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  • Does anybody know of any research into telephone pre op assessments?

    I am looking at ways to reduce the number of DNAs at pre op clincs for daycase patients and want to research whether telephone pre op assessment works but struggling with literature search.

    Deborah Jean Verran · Royal Prince Alfred Hospital

    Would you consider a blended appraoch? That is combining IT platform technology along with  the skills of a case manager. I am aware that some renal transplant programmes in the US have trialled secure online portals specifically for patient assessment.

    This requires putting your preop questionnaire online and then linking it to the patient record-such that if it is not filled out in a preset time frame (a pop up box appears), this precipitates a phone call from the case manager. The preop questionnaires can then be screened wrt whether further actions (investigations are required).

  • Shervin Gholizadeh added an answer in Ibotenic Acid:
    Any useful method to use a minimum amount of ibotenic acid when injecting with a hamilton needle?

    The acid is expensive, and some of it is sometimes left in the tube, capillary or the needle, any good ideas to use as minimum of it as possible?

    I thought about using mineral oil in the needle and then fill the acid in the tube, but i think this lacks precision!

    Any good ideas?

    Shervin Gholizadeh · University of Toronto

    How do you dissolve your ibotenic acid? IBO has a long shelf life , but it is quite difficult to dissolve.

    Here's is the method I use: 1 microgram of IBO + 0.2 ml Saline + 20 microlitre of 0.1 M citric acid. The citric acid is titrated to get the acid to dissolve. Because there is titration , you do not need to use buffered Saline.

    Generally, effective lesions with the above solution can be made using 0.5 microlitre total injection volume per site, at a rate of 0.1 microlitre/minute.

    NOTE: When lesioning the animals under isoflurane anaesthesia, ibotenic acid might potentiate the anaesthetic effects. Thus it is very important to use just enough isoflurane to get the animals under. You do not want heavy anaesthesia as the interaction can easily kill the animal. Also never lesion the animals on the same day the animal has received ANY drug treatments. Potential interactions with the IBO can be fatal. 

  • John Macken added an answer in General Relativity:
    What physically changes when a particle is elevated and gains gravitational potential energy?

    We frequently speak of an object having gained gravitational potential energy when work is done in lifting a mass from a lower elevation to a higher elevation. However, what exactly has physically changed? Where is this gravitational potential energy stored? When a photon propagates from a lower elevation to a higher elevation, we say that it has undergone a gravitational redshift. However, this is entirely due to the gravitational change in the rate of time. Local clocks at the two elevations are running at different rates of time giving the perception of a lower frequency at the higher elevation. The photon appears to have lost energy but there is no change in frequency if adjustments are made for the different clock rates. If an electron is perceived as a point particle with no internal structure, then it is impossible to assign any change in the internal energy of an electron at two different elevations. Therefore, where is gravitational potential energy stored when an electron or other particle is elevated?

    John Macken · Saint Mary's College of California

    Sergey, I absolutely disagree with you regarding the gravitational redshift. The redshift is entirely due to the difference in clock rates as conclusively shown in the following very good paper: L.B. Okun; Am. J. Phys. 68 (2), February 2000

  • Chunling Lin added an answer in EDC:
    Is it possible to graft amine or methacrylate groups to Graphene Oxide?

    For amine conjugation: Would EDC chemistry work given that the GO has carboxylic groups?

    For methacrylation: Is it possible to methacrylate the OH groups of GO?

    How easy or difficult are the above reactions and reaction conditions? 

    (I never practically worked with GO. Pardon me for any inaccuracies!)

    Chunling Lin · Xi'an Shiyou University

    It  maybe easily grafted because of OH.but you must   choose some kind of catalyst.

  • Li Liu added an answer in Literature:
    What's the role of right inferior parietal lobule and right superior frontal gyrus?

    can anyone recommend some literature for me to learn the cognitive role of right IPL and right SFG?

    Li Liu · Beijing Normal University

    thanks a lot, these are very helpful !

  • Juehui Shi added an answer in Photovoltaics:
    Can you give me your opinion on which lags to include in my AR?

    Hey everyone,

    I want to create an AR process to forecast electricity generation by photovoltaic plants. I have the data of three sample photovoltaic plants to develop identify the best number of AR-lags. Later I want to use that model to predict the electricity generation of over 300 photovoltaic plants.

