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  • Vathan Kumar asked a question in GraphPad Prism:
    Could anyone suggest on how to plot Lineweaver-Burk plot?

    I am measuring Ki for the inhibitor I have synthesized. I have finished all the experiments and need to plot the results to know if its a competitive inhibitor. I have never used Graphpad Prism. Could anyone suggest on how to use it to plot the Lineweaver-Burk plot? 
    Alternatively you could suggest other software which can help me with the assessment. 

  • The difference in the productivity and selectivity of phyochemical extraction in laboratory scale compared to the same in industrial scale?

    We have optimized the extraction some phytochemicals in laboratory scale.How can I contend that our optimization should work at a larger scale?

    What are the factors or aspects influence the difference in the productivity and selectivity of phyochemical extraction in laboratory scale compared to the same in industrial scale?

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay · Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gorakhpur University

    For laboratory scaling you can adopt and use any methods that shows an yield and quality of product up to 90%, but for laboratory-pilot technological scaling one should need a method that can show both values above 99%. Further in laboratory one can do work with 500 mg-1 gm of phytoconstituent but for laboratory scaling product is synthesized from kgs to tonnes in weight. That is only possible by technological development and higher scaling of project, market value and production cost and taxes. Hence, material should be row and low cost. Technology may be the best one to enhance the  quality of the product.

  • Behzad Behzadnia added an answer in Sport:
    Motivations in Martial and Non-Martial Sports?

    I would like to measure behavioral regulations (motivation) in Martial sports, by comparison with Non-Martial Sports.
    I am curious to receive either published or unpublished research in this area.
    Any help would be appreciated.

    Behzad Behzadnia · Urmia University

    Dear Reiss,

    Thank you for your response.

    I am looking for any publish-unpublished data in this domain (comparing Martial sports with Non-Martial Sports) rather than any instrument etc.

    I have gather data by Behavioral Regulations in Sport questionnaire (BRSQ-6; Londsale et al. 2008) base on the self-determination theory.


  • How to Extraction DNA filamentous actinomycetes?

    How to extract DNA from filamentous actinomycetes?
    I am using Kit Extraction DNA Genomic DNA Purification Kit GeneJet
    I am using a Tris-HCl, EDTA, Triton X-100, and Lysozym as lysis buffer.

    but do not get good results

    Thank you for Answers

    Sivasankar Palaniappan · Annamalai University

    Dear Prasetya,

    Actinobacteria consisting of rigid cell wall. Even the regidity of the Actinobacterial cell wall varies from species to their growing environment. Most DNA isolation kits are works well in all bacterial samples. But not on Actinobacteria. So, Better go for optimized protocol. Will give you better results in all the cases. 

    Herewith, I am enclosing a reference article. Kindly follow the DNA extraction method given in this article. Which is most efficient and time consuming. And you can follow this protocol for any microorganism.

    with best regards


  • William R. Buckley added an answer in Probability:
    What is the relationship between randomness and probability?

    Are randomness and probability independent of one another, or does one depend on the other, or are they different expressions of the same thing?   

    William R. Buckley · California Evolution Institute

    Ramon, of course we know from Turing that Borel is incorrect, since we may encode in such a real number the question regarding the halting of some third program; we know that the proper answer is that such determination, halting, cannot be made.

  • Ravi Kant Upadhyay added an answer in Foeniculum:
    What couid be the method for extracting only transanethole component from fennel seed extract and thymol from ajwain seed extract?

    Transanethole is the major phytoconstituent present in Fennel (saunf, Foeniculum vulgare Mill)

    Thymol is the major phytoconstituent present in ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi)

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay · Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gorakhpur University

    Solvent distillation and column chromatography factionation are important methods by which you can isolate phyto-constituents from Fennel (saunf, Foeniculum vulgare Mill) and ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi).

  • Kavitha Rao added an answer in Glass Transition:
    Why does DMA Loss Modulus increase and decrease?


    I understand the loss modulus increases as the polymer approaches the glass transition temperature, but why does the loss modulus decrease after the polymer temperature is higher then its glass transition temperature?

    Kavitha Rao · National Aerospace Laboratories

     Dr.  Robert ,

    At present i am working on viscoelastic characterization of Epoxy based polymers. I have  used Zener model (maxwel in parallel with  a spring). I have evaluated model parameters at various temperatures. I have  found the E and Eta  values of maxwel model initially increases  with temperature at glassy region and  then it decreases. where as E of individual spring decreases with the increase in temperature. is it analogous to loss modulus increasing with temperature at glassy state???

    Please give  me  reference paper so that in my paper i can cite that article.

