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  • Saleh Alkarim added an answer in Delphi Method:
    ¿What are the main problems of the Delphi method?

    Problems related to the application of the method

    Saleh Alkarim


    find links here will help you

    Good Luck 

    + 4 more attachments

  • Atiqa Khan added an answer in ENVI:
    Any advice on TCT in Confusion Matrix in ENVI 5.2?

    Im working on ENVI 5.2, with Tasseled cap (TCT). The resulted output from this process is in ENVI Standard format, which shows error when used as an input in Confusion Matrix... For this i want its output in ENVI Classification format. I also tried this by using "Edit ENVI Header" tool... This requires Classes for classification... I dont know how to add/select classes from TCT image. Kindly Suggest...

    Atiqa Khan

    Thankyou for the suggestion.

  • Roland Iosif Moraru added an answer in Heroism:
    Do you believe in charisma? Would you support and follow a charismatic leader?

    In his key theory of power and authority explained in his last and unfinished book “Economy and Society” (E&S), Max Weber presents three types of authority: traditional, rational and charismatic. Weber defines charismatic authority as "resting on devotion to the exceptional sanctity, heroism or exemplary character of an individual person, and of the normative patterns or order revealed or ordained by him" (E&S, 215). That is, charisma is a quality of an individual personality that is considered extraordinary, and followers may consider this quality to be endowed with supernatural, superhuman, or exceptional powers or qualities. Whether such power actually exists or not is irrelevant; the fact that followers believe that such powers exist is what is important. Weber also considers charisma to be a driving and creative force, which surges through traditional authority and established rules. The sole basis of charismatic authority is the recognition or acceptance of the claims of the leader by the followers. While it is irrational, in that it is not calculable or systematic, it can be revolutionary, breaking traditional rule and even challenging legal authority (E&S, 241-242).

    Nowadays, there is a growing criticism regarding political leaders, political parties and even more to candidates to world leaders as well as a large abstentionism in democratic elections, namely throughout Europe. Discussing the future in E&S, Weber rightly suggested that social struggles wouldn’t be exclusively class based, but it would still follow ethnic and nationalist grounds, thus becoming a fertile territory for charismatic leaders’ adventures (E&S, 39). Are we now facing the threat of the irruption of charismatic leaderships able to mobilize countless people and turning into strong regional or global movements regardless their ideas?

    Roland Iosif Moraru

    Yes for both question, but maintaining the restriction introduced by George, regarding politicians.

  • Julio César Calvo-Alvarado asked a question in Electronic Devices:
    We are interested in electronic devices that measure the diameter of the trees daily and communicate with data logger. What are the best devices?
  • Majid Talebi added an answer in Atomic Force Microscopy:
    Is it possible to calculate the vibration constant of AFM Tip by considering the thermal vibrations?


    Is it possible to calculate the vibration constant of AFM Tip by Incorporating the thermal effects and/or considering the thermal vibrations?

    If yes, can you explain how can i calculate it?

    I want to know more in this field, can you offer any references?

    Thank you

    Majid Talebi

    Thank you

  • Reza Hadavi added an answer in Transfection:
    How to transfect primary murine NK cells?

    Does anybody have experience with the transfection of primary murine NK cells? I would like to take my mRNA experiments to a new level and verify my findings, but as far as I read it is not so easy to transfect them. Since this is an important part of my Master project I would be very thankful for any advice.

    Reza Hadavi

    Transfection of primary cells is very difficult and almost impossible to say which is the best way to use viral vectors.


    Other ways to spend money and time.
    good luck.

  • Bernadine Ang asked a question in Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry:
    Triple quadrupole mass spectrometry ms/ms mode determination of protease used peptide produced?

    How do you know the protease used to produce peptide with sequence NH2-A-V-A-G-C-A-G-A-R-CO2H

  • Boris Sedunov asked a question in Thermophysical Properties:
    Has somebody examples of the molecular dynamics simulation results corresponding to experimental thermophysical properties of real gases?

