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  • J R Gaur added an answer in Research Topics:
    Forensic Audit and Accounting Dissertation question?

    Hello all, i am considering a dissertation in Forensic Audit and Accounting, and wondering what the research topic should be. i need help on which direction deserve a research work and how difficult or otherwise will it be to access materials in this field.?

    J R Gaur

    Dear Adedeji Owonibi,

    Your problem Forensic Audit  and Accounting is very interesting. If you work on forensic Auditing one way is auditing at scene of crime and in the laboratory regarding collection and examination of physical evidence that is , is it being done as per standard procedures. If you work on accounting then you have to work on documents to find out forgeries and frauds .Both aspects are not difficult. Good Luck----Proceed please.

  • Khurram Munir asked a question in Solidworks:
    What is the easiest way to regenerate a solid part from the STL file ?

    I have been trying to generate a 2D drawing from available STL file of a very complex geometry of a porous structure. I have tried to import STL file into Solidworks but it only gives a graphical view of the model from which generation of 2D CAD drawing is not possible. I have tried another software MeshLab but it only gave me a 2D drawing of one of the face of the modeled structure.

  • Deepthi Hebbale added an answer in Seaweed:
    Can you identify this seaweed species for me?

    Seaweed species found on Rocky shores submerged in the water

    + 3 more attachments

    Deepthi Hebbale

    David ,i am sure these are seaweeds and not polyps

  • Kaleem Ullah asked a question in Publishing:
    Fastest SCI journals related to Optical Physics/applied Physics??

    Hello everyone! i want to know about the SCI journals which having a rapid process of publishing article related to the Optical Physics/Applied Physics..Like OPTICS EXPRESS I.F of 3.49 take 67 days for publishing article... Please tell me with time and impact factor thanks.

  • Ron S Mahabir asked a question in Animation:
    Visual dynamic models of slum growth?


    I'm trying to find a video or animation showing the growth of slums. This would hopefully be based on real data. It is to be used for as part of a presentation and all credit will be given to the owner/publisher.

    Any assistance will be greatly appreciated.



  • Gurpreet Kaur asked a question in Arid:
    Bioactive molecules fromplants grown in arid regions are different from the plants grown in temperate region?

    There are numerous bioactives reported from plants in literature. However, there is no clear comparison between the ones derived from plants growing in arid region compared to ones derived from plants growing in temperate region. Can anyone give in some comments.

  • Rajesh Sanghvi added an answer in MATLAB:
    What does it mean that the cut-off frequency be normalized by the sampling frequency?

    There is a low pass filter . And my sampling frequency is fs. 

    the Matlab code of the lpf is as follows:

    % y = LPFilter(x,fc),
    % Second order zero-phase Lowpass filter
    % inputs:
    % x: vector or matrix of input data (channels x samples)
    % fc: -3dB cut-off frequency normalized by the sampling frequency
    % output:
    % y: vector or matrix of filtered data (channels x samples)

    In the code fc (cut-off frequency) is replaced by 0.7/fs . Can anyone explain why fc is replaced by 0.7/fs ?

    Rajesh Sanghvi

    Suppose there are three observations in centimeters: 10,20 and 40. If I divide these observations by the maximum of them, then the new data will be 0.25, 0.5, 1. Clearly the new range will be from 0 to 1 (If observations are positive). This is called normalization. Of course, there are also other methods to normalize.

    There are signals of different frequency ranges. We need to apply LP,BP,BS,HP filters  on any signal. To make the representation uniform, we divide the range by maximum frequency which is sampling frequency. We consider only positive part because the frequency response is symmetric.

  • R M C S Ratnayake added an answer in Pongamia:
    Does anyone have production information for Pongamia pinnata, a legume in Asian?

    I did Some studies on uses of Pongamia pinnata as a green manure for rice. But lack of sufficient biomass is the problem for implication in farmer's field, So any cultivars give higher yield of biomass?

    R M C S Ratnayake

    Thanks for you all for constructive suggestion. In Sri Lanka in want grow vigorously lime gliricidia or Leucaena leucocephala. Therefore, I think we wee more studies  about Pongamia.

  • Chanchal Kumar Barman added an answer in Single Crystal:
    Is there any software to generate the single crystal surfaces from the bulk structure?

    Software to generate the single crystal surfaces
    Does someone here know it there is any software to generate the single crystal surfaces from the bulk structure?  Thanks in advance!