  • What is the earliest or one of the earliest papers reporting on interventions to increase physical activity?

    I am looking for the earliest possible research paper describing a physical activity intervention (not ancient). I want to basically know when it all started and who started it.

  • Braj Krishna asked a question in Yield strength:
    Can we find the fatigue life of materials without performed the test on the basis of young's modulus, yield strength, ultimate strength?

    Is it possible theoretical evaluation of fatigue life on the basis of mechanical properties of material?

  • Orly Spivak asked a question in Conducting:
    What is the amount of protein required to perform a Co-IP experiment using cell lysate?

    For those who have conducted Co-IP before, I would like to know the amount of protein required for Co-IP experiment. We will use lysate from cells.

  • James DSouza added an answer in Microbial Symbiosis:
    Can you recommend a manual or book to study symbiont microorganisms?

    Many books are disponible, but what is the best for bacteria and fungi in your opinion?

    James DSouza · St xavier`s College Goa

    If u are looking for manual then see .. the classic one..

    1)Schecnk And Perez

    2) Rodrigues & muthukumar 2009

    3) www. invam Site..

    4) www.amf-phylogeny.com

  • Jitendra Carpenter added an answer in CZTS:
    How do you prepare the CZTS nanoparticle dispersion liquid sample for TEM analysis and what type of grid is need for that?

    I have prepared CZTS nanoparticles and then dispersed in Toluene or 1-hexanethaniol solvent. 0.2 grams/ ml is my concentration. I have used that 300 carbon grid with adding one drop of czts liquid on it for size of the particle analysing. But I have not observed particles on this grid. Can anyone tell me how to prepare the CZTS liquid sample on grid and what type of grid I have to use for it?

    Jitendra Carpenter · Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur

    You Can use the Cu-grid for the sample during analysis

  • Stefan Neagu added an answer in Climate Change:
    Is it time we shift emphasis from technological solutions to climate change & focus on the 'Human Dimension'?

    Is it not obvious that nature can heal itself, if only left alone? Many natural parks managers do just that; seal off the area from human interference to let nature heal and recover. It is classified as 'Strict Nature Reserve"by IUCN. Complacency is not advocated here, as many have misunderstood, but the shifting of focus from technology to the human being. As technology is no match for human greed, isn't introspection & restraining ourselves more relevant than developing more technology, which caused the mess in the first place, by making it easy for a few to consume more? Since technology is only a short term quickfix which fails after a short time, isn't the real problem our addiction to material consumption & our lack of understanding about human nature? Isn't developing more technology sustaining the addiction instead of correcting it, leading to more complex problems later on, needing more complex technological quickfixes like higher drug dosages, more ground troops & equipment, (along with their debilitating side effects) in the future? Isn't this the vicious addiction circle we are trapped in? As researchers, do we merely buy more time with technology OR go to the very root of the problem, the human being?

    A lot of hue and cry is made about climate change and the environment in general. Public and private money is poured into research to study its effects on the environment, sustainability etc. Should we study nature or ourselves?

    " Our studies must begin with our selves and not with the heavens. "-Ouspensky

    Human activities have been found to have a direct correlation to climate change and its impact on the environment(I=P x A x T, the Ehrlich and Holdren equation), in spite of what some complacent sections say to protect their own self interests.

    We hardly know about Human nature. We can scarcely predict human behavior. We need to find out why we think like we do and why we do what we do and why, in spite of all knowledge and wisdom, consume more than what we need, in the form of addictions to consumption and imbalance not only ourselves but also the family, society and environment around us..
    Humanity is directly responsible for all the unnatural imbalances occurring on the planet. Yet we refuse to take responsibility and instead focus on climate change, or fool the public exchequer with a 'breakthrough in renewable energy just around the corner'. We scarcely know what drives human beings. If we had known, all the imbalances around us would have had solutions by now, given the amount of money plowed into finding such solutions. Are we blindly groping in the dark of climate change because we don't know the answers to our own nature?
    Is it not high time we focus on what makes us human, correct our consumptive behavior and leave nature to take care of climate change? Why focus effort on 'externals' when the problem is 'internal'- 'me'?
    Aren't we addicts denying our addiction and blaming everything else but ourselves?

    " We are what we Think.

    All that we are arises with our thoughts.

    With our thoughts, we make the world." - Buddha 

    IMHO, We don't need to save the World. It is enough if we save ourselves from ourselves. The need of the hour is not vain glorious interventions, but self-restraint and self-correction!

    The Mind is the Final frontier.

