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- How can we test machine consciousness? How can we test various theories of consciousness?
What are the existing tests for machine consciousness that directly tests qualia generated in a device? I find many proposals, but they only seem to test functional aspects of consciousness related neural processing (e.g. binding, attentional mechanisms, broadcasting of information), but not consciousness itself.
I have a proposal of my own and would like to know how it compares with other existing ideas.
The basic idea is to connect the device to our brain and test if qualia is generated in our "device visual field". The actual key to my proposal is how we connect the device and how we set the criteria for passing the test, since modern neurosynthesis (e.g. artificial retina) readily leads to sensory experience.
My short answer is to connect the device to one of our cortical hemispheres by mimicking inter-hemispheric connectivity and let the device take over the whole visual hemifield. We may test various theories of consciousness by implementing candidate neural mechanisms onto it and test whether subjective experience is evoked in the device's visual hemifield.
If we experience qualia in the "device visual hemifield" with the full artificial hemisphere, but not when the device is replaced with a look-up table that preserves all brain-device interaction, we have to say that something special, say consciousness, has emerged in the full device. We may conclude that the experienced qualia is due to some visual processing that was omitted in the look-up table. This is because, in regard to the biological hemisphere, the neural states would remain identical between the two experimental conditions.
The above argument stems from my view that, in case of biological to biological interhemispheric interaction, two potentially independent streams of consciousness seated in the two cortical hemispheres are "interlinked" via "thin inter-hemispheric connectivity", without necessarily exchanging all Shannon information sufficient to construct our bilateral visual percept.
Interhemispheric connectivity is "thin" in the sense that low-mid level visual areas are only connected at the vertical meridian. We need to go up to TE, TEO to have full hemifield connectivity. Then again, at TE, TEO, the visual representation is abstract, and most probably not rich enough to support our conscious vision as in Jackendoff's "Intermediate Level Theory of Consciousness".
The first realistic step would be to test the idea with two biological hemispheres, where we may assume that both are "conscious". As in the last part of the linked video above, we may rewire inter-hemispheric connectivity on split brain animals to totally monitor and manipulate inter-hemispheric neural interaction. Investigating conditions which regains bilateral percept (e.g. capability of conducting bilateral matching tasks) would let us test existing ideas on conscious neural mechanisms.
I have to agree with you - and I cannot make sense of it: Gibson indeed says that affordances are objective properties of the environment. But then, everything else he says about affordances just (seems to) prove the opposite: affordances are relational aspects, e.g. a chair has different affordances for a mouse than for a human. Consider this quote from Eleanor Gibson's book, below. It basically screams "affordances are not objective properties of the environment independent from the observer" ... and then in the middle of the whole explanation, it suddenly says, without any explanation, that affordances are objective properties.
I think that the crucial thing is to distinghuis between on the one hand "independently existing" and "relationally defined" things, and on the other hand "objective" things vs "subjective" things. I guess Gibson claims that affordances are both "relationally defined" and "objective" at the same time. That is a nice one. It seems to be a contradiction. However, that may be because we readily equate 'objective' with 'independent from the human observer'. If we can somehow make sense of the disconnection of these terms, then mayby we can understand Gibson better.
Or, ....he's just making a reasoning error.
Here's the quote:
" The ecological approach takes as its unit of study the animal in its environment, considered as an interactive system. The relations within this system are recip- rocal, with the reciprocity including a species evolving in an environment to which it becomes adapted, and an individual acting in its own niche, develop- ing and learning.
How does this reciprocity work for perceiving? The environment provides opportunities and resources for action, and information for what is to be per- ceived so as to guide action. Action has consequences that provide more infor- mation for the perceiver. The animal and the environment are dynamic players in the systemic whole.