    I started with determining the order of my AR process by calculating AIC and BIC for each sample plant. Then I eliminated insignificant lags for each sample plant.

    Now I am left with different significant lags for each of my three sample photovoltaic plants:

    Plant 1: Significant Lags are 1, 2, 3, 4, 23

    Plant 2: Significant Lags are 1, 2, 4, 23

    Plant 3: Significant Lags are 1, 2, 3, 4, 20, 23

    I've got two options now: Either I can include ALL of these lags in my final model, or I can only include lags that are significant for ALL of my three sample plants.

    I would be very grateful to get your opinion on this matter.


    Juehui Shi · University at Buffalo, The State University of New York

    There's a rule of thumb if you can get time-series into stationary via first difference (most likely seasonality deterministic trend with a constant), the AR order will be one.

    I also really like Prof. Wall's idea to incorporate weather conditions to your model.


  • Jakub Bil added an answer in Research Topics:
    What are the psychological effects from inhabiting in a space with minimum windows?

    i'm interested if this is a good research topic and is there any article related to this.

    Jakub Bil · West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin

    For people with seasonal depression, the more natural light the better. Such inpatients of mental health wards, need to be located in rooms that have as much natural light as possible - therapeutic outcome improves. You can find a couple of papers due to the subject. 

  • Marina Leite Pimentel added an answer in Rhino:
    How to convert DICOM Images to a 3D solid Model (iges,step,etc) which needs to be input into ABAQUS for further analysis?

    I currently have a set of 500 DICOM image of slides of a rhino's frontal snout and I am specifically interested in its frontal horn for further analysis. I have tried many software for the conversion but had no success yet. It would be great if I could use any free software which does the above conversion directly.

    Marina Leite Pimentel · University of São Paulo

    (That's what I do with non-manifold .stl files) 

  • What is the most efficient method for dehydration of lipase enzyme?

    I would like to use this enzyme for transesterification reaction. I tried to lyophilized the enzyme but it takes too much time. Can you sugget another method?

    Steingrimur Stefansson · HeMemics Biotechnologies Inc

    Hi Ceyda, the only thing limiting your options is how stable your lipase is.

    If your lipase is easily denatured, then you have to go with gentle techniques of dehydrating it. 

    If your lipase structure and activity is robust , then you can go to town and use harsh conditions to dehydrate it, like acetone or methanol precipitation etc.

  • How to estimate heat transfer coefficient in machining processes using MQL supply of coolant?

    Hello, I am doing a research using DEFORM 2D. My case is to determine  the influence of process parameters in MQL machining on the the residual stress while machining 42CrMo4 steel. How to estimate the heat transfer coefficient for different cooling and lubrication fluids at the tool-workpiece interface for the FEM simulation of MQL turning using DEFORM 2D software ?

    Thanks for any help.

    Abdur-Rasheed Alao · James Cook University

    My suggestion is to understand the temperature rise in the machining zone by different cooling and lubricating fluid with different thermal conductivity. In this regard, Eq. 1 in the attached paper may provide impetus to the understanding of the problem.

  • Is aluminum a good material for electrodes regarding an In vivo Electroporation project?

    I will be conducting an in vivo test to define transdermal delivery via topical/skin electroporation. I will be applying a drug to the patients skin and using an in vivo electrode to carry the drug into the dermis. I need help however when it comes to the electrode. I want to make 'meander' electrodes, and I would like to know if aluminum is a good material to make electrodes from. Here is a schematic drawing of meander electrodes: http://www.nature.com/gt/journal/v11/n18/images/3302337f1.gif  (picture A.)

    I will be using the btx ecm 830 electroporator. If not aluminum, then what other metal besides gold or platinum could I use? I intend on buying a sheet of said metal and cutting it into the meander electrode shape, then mounting this onto a handle(in a nutshell!). So please, do list a metal that can be readily purchased in sheets. Thank you!

    Teodoro S Kaufman · Instituto de Química Rosario

    Won't they get corroded?

  • Vladimir Farber asked a question in Zemax:
    Is Zemax the best program for the optical simulations?

    What alternative can you suggest and why you think that this alternative is better?

  • What is the Weight vector parameter in Support Vector Machine in machine learning?


    Could someone inform me about the weight vector in SVM?