    Stefan Neagu · Forest Research and Management Institute

    Yes, focus on the human dimension, and also discriminate between the concepts of prosperity vs. well-being or pride vs. happiness.

  • Vibha Taneja asked a question in Motor Neurons:
    Is there any human motor neuronal cell line available?

    We are interested in examining the effect of CSF from MND patients on motor neuron cells.

  • What are the key challenges to boost productivity on a sustained basis?

    Progress will not be without its challenges, but it can be
    achieved. It takes serious strategic planning by manufacturing
    firms; rethinking product design; experimentation
    with new organizational structures; reengineering or creation
    of new business processes; reconfiguration of reward
    and compensation systems to align with desired business
    outcomes; implementation of support infrastructures; and
    training or hiring of qualified people. Most important, it
    takes the commitment, courage, and willfulness of the
    executive management team to implement and sustain
    the type of environment needed to support a business
    model in which new-condition and remanufactured products
    are both incorporated into one strategic enterprise
    focus. With a little bit of effort, everyone wins, regardless
    of perspective.

    Jaharkanti Dattagupta · Novel Group of Institutes

    I understand that the question is in respect of manufacturing industry, where in Indian context, the growth is not significant. The ' Productivity ' ,being ratio of ' Output / Input ' can only be improved either by increasing output or by reducing input. Hence management's effort is essential in improving productivity per person engaged, waste management, reduction in rejection, quality control and value engineering. In short, effective utilization of all the organizational resources ( Human resource, Technological resource, Financial resource ), will lead to higher productivity. For sustainable productivity improvement, companies must adopt the concept of green supply chain & green manufacturing, where people, process and profit will be taken care of. Man , Machine and Environment must co-exist in a symbiotic relationship.

  • Gaurang Raval added an answer in Programming C++:
    Is a bio-inspired self programming model possible in WSN?

    Hello all,

    Is a bio-inspired self programming model possible in WSN?

    This model can be used is many applications, but is it possible in real scenario?

    Gaurang Raval · Nirma University

    Please check following,


  • Eric Lord added an answer in Special Relativity:
    When it comes to simultaneity is Einstein correct or is Dingle correct?

    Albert Einstein claimed in 1905 that a single event can occur simultaneously at different times within two inertial reference frames moving relative to one another. In 1950 Herbert Dingle argued that different times cannot be simultaneous. I have analysed this conflict by deriving the Lorentz equations using both points of view. According to this analysis Dingle must be correct. See youtube presentation of this analysis at  https://youtu.be/4XLYzhHQ64Y

    Eric Lord · Indian Institute of Science

    Dear Johan ~

    If you know this, why are you arguing that the concept of "space-time" is valid?

    I think like this. Suppose an oscillator (ie., a “clock”) fixed at the spatial origin of an inertial frame K emits a signal once in T seconds. For an observer in K the signals are emitted at t = 0, T, 2T, 3T,…

    For an observer in an inertial frame K′, with an identical clock fixed to the spatial origin of K′, his own clock’s signals occur at t′ = 0, T, 2T, 3T,… That is, the two clocks have the same frequency (1/T). They run at the same rate.

    From the point of view of the observer in K the clock in K′ is emitting signals at t = 0, γT, 2γT, 3γT,… This is what the Lorentz transformation tells me. It doesn’t tell me that the clock in K′ actually “runs at a slower rate”. There is no “time dilation” (very bad terminology that leads people astray - a better term would be “the γ effect”).

    The γ effect is quite analogous to the Doppler effect. Indeed, the relativistic Doppler effect combines into a single formula the γ effect and the classical Doppler effect, and applies when the observer in K actually receives information from the clock in K′ via light signals.  There is no “paradox” here: the same phenomena apply when we consider the clock in K from the viewpoint of the observer in K′.

    “…why are you arguing that the concept of "space-time" is valid?

    I find that sketching diagrams in terms of an x-axis and a t-axis helps me to think. The Lorentz transformation can then be represented diagrammatically as a change of axes. A visual aid, nothing more. Unlike you, I have no objection to Minkowski’s mathematical extension of the idea to four axes.

  • Khozema Ahmed Ali asked a question in Light:
    How to does light intensity and wavelength, (UV light vs visible light) effects product yield for photocatalysis process?

    how can we relate the light source to the product yield. i found a few papers that briefly explains that UVC light emits higher power that visible light, thus product yield will decrease with increase in light wavelength. is there any better and detailed explanation on this?

  • Is it trendy to make a checklist of bioinformatics tools? Will it be publishable?

    Bioinformatics tools and applications

  • Khalil H. Sayidmarie added an answer in CST:
    How can I add two plots together in CST with different structures to compare S21 and S11 parameters?