"We begin with affordance because the central tenet of the ecological approach is the complementarity of the animal and the environment. An "affordance" refers to the fit between an animal's capabilities and the environmental supports and opportunities (both good and bad) that make possible a given activity. For example, a chair affords sitting for creatures possessing a flexible torso and hip joints, and legs with knees that bend at the height of the chair's seat. A path af- fords traversal to a destination, and it may contain obstacles that afford colli- sion or turning aside to avoid. Affordances are properties of the environment as they are related to animals' capabilities for using them [and so they are not just properties of the environment, because they are things 'related to...' as wel, JVD]. They include not only objects but layout properties such as surfaces, corners, and holes. Affordances are also offered by events, including social events such as a looming, loving, or angry face. To perceive an affordance is to detect an environmental property that provides opportunity for action and that is specified in an ambient array of energy available to the perceiver. Since an affordance is an objective property of the en- vironment, [what? where did that come from? what does it mean???] it exists whether or not it is perceived or realized. [why?? no explanation...] Affordances vary with species and with development. [so.... they may exist whether or not perceived, but they do not exist if there is no animal that could at some point perceive them...?] Water provides a surface of support for a bug but not for a human. What affords sitting for an adult human differs in size and scale from what affords sitting for a child. Affordances vary in availability with habitats, since potential tools and resources may be present in some cli- mates and cultures but not in others."
(Ecological approach to learning and development, pp 15-16).Following
- Has anyone tried siRNA transfection with Lipofectamine-3000?
Protocols/suggestions are appreciated.
Thanks Venkatesh. I had looked at one of the post and particularly wanted to know about siRNA compared to plasmid DNA and that's why I asked (unless I missed any comment). I am working with GIST cells.Following
- Is it a fact that increase of competion has forced us to become narrow minded?
Because of over population, unemployment etc. the competition has increased a lot, which has changed our attitude and behaviour towards our colleagues. We have become narrow minded.Following
- Has anyone used the antibody Anti-human-Nuclei, clone 235-1 for immunohistological staining on paraffin embedded tissues? I have tested this antibody, but I see a lot of background staining, and it is hard to distinguish nuclei from the background, could you give me some advice on the treatments to perform, antigen retrieval? Could you recommend a protocol? I found some articles, but they use immunofluorescence and we do not have this equipment in our lab!
Thank you for your help
I can tell you i have used blocking solution with mouse serum 10%/30 min or the one expended by millipore and I got the best results I diluted 1:100 and overnight incubation but it never was good enough. I have precharged cells for transplantation with CFSE 5 uM and it looks good,together with nuclei staining.Following
- What is the equation to fit a inverse sigmoid (logit) to a data?
I have a data whose shape looks logit distribution, however x axis of my data are not probability values they are between the range 35-50. I am interested an equation which could fit the data?
This link below has a bit more information.
And here is a link for Python's Probit algorithm, http://pysal.readthedocs.org/en/latest/library/spreg/probit.htmlFollowing
- What overview and/or analysis of collaborative software in design stages in AEC is out there?
I'm investigating collaboration features on software (such as Revit, ArchiCAD, OpenBIMserver etc..) and looking to find more references and research on this subject. I am focusing on model creation and visualisation.
I'd appreciate any papers/written work that is related to the subject that I might have overlooked in my reading.
So far I've read the OpenBIMserver papers, Chuck Eastman's, and a few others.
Thanks Calin, I was not aware of the paper by Xialong Xue - much appreciated.Following
- How do you subtract the background in SERS measurements and why?
I have to compare two similar substrates and define what is the enhancement relative to each other (which one works better). I don't need the total EF but only a relative measure. I have measured spectra of them from the same system but I get different background signals. I know that for SERS the background is related to the enhancement (http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jp907197b) so I am not sure how to treat the data. If I need to compare the raw peak intensities, subtract the overall background of the system (not from the SERS substrates), compare the peaks from each substrate subtracting the relative background in the spectrum (i.e. normalizing them to 0) or look to the signal to noise ratio only. Since I define the increased quality of the substrate as a ratio of intensities it will change by selecting a different background correction method.
