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  • Can Famacha chart be applied in Indian conditions?

    Anaemia Chart standardized by Faffa Malan be used as such in any country. If not then how can we go for standardizing a chart for our local use.

    V. Gnani Charitha · Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University

    Stanislav Simin

               Thank you so much for the advice. am planning to validate according to my conditions so ur information was more beneficial to me

  • What is the best way to analyze sRT for different stimuli on two contrast level?

    Any free proposed articles?

    Evangelos Anagnostou · National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

    First you need to define your saccade onset point. This depends on the recording method you are using. If you have an accurate, low-noise system (such as magnetic search coil) it is very convinient to take a certain velocity point (usually 20 deg/s) as the onset. Otherwise you might want to implicate the pre-saccadic baseline trace, by computing its RMS noise level and then apply a criterion on this.

  • Which key performance indicators can be used to measure effectiveness of digital marketing activities on financial performance of a business?

    I am looking for significant key performance indicators to measure digital marketing activities through which we can see financial impacts of these communication channels on business growth.

    Arun Aditya Sahay · Birla Institute of Management Technology

    Performance indicators such as revenue, profitability, ROI, ROA, Increase in Sales to Digital Expenditure etc. can be used

  • Amir Causevic added an answer in Academic:
    Could you please name necessary steps for developing a more innovative organization?

    Academic knowledge and managerial experience is first built on what others have said, done or written. What are the capabilities organizations must develop
    if they want to grow and compete in innovation-intensive environments. 

    Amir Causevic · University of Sarajevo

    Dear Dr. Nizar,

    I really enjoy in your posts.

  • Mohamed Awad Dadamouny asked a question in Potassium:
    What are the factors affecting potassium availability in soil?

    Plants differ in their ability to take up potassium depending on several factors, and I would like to ask on the factors that affect the availability of potassium in soil?

  • How does EVA content effect dielectric properties of LDPE?

    How can EVA additive up to 30% effect dielectric properties of LDPE? What is the mechanism?

    Gyorgy Banhegyi · Medicontur Ltd.

    As pointed out by Dr Litt, EVA being more polar than LDPE will increase the permittvity, the dielectric loss and the AC coductivity of the composite, probably also the DC conductivity. More importantly it influences the breakdown strength, electrical treeing and space charge behavior (these are inter-related). The literature of these latter phenomena is very rich. There are several studies on the irradation behavior as well, as EVA is used alone or in blend as XPE cable material for medium and high voltage.

  • Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.

    Eugene F Kislyakov · Belarusian State University

    It is evident, and I wonder about our colleagues, Ursula...

  • Rezvan mobasseri asked a question in Vitronectin:
    Does anyone know about the Integrin sequence which is the binding site of Vitronectin?

    As we know vitronectin and some other proteins can bind to different types of integrin. I want to know about the binding site in Integrin which the vitronectin with a RGD-sequence can interact with and attach. I'll be thankful if any one help me.

  • Bernhard Semlitsch added an answer in FLUENT:
    Which radiation model for heat transfer through solid in Fluent?


    I'm doing a fairly simple 2D axisymmetric simulation of heat conduction through a solid media, with heat generation.
    Boundaries are convection with ambient free stream temperature, and a heat flux.

    I know little about radiation modeling and until I learn more about it, I was hoping someone could tell me which of the radiation model is appropriate here.

    Please note that all I know is the surface emissivity, but nothing about material absorption, scaterring factors, etc. Although I can probably estimate these.

    Thanks for looking.

  • What is the crucial difference between establishment and caste?

    De Tocqueville's theory of the social-political establishment follows his analysis of the Old Regime and the French Revolution; and he argued that violent revolution came to France because the nobility degenerated into a caste and refused to absorb new people of power, affluence and influence--the rising middle class. The British upper class, led by the Whig establishment, in contrast, absorbed the new middle class, avoided revolution and remained a ruling establishment. (The Whigs were later displaced by the British Liberal party.) The French nobility retained their privileges at the expense of power and authority, while the British Whig establishment shared their privileges precisely in order to rule. The argument is, then, that one better maintains a free and stable society by maintaining a balance between the liberal democratic and the authoritative, established aspects of society. Extending De Tocqueville's ideas a bit, it seems clear that the danger of caste is especially prominent whenever the boundaries of the establishment are drawn on ethnic lines in a multi-ethnic society. 

