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  • Vijayendra Acharya asked a question in Europe:
    Can we pull together institutional and ideological links between Christianity, Capitalism and Colonialism in an integrated framework of analysis ?

    It seems quiet likely there are two or three distinct types of industrial capitalism in Europe; firstly one sees the rise of Protestant ethics, especially in the Nordic or the Scandinavian Europe (Sweden, Norway, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Switzerland etc) that spurred classical industrial growth and secondly; within the predominantly Catholic Europe in France, England, Portugal, Spain etc, that saw economic growth through the trade surplus generated by slave trade and colonial expansions into Asia, Africa and Latin America. A third variety marks the Austro-Hungarian and Slav region, including Russia, Greece and other Slav countries that were under the influence of Eastern Orthodox Church that could be hardly called capitalist yet mirroring some of its elements. They remained comparatively backward and were later subjected to forced assimilation under the East Bloc formed by Soviet Russia in post WW II period.

  • DOI for Greek Dissertations?

    I asked my library and there is no DOI number for Greek dissertations. Independent of that, my dissertation contains really competitive articles within its sub-filed of applied probability, e.g., Complexity and Annals of Applied Probability. How can I get a DOI number?

  • What is the single best marker for human neutrophils?

    I'm in the process of designing a simple flow panel for human PBMCs and am looking for one marker that would best identify neutrophils. CD66b seems like a relatively new and specific marker, but I'm open to suggestions!

    Meaghan Roy-O'Reilly · UConn Health Center

    Thank you, this was incredibly helpful!

  • Nazanin Rahbar added an answer in JCPDS:
    Is there different XRD spectra (JCPDS card) between bulk samples with nanowire?

    Do samples(bulk and nanowire) have same peak in XRD spectra?

    Nazanin Rahbar · Buali Sina University

    do they have similar 2theta angles (between bulk and nanowire) at XRD pattern?

    Thanks for your help

  • Omer Iqbal added an answer in Blood:
    How can I separate the PBMC from the whole blood?

    Isolation of the PBMC from blood.

    Omer Iqbal · Loyola University Medical Center

    Blood from normal healthy volunteers should be drawn in citrated blood (1 part of citrate to 9 parts of whole blood).   Following 1:1 dilution in PBS, 20 mL of whole blood is overlayed onto 10mL of Ficoll Lymphocyte Separation Medium  and spun at 1600 RPM for 30 minutes without breaking. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) were recovered, pooled, washed, and resuspened in RPMI-1640 growth media with 10% FBS . Recovered PBMCs were then counted  and aliquoted appropriately.

  • Why do we mostly use only 6xHis Tag to purify Proteins Not 8xHis Or 10xHis?

    When ever people make a clone with His Tag to their protein for purification by affinity chromatography why they mostly use only 6 His to protein. What will happened if we put more His suppose 8 or 10. I think by increase no. of His we can increase affinity of our His tagged protein hence chances of getting pure protein will be increased because it will elute with higher concentration of Imidazole. 

    Mohd ZIAUDDIN Ansari · Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

    Thank you all of you for giving your valuable suggestion. 

  • Fabiano Miceli added an answer in Crop Science:
    Are there any methods that we could use to measure agricultural biodiversity on a farm level?
    Farmers differ in their commitment and interest to keep a diverse crop species and varieties.But which kind of farmers are more interested to keep maintaining diversified cropping systems?
    Fabiano Miceli · University of Udine

    Speaking after one decade of experience in  northern Italy, small and/or non-professional farmers operating in marginal areas (pre-alpine valleys, small Mediterranean isles etc.) show most interest in growing and often collecting landraces. Conversely, large or medium size farms are often absent, as the industrial agriculture they practice an obstacle to (re)introduce  landraces in their cropping systems.  Conversely, small and/or non-professional farmers  are not familiar with cropping systems;  unfortunately  they are often aged,  so the perspectives  about landrace  and agrobiodiversity conservation (at least in in Italy)  rely on activities carried out by  local agricultural agencies. As you may probably know, the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (Rome, 2001) set the scene for these  PGR  topics at global level.

  • Sheon Mary added an answer in Blots:
    With respect to western blot analysis, how do I calculate relative intensities and how should I do normalization??

