ResearchGate Q&A lets scientists and researchers exchange questions and answers relating to their research expertise, including areas such as techniques and methodologies.

Browse by research topic to find out what others in your field are discussing.

Browse Topics

  • Iris Bell added an answer in Nanomedicine:
    Seeking research collaborators with Nanotechnology to study a form of alternative medicine
    I am seeking potential collaborators for an NIH/NCCAM grant or private foundation grant to evaluate for low levels of plant, animal, and mineral/metal nanoparticles in a form of alternative medicine and/or to compare biological effects with modern nanoparticle forms of same source material. Please contact me if this interests you.
    Iris Bell

    You work sounds very relevant to areas of interest. However, at this point in time, I am needing to find collaborative laboratories with the expertise and equipment to test the homeopathic remedies. I do not have a laboratory of my own to do such work. If I identify such collaborators, I will keep you in mind to let them know about your interests and determine if they would have a position for you. Best wishes, Iris Bell MD PhD

  • John Beiswenger added an answer in Negative Results:
    Why is there negativity towards publishing negative results?

    Many experimental results never see the light of publication day. For a large number of these, it comes down to the data being “negative”, i.e. the expected and/or wanted effect was not observed. Despite their potential, negative results are repeatedly relegated to the lab books, the drawers and the trash bins. Prof. Dr. Anthony Cerami once said "Many of the biggest discoveries of my career were the results of failure of another research project. ... Failure strikes a negative tone, but it appeared in my personal history that it was an essential experience on the path to important discoveries.".Should researchers publish their negative results?

    Some new journals like "Journal of Negative Results in Biomedicine" or "New Negatives in Plant Science" encouraging researchers to publish their negative results. But as you know, there is a negativity towards negative results. Why negative results not published by journals as freely as positive results? Is it time to publish research “failures”, too?

    + 1 more attachment

    John Beiswenger

    Prof. Muralidharan:  You are right.  And pitting during plating is a very difficult/interesting problem, usually explained to me by a plater during a product development program.  These days I am seek criticism of my work in studying how the slow brain can do what it does.  John

  • Alessia Redaelli asked a question in Communication:
    Silence as a communicative act and word as a silent one.How can one explore this theme in Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness?

    If one changes the mainstream conceptions of silence and word, how can one discuss them with reference to Heart of Darkness?

  • Manohari Choudhary asked a question in Bioinformatic Software:
    Any software to remove low quality sequences?

    is there any way to remove low quality sequences.

  • Daniel Adayi added an answer in Climate Change Adaptation:
    How are community-based climate change adaptation strategies mediated by culture and local knowledge?
    I am interested in how local culture, indigenous knowledge (IK) and 'traditional perspectives' can influence community adaptation pathways in the face of climate change. I believe that culture and IK can both be an enabling factor and a constraint to effective and appropriate adaptation to climate change. I believe that communities should be enabled to plan for their own self-driven development, and that in addition to being appropriate to current and future climate change projections, adaptation strategies should be appropriate and sensitive to the local culture, socio-economic circumstances and geographic environment. I am interested in the community-based adaptation (CBA) approach, and how this can effectively account for local cultural considerations through appropriate policy. I will be exploring these questions through ethnographic fieldwork with an indigenous community in coastal Bangladesh.
    Daniel Adayi

    Dear Patrick, I am also doing a research work on the impact of technological adaptation on the cultural life of the tribes of the Lake Chad basin in Sub-Saharan Africa. My goal is to raise the question of the non-sustanability of the adaptation to climate change that ignores or destroys the local culture and indegenous knowlegde. I am still at the proposal stage, trying to articulate what I want to do and to establish a methodology. The contributions to your topic have broadened my horizon. I found the attached article useful. See for yourself.

  • Lakshmanan Govindasamy (Govinda) asked a question in Reconstruction:
    Best for Cryo-EM single particle icosahedral reconstruction?