    Douglas R. Daugherty · University of New Mexico

    Dear H.G.,

    You are correct when you write,

    "Much of what you say seems to me simply not the best way to put the issues, even where I might manage some degree of agreement. It all seems quite high-flowing and set in place --if you will forgive my saying so. You appear to be ready to march off on some sort of political crusade, and I find that I my approach to related issues is not political but instead scholarly"

    and for that please forgive me. I hope and intend to keep the focus on the scholarly but I must remind or bring attention to what Freire (see Pedagogy of the Oppressed 1977) points out "all education is political". 

    I start with Foucault's (1977) philosophical question, as published in his (1975) book The Archaeology of Knowledge when he examines the transformation of power in France from its monarchy into a democracy. His philosophical inquiry (and admittedly) political, it seems to me, is whether use of any of the existing philosophical discourses (i.e. political, judicial, and social) could be applicable in a democracy. Basically stated can any old political or social systems be applied  in the new democracy. In philosophical scholarship one might argue the query is framed by Hobbes and Burke's philosophies on the one hand and the other those of Rousseau and Montesquieu. The argument presented and concludes with suggesting in order to progress a complete rejection of the old is necessary. This is the point in which I reply tonight.

    In my reading and following the question you pose I began to become concerned that the discourse was based in a discourse I am very familiar with. That being the history of and the discourse used by the colonizers after conquest of a foreign land (see A. Memmi 1978 The Colonizers and the Colonized). It is a factual truth that the battle for "American Independence" was a war fought by two colonizing forces. It is also a factual truth that our history and prosperity is due in large part to the subjugation and enslavement of many differing peoples (see R. Frankenburge 1999, The Social Construction of Whiteness White Women Race Matters) and from my scholarly view appeared to be ignored at best or dismissed as irrelevant at worst.(see D.Roediger Black on White, Black Writers on what it Means to be White) Hence the motivation for my first two posts which again I apologize for both tone and lack of a framed argument. 

    My concerns are even stronger now after reading your last two posts but a brief history is in order. You write, and I believe this statement by you is the reason for my responding tonight. You write,

    "I believe that we do better to break down larger aims and objectives, realizing that there is not going to be complete uniformity of opinion regarding them, and enlighten and inform from the bottom up --changing existing forms from time to time, but always preserving, in the first place, the kind of liberal order which encourages tolerance, open discussion and freedom of exchange and association". This statement appears to me a very Burke like position (E. Burke's 1959, Reflections on the French Revolution) To further this apparent position I bring attention to

    "The general conditions of a free society are the same conditions which allow for its gradual improvement or reform. This is to say that it is not viable to attempt to change everything at once". It would seem to me that both the French and American Revolutions would cast some doubt on this position.

    I close with these statements which I believe demonstrate the importance of tonight's reply and the concerns I raise regarding the discourse used in this thread although on the surface they may appear to be tangential to the question you pose (see Bonilla-Silva 2003, Racism without Racist: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial inequality in America). I ask; how can a person with the intellectual abilities you obviously are gifted with write; 

    "I am not so much concerned to mount generalized criticisms as I am concerned to build on positive accomplishments of American history and society. My impression is that much criticism of American society is disoriented or disorienting, because lacking in due concern to preserve the positive accomplishments". Given the barbaric and inhuman treatment of many peoples in the actual/factual history of the U.S? We, as researchers, cannot simply sweep the conquest of America under the rug and I claim we have a fiduciary duty and moral obligation to acknowledge this fact. I further contend that our past/history frame our scholarship, discussions on RG, and be prominent in all of our future publications and conferences. It is, as researcher up to us to not only inform the general population but, in time, be on of the leaders in the quest for a more just society.  

    I concluding with,

    "what is most needed to diminish the contemporary divisiveness, contrasts, quite obviously, with any form of political or ideological stridency. The tendency of ideological stridency is to form an exclusionary political caste --even where it aims to abolish one". 