    I have done western blot for a protein X in 25 test and 25 control patient samples. Since all the samples were not run on the same gel, I am facing problems in analysing them further. There are 5 blots containing individual 50 samples (25 test and 25 control), each blot has 5 control and 5 test. 

    Sheon Mary · National Chemical Laboratory

    Dear Jurgen Denecke,

    Your point is right.

    To avoid the difference between blots, i was thinking about this protocol in the link below:


    this way all the 50 samples will be on one membrane, and the difference between the blots will be reduced. Looking forward for your suggestion.

  • Nawar Dalila asked a question in Arlequin:
    Arlequin: Can anybody give me some suggestions of how to enter the phenotype data into Arlequin v3.5.1.2 for the AMOVA analysis?

    for example if I have excessive activity of a protein, normal activity and null activity. should I code them as 2, 1 and 0 then enter them as an allele frequency data for each population?.

  • Volker Lohweg added an answer in Feature Extraction:
    Any references on feature selection and feature extraction on numeric data?
    Generally feature selection is carried out on image,characters but I am interested in feature numeric data and not on image
    Volker Lohweg · Hochschule Ostwestfalen-Lippe

    Usually Fischer's Linear Discriminants Analysis (LDA) is helpful for feature selection.

    --> e.g. Bayer, Christian; Enge-Rosenblatt, Olaf; Bator, Martyna; Mönks, Uwe; Dicks, Alexander; Lohweg, Volker: Sensorless drive diagnosis using automated feature extraction, significance ranking and reduction;
    DOI: 10.1109/ETFA.2013.6648126

  • Marine secondary metabolite production?

    I would like to know if we induce some chemical based mutation in native fungi genome we can come across some new metabolites? If so how it works?

  • Marco Garcia added an answer in Localized Corrosion:
    Does anyone know how Ni contributes on the stainless steel passivity?

    I`m working on the evaluation of localized corrosion of duplex stainless steel in H2SO4 and HCl at different concentrations and I'm confused about the effect of Ni on the corrosion resistance of these alloys?

    Marco Garcia · Instituto de Investigacion en Metalurgia y Materiales


  • Which is the best method to destroy organic matter in organic-rich freshwater sediments?

    Is it better to use 30% Hydrogen Peroxide or Sodium Hypochlorite?

    I will be using the defaunated sediments for particle size analysis, qualitative mineralogy and SEM imaging

    Sarwan Kumar Dubey · Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute

    I do not think bleaching is an better alternative Dear Aditya.

  • Chris Garbett asked a question in Journalism:
    Journals charging for reviewing

    What is the opinion about journals which charge authors a reviewing fee?  Is it a genuine trend in academic publishing?  Is it a version "vanity publishing"?  Is it a scam?

  • James L Gole added an answer in Dyes:
    Is there a dye with a photoluminescence peak wavelength around 620 nm?

    The more normal the dye is, the better.

    James L Gole · Georgia Institute of Technology

    Depending on how precise the 620 has to be, methylene blue is very common and peaks at 650nm. Also the Rhodamine dyes as Virendra Rai indicates.

  • Faezeh Mirzaei asked a question in Neural Networks:
    What neural network is better for review? LVQ, SOM, hopfield or ...?

    I want to write a complete report about one of the best nn and I dont know what I choose. this nn must be in most of hot, most cited and new papers.

  • What are the standard (Benchmark) problems, except ZDT problems, for evaluating performance of multi-objective optimization algorithms?

    What are the standard (Benchmark) problems, except ZDT problems, for evaluating performance of multi-objective optimization algorithms. For ZDT problems, true pareto front is known. What other problems researchers consider as benchmark problems for comparing performance of multi-objective algorithms.