    What I see in literature, the results of molecular dynamics simulation are frequently compared with results of other researchers, but not with experimental data, as far as real gases are concerned.

  • Rodney P Jones added an answer in Epidemiologic Studies:
    Do you have access to detailed death statistics in your country?

    I have been documenting strange step-like changes in deaths in a number of countries and would like others to check and see if these observations can be replicated using small-area death statistics. Attached is a paper documenting the parallel effects of these events on medical admissions to hospital and it gives an idea of the sort of analysis which could be required.

    If needed many of the supporting studies can be accessed at www.hcaf.biz in the 'Emergency Admissions' web page - which also contains the published stuidies on deaths.

    Much appreciated if you can assist.

    Rodney P Jones

    Hi All, Answers to your replies as follows. 

    1. Already have New Zealand data and can confirm that it behaves exactly the same as Australian and UK data.

    2. Detailed means monthly deaths (all-cause mortality) by spatial unit (which can be a region, authority, city, or very small area such as LSOA and MSOA in the UK). Data is needed at a minimum from 2006 to date.

    3. For those studying the issue of increased deaths in their country need to urgently read the series of publications on my website www.hcaf.biz in the 'Emergency Admissions' folder. Emergency medical admissions and deaths are showing linked behaviour. Especially read the paper 'Are emergency admissions contagious?' The behaviour is consistent with outbreaks of a new type of infectious agent.

  • Hazim Hashim Tahir added an answer in Capitalism:
    Capitalism vs. Democracy: Are democracies in developed and developing world are able to protect the rights of common citizens against capitalism?

    Mass production of goods (in 15-16th century) divided the society into capitalists and labourers followed by developments of democracies to counter the effects of capitalism.

    What do you think about rights of equality in dimensions of inequality among citizens in different countries and nations?

    Hazim Hashim Tahir

    Dear Colleagues,

    Good Day,

    "I think that the future belongs to democracy, but not to capitalism, because they are opposite camps."
                                                ------   Ricardo Alarcon

  • Mohammed Abdel-samie Abdel-Halim added an answer in Transformers:
    Why we not consider meachanical losses as a resion for the power loss in a transformer?

    Please explain.

    Mohammed Abdel-samie Abdel-Halim

    As there is no mechanical rotation in transformers, no mechanical losses exist. the vibration of the core lamination does not cause significant mechanical losses.

  • Vincenzo Riva added an answer in Grinding:
    Ceramics pigments: Is grinding under one micron possible?

    Grinding  under micron ceramic pigments.
    When using a pigment finely ground under one micron in most cases, is not obtained initial coloring (no grinding).

    What does it depend ? the destruction of the crystal structure? (Wet grinding is done)

    How to avoid this?

    Better to change the type of synthesis? (Solid state reaction with So gels or other types?)

    Can someone help me?

    Thanks in advancee..

    Vincenzo Riva

    Many thanks to all for the answers. .

    Dear Prof. Marcos Augusto Lima Nobre: 

     how to re-engineer the crystal structures? what parameters you mean?
    my problem is precisely the presence of some elements in the glass that alters the composition of the pigment particles. (replacement of elements)

    Dear Mirabbos Hojamberdiev :

    I will check the phase with XRD.

    Thanks in advance at all.

  • Umut Cagin Ari added an answer in Sperm:
    Does anyone know some immobilizing solution for pikeperch (Sander lucioperca)?

    I would like to carry out an experiment focused on pikeperch sperm and want to imobilise the pikeperch spermatozoa for few minutes (about 30min). As I know, there are some solutions which are able to slow down the movement but they can not stop the spermatozoa motions completely.