    Marc Claesen · KU Leuven

    Your question is not entirely clear. I'll assume that you are referring to dual weights (typically denoted by the vector alpha).

    All predictions for SVM models -- and more generally models resulting from kernel methods -- can be expressed as a linear combination of kernel evaluations between (some) training instances (the support vectors) and the test instance. This follows from the so-called representer theorem (cfr. the link). The coefficients in this linear combination are the dual weights (alpha's) multiplied by the label corresponding to each training instance (y's).

  • Hicham Bakkali asked a question in Capacitance:
    Capacitance between two spherical identical particles ??

    How is calculated, the capacitance between two spherical identical particles of diameter d separated by a distance s ?

  • M. Reza Hosseini asked a question in Reward:
    Reward/Prize/Donation for surveys?

    I was thinking of considering a kind of reward or prize for my respondents or donating for each completed questionnaire. Have you had any experience with this approach or any reference I can use? Thanks

  • Angela Cartland added an answer in Fibromyalgia:
    Does the label "fibromyalgia" alter care ?

    As a general practitionner mostly, and holding a vacation in a pain unit in hospital, I frequently ask myself which is the impact of telling to a patient "you have fribomyalgia" on further care, knowing that there is no specific treatment for this syndrome about which we have no proof of a specific disease reality.

    I found only one study on Pubmed :http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12115155?log$=activity

    One of our student want to make his end of studies research on this theme, but we don't have the capacity of making a cohort. We are searching if there is a study design that would allows us to help to answer this question, may be somebody here has an idea ?

    Angela Cartland · University of Canberra

    Great question.  You may be interested in the attached study (an RCT) on Emotional Freedom Techniques as an intervention for women diagnosed with Fibromyalgia and on sick-leave, with a wait-list control.  All the best!

  • Is anyone familiar with a state (situational) self-perception (or body dissatisfaction) scale for children?
    I want to measure the effect of a specific situation on children's physical self-worth and body satisfaction, but the physical self perception profile is a trait questionnaire and less susceptible to change with acute effects. My participants' age is 8 to 12 years old.


    It's best to use the ASK-KIDS Inventory that includes self concepts about the body

    ASK-KIDS Inventory for Children - ACER Shop Online

  • Panagiotis L. added an answer in Enzyme Analysis:
    How can i store whole plants for long time without liquid nitrogen?

    I don't have liquid nitrogen, so can I store whole plants (stem, root, leaves) for further DNA and enzyme analysis in a normal home refrigerator?

    Panagiotis L. · Agricultural University of Athens

    For long time keeping whole plants you can try drying them vin litle warm dry air flux at 30° C, then store in an air-safe plastic PVC bag and keep all-time either in normal freeze 1°-4°C (for 3-5 weeks)  or  in deep freeze -10°- -30°C (for1-3 months) with a little loss of enzyme and other substance activities. If you want them fresh-and-wet 'looking' then use Ranjith Pathirama's and V. Mora's advices, which are best for your purposes. Handle plants carefully. Freeze quickly after drying. If its possible don't cut plants into pieces.Do not defreeze and then refreeze. If its possible use dry oxyzen-free air in the bags or only dry cold nitrogen or hydrogen and remove the abudant air from the bags, for better results. I wish you best effort, Samrina.

  • Barry Turner added an answer in Logic:
    What is the origin of the popular belief that evil deeds are done by evil people?
    The idea that evil acts can only be committed by evil persons seems to me to be illogical, a medieval, primitive, prescientific delusion. Yet it forms the bedrock of our legal system, and is why our prisons are full of the mentally ill. It is also uncritically held by the media. For example, the front page headline in yesterday's London Evening Standard reads "40 cyclists killed -- 4 drivers jailed". Something evil has happened, therefore this must be the lorry drivers' fault. Is anyone willing to defend this popular belief, this inexorable deduction?
    Barry Turner · University of Lincoln

    I am amazed that people think I am conflating evil with mental illness, nothing could be further from the truth.  Idiots in the media like to draw comparisons and make uneducated links between mental illness and 'evil'.

    If we are to consider the concept of 'evil' we need some kind of definition.  Hannah Arendt's is perhaps the most poignant.  It is a form of banality.  We live in an evil society where a tiny few are obscenely rich while others go without the basic necessities of life.  We live in an evil world where power crazed sociopaths cause misery to millions in the name of politics, religion and corporate excesses.