    Chanchal Kumar Barman

    Thanks Nolze. 
    Yup, I want to simulate the surface relaxation of a bulk material. I can do this relaxation using VASP package. But i was just wondering how to make input POSCAR file for surface.

  • Raja Masood Larik asked a question in Simulink:
    How i may program under voltage load shed relay in Matlab Simulink?

    I am working on under voltage load shedding scheme need to know about under voltage load shed relay working in Matlab simulink

  • Polpass Arul Jose added an answer in Molecular Biology:
    Does the pH of Na acetate affect the quantity of DNA?
    I extract DNA virus from serum using Sodium acetate 3M and ethanol to precipitate DNA, but I wonder whether pH of Na acetate affects the quantity of DNA?
  • Ashwini Yadao asked a question in MATLAB:
    Whats the use of kron function in matlab ?

    Want to know  the exact function of kron function in matlab,

    had gone through matlab help description but still its not much clear.

  • Jahwarhar Izuan Abdul Rashid added an answer in Fermentation Techniques:
    What the best recommended fermentation technique for PLA?

    I need a best method use for fermentation of sugarcane bagasse? 

    Jahwarhar Izuan Abdul Rashid

    The best method for sugarcane baggase fermentation is solid state fermentation (SSF). You can refer a simple SSF methods from my journal



    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Optimization of three parameters, temperature (25-35 degrees C), moisture content (40% (w/v)-60% (w/v) and inoculum sizes (5% (w/v)-15% (w/v) were investigated and optimized by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for optimal mannanase production by Aspergillus terreus SUK-1. A second order polynomial equation was fitted and the optimum condition was established. The result showed that the moisture content was a critical factor in terms of its effect on mannanase. The optimum condition for mannanase production was predicted at 42.86% (w/v) initial moisture (31 C) temperature and 5.5% (w/v) inoculum size. The predicted optimal parameter were tested in the laboratory and the mannanase activity 45.12 IU mL-1 were recorded to be closed to the predicted value (44.80 IU mL-1). Under the optimized SSF condition (31 degrees C, 42.86% moisture content (w/v) and 5.5% inoculum size (w/v)), the maximum mannanase production was to prevail about 45.12 IU mL-1 compare to before optimized (30 degrees C, 50% moisture content (w/v) and 10% inoculum size (w/v)) was only 34.42 IU mL-1.
      Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 05/2011; 14(9):533-9. DOI:10.3923/pjbs.2011.533.539

    + 1 more attachment

  • Kabilan Bose added an answer in Yarrowia:
    What media can I use for reactivate Candida, Pichia and Yarrowia strains that were conserved three years in glycerol mix under -80C?

    Hi, I'm looking for suggestions and some experience that you already had about similar situations. In the beginning I'll will use Malt Extract. Thank you.

    Kabilan Bose

    try with YPD or YPG medium.




  • Dora jimela Kialo added an answer in Education Science:
    Are there examples of design-based studies in education, describing how the problem inventory was done by practitioners and researchers together?

    I am looking for desciptions of the first phases in design-based studies, describing the shared problem inventory and goal formulation of both researchers and practitioners, and also how the research questions evolved during the design process. 

    I find it hard to write about design-based reseach in a "traditional" article form, since the project does not start with a clear question formulated by the researcher, as in "traditional" research. 

    Very grateful for suggestions on publications that address this issue. Prefereably in educational science.

    Dora jimela Kialo

    Yes, Manual Morales,

    OER or Open Educational Resources are very important sources for any student research as they contain almost everything that a physical library has. Besides they are free resources.

  • Veera Pandian asked a question in Fatigue:
    How can i find the fatigue life using SN curve?

    I doing project of improve the fatigue strength of Al 6063 using by age hardening.

  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer in Language:
    What are the pros and cons of a lingua franca? Do the pros outweigh the cons?

    The lingua franca is a two-edged sword. We enjoy the benefits of communicating with each other in a shared idiom, but may be risking the benefits of a multi-cultural society as societal changes occur. If Crystal (2000) is correct that the majority of the world's languages are in danger, do you perceive a negative cultural influence with our sciences being communicated through primarily one language? Crystal communicating on "Dead Language Theory," wrote:

    "The majority of the world’s languages are vulnerable not just to decline but to extinction.

    Over half the world’s languages are moribund, i.e., not effectively being passed on to the next generation…." (p. 19).

    I would love to hear your comments and inquiry.