    Umut Cagin Ari

    Dear Miroslav,

    I worked on trout semen cryopreservation ten years ago. When we wanted to activate trout spermatozoa, we were using hypo-tonic solutions. As you know trout lives in freshwater and their spermatozoa activate when contacted with fresh  water (hypo-tonic).  For example 100-150 mOSM NaCl or fructose. Trout spermatozoa are inactive in isotonic (near 300 mOSM) solutions. I am not working on fish semen cryopreservation at the moment. Moreover, I have not got any experience on Zander fish. However, I know Zander lives in fresh and also brackish water. I think you should try different solutions with different osmotic pressure. Maybe in Zander fish spermatozoa are not totally inactivated with osmotic pressure. 

    An other important point is temperature of solution and microscope slide. We cooled slides and microscope for best results. Because as you know trout lives in cold water and their spermatozoa also wants cold water for activation... As I said before I have no experience about Zander fish and their spermatozoa physiology. 

    I hope you will find best solution for inactivation of Zander spermatozoa.

    Good luck,


  • Joan Vaccaro added an answer in Pediatrics:
    What is the average no show pediatric appointments?

    Pedaitric patients average no show appointments

    Joan Vaccaro

    Sharon, this sounds like an important concern. I am wondering the age-range for the appointments. I would think infants to preschool need to get shots to prevent childhood diseases; however, wellness care for children sometimes can be put on hold due to busy schedules, or so the parents may think. Are you looking for data? I think each medical group would have different results. Do you suppose the results differ by region (US) or by education level of the parent? Here is a link to an article of poor attendance and high cancellations of children with diabetes.

  • Fatma Özkan asked a question in eCognition:
    Have you ever heard verb of ecognition?

    Have you ever heard verb of ecognition? Can you give an example?

  • Mohsin Majeed asked a question in Electric Impedance:
    Why there is a decreasing trend of electrical impedance of piezoelectric transducer in frequency domain?

    While studying piezoelectric transducer in frequency domain, it is found that electrical impedance has highest peak or value at fundamental frequency but decreases at higher harmonics. why it has a decreasing trend?

  • Massih Afghah added an answer in Hierarchy:
    How are habitat, niche and ecosystem defined with the same set of attributes?

    Most text book definitions of habitat, niche and ecosystem seem rather imprecise and unrelated to each other, particularly from a spatial perspective. I wonder whether there is a source or attempt defining the three terms with the same set of attributes. One difference seems the number of species. Habitat and niche refer to a single species, ecosystems to one or more. Habitat and ecosystem are a volume within the biosphere with geographic coordinates, whereas a niche could be defined as a set of functional relationships within a habitat. Further, habitat has a single size depending on the size of the organism and its mobility (rooted plants versus the rest) whereas ecosystems occur as a nested hierarchy volumes. 

    Massih Afghah

    Dear Hein

    I recommend Kei (2010) entitled Handbook of Research on Methods and Techniques for Studying Virtual . You can find it in link below: 




  • Gheorghe Solcan added an answer in Histopathology:
    Can anyone identify the Histopathological changes of the dog skin slide and final diagnosis of the disease?

    Can anyone identify the Histopathological changes of the dog skin slide and final diagnosis of the disease?

    + 9 more attachments

    Gheorghe Solcan

    Clinical data would be very helpfull. Also new stains (PAS; Immunohistochemistry )

  • Kenneth M Towe added an answer in Monsoon:
    Anyone watching the Indian monsoon vs the Arabian-Pakistan Dust Cloud?

    Today there is a storm between India and Arabia, and via the Colorado State website at http://rammb.cira.colostate.edu/products/tc_realtime/archive.asp?product=16kmgwvp&storm_identifier=IO912015 -- you can see the interaction between the storm and the Arabia-Pakistan Dust Cloud, image attached. I am viewing the Metosat 7, "Storm Relative 16 km Geostationary Water Vapor Imagery"  Anyone else watching this interaction between the monsoon moisture and the Dust Cloud?

  • Khalid Muzafar added an answer in interscalene block:
    Which is more common, the occurrence of Hypotension Bradycardia Event (HBE) during shoulder arthroscopy in block alone or block associated with GA?
    Khalid Muzafar

    i think otherwise, have seen few HBE with block only rather than block with GA.