    What are the programs available for cryo-em single particle icosahedral reconstruction?

  • Samuel Okereke added an answer in Education Research:
    What supports are needed to be in place to offer effective reading instruction in both learning to read, and read to learn?

    This could in all content area math included.

    Samuel Okereke


    Very interesting. Thanks for your nice response to my question.

  • Cesar Tischer added an answer in Acetic Acid:
    Why do I get no get floating pelicle on top of my G. xylinum culture?

    I am growing G. xylinum, in coconut water (4% sugar  and 0.1% protein ) in glass bottle, with lid 100ml. After 24h I observe some white deposit on the bottom of the bottle but the colour of the coconut water is transparent with no increase in opacity.

    As I am not seeing Nata type consistency after 6 days. What is the best possible way to harvest deposits settling on the bottom (cellulose). I came across some papers suggesting washing with 2% NaOH while others washing with acetic acid and so on.

    I thought I could receive some useful insights.

    I would love to get some idea from people who have worked with glucose, fructose, lactose and sucrose. How does the addition effect production and does different carbon source alter the cellulose crystallinity.

    Cesar Tischer

    Hi Podar, I agree with colleagues, and G. xylinum when suffer thermal stress could reduce cellulose synthesis or even make it as Cel II that is shrinked and less soluble.

    good luck.

  • Gerro Prinsloo added an answer in Concentrated Solar Power:
    Which is the best material for application in high temperature receiver coating?

    Looking for application in solar thermal technology as receiver in Concentrating Solar Thermal (CST) Systems

    Gerro Prinsloo


    this article on Materials for photothermal solar energy conversion describes aspects you are interested in http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00700767

    this report will also be valuable



  • Jaskiran Kaur asked a question in Sequencing:
    Can anyone provide me the method for improving the sequence quality of low quality sequence?

    I have done 16SrDNA sequencing. The sequences obtained are of low quality which gives a problem in obtaining accession number. Can anyone suggest me the methods to improve the sequence quality?

  • Ahmad Albalasie added an answer in Motion Control:
    Is the mapping for a continuous trajectory in task space for a robot must be a continuous trajectory in the joint space?

    Hi all,

    I'd like to ask: if I'm programming a continuous trajectory for a SCARA robot in the task space is it necessary this trajectory be a continuous trajectory also in the joint space?

    for more understanding I'm uploading the trajectory for axes in the task space (yellow) and the same trajectory after inverse kinematics in the joint space (violet)

    Ahmad Albalasie

    Thanks for you reply.

  • Kotreshi B H added an answer in Vegetables:
    Can someone provide me experimental procedure for finding the C/N ratio of leaves, vegetable waste?

    i am confused whether procedure for finding C/N ratio for soil and vegetable waste are same.please some one provide me exact procedure to find C/N ratio of vegetable waste.

    Kotreshi B H

    i need to characterize the wastes (banana leaf,vegetable peelings,flower waste) which are feedstocks for my vermicompost .so C/N ratio is must.is there any other methods apart from elemental analyzer?can i estimate organic carbon using volatile solids and ash content?

    thank you

  • William O. Beeman added an answer in Ethnography:
    What is the difference between methodology of cultural studies and cultural anthropology?
    For example if I want to investigate a custom of one culture. What would be the difference in my methodology if I did it from cultural anthropology approach methods and from cultural studies methods? Or would be they the same because it would be considered as ethnographic research which is typical for both?
    William O. Beeman

    In fact, anthropology has used a variety of techniques in analysis almost from the beginning of its history as a discipline. Anthropologists were among the first to embrace psychiatry, for example. Margaret Mead pioneered the use of photography, film, literary analysis, and a variety of social science techniques in her work. The monumental achievement she wrote with Rhoda Metraux "The Study of Culture at a Distance" was written just as Cultural Studies was in its infancy, and espouses techniques virtually indistinguishable from those embraced in cultural studies.