  • Vladimir Burtman added an answer in Bioenergy:
    What is the current scope of bioenergy or biofuels?
    For last 5-6 years, the words bioenergy and biofuel are gaining much publicity, but we are still using non-renewable petroleum-based products as fuels. So much research has been done and currently going on the field of bioenergy & biofuels, but still the commercialization of these has not been undertaken. What do you think; Is it economical to make bioenergy & biofuels commercial? Are they more efficient than petro-based products?
    Vladimir Burtman · University of Utah

    This is a good flipover Michael, as a self-cost of petroleum production increases every year. In USA for example we are producing oil from the depth of 3 miles from the surface of the sea nowadays in Golf of Mexico. and it cost $300 million just to drill the borehole (without cost of platform). And 1/3 of these boreholes are found dry (no oil). So the self-cost of oil became more and more expensive every year. I would restrain however from generalizing a BP Horizon accident contribution to petroleum self-cost production. 

    In my expert opinion the self-cost and efficiency of petroleum still overwhelming any other energy resources at least in factor 100. The other note: Petroleum industry is not interesting in biodiesel, biobutanol etc nowadays.The only pathway which petroleum companies pursue is direct production of petroleum from bio, e.g. aglaia. The aglaia itself can be consumed as a food and this bi-functionality is a big advantage of this technological pathway. However all these bio-tech are extraordinary expensive and many problems have to be solved prior to real industrial applications.

    Thanks Vlad

  • Natural period of the system of a floating structure in ANSYS AQWA after analyzing hydrodynamic diffraction & hydrodynamic time response ?

    I have modeled a Tension Leg Platform for a wind turbine in ANSYS AQWA and have analyzed the structure for hydrodynamic diffraction & hydrodynamic time response. Also I want to know which type out of the 4 types of mooring cables should I select ? Cable non-linear polynomial or non-linear steel wire ? How to select the stiffness and un-stretched length.

  • Carlos Carona added an answer in Anxiety Disorders:
    Problem of multicollinearity - can anyone help?
    I choose MCQ (metacognitive questionnaire), TCQ (thought control questionnaire) and YSQ (young schema questionnaire) subscales as the independent variables to predict anxiety (BAI) and depression (BDI) separately in 2 groups (clinical and non-clinical) but I face the problem of multicollinearity for some the YSQ subscales in fact my tolerance and VIF are not shown multicollinearity but my condition index is above 30, is it indicated multicollinearity and what to do?
    Carlos Carona · University of Coimbra

    Have you standardized your independent variables? Usually, such procedure results in reducing false detection of a condition índex >30.

  • What do you think is the role of elevated Lp (a) concentration in plasma in the process of atherosclerosis?

    We can do something in the case of very high concentrations of Lp (a) to improve the prognosis of patients who have them.

    Antonio Vittorino Gaddi · EuroGenLab and Laboratory Caravelli, Bologna

    Lp(a) usually is not measured by normal laboratories, moreover the traditional Friedewald formula included the Lp(a)-cholesteol into LDLc !! Few laboratories are able to evaluate Lp(a) isoforms. The structure of apo(a) is very specify,and apo(a) is NOT present in normal LDL particles. The metabolic pathway of Lp(a) and LDL are quite different. Actually, Lp(a) is an atherogenic particle with thrombogenic effects, so very dangerous, particularly if some isoforms are present. Their role in atherogenesis and in myocardial infarction is underestimate by clinicians !! In my opinion the measurement of Lp(a) plasma concentration must be included in routine evaluation of lipid profile and values higher than 30 mg/dL may be regarded as "increasing CHD risk" while values > 60-70 mg/dL are very very dangerous (patients with hyperlp(a)emia do not respond to statin therapy and frequently shows early onset CHD). If lp(a) is > 100 mg/dL, the prognosis might be unfavorable also in young people ! Lp(a) apheresis might be a solution for more severe patients. In my opinion, on the basis of unpublished data, also very LOW lp(a) values (< 2 mg/dL) can be regarded as dangerous, particularly in females (....omissis....)

  • Is it time we forget climate change & focus on the 'Human Dimension'? Is it not obvious that nature can heal itself, if only left alone?