(notice that for the S/N case the shot noise of a substrate of increased enhancement is higher due to higher intensity, see the link above, and could cause the higher enhancement substrate to be underestimated)
Thanks for reading through this very long question.
I agree with Alois in that there is no "right way" of doing the data analysis you want to do.
If I were you I would first try to "a first order approximation" understand the origin of the background. You are right in mentioning the paper by Mahajan et al. but depending on your conditions you could also have surface enhanced fluorescence. Glass fluorescences even if you use NIR excitation and if your nanostructures are on glass this could also be a source of background (See the answer by Grazielle). I think this is specially important since it seems what you want to do is characterization of the substrates.
Mahajan et al. reported that they don't get SERS background in the anti-stokes regime but the enhancement mechanism for the stoke and anti-stokes Raman scattering is the same. There is still some background due to the presence of the metal but that, they claim, does't depend on the interaction of the molecule with the substrate. It seems to me that looking at the anti-stokes regime you could more objectively analyze you data and could have a better explanation/justification for the background removal, if needed.
Maybe you wanted a more simple answer on how to do background corrections. In that case there are various algorithms. Assuming a fluorescent background, the Lieber method is very popular and easy to implement (see below), but there are many others.
Lieber, Chad A.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita. Applied Spectroscopy, Volume 57, Issue 11, (November 2003)Following
- HOG descriptors for blocks only?
I am trying to calculate HOG features for blocks only. I explored hog.cpp listed under opencv/module/gpu/src/. Here is getDescriptor function
void cv::gpu::HOGDescriptor::computeBlockHistograms(const GpuMat& img)
computeGradient(img, grad, qangle);
size_t block_hist_size = getBlockHistogramSize();
Size blocks_per_img = numPartsWithin(img.size(), block_size, block_stride);
// block_hists.create(1, block_hist_size * blocks_per_img.area(), CV_32F);
block_hists = getBuffer(1, static_cast<int>(block_hist_size * blocks_per_img.area()), CV_32F, block_hists_buf);
hog::compute_hists(nbins, block_stride.width, block_stride.height, img.rows, img.cols,
grad, qangle, (float)getWinSigma(), block_hists.ptr<float>());
hog::normalize_hists(nbins, block_stride.width, block_stride.height, img.rows, img.cols,
void cv::gpu::HOGDescriptor::getDescriptors(const GpuMat& img, Size win_stride, GpuMat& descriptors, int descr_format)
CV_Assert(win_stride.width % block_stride.width == 0 && win_stride.height % block_stride.height == 0);
const size_t block_hist_size = getBlockHistogramSize();
Size blocks_per_win = numPartsWithin(win_size, block_size, block_stride);
Size wins_per_img = numPartsWithin(img.size(), win_size, win_stride);
descriptors.create(wins_per_img.area(), static_cast<int>(blocks_per_win.area() * block_hist_size), CV_32F);
hog::extract_descrs_by_rows(win_size.height, win_size.width, block_stride.height, block_stride.width,
win_stride.height, win_stride.width, img.rows, img.cols, block_hists.ptr<float>(), descriptors);
hog::extract_descrs_by_cols(win_size.height, win_size.width, block_stride.height, block_stride.width,
win_stride.height, win_stride.width, img.rows, img.cols, block_hists.ptr<float>(), descriptors);
CV_Error(CV_StsBadArg, "Unknown descriptor format");
I also explored hig.cu source file. I need to modify hog::extract_descrs_by_rows and hog::extract_descrs_by_cols. Here is the function from hog.cu
// Extract descriptors
template <int nthreads>
__global__ void extract_descrs_by_rows_kernel(const int img_block_width, const int win_block_stride_x, const int win_block_stride_y,
const float* block_hists, PtrStepf descriptors)
// Get left top corner of the window in src
const float* hist = block_hists + (blockIdx.y * win_block_stride_y * img_block_width +
blockIdx.x * win_block_stride_x) * cblock_hist_size;
// Get left top corner of the window in dst