    Khalil H. Sayidmarie · University of Mosul

    Thanks to all colleagues whose answers have helped  us to improve our experience in using CST.

  • Any one know what's the latest way of drug delivery system ?

    new way to deliver a drug systematically

    Prem Prakash Das · National University of Singapore

    Peptide based drug delivery system.

    Peptide are designed at nano level to deliver drug to the specific targets. peptides can be designed as Nanotube, Nanovasicles, Nanosheets and so on. These nanostructures have immense potential to delivers drugs to targets like cancer etc. 

  • Byung-Do Choi added an answer in Ostracoda:
    Can anyone help me. Is this a juvenile bivalve? or an ostracod?

    I found this benthic fauna on mangrove sediment. But I am not sure whether it as bivalve or ostracoda. Can anyone help me with the identification.

    Byung-Do Choi · Chonnam National University


  • Meenakshi Devikar asked a question in Massive MIMO:
    What is mean by error floor? it is mentioned "there are non zero floors at high SNRs". what does it mean?

    Dear all this is about energy efficiency and capacity limit of massive mimo. 

  • Soo-Jin Jeong added an answer in FLUENT:
    How to improve the lateral and vertical velocity accuracy when simulating flow pattern in channel confluence?

    Dear all,

    I am using FLUENT (choose VOF model, Realizable k-epsilon model and Non-Equilibrium Wall Functions) to simulate the flow pattern in channel confluence with 90° confluence angle. But when I validat the velocity results, I find that only the velocity along the flow direction can match my laboratory experiment results, none of the lateral, vertical velocity and turbulent kinetic energy.

    Please help me and give me some advice, thank you very much.

    Soo-Jin Jeong · Korea Automotive Technology Institute

    I think there are several reasons you are not satisfied with your computational results. First, realizable k-e model you chose is based on the assumption of isotropic turbulence
    that makes this model produce a large turbulent viscosity leading to erroneous results. However, you can have many alternatives such as nonlinear k-epsilon models, RSM, DES, LES models which can experss non-linear effect of turbulent flows.

    Secondly, Fluid flow near the channel wall is often very complex in terms of both its mean and turbulent structure. Although research is still required to improve understanding of these regions, the general principles of fluid mechanics show that fluid flow near these boundaries experience a rapid decrease in velocity in order to comply with the no-slip condition. Therefore, an extremely fine grid near these boundaries,
    together with excessive computational effort, is usually required in order to simulate their effect on the fluid velocity. Additionally, you should very carful to choose te value of constants included in the wall function expresson.

    Thirdly, for more accurate solution, you need to select higher order of differencing scheme (higher than 2nd order) for convection term. However, you should be noted that if no air is allowed to enter through the upstream boundary, or if the air flow rate is too small, then large recirculating regions of air may occur above the water. This reversal of air flow back up the channel then causes computational instabilities.

    Good luck~!

  • Sulthan Khan asked a question in Archives:
    Endorsement in arxiv for section of statistics?

    I request existing archiv member to endorse me at the math.ST section, please visit the following URL:


    If that URL does not work for you, please visit


    and enter the following six-digit alphanumeric string:

    Endorsement Code: DTFRZC

  • Ravi Kant Upadhyay added an answer in Intermittency:
    What is benefits of intermittant fasting?

    effects on Insulin and cholesterol

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay · Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gorakhpur University

    Intermittent fasting is not a diet, it’s a pattern of eating. It’s a way of scheduling your meals so that you get the most out of them. Intermittent fasting doesn’t change whatyou eat, it changes when you eat. If some one skip breakfast each day and eat two meals, the first around 1pm and the second around 8pm. Then,he fast for 16 hours until he start eating again the next day at 1pm.

    It increase  muscle mass (up 10 pounds from 205 to 215), and decreases body fat (down 3% from 14% to 11%), increases explosiveness (set a personal best with a clean and jerk of 253 pounds a few months back), and decreasee the amount of time spent in training (down from 7.5 hours per week to 2.5 hours per week).

    Person feels stronger, leaner, and more explosive even though he go to the gym less and eat less. It changes the  lifestyle and there are tons of health benefits of intermittent fasting.

  • How do we determine whether the CO2 gas is already saturated in amine solution or not?

    The current research is about the conversion of CO2 into organic products by using photocatalysts. Before the conversion, I need to capture and saturate the CO2 gas in amine solution and irradiate with the light for the conversion process.

  • Can anybody help how to analyse quinapyramine by HPLC?

    Can anybody help how to analyse quinapyramine by HPLC?

    yes, If  any other literature/