    It is absurdity indeed to blame a the poor unfortunates stricken with mental illness while singing the praises of politicians, celebrities, bankers and ruthless corporate chiefs who cause vast suffering to so many.  We can accept that we may never achieve egalitarianism if full and that some will be luckier than others but we can never expel evil from humanity while one of its major motivations is greed and personal gain.

    While children die from treatable diseases, while people have no clean water to drink and while the rich get richer at the expense of the many we are all evil.  Evil deeds are indeed done by evil people but it is the omissions that are most evil, not the deeds

  • Vladimir Farber asked a question in Optical Simulation:
    How you recommend improve readability of the MATLAB code?

    Often, I need write optical simulations in the MATLAB. Often, If I do not touch the MATAB code, that I wrote, during the several weeks or more I do not recognize it, and sometimes not even understand what I wrote.

    So, how you recommend improve readability of the MATLAB code?

    Thank you in advance!

  • Kamal Eddin Bani-Hani added an answer in Morality:
    What is your story?

    Do you know a story about "Rich Man and Poor Man"? I am interested to know fables (short stories) about the rich man and poor man. I mean short stories that can illustrate (comapare and cotrast) a particular moral, belive, behaviour, ... between them and teach a lesson to children and kids. I am intrested in short stories that are "copy-righted" (original, specific, famous, popular and well-remembred) to your living area, city, country, religion, .... I hope you can share it with me (us) in RG.

    Here I give an example to illustrate the idea. Once upon a time there was a poor man and a rich man. Every morning at 11 o’clock, a shiny Rolls Royce drove through Central Park in New York City. Inside the car sat a driver and his master, a well-known millionaire. Each morning the millionaire noticed a poorly dressed man sitting on a park bench. The poor man always sat staring at the hotel in which the rich man lived. One day, the millionaire was so curious about the poor man and ordered his driver to stop the car. He walked to the bench and said to the poor man, “Excuse me, I just want to know why you sit here and keep staring at hotel every morning.” “Sir,” said the poor man, “I have no money, no family, no home. I sleep on this bench, and every night I dream that one day I will sleep in that hotel.” The millionaire had an idea. He said, “Tonight your dream will come true. I’ll pay for the best room in that hotel for you for a whole month.” A few days later, the millionaire went by the poor man’s room in the hotel to see how he was enjoying himself. To his surprise, he found that the poor man had moved out of the hotel, and back to were he was before (his park bench). He then went to the poor man and asked for the reason. The poor man said, “You see, when I am down here sleeping on this bench, I dream I am up there, in that luxurious hotel. It’s a wonderful dream. But when I was up there, I dreamed I was back on this cold bench. It was a terrible dream, and I couldn’t sleep at all.”

    Kamal Eddin Bani-Hani · Hashemite University

    Rich man, poor man is a novel written by Irwin shaw in 1969. The novel is a sprawling work, with over 600 pages, and covers social and political issues of capitalism, the pain of relationships.

  • Is there any particular reason for using HEK cells for lentiviral packaging?

    Hi all, dor lentiviral packaging, I used both HeLa and HEK cells and I found out that packaging had occurred in HEK but not in HeLa. Is there any particular reason for that? Has anyone tried packaging with other cell lines? I used HeLa cells because I will be using that for my experiment further and I don't want to do packaging in HEKs and get the particles from them and then do the transfection in HeLa cells (Too much  work).. I hope someone could help me out. Thank you..

    Anuroop Venkateswaran Venkatasubramani · Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine

    Thanks Emanuel!! At least you understood..

  • Geng Ouyang added an answer in Mathematics:
    Is the divergent proof of Harmonious Series a modern version of Zeno’s Paradox?