float* descriptor = descriptors.ptr(blockIdx.y * gridDim.x + blockIdx.x);
// Copy elements from src to dst
for (int i = threadIdx.x; i < cdescr_size; i += nthreads)
int offset_y = i / cdescr_width;
int offset_x = i - offset_y * cdescr_width;
descriptor[i] = hist[offset_y * img_block_width * cblock_hist_size + offset_x];
void extract_descrs_by_rows(int win_height, int win_width, int block_stride_y, int block_stride_x, int win_stride_y, int win_stride_x,
int height, int width, float* block_hists, PtrStepSzf descriptors)
const int nthreads = 256;
int win_block_stride_x = win_stride_x / block_stride_x;
int win_block_stride_y = win_stride_y / block_stride_y;
int img_win_width = (width - win_width + win_stride_x) / win_stride_x;
int img_win_height = (height - win_height + win_stride_y) / win_stride_y;
dim3 threads(nthreads, 1);
dim3 grid(img_win_width, img_win_height);
int img_block_width = (width - CELLS_PER_BLOCK_X * CELL_WIDTH + block_stride_x) / block_stride_x;
img_block_width, win_block_stride_x, win_block_stride_y, block_hists, descriptors);
cudaSafeCall( cudaGetLastError() );
cudaSafeCall( cudaDeviceSynchronize() );
Can some one help to change the code to get HOG descriptors for block only. As I have three different windows so I only interested to calculate HOG descriptors for block once.Following
- How to find who synthesized or discovered the chemical drug that i am working on?
After retrieving literature using many scientific search engine, i could not find the drug developer. I appreciate if you could help!Following
- Have you come across any studies where Grounded Theory and Case based method was used together?
I am doing my doctorate. The nature of my problem required me to gather bounded project cases (with proper problem statement, options and resolution in each case). Over 100 in-depth interviews I have conducted are all bounded projects. I am using grounded theory for driving my data collection with theoretical sampling. Coming to data analysis, I am using constant comparison method between interviews. I am wondering if here multiple case studies based analysis is also applicable. Have you seen any such study in which Grounded Theory and case based analysis was used together to form the theory? Please provide some guidance and references.
Oddly enough my doctoral dissertation was a case study (Yin) using Grounded Theory (Charmaz). Charmaz uses a constructivist approach which allows the researcher's role to have a naturalistic role as outlined in Lincoln and Guba's book Naturalistic Inquiry. I found the Glasrian approach to GT not reflective of the reality of a researcher's role in qualitative research.Following
- Anyone have experience with ISI, JCR and Citation Indexes? When I select a journal to publish my papers, I see the indexing part of the journal. Some journals note that they have been indexed in Science Citation Index/Art and Humanity Citation Index and some note that they are indexed in ISI web of knowledge.
What is difference between ISI, JCR and three indexes (Master Journal List) that have been published as Master Journal Lists?Is any journal that is in Master Journal List an ISI journal or not?
I am also something confused about the difference between ISI and JCR Journals.
For example, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. from IOP appears in the journal web site as abstracted, among others, in ISI (Science Citation Index®, SciSearch®, Alerting Services, Current Contents®/Physical, Chemical and Earth Sciences).
Is it an JCR journal or not?Following
- Anyone knows about ageism and inequality?
I am just starting a research project on this topic (more concretely: ageism and inequality in Ecuador). While I do have some idea on each one of the topics, I have a hard time to bring them together - does anyone of you know about studies on ageism and inequality, maybe with a policy perspective?Following
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa easy knockout method?
I'm currently working with this bacteria and I would like to make some knockouts. However, almost every knockout system I find is hard to follow due to difficulties in obtaining the materials or inefficient methods. Lots of plasmids are available for E.coli, but almost none for pseudomonas.
