sentient or sensitive, the Star Fish or the Prawn? I am very interested in knowing the Answer to this Question! Happiness inside/outside to Any1, Anytime, Anywhere.

  • Dorian Aur added an answer in Cognitive Systems:
    Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.

    Dorian Aur · Stanford University

    Marc,  I don't like to upset anyone. "I'm an optimist in the sense that I believe humans are noble and honorable, and some of them are really smart."

    Such  conscious (intelligent) machines will be built during our lifetime and they will have  bigger impact than the Internet .

  • Conservation biology: a fixist view of life?

    All too often, people talking about biodiversity or ecosystem preservation (be it in the frame of climate/global change or of mitigation of other human activities, like agriculture or urbanisation) convey a message that we should basically maintain the current state, implying that any change would be for the worse and that human actions can only damage nature, not improve it. This somehow ignores the very principle of evolution - which means (in Darwin's words) change through descent with modification. There are attempts in conservation biology to use evolutionary processes (like in the dynamic management of genetic ressources used for some agricultural species), but these are marginal compared to the dominant 'preservation as identical' position. Aren't we missing the whole point of life evolution and of man being part of it when advocating to preserve the current status, rather than allow nature to evolve with us?

    Carl C. Christensen · Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum

    I certainly don't claim that the great vulnerability of isolated tropical Polynesian island ecosystems is necessarily "typical" of ALL terrestrial ecosystems, but the same vulnerability in perhaps a lesser degree can be seen in isolated continental islands such as New Zealand and, to a lesser extent, in continental Australia.  I think this is a difference in degree, not in kind--even highly diverse continental biotas, or at least particular species within them, can be vulnerable to novel invasive threats, Dutch elm disease being a continental example that comes to mind.  Biodiversity in the sense of mere numbers of species is in itself no defense if the invasive element introduces an absent trophic level or poses some other novel threat.   Almost by definition, invasives succeed because they can more successfully exploit a vacant or under-utilized niche than can the members of the native biota, and a greater level of original biodiversity lessens but does not eliminate the likelihood that such exploitable situations will exist..  

  • Micah Amd added an answer in Child Development:
    How can a child age 4 process the frustration they feel from the mathematical probability of winning or not using a dice for a game?

    During an intervention a child, well versed in playing boards games seems frustrated after a few games on a custom made board to target behavioral / emotional challenges for the child.  If a child has no experience with a 'dice' could the mathematical probability of who is going to win be causing him the stress? (i suspect the answer is yes) how might i over come this so the intervention is still effective? Any references around this subject?

    Micah Amd · National University of Ireland, Maynooth

    If the child has a learning/emotional difficulty which prevents him/her bearing through too many losses, you could try the following (independently or all in conjunction)

    1. You can purchase loaded die (http://www.amazon.co.uk/Funny-Man-Loaded-Dice/dp/B000P4MVPS) which allows you to repeatedly produce a pre-specfied outcome. By combining throws with a non-biased die (which should look as similar to the biased die as possible), you could pattern out sequences of 6 throws such as WLLLLL, WWLLLL, WWWLLL (where "W" and "L" indicate definite wins and losses) in various permutations so that the child becomes habituated to not winning at least 50% of the time. From that stage, you should be able to fade in non-biased die.

    2. If the child has difficulties in acquisition, then do you think a die-based game would be appropriate (recall that each throw is independent of the previous attempt,  hence any long-term assessment of probability from a classical analysis, even if the child were able to attempt this, would not be of any use)? If you don't mind, what is your question?

    3. "Frustration" emerges as a consequence of an outcome not meeting prediction. Are you intentionally altering an outcome that could (in principle) have been otherwise predicted accurately by the child? If so, then you would see any individual get frustrated (albeit at varying degrees). Alternatively, if an accurate prediction is not possible but your basing your question of global probability hypotheses, than I suspect you may have to look more closely at your question, perhaps?

    Hopefully that is of some help!

  • Can anybody tell me at what concentration oleic acid and glyceryl monostearate separate?