    The problem disclosed by Zeno’s Paradox is still there and the exactly same idea is still working well. Let’s see one of the modern versions of Zeno’s Paradox
    1+1/2 +1/3+1/4+...+1/n +...                                  (1)
    =1+1/2 +(1/3+1/4 )+(1/5+1/6+1/7+1/8)+... (2)
    >1+ 1/2 +( 1/4+1/4 )+(1/8+1/8+1/8+1/8)+...         (3)
    =1+ 1/2 + 1/2 + 1/2 + 1/2 + ...------>infinity                        (4)

    Such an antique proof (given by Oresme in about 1360), though very elementary, can still be found in many current higher mathematical books written in all kinds of languages. There are two explanations for it:
    1, Infinite brackets can be placed into the infinite items of series (1) to change it into a new infinite series (3), which is an infinitely increasing series of Sn ------>infinity . Then series (l) is said to be divergent because of the divergence of the new series (3).
    2. Finite brackets can be placed into the finite items of series (1) to get Sn bigger than or equal to Kx1/2 (where k is bigger than any positive number presented). Now to get the limit when n------>infinity then k------>infinity , so Sn------>infinity and series (1) is divergent.

    We meet a modern version of “Achilles and Tortoise” Zeno’s Paradox------- Harmonious Series Paradox: the runner in Zeno’s Paradox is exactly that of “brackets-placing rule", while the tortoise’s walk is exactly those items in harmonious series. Although the runner can run very fast, the tortoise is surely in front of him theoretically --------although the “brackets-placing rule" uses up plenty of items in the infinite harmonious series, there still be unlimited items in the infinite harmonious series awaiting to be produced into any numbers theoretically. So, not matter how fast the runner can ran, he will never catch up with the tortoise in Zeno’s Paradox while the “brackets-placing rule" in Harmonious Series Paradox can produce infinite numbers bigger than 1/2 or 1 or 2 or 3 or 4…!

    Here we change an infinitely decreasing Harmonious Series with the property of Un--->0 into any infinite constant series with the property of Un--->constant or any infinitely increasing series with the property of Un--->infinity--------this means that not matter what kind of runner (even a runner with the speed of modern jet plane) held the race with the tortoise in Zeno’s Paradox he will never catch up with it. And, we are facing a strange thing in our science: the result of Zeno’s Paradox has been acting as a negative example to disclose the serious defects in the foundation of mathematics and keep troubling people for more than 2500 years but the result of Harmonious Series Paradox has been acting as a basic theory of mathematics producing many mathematical conclusions.

    Geng Ouyang · MinNan Normal University

    “Achilles and Tortoise” Zeno’s Paradox has disclosed the "real infinite--potential infinite" fundamental defects in present traditional infinite related science theory system. In this theory system, the critical defects are unsolvable because we are not allowed to forget either "real infinite" or "potential infinite" in such paradox (exactly same situation happen in Harmonious Series Paradox).

    That is why this paradox family has been troubling us human for more than 2500 years.

  • Wassila Guendouzi added an answer in Metaheuristic:
    How can I assess the diversification of a metaheuristic in multidimensional space (witch graphic tools ) ?

    I need to visualize graphically all the visited solutions during the metahaeuristics process so that I can analyse the metaheuristic ability to explore different area in the search space.

    The solution is a vector of hundreds of binary elements (0 or 1) thus, the research space is multidimentional. 

    Thanks in advance.

    Wassila Guendouzi · University of Science and Technology Houari Boumediene
    • Thanks a lot !
  • Vanessa Meloni Massara added an answer in AHP:
    Does consistency index in ahp test depend on the number of used parameters? Does this method accept more than 30 parameters simultaneously?

    In comparison "pairwise" in AHP method, the consistency index should be less than 1. When placing various parameters seems that the index approaches the inconsistency (> 1).

    Does this method accept more than 30 parameters simultaneously? or no relationship : "number of parameters vs. index "?

    Thank You very much!

    Vanessa Meloni Massara · University of São Paulo

    Dear Dr.Wojciech,
    First I Thank You for your time and knowledge and for your interest in understanding my problem.

    For your explanation is precisely what I meant.
    9 years ago I used the Decision Lens program and there was a consistency index that was calculated automatically.

    I don’t have this program and I'm trying to set up an alternative in Excel.
    The idea is to use 30 or more parameters (would be the “criteria”) to be-ranked (would be the “alternative”) combined simultaneously without sub-criteria.

    In the software it seemed that when I used only 10 0u 15 parameters the index was <1. When I increased the number of criteria, the index approached or passed 1.
    So I asked if it is possible to have many criterias and obey consistency <1

    A colleague of RG replied me that there isn’t a relation criterias vs.index. So I wonder if it is the change of assignment of weights that makes consistency be> 1.