    Crystal, D. (2000). Language death. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 96. [Excerpt, pp. 1-20] retrieved from http://catdir.loc.gov/catdir/samples/cam032/99053220.pdf

    Krishnan Umachandran

    @ John, i agree that some traditional practices in marking translations, particularly those from L1 to the TL, come down heavily on certain errors of verb morphology.

  • Oliver Manuel added an answer in Hydrogen:

    On pages 153-154 of his 1994 autobiography, "Home Is Where the Wind Blows", Sir Fred Hoyle BLOWS THE COVER ON THE BIGGEST LIE in "STALIN'S SCIENCE?"


    1. Without any new data and without any discussion or debate, Fred Hoyle reports on pages 153-154 of his 1994 autobiography, "Home Is Where the Wind Blows", that mainstream opinions on the internal composition of the Sun were unanimously changed changed from:

    _ a.) Mostly iron (Fe) in 1945 to

    _ b.) Mostly hydrogen (H) in 1946

    2. Twelve years later in 1957, B2FH (Burbidge, Burbidge, Fowler and Hoyle, “Synthesis of elements in stars,” Reviews of Modern Physics 29, 547-650) present data on neutron-capture cross-sections and abundances of neutron-capture products in the solar photosphere in such a way as to convince most solar and nuclear physicists hydrogen fusion is the way stars generate energy and make heavier elements out of hydrogen.

    However, that is NOT TRUE. It was shown in 2005 that the 1957 data for neutron-capture cross-sections and abundances of seventy-two (72) different neutron-capture products in the solar photosphere reveal:

    _ c.) About ten (~10) stages of solar mass-fractionation selectively enriching lighter atoms at the top of the solar photosphere, and

    _ d.) The solar interior consists mostly of iron (Fe)

    See “Solar abundance of elements from neutron-capture cross sections”, paper #1033, 36th Lunar & Planetary Science Conference (LPSC), Houston, Texas, March 14-18, 2005.


    Thus, the experimental data published by B2FH in 1957 in fact FALSIFY:

    _ e.) The 1946 change in the internal composition of the Sun from Fe to H, and

    _ f.) The 1957 B2FH paper on element synthesis in stars from hydrogen-fusion

    + 1 more attachment

    Oliver Manuel

    Your question is answered in the paper, "Stalin's science."  


  • Veera Pandian asked a question in Heat Treatment:
    Any possible condition to improve the fatigue strength of Al 6063 by using Age Hardening (heat treatment)?

    I doing project of improve the fatigue strength of Al 6063 using by age hardening.

  • Henri A Ménard added an answer in Spondyloarthritis:
    What is the role of sulphasalazine in axial Spondyloarthritis?

    The Context first

    1. Per capita income in India is about US$ 1600 and due to the skewed distribution of wealth almost 80% live below this level (i.e mean income is significantly higher than the median income which is closer to $ 600)

    2. The annual cost of conventional DMARDs ranges from US$ 20-US$ 120 in India while Biologics cost about USD 6000-8000 per annum with their Biosimilar versions costing between USD 3000- 4000 per annum. Less than 3% Indian households earn enough to afford biosimilars (if they were to devote their entire income towards it) and less than 1% can afford Biologics on their own.

    3. Only about 21% of patients are covered by insurance/Govt schemes where biologicals can be considered as an option (and not all insurance schemes easily pay for the biologicals)

    4. Hence, almost 77-78% of the country (I suspect it is closer to 85%) cannot have biologic agents in their algorithm as it is well over their per capita income. This is likely to be true for over 60% of the world population.

    5. The current guidelines for managing Axial Spondyloarthropathies recommend shifting to a biologic agent (anti TNF) once we declare failure with 2 NSAIDs. The old drug Sulphasalazine has been almost made redundant in the guidelines calling it ineffective, despite numerous studies in the past showing improvement in various domains in upto half the patients. Of course, it is not a match to biologics but I suspect that its role is not so bad either (personal experience), especially when seen in the global context, respecting the economic realities.

    The Question now

    1.      Specifically in this context that covers the majority of world population, what is the role of sulphasalazine for pure axial spondyloarthitis. 

    2.      How would one manage the chronic pain (over years) juggling between NSAIDs, Sulphasalazine and steroids when the economics specifically prohibit biologics.