    Thanks in advance

    Hi Pierre

    Well I can't say if the attached paper and link are good/bad because the subject does not fit with my interest field, please check them.
    With my best regards

  • Ellis C O'Neill added an answer in Native PAGE:
    How to do activity gel overlay assay?

    Did anybody ever done gel overlay assay to detect enzyme activity? Recently, i am going to do it. I will run native PAGE first,and overlay the page with gel (1% agarose, 0.75%casein, solved in protease activity buffer). 

    But I have a question about the overlaid gel. Should the gel solution pour onto the PAGE ? And should I make a cassette to make sure the poured gel ssolutions will cover the whole PAGE and won't flow out?

    Or should I make the gel solid then put the PAGE on it ? 

    please share the experiences.

    Thanks a lot !!!

    Ellis C O'Neill · University of California, San Diego

    You should pour the gel first and then overlay. If you try and pour the gel onto the PAGE it will denature the protein as it is hot. You should pour a very thin gel which is about the same size as the PAGE gel and then carefully overlay in one movement - don;t pick it up or slide it or you get smeared bands.

    Have you attempted to add the caesin to the PAGE gel itself - I have had success with polysaccharides added to gels. After an overnight incubation the clearance was very clear.

  • Hazeela Khaleed added an answer in Phenolic Acids:
    Can anyone suggest a method for purification and freeze drying of phenolics extract?

    raw material = bran. 

    type of extraction = hydrolisable phenolics; with acidic extracts.

    Hazeela Khaleed · Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI)

    Sir, it was successful for extractable phenolics (i'm using methanol & acetone). However, I'm having problems with hydrolisable phenolics whereby I'm using acidified methanol (10% acid in methanol). Any suggestion?

  • Atilla Cifter added an answer in ARIMA:
    How can I make a time-series stationary?

    Since I am implementing the ARIMA model, I need a stationary time series.
    My problem is that for a bunch of my series it seems that neither the differentiation nor the Box-Cox can help (i.e. the data remain non-stationary).
    Is there any other method that could be useful in reaching stationarity?
    I also tried to differentiate the LN of the time series itself, but I didn't achieve the expected result.
    Thank you

    Atilla Cifter · Istanbul Kemerburgaz University

    Thomas is right, ARIMA should be estimated with non-stationary series.

    In this case, you need to run ARIMA(p,2,q), but also need to be sure that the variables are I(2): second difference of the series.  

  • Is there any good protocol for competition binding assay?

    I need a very good protocol for competition binding assay. I have a complex and a third protein. I expect the third protein to dissociate the complex by binding with one partner of the complex. Can you please suggest any protocol?

    Adam B Shapiro · AstraZeneca

    There are many possibilities. Here is a pretty simple one to set up:

    If one and only one of the proteins has a unique affinity tag, you can use affinity precipitation with a resin or some similar technique to see which protein is bound to the one with the tag.

    For example, suppose protein A has a His-tag but proteins B and C do not. If proteins A and B bind each other, a nickel resin can be used to pull down the complex of A and B. If C displaces B from A, then the resin will pull down the AC complex, leaving B in the supernatant.

  • Ismael Obaidi asked a question in Melatonin:
    Should I wrapped my 24 well plates containing epithelial cells with tin foil when I am going to treat the cells with melatonin or not, please?

    I have read that melatonin is a light sensitive chemical, should I wrapp my cells with a tin foil when they will be treated with melatonin ?

  • David J Gillett asked a question in Publication:
    How do you typically cite the Venice salinity classification system?

    Given the somewhat ambiguous authorship of the original publication in 1958, there is some disagreement among some co-authors and I about who to attribute the publication to. Thoughts?

  • What diploid DNA plant species can I use as control in DNA ploidy analysis of pearl millet and napier grass using flow cytometry technique?

    I would like to analyze DNA ploidy level in pearl millet and napier grass using flow cytometry method. I would require a known ploidy DNA plant as control. Please, kindly help out if you know for sure a diplod DNA plant species.