    A lot of hue and cry is made about climate change and the environment in general. Public and private money is poured into research to study its effects on the environment, sustainability etc. Should we study nature or ourselves?
    Human activities have been found to have a direct correlation to climate change and its impact on the environment(I=P x A x T, the Ehrlich and Holdren equation), in spite of what some complacent sections say to protect their own self interests. It is pretty obvious that it is human beings who need to be studied. We hardly know about Human nature. We can scarcely predict human behavior. We need to find out why we think like we do and why we do what we do and why, in spite of all knowledge and wisdom, consume more than what we need, in the form of addictions to consumption and imbalance not only ourselves but also the family, society and environment around us..
    Humanity is directly responsible for all the unnatural imbalances occurring on the planet. Yet we refuse to take responsibility and instead focus on climate change, or fool the public exchequer with a 'breakthrough in renewable energy just around the corner'. We scarcely know what drives human beings. If we had known, all the imbalances around us would have had solutions. Are we blindly groping in the dark of climate change because we don't know the answers to our own nature?
    Is it not high time we focus on what makes us human, correct our consumptive behavior and leave nature to take care of climate change? Why focus effort on 'externals' when the problem is 'internal'- 'me'?
    Aren't we addicts denying our addiction and blaming everything else but ourselves?

    " We are what we Think.

    All that we are arises with our thoughts.

    With our thoughts, we make the world." - Buddha 

    IMHO, We don't need to save the World. It is enough if we save ourselves from ourselves. The need of the hour is not vain glorious interventions, but self-restraint and self-correction!

    Raveendra Nath Yasarapu · Technische Universität München

    Dear Andre,

    Why focus on the negative & the warmongers? There's no need to spread panic.

    Its a beautiful world. Let us wash the filth we ourselves created and make it a better place.

    How about this link? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dalai_Lama  ?


  • Thomas Andl asked a question in p53:
    P53 co-expression with proliferation markers: is mutant p53 stabilization regulated by proliferation?

    In my experience, p53 protein is often co-expressed with proliferation markers such as Ki67. How does this work? Is there mutant p53 expression in quiescent cells, and if not what are the factors in proliferating cells that mediate this stabilization and fail to do so in resting cells?

  • Sachin A. More added an answer in Gel Analysis:
    How can I determine the Shannon Wiener Index of a DGGE profile if some distinct bands on the gels represent same bacterial species?

    In DGGE analysis Shannon index works on binary data. In my case, some of the distinct bands turn out representing the same identical bacterial species after sequencing.

    Sachin A. More · University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad

    If your using 16s rDNA gene as phylogenetic marker then it may be possible that same organism can show different banding pattern due to 16s is multicopy gene, may be any single base pair mutation in gene may show two different organism can show two same bands or even two same bacteria can show different bands . 

  • Lujun Li added an answer in Carbon:
    How can I determine the value of SIC?

    Can I get the soil inorganic carbon data by substracting soil organic data (measured following the Walkley and Black method) from carbon data which are analyzed using an elemental analyzer? 

    Lujun Li · Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Wenceslau, José, Rosalba, many thanks for your suggestions, especially Rosalba let me know which method we should take depends on type of inorganic carbon.

  • Zia Urrehman added an answer in Raman Spectroscopy:
    Free Database with Raman spectra
    Dear friends,
    I'm trying to find a database with Raman spectra of inorganic compounds: crystals or minerals. Please, share links to online internet resources. I need somthing like this - RUFF ( http://rruff.info/%20/o%20RRUFF%20database%20/t%20_blank )
    Zia Urrehman · Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology

    How about raman database of transparent glasses like Bk&,soda lime ,fused silica etc?

  • Could anyone point towards useful work in Mathematical Tasks Design?

    For the later phase of my Phd study, I would like to design mathematical tasks. From the early phase of my work, I have a good idea of where the deficiencies currently lie. I have looked at the work of Schoenfeld, Swan, Johnston-Wilder and Mason. I'd appreciate any more suggestions or work that I have not encountered previously.

    Gerd Walther · Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel

    In the book (Clarke, Barbara; Grevholm, Barbro; Millman Richard (Edit.); TASKS IN PRIMARY MATHEMATICS EDUCATION, Springer 2009) you can find various hints for task design. Most of these proposals can obviously be adapted also for non-primary mathematics purposes.

  • Larry Carey asked a question in Antibodies:
    Good antibodies for TRPV1 for immunohistochemistry?

    Does anyone have experience working with any commercially available antibodies for TRPV1 that have worked well for you? Or on the other hand, have you used a TRPV1 antibody that has been a failure?