    There was an attitudinal difference between cultural anthropology and cultural studies at the beginning. Stuart Hall and the early pioneers of cultural studies were interested in highlighting self-representation of communities. There was some criticism of cultural anthropology for supposedly "objectifying" those communities. This distinction has virtually disappeared in the post-1970s practice of cultural anthropology. in which anthropologists are almost required to be self-reflexive in their work.

    As others have said, the objects of study in anthropology have now come to embrace large swaths of popular culture that were not studied fifty years ago.  Janice Radway's work on reading fiction is seen as a monument to cultural studies, but it is virtually indistinguishable in its methodology from cultural anthropology as practiced today, and it is absolutely parallel to Margaret Mead's work from the 1940's and 1950's.

  • Vinod Kumar added an answer in TRNSYS:
    How do I design a new component using FORTRAN in TRNSYS?

    kindly mention the step by step procedure please. I've already read the manuals?

    I am struggling to create dll file of my newly designed component in fortran. Kindly send me suitable example please.

    Vinod Kumar

    Finally I have done it :)

  • Rob Graham added an answer in Cytosol:
    I have never used Fluo-4 calcium stain before. Is it appropriate for measuring a cytosol calcium response in a single cell after agonist stimulation?

    I am using a photomultiplier to detect a fluorescence difference in cells loaded with Fluo-4-AM after a single cell is agonised. Is the stain appropriate for such a small and fast change in free calcium?

    Rob Graham

    Thanks Robert

    I am getting flatline response from the PMT when stimulating individual microglia with high concentrations of ATP, and ACh. If Fluo-4 is that sensitive it sounds then more likely that the PMT is not picking up the change in fluorescence.

  • Latreuch Zinelaabidine added an answer in Difference Equations:
    Which are you preferring to do : Qualitative studies for a difference equation without getting the exact solution or getting the exact solution ?

    Which are you preferring to do : Qualitative studies for a difference equation without get the exact solution or getting the exact solution and then doing the analysis ?

    Latreuch Zinelaabidine

    If you get an exact solution, this will give an idea about the behavior of solutions, and then you can start your qualitative study for your difference equation

  • Mike Hoekstra added an answer in Order Statistics:
    Any advice on the variance of sample maximum from nonstandard normal distribution?

    Hello, I need an advice about order statistics. I need to find analytical approximations or bounds (so table/numeric approximations are out of the scope) of the variance (and mean, but especially variance) of the sample maximum from a nonstandard Normal distribution. Also extreme values theory is out of the scope. What I've found in the classic book by David and Nagaraja (2003, par. 4) seems to be general and intractable, maybe something more specific involving Normal distribution could be more easy to deal with. Do you think it is possible to find something better, considering that this book seems an exhaustive review of this framework?

    Thank you for your help.

    David, H. A., Nagaraja, H. N. (2003) Order Statistcs. New York: John Wiley

    Mike Hoekstra

    I too think you rule out extreme value theory to your detriment. I don't know your reference on order statistics but I usually start by checking Johnson, Kotz, and Balakrishnan, Continuous Univariate Distributions for  an informed if now dated knowledge survey. They also provide comprehensive tools in the initial chapters. I like Beirlant, Goegebeur, Segers and Teugels, Statistics of Extremes fora nice balance between theory and application.

  • Eileen O'Connor added an answer in History of Science:
    Anyone Know something about British veterinarians that came to Venezuela with the Bolivar's British Legion at 1819 particularly in Cavalry Regiments?

    I'm trying to get more information about them!!!

    Eileen O'Connor

    Hello, You may find references here to the Irish in Bolivar's British legion, including a German vet.   All the best, Eileen


  • John Sosa added an answer in Image Processing:
    Counting Objects
    I have a problem of counting objects. Suppose I have the below image (below link)


    which I got after segmentation.

    How can I count the small circles in the middle of the image?
    John Sosa

    I know this is an old thread, but if you are still having issues. I would definitely recommend you visit www.MIPAR.us. This is something it is perfectly suited for, and so much more.