    Henri A Ménard

    There is indeed literature still appearing on parenteral bisphosphonates for ASp.  most being favorable in spite of a generally neutral individual clinical experience (publication bias?).   I guess, like you all,  I would still try it in a given medico-resistant patient.  My question is why they should work in the first place. Is it another designer drug being used empirically?  If SSZ turns out to be sub-par, IV bisphosphonates may not be a cost-effective alternative for anti-TNFs in India.  Interesting discussion.

  • Prakash Parajuli added an answer in Ethyl Acetate:
    How can I solve the problem of emulsion during ethyl acetate extraction?

    I frequently come across the problem: The formation of emulsion while ethyl acetate extraction during the metabolite extraction from E. coli culture medium. How do I remove this emulsion?

    Prakash Parajuli

    Thank you Titus Sobisch for your alternative answer. I will share the practical result whatever comes.

  • Jahwarhar Izuan Abdul Rashid added an answer in Composite Design:
    Can anybody give me an idea on how to use response surface methodology in adsorption and what kind of software should i use?

    Response surface methodology and central composite design (CCD)

    Jahwarhar Izuan Abdul Rashid

    Hi Imran, You can use Design Expert software for RSM and CCD design. I use it for my RSM and CCD works

  • Yasir Mahmood added an answer in Vitamin D:
    Does sunscreen inhibit Vitamin D synthesis?

    Is there adequate research at this time, to make a conclusion on whether or not wearing sunblock interferes at all or significantly with Vit D synthesis?  Has this been researched thoroughly?

    Yasir Mahmood

    Hi Dr Tomasz

    Some extent you are right but actually it is not as you expaecting. Nowadays, vitamin D deficiency has become a pandemin among world population. Even those westearn people which are used to have sun bath are found to be vitamin D deficient because of excess use of sun screen formulations. Our food contain very less amount of vitamin D which is not enough to fulfill our daily need. The measures of vitamin D deficiency has changed nowadays among scientists. For detail you can visist www.vitamindcouncil.org website.


  • Awani Bhushan asked a question in Finite Element Modeling:
    What do yo mean byc Circular dependency of stress?

    How can we implement, Circular dependency in a Finite Element model.

  • Chang-Nim Im added an answer in Brain Tumors:
    Biopsy from patient with brain tumor?

    I wonder whether to get biopsy from patient with brain tumor possible. Is it practically possible?

    Chang-Nim Im

    Thanks, Supriya!

  • Periyayya Uthirakumar added an answer in Doping:
    How to prepare x mol % of Fe doped Tio2?

    i have to make nano size phtocatalyst that is Fe doped Tio2...kindly tell me how to prpare x mol % or wt % of fe-tio2...means how many grams or moles of fe and tio2 are required to make x mol % or wt %..here x=0.01, 0.05 mol % or wt %?

    Periyayya Uthirakumar

    I think it is very basic question you asked me here. First, find out how to prepare one molar solution for Fe solution and mix accordingly depending on your required mole% values and proceed.

    Good luck.

  • Eric B. J. Harris added an answer in Nitrobenzenes:
    Why are o-iodonitrobenzene and o-fluoronitrobenzene both active in the following reaction, but the bromo and chloro derivatives are not?

    Carrying out a nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction with a carbon nucleophile, the iodo and fluoro nitrobenzenes were both active. Proceeding through the characteristic Meisenheimer intermediate the fluoro is expected as you get inductive stabilisation, why is the iodo system also active and not the other two halides?

    The mechanism is complicated by the possibility of additional proton transfers. I am currently speculating that high polarisability function of the iodo group offers additional stabilisation or that the iodo activity may be due to trace transition metals, although addition of Pd(PPh3)4 does not seem to singificantly alter the observed yields.

    Eric B. J. Harris

    The synthetic pathway in which this reaction was situated has since been abandoned. Although the mechanistic considerations are interesting and perhaps worth revisiting with an appropriate radical stable, 2-substituted 1,3-dione; alpha aryl quaternary centres being quite synthetically useful.

  • Devishree Thirunavukkarasu asked a question in Writing:
    How to write a transfer function for the temperature module and pressure module?
    • i have input and output values. how to write a transfer function
    • give me an example
  • Syamala Devi Bhoganadam asked a question in Entrepreneurship:
    Is there any information flow between social networks and entrepreneurship?

    many researcher's had identified that social networks play an important role in entrepreneurial emergence but how this information flows from social networks to entrepreneurs? is there any conceptual linkage between them?