    I must contend that I am absolutely in agreement with most of what your write above yet the point of departure for me is the claim you appear to be making and that is; given the brutality of U.S. history it is not germane  to the question at hand.


  • What is the best mathematical model to solve this problem?

    A tank has i fishes, of size n1, n2, ni.  A person puts an infected fish of size 'x' into the tank. This infected fish can eat a smaller size fish (say, size 's') and grow to x=x+s size. This way it can keep eating any smaller fish and grow in size, but it cannot eat a bigger one.

    At any point, if the tank has fishes where all the remaining of ni  fishes are larger than x, then the scientist can make a move to either add a small fish to make x grow larger than the smallest of ni or remove a larger fish so that the smallest of remaining fishes are smaller than x. 

    What is the MINIMUM number of moves the person needs to make, so that at the end of all iterations only one fish - the infected one - remains?

    Peter T Breuer · Birmingham City University

    Indeed. But I think he doesn't mean s as a constant or a dependent variable, but just as a name for the size of the fish that gets eaten. So "s<x" seems to be the relation given!

    More problematic is the claim that one can unstarve the poor carnivore by removing a larger fish, "thus" providing smaller fishes for x to eat. Not.

    Anyway, what happens to n1 ... nk is that first the fish eats all smaller than it, so the series goes x<=nj<=...<=nk at the point where it is blocked.  To unblock it one needs to add a smaller fish of size nj-1=nj-x+1 or more < x. That unleashes a cascade of eating if the difference betwen succesively larger fishes in the tank is less than x.

    So x>nj-1, x+nj-1>nj, x+nj-1+nj>nj+1 etc is the cascade. It stops only when x+nj-1+nj+...+nl<=nl+1. It's blocked when the next fish up on the menu is as big as the sum of the smaller fish plus the original size of x. Then one has to add a fish just smaller than that, and may have to do so repeatedly, nearly doubling x's size each time until it is big enough to eat more.

    So long as successive potential victims are twice as large as the last, it looks to me that a cascade is only ever one fish long and the poor carnivore has to be helped out as many times as there are fish.

    This is just a general game sort of thing, like Nim. What can one say? Is a best strategy being asked for? One can do no better than add a fish of size x-1 when the carnivore is stuck for eats.

  • Arun Aditya Sahay asked a question in Atlas.ti:
    Qualitative research tools like ATLAS.ti, Nvivo etc. have appeared and more are likely to appear. How good are these tools?

    Despite its popularity increasing, the analysis of qualitative data is cumbersome. Coding, theme development etc. manually consumes lot of time though quite a number of researchers are still using manual methods.  New tools are being developed and the existing ones are getting updated but its diffusion among the researchers are low. Lot of training and practicing is needed before researchers become conversant with these.

  • John Ågren added an answer in Thermodynamics:
    Why the equation of the first law contains a negative definite function?

    For the first law


    According to the physical meaning of the internal energy, U represents the total energy within the system, so should be expressed as the sum of the different types of energy within the system, whereas, if we consider an integral equation, for Euler equation


    Since p and V are the two positive definite variables, so –pV is a negative definite function. Therefore that, the mathematical form of Euler equation conflict with the physical meaning of the internal energy.

    For instance, for a photon gas, the integral of –pdV is less than zero. Helmholtz free energy


    Where F is a negative definite function, so F cannot be explained as a part of the internal energy, then what it is?

    I have my own answer for this question, but want to know what your opinion is.

    John Ågren · KTH Royal Institute of Technology

    Dear Alexei

    another example of mu being zero is for thermal vacancies in crystal at equilibrium.

  • What is the definition of sustainable development and sustainable use?

    Conservation studies deal with sustainability with many concepts, I would like to discuss the best definition for sustainable development and sustainable use?   

    Mohamed Awad Dadamouny · University of Greifswald

    Sustainability Models vs. a Theory of Sustainability?

  • Muhammad Sohaib added an answer in Cell Culture:
    How to overcome from a fungus contamination in a cell culture?

    If any one is facing fungus contamination or other due to eviormental conditions then what precautions are necessary and how he can prevent contamination?