    It is very powerful and intuitive 2D/3D image analysis software written by scientists/end-users and is about to be released as a free trial on December 14th. You can sign up on the site as well as submit images/datasets to test.

    There are many image analysis options available, but I think you may just find MIPAR to be something special if you give it a try!

  • Dinesh Vemula added an answer in CloudSim:
    How can I know whether all cloudlet sent to VM finished execution or not?

    I am sending some cloudlets to VM in round robbin fashion .... I want to destroy VM when all cloudlet sent to same VM finishes execution.  How can I do that?

    Dinesh Vemula

    You can use


  • Lee Sylvester asked a question in Down Syndrome:
    In there any exceptional links known to research down syndrome and the effect on families?

    I currently working on writing a research proposal and need high quality resources.

  • Tomislav Jogun added an answer in Property Valuation:
    Is there any research that has explored or applied the spatial temporal change analysis to predict or determine the value of property?

    In relation to valuation of land and property. deduction of actual monetary value of some development street, highways e.t.c

    Tomislav Jogun

    This article has an extensive reference list.

  • John Sosa added an answer in Nanochemistry:
    How can I get particle size distribution using any software from a TEM image?
    I did not get size distribution from 'ImageJ' software after trying so many time.
    John Sosa

    I would defintely recommend you visit www.MIPAR.us.

    It is very powerful and intuitive 2D/3D image analysis software written by scientists/end-users and is about to be released as a free trial on December 14th. You can sign up on the site as well as submit images/datasets to test.

    There are many image analysis options available, but I think you may just find MIPAR to be something special if you give it a try!

  • Ismail Erkan added an answer in Google Analytics:
    Is anyone working with social media data?

    or using google analytics or other tools? any recommendation please?

    I am working with social media data, one of the chapter of my PhD. Facebook, Twitter,Instagram, Google +,Thumbl etc. I want to know the best way to gather my data. Thank you 

    Ismail Erkan

    An example for collecting data from Twitter through content analysis.

    Best wishes,

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Marketers desire to utilise electronic word of mouth (eWOM) marketing on social media sites. However, not all online content generated by marketers has the same effect on consumers; some of them are effective while others are not. This paper aims to examine different characteristics of marketer-generated content (MGC) that of which one lead users to eWOM. Twitter was chosen as one of the leading social media sites and a content analysis approach was employed to identify the common characteristics of retweeted and favourited tweets. 2,780 tweets from six companies (Booking, Hostelworld, Hotels, Lastminute, Laterooms and Priceline) operating in the tourism sector are analysed. Results indicate that the posts which contain pictures, hyperlinks, product or service information, direct answers to customers and brand centrality are more likely to be retweeted and favourited by users. The findings present the main eWOM drivers for MGC in social media.
      International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising 10/2015; 9(4):338-358.
  • Dinesh Vemula added an answer in CloudSim:
    From where can I start simulation using cloudsim tool ?

    I have a secluding algorithm to allocate resources such as CPU, memory and disk storage I saw the cloudsim website but i get confuse. My request here where i put my algorithm to start simulation.

    And if there anyone have clear step to do simulation in cloudsim tool.

    Dinesh Vemula

    To define your own policy, you have to extend either VmScheduler or CloudletScheduler, create the methods for deciding sharing of PEs and pass the new class during construction of the relevant object.

  • John Sosa added an answer in ImageJ:
    Does anybody have experience measuring droplet diameter by ImageJ software?

    Dear all, I have some problems measuring the diameter of circular droplets (almost circular).