I am looking for a method with not many hard-to-obtain materials with a procedure that would take 3 weeks at maximum to obtain KO bacteria.
Thank you in advance.Following
- Does any one know what is the instruction for assigning two different stiffnes in two directions in SAP 2000?
I am modeling a building in SAP2000 software. The stiffness I have to assign in X direction is different from the one in Y direction. Does any one know how I can assign these two numbers to my building as stiffness?
Where you can view the properties of the elements created, there is a table for each property and axle, with 1.0 value, maybe it can use to modify the stiffness along the axis considered.Following
- Is there any method to identify/quantify dextrans (Non Conjugated) such as UV/ HPLC etc..?
Analytical technqiues for dextrans
Thanks Christian Krill, i have got couple of protocols to start with. :-)Following
- Is anyone working on macrophage processing of antigens resulting in antigen specific immune RNA?
When such iRNA is incubated with B-cells they produce antibodies to such antigens they have not ever been exposed to.Following
- How can I achieve clamped boundary condition for cantilever beam?
How to achieve a realistic clamped boundary condition on a cantilever beam
? The clamped condition would prevent any miniscule movement of the beam at this end and isolate as much vibration as possible from the beam onto supporting structure.
I was thinking of using a heavy mass fixed to the clamped end. Any other good suggestions ?
I concur with the above mentioned opinions. It is far from easy - at least for vibration and getting it close enough to match theory.
The advice about using a free-free large mass (while avoiding any preloding effects on the test object if you want to compare with theory) is also what I would advice for large and mid sized structures.
That said, when making tests on small damped beams to determine loss factors for damping materials, there is a standardized test machine and the test is referred to as an Oberst test. I only found a reference in French
and this one
However, it takes care and skill to get the bounday conditions right in the Oberst test.
So, you need a large stiffness change between support and test object, i.e. the test object must be very weak as compared with the support to mimic a fix condition.
If you want well defined boundary conditions, as stated by Prof Ribiero - free free conditions are much simpler to mimic and the 80%-90% rule gives you a chance to evaluate the quality of your boundary condition.
- Since the magnetic field is a relativistic effect what can we tell about n electromagnetic wave?
How can a change in a relativistic effect as is the magnetic field give rise to an electri field? Does a change in the force brings rise to force? That is what Maxwell s equations tell us. Is there a deeper explanation for this?
I wouldn't call it a deep explanation, but if you make a perturbation around a stable equilibrium configuration, there will always be some kind of restoring forces keeping the configuration close to equilibrium. Otherwise the configuration wouldn't be stable, making it unlikely to find (but there are many interesting exceptions).
In electricity you have Lentz's law, which is attributed to conservation of energy and Newton's third law.
When it comes to the Maxwell equations, I wouldn't dare to think of any simple direct explanation. I would construct the Lagrangian as the simplest scalar possible, and deduce the consequences (and their interpretations) from Hamilton's principle applied to the corresponding action.
Next one can try to construct more general Lagrangians consistent with all symmetry requirements, and see which properties survive, and which are merely artifacts due to a simple Lagrangian. In the end, the deep reasons behind general physical properties most likely are 1) stability properties, 2) causality properties, 3) symmetry properties. And in many cases 4) linearity properties due to small deviations from a stable equilibrium.Following
- What are the contribution groups(as per bensons) of cellulose and xylan(hemicellulose)?
To apply the Group Contribution Method for thermodynamic analysis of these compounds, I have the database of individual group units, but facing difficulty in splitting the elements into the associated contribution groups.Following
- Why did my protein theoretically should be 171kd, but i got a band around 45kd? is it possible ?I appreciate anny help! ?
it is membrane protein from c elegant , mrp protein ! i incubated the protein in 95 degree for 10 minutes and the protein is fresh. why there is no band around 170 KD, but there is band around 45KD?
I'm not an expert in extracting proteins from C. elegans. As you said, there are quite a few non-specific bands in your Western. Have you got a positive control to compare to? Sorry I can't be of much help.