    Muhammad Sohaib · Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan

    Remove the contaminated cultures and sterilize the incubator with ethanol. use sterile explant and add appropriate amount of antibiotics according to your need.

  • Mohamed Awad Dadamouny added an answer in SSR:
    How can one avoid SSR errors?

    Sometimes there are variations between individuals within a population and there are not great variations between populations with SSR marker, I would like to ask on the reason for that and what is the solution in such case?

    Mohamed Awad Dadamouny · University of Greifswald

    How to deal with hypervariable Microsatellites/SSR marker loci?

  • Faraedon Zardawi added an answer in Halitosis:
    What could the cause of halitosis be when no obvious local or systemic causes could be found?

    some patient suffering from bad mouth odour and they have been warned by their surroundings, however, they have a good oral hygiene, and no any other systemic problems, what are the possible causes for their condition?

    Faraedon Zardawi · University of Sulaimani

    Thank you all for your response and great answers, providing that nothing of mentioned is present and every thing is fine, could it be type of  the normal flora of the oral cavity  in some individuals causing that, if so what is the treatment specially if the patient if suffering a lot from what he got

  • Florian Baur added an answer in Radiation:
    How can I estimate U-238 dose rate from Cs-131 calibrated dose rate?

    I have a Geiger counter that not only displays counts but also the dose rate in Gray/h. The dose rate is calibrated to gamma radiation from a Cs-131 source.

    If I'd have a U-238 source instead, can I estimate the dose rate from the rate the Geiger counter is displaying?

    If I'm correct U-238 gammas have about 50 and 110 keV, while Cs-131 is 662 keV. Does that mean that as a rule of thumb I could divide the displayed rate by 6 to get an estimate of the actual dose rate?

    I think it should be possible, if the detection rate is the same for both gammas and pure U-238 is present. Is that correct?

    Florian Baur · Fachhochschule Münster

    Thanks for all the answers.

    edit: Joseph, I read your message just now, will read the text and probably get back with some question.

    The U-238 was a hypothetical sample. Let's maybe get even more hypothetical to make clear what I mean:

    There is a source of 100 keV gammas where the exact activity is known. Using that source I can calibrate a geiger counter to display the exact dose rate (within instrument accuracy) for that specific source.

    Now if I replace the 100 keV source with a 50 keV source, the geiger will still display a dose rate.

    My question is, how accurate will that dose rate be? Originally I thought the geiger counter would display a dose rate 100% too high since it assumes each count has 100 keV while it actually has 50 keV now. But I'm not so sure anymore, as it seems geiger counter can be build to compensate for that difference in energy, so the displayed dose rate would be more or less acurate?

  • Does anybody know how to convert point data (station data) into maps using pc-raster for couple of years?

    As I am doing a glaciohydrological modelling using Spatial Processes In hydrology (SPHY), one of the input data is precipitation and the data should be in map format, but I am just the beginner in programming, I have not that concrete idea in scripting large nos of point data into maps using pc-raster. So I would very much appreciate your kind help in figuring out this problem I am facing now. 

    Kleomenis Kalogeropoulos · Harokopion University of Athens

    The most simple method which you can use in order to convert points to grid is he IDW method in ArcGIS, but it depends on the data you have, the area, the topography etc. For more detailed precipitation maps from your data you have to do some geostatistical modelling like  Majid Taie Semiromi said.

  • Stefan Gruner added an answer in Computer Science:
    What are Free Journals of Computer Science and it should be SCI ?

    which should not take any publication charges . apart from these journals Elsevier, Springer.  

    Stefan Gruner · University of Pretoria

    JUCS, the online Journal of Universal Computer Science, is recommendable and has a good reputation --- see attachment below.


  • Manish Kuchya added an answer in Nano-Silica:
    What are the factors affecting the physico- mechanical properties of cement concrete containing nano-silica?

    physico- mechanical properties of cement concrete

  • What are the possible methods to formulate a cotton with boric acid, vinegar and 70% alcohol?

    Different methods of formulation 

    Muhammad Siddique Afridi · Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research

    U did not tell anything about the use and purpose of formulation?