    Thank You very much.
    Best Regards,

  • Gravitons are expected to be associated with spin-2 mass-less particles. Can one point out the source which predicts the spin associated in gravitons.
    Could one point out the source of the integer spin (spin-2), associated with gravitons.
    Thomas J. Buckholtz · University of California, Berkeley


    Permit me to discuss work that dovetails with the notion that gravitons would have spin 2.

    My attempted research in math and physics features math solutions (to quantum isotropic harmonic oscillator equations) for which some solutions correlate with all known elementary particles (and their fields, some particle properties, and some interactions in which particles participate) and other solutions might correlate with yet-to-be-found elementary particles (and … similar to previous list in parenthesis).

    One solution, which I denote by 44G4& would correlate with properties (including zero-mass, 2 polarizations, and spin 2) and roles people might expect of gravitons.

    For further information, you might want to look at (at least) sections 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3 of "Physics Math Correlations." (I attach an extract that includes this material.)

    More generally, I suggest that the "G-family" of zero-mass bosons includes 22G2& (photons), 44G4&, and other particles. I suggest that some of these other particles drove the big bang and regulate the rate of expansion of the universe.

  • Steingrimur Stefansson added an answer in PH Stat:
    How can the efficacy of pH stat method(enzyme activity determination) be improved?

    pH stat methods has been exhaustive an inaccurate in measuring the enzyme activity. The enzyme in question is lipase in a crude form (fermentation broth). I was hoping an Improv on this method. Please help. 

    Steingrimur Stefansson · HeMemics Biotechnologies Inc

    Hi Revathi, are you measuring PLA2 acivity?

    There are chromogenic and fluorogenic substrates commercially available for measuring PLA2 activity, without doing the pH stat (I always hated doing that).  

  • Mohd Nazri Bin Omar added an answer in Exergy:
    Why do only a few people take into account entropy in a heat transfer analysis?

    From a thermodynamics point of view heat transfer and entropy are very closely related, for example by the fundamental equation dQ=TdS for reversible heat transfer. If, however, one goes to the index of standard heat transfer text books (some of them with more than 1000 pages) one will not find a single entry of entropy or related topics (like entropy generation, exergy, ...). Is it that heat transfer people deliberately ignore entropy, because they decided they don't need it, or is it pure ignorace, which might be cured ... ???

    Mohd Nazri Bin Omar · Technische Universität Berlin

    Agree. I am now researching about exergy, and so far we think that this is one of the best method to pinpoint inefficiencies. Fair enough, during schooltimes, my friends and I were not taught these subjects (entropy generation, irreversibilities nor exergy) so much - probably it's located mostly at the end of the syllabus in which lecturers may find it not so much important (ouch!), or even scarier that this thing is very taboo to be learned (difficult to understand and to apply).

    At last, next time at my turn to teach, I'll definitely, God-willing, teach this stuff.

  • Babar Hussain added an answer in Rhododendron:
    When crossing plants of differing ploidy level, what can cause a parent to contribute less than half of its chromosomes to its offpspring?

    When crossing polyploid Rhododendrons we have noticed some offspring have a 2C value that is less than the C value of the seed parent + C Value of pollen parent. This can be true even when the higher 2C value is the seed parent.

    To date we have no evidence to suggest Rhododendron reproduce asexually. Flow cytometry on seed indicates sexual reproduction.

    Examples of lower than expected 2C values are:

    tetraploid (seed parent) X diploid (pollen parent) yields in some cases diploid offspring.

    2x X 4x yielding some 2x

    4x X 6x yielding some 4x

    4x X 8x yielding some 4x

    4x X 10x yielding some 4x

    6x X 6x yielding some 4x

    2x X 3x yields some 2x

    3x X 2x yields some 2x

    Is this smaller than normal 2C value for the offspring normally related to meiosis of one of the parent prior to fertilization, abnormal development of the embryo, mitosis of the seedling after germination, or something else?

    Babar Hussain · Sabanci University

    Whenever triploids are involved in crossing, chromosomal loss is certain so was in your experiment

  • Amir Kashi asked a question in Electroplating:
    What can I do for preventing agglomeration of nano powder in Zn-Ni electroplating bath?

    what can I do for preventing agglomeration of nano powder in Zn-Ni electroplating bath?