- Do we have sufficient evidence regarding orthodontic tooth movement before apical closure or complete root formation?
Can orthodontic tooth movement be possible before root closure? does it have any adverse effects?Following
- What is the shelf-life of methyl iodide (iodomethane)?
I have two bottles: One copper stabilized and stored at below zero; one with no observable stabilizer (though label says "stabilized") stored at just above zero.
Does anyone know, in general, how long one should keep iodomethane (methyl iodide) before it loses its "pizzazz" (i.e. methylating power)?
- My bereavement counselling client cannot recall her brother's pre-cancer life. How best to help?
My client was bereaved of a younger brother through cancer. He died at 14, she was in her early 20s when he died. She is now in her 40s. She can remember the events of his illness in detail, but is distressed at forgetting all of his pre-cancer life. What is going on & how would you help?
Thanks for your information, John. To protect the confidentiality of your client, I will send you a private message.Following
- What will be the Degree of polymerization(DP) of sugarcane bagasse?
I need to estimate the heat of reaction, for cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis. Since these are polymeric substances, I need the DP values to scale the heat release (computed from monomer TD properties).Following
- What is wrong with my Annexin V and PI staining cell cytometry experiment?
This is my first time doing this assay. I used Annexin V kit from BD and followed the protocol in the kit. I used A549 lung cancer cell line.
1st figure: no Annexin V and no PI
2nd figure: only PI no annexin V
3nd figure: only annexin V no PI
4th figure: add apoptosis inducing agent staurosporine and stain with both Annexin V and PI
5th figure: no inducing reagent but stain both Annexin V and PI
I don't know how to interpret my result. It does not like the example figures in the kit. There seems no live healthy cell in my sample. Did I think it wrong? Any suggestions? Any reasons for my figure look like this?
Thanks in advance for your comments.Following
- How can I input segy data in MATLAB?
How can I input segy data in MATLAB? Please introduce a good function to do this.
For 3D data Matlab is not a good option. We usually use Seismic Unix or Madagascar. in Seismic Unix you can use segyread and in Madagascar sfsegyread.
- Is music therapy useful for every patients and all of diseases?
Music Therapy is the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a credentialed professional who has completed an approved music therapy program. Is it useful for every patients and all of diseases? How?
Although some cultures or even diseases could not bear music therapy without any harmful results, there's a project called "Alive Inside", and you should take a look. I've posted one the links below to you enjoy yourself.
- Can anybody help me with micro modeling a masonry wall with cohesive element ?
first of all pardon me for my poor english writing .
i am a Msc student of structural engineering . i want to model a masonry wall in ABAQUS .
i want to use micro modeling . i model the mortar with cohesive element .
i need your help . the mortar in my project is type M4 but i dont know the specification of this type of mortar like Modulus of elasticity or maximum compressive strength .or maximum tensile strength . in ABAQUS i need this parameters for interaction section ( contact stiffness , Knn , Kss , Ktt , maximum normal stress and shear stress )
please help me how can i find this parameters .
thanks every bodyFollowing
- Does the idea of the thing in itself make transcendental idealism forever unviable as a contemporary epistemology?
It could be argued that the most unappealing feature of Kant's epistemology is the ding an sich. Much of Kant's effort at revising his second edition of the Critique of Pure Reason dealt with parts of the text where this idea is under discussion, e.g. the chapter on Phenomena and Noumena. Must contemporary epistemology reject this idea? Is there still motivation to defend it?
Sorry I wasn't clear.
Kant's considerations, Kant's philosophy have its own merit.
They don't fall with contemporary epistemology. We people of the 21st Century may believe we are at a higher stage of consciousness or awareness and life in a sphere with a mindset that supersedes the one of the people in Kant's era. I would not be surprised when our society - or some other elsewhere in the world, like Asia? - would switch back to a Kantian mindset. I'm afraid this is where they are already.Following