    Can you explain please?

  • In a spherical nanoparticle the magnetic hard and easy axes in what direction?

    In a spherical nanoparticle the  magnetic hard and easy axes in what direction?

    Mr. Bipul Kumar Mahato · S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences

    It will depend on the crystallographic anisotropy of the material. for hcp structure, the easy axis will be along z direction.

  • Ahmed H. Arbab asked a question in ELISA:
    Stablity of HBsAg ?

    I am using Monolisa HBsAg ULTRA (Bio-rad, 96 well plate) for analysis of HBsAg expression( cell line HepG2.2.15) , My Qs :

    1. Stability of HBsAg  (25-37 C)

    2. The effect of saving HBsAg  at -20 C ?

    3. Should i carry ELISA to the collected media supernatant immediately  or i can save at -20,how long?  

  • Geng Ouyang added an answer in Ontology:
    What are infinitesimals------- a 2500-year suspended problem?

    The newly discovered modern Harmonic Series Paradox is one of family members of ancient Zeno’s Paradox, it discloses relentlessly a fact that we human still don’t know what infinitesimals are: are they with or without numerical meanings, zeros?

    Infinitesimals are there in our science, but what are their positions as numbers or non-numbers or something else theoretically and operationally, ontologically and formally?

    This problem has close relationship with whole fundamental part of infinite related area in our science:
    1, theoretical and practical infinite theory
    2, theoretical and practical limit theory
    3, theoretical and practical infinite related number theory

    Geng Ouyang · MinNan Normal University

    Dear Mr. Alberto Peruzzi , thank you very much for your summing up and helpful ideas.

    1, the continuum is not totally neglected but will be more “scientific” than before.

    2, some important reformations in the infinite related fundamental part of science (both mathematics and philosophy) will happen based on many fruits already gained by our ancestors but not the whole set of issues has to be restarted from scratch.

    Thank you again Mr. Alberto Peruzzi!

    Sincerely yours, Geng

  • Mohamed Awad Dadamouny added an answer in Food:
    What is sustainable intensification?

    Is sustainable intensification useful to help in solving the problems of food?

    Mohamed Awad Dadamouny · University of Greifswald

    Is "sustainable intensification" a useful concept?

  • Costas Drossos added an answer in Metacognition:
    Are You interested in Modeling Problem Process?

    I am trying to derive a formula to express logic or verbal problem solving as a function of relevant knowledge plus experience with the kind of problem plus metacognitive factors in an inverse relationship with "difficult" of the problem. I have a flow diagram about the process and I am interested in formalize it. I think the Rasch Model may be an important inspiration source.

    Costas Drossos · University of Patras

    There is a very large bibliography on "Problem solving", some of them are:

    Newell, A., & Simon, H. A. (1972). Human problem solving. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Polya’s Problem solving Techniques: https://math.berkeley.edu/~gmelvin/polya.pdf, http://math.hawaii.edu/home/pdf/putnam/PolyaHowToSolveIt.pdf
    • In his book Psychology of Invention in the Mathematical Field, Hadamard uses introspection to describe mathematical thought processes. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Hadamard

    One should note that "Problem Solving" is a non-Analytic activity. As such holistic models are needed. It seems to me that the Rasch Model, is rather an analytic one, See: [David_Andrich]_Rasch_Models_for_Measurement.

    Bond, Trevor G.; Fox, Christine M. Applying the Rasch Model:Fundamental Measurement in the Human Sciences.

    I think the project you are proposing is essentially, how to combine an analytic and a non-analytic model, taking into account all the above sources. 

  • Jolly Soparia added an answer in Sentiment Analysis:
    Can anyone help me in Sentiment Classification for Star Rating opinion and Emoticon opinion?

    I am doing my Dissertation in Sentiment Analysis. I am combining the sentiment classification of sentence opinion, star rating opinion and emoticons opinion. I am using rapid miner tool to classify the opinions. Please help me or guide me to classify the Star rating opinion and emoticon opinion. How can i do that?

    Please Help me

    Jolly Soparia · Charotar University of Science and Technology

    Thank you so much @Olga Buchel