    When I try to measure with adjusting treshold and automatical measure of all dark areas (analyze particles) the results are given as area, however when I check with manual sellecting the dimater(by straight toolbar) it is given both area and length. When I compare the results they are different. If anyone can help me to figure out the questions below I will be really glad;

    1. When I do the following steps : set scale(by straight line and setting the units)>crop rectangular area>Adjust treshold white background black droplets> Analyze analyze particles : I get results as area-mean-min-max Is the area for surface area of droplets?? (pi*R^2) so I divide pi and take square root for R)

    2. When I do the following steps : set scale(by straight line and setting the units)>manually sellecting the diameter with straight line > ctrl M : I get results as area-mean-min-max- angle-legth. The length is the diameter of the drops, so what is the area in this case??

    3. How can I copy the results to excel directly? when I copy-paste the numbers are given automatically thousands, I need to change the numbers adding commas.

    4. How can I make a diameter distribution graph in excel?

    John Sosa

    I know you asked about ImageJ, and that this is an old thread, but I would defintely recommend you visit www.MIPAR.us.

    It is very powerful and intuitive 2D/3D image analysis software written by scientists/end-users and is about to be released as a free trial on December 14th. You can sign up on the site as well as submit images/datasets to test.

    There are many image analysis options available, but I think you may just find MIPAR to be something special if you give it a try!

  • Lutz Kraushaar added an answer in Systole:
    What is the effect of the left ventricular expansion wave on radial pulse pressure wave form?

    Specifically: Deceleration of left ventricular contraction during systole produces an expansion pressure wave (pressure drop) just before valve closure. Is it conceivable that (under possibly pathological condition) the timing of the expansion wave may modulate the radial pulse pressure wave form (incident and reflected wave) into a type-C pressure wave form (wave forms according to Murgo et al. and Nichols et al.)? Is it possible that a pathological condition may thereby produce a radial waveform which is typically associated with a healthy CV system? Has anybody made such observation in practice?

    Lutz Kraushaar

     @ Edward

    Thanks for your thoughts on this. Modelling is actually what we are doing. We have replicated the arterial tree in a complex model of circuits representing the individual arterial segments. The hydraulic-electric analogy helps us to identify the key parameters of arterial function whereby we present in-vivo acquired pulse presure curves to the AI powered model and let the model reproduce the curves as faithfully as possible by modulating the parameters of compliance, resistance and inertia. Whar we see there are curves, specifically in young and very fit subjects, which do not show the second systolic peak at a very low end-systolic pressure. Since I saw the same curve in, admittedly very few, older and certainly unfit individuals, I began to suspect that pathologic conditions might present masquerading as a healthy profile. Would be nice to test this in diseased subjects.

  • Hamidreza Ahmadimoghaddam P.Eng M.Eng asked a question in Abaqus:
    Any advice on a visualization problem in Abaqus?

    I performed a Crack Propagation analysis using XFEA in Abaqus. The result is showing that the crack is propagated and the crack length is increased, however when I plot the result, I see the crack is all the way propagated. I could not see the crack propagation gradually. I think my visualization setting needs to be adjusted and then I will be able to see the crack propagation element by element. Any help will be appreciated.


    + 2 more attachments

  • John Sosa added an answer in Tomography:
    Can you suggest a good software for quantitative analysis of images from micro-computed tomography?
    We are working on solid foams. Micro-tomography gives very nice pictures, but what we need is getting quantitative information from them : surface area, distributions of cell sizes, window size and strut thicknesses, open vs. closed porosity, tortuosity, etc. We bought Aphelion 3D, which was a quite expensive software, but we deeply regret it as it is a true nightmare, very difficult to handle for non-specialists of programming. And the customer support is almost zero, nobody really helps whereas our needs are very basic. So can you suggest a free and easy software for soing the same ?
    John Sosa

    I would defintely recommend you visit www.MIPAR.us. Segmentation is paramount in a problem like this (in most actually), and this is what MIPAR specializes in.

    It is very powerful and intuitive 2D/3D image analysis software written by scientists/end-users and is about to be released as a free trial on December 14th. You can sign up on the site as well as submit images/datasets to test.

    There are many image analysis options available, but I think you may just find MIPAR to be something special if you give it a try!