  • Lilian Passarelli added an answer in Ornamental Plants:
    Can anyone help me identify this ornamental plant?

    This plant is successfully cultivated in Jordan as ornamental plant, but I am unable to find it as a species in the local or neighboring floras.

    + 2 more attachments

    Lilian Passarelli

    Yes, I am sure Brachychiton populneus. Es comun en plazas de Argentina.

  • Béatrice Marianne Ewalds-Kvist added an answer in Workplace:
    How does the lack of communication in the workplace affect it's employees?

    I read one article that states the lack of being listened to can lead to stress which can affect your health. Have you seen any research to support this article?

    Béatrice Marianne Ewalds-Kvist

    Dear Edna, 

    It is very stressful to not be listened to, - be it at home or at work place. I do not know if these papers shed light on your topic but check them out and ask the authors here on RG:

    • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: The enterprise of health promotion in medicine involves a responsibility of distinguishing between the concepts of health and absence of disease and of reflecting on the notions of illness and sickness. In this paper the importance of human dialogue is stressed both as a means and end of the doctor-patient relationship and as the main means of genuine health promotion. The outcome of health work is proposed to depend mainly on the way the patients are encountered. Their efforts to make themselves seen as being sick should not on all occasions be diagnosed and treated. By means of a reflected, dialogic practice patients may be listened to and inspired to reconstruct their symbol-based relationship to the world of meaning. The conception of health primarily includes man's relationship to himself. Illness is looked upon as the subject's experience of illhealth, whereas disease is understood as a functional imbalance of bodily organs. There is a tacit meaning in being ill (and found sick) that can be realized and attended to best in close relationship with the patient. Physicians – preferably general practitioners – involved in health promotion should, it is concluded, both assist the patients to give up their sick role and continually elaborate their own professional competence to see and successfully encounter the manifold specifically human issues underlying their patients' presented symptoms.
      The European Journal of Public Health 01/1994; DOI:10.1093/eurpub/4.2.119

    + 3 more attachments

  • Mostafa Eidiani added an answer in Social Networks and Social Applications:
    Social media: Downvoting and degrading in social networks – What are the reasons? - What are the reactions?
    We have recently seen a lot of down-votings in some threads. We also saw different kinds of reactions on this phenomenon. I would like to ask a question about these reactions.

    First I assume that there are several possible reasons for downvotings: dissent – misunderstandings – misuse of buttons without knowing it– a social scientist who writes a paper about the reactions – a test carried out by RG – some technical problem, etc.

    I would like to have a discussion about the reactions on the part of researchers. We have seen calls to ban down-voters or to cancel their anonymity. Elections in democracies are anonymous and there are good reasons for this. I think most of us agree about some basic traits of democracy, the right to stay anonymous is among them. What about these basics in social media?
    Mostafa Eidiani

    I don't know why so many downvotes without reasonable explanation? and How I can find a researcher that downvote my answer and question?

    Please see this question and answer:


  • Wen-Yuan Hu added an answer in siRNA:
    What is the percentage knockdown needed for a valid siRNA experiment?

    Utilizing western blot analysis, I was able to knockdown NRF2 by 55%. Does it need to be closer to 20% or less?

    Wen-Yuan Hu

    Before determining the KD efficiency on Western Blot, you may want to know, for example, will knocking down NRF2 in certain cell types cause cell growth arrest (or death).  If so, the Western Blot will only show you the "survivors" which received lower copy number of shRNA/siRNA or due to other mutations.  The feedback regulation or other compensations, such as inducing isoform expression, should be considered.  If you have NRF2 expression vector, you may co-transfect the expression vector with each individual shRNA/siRNA, starting from 1:10 but you can challenge with 1:1 or even 10:1 ratio in e.g. 293T cells to validate potent shRNA/siRNA.  Then it will be easier to predict your Western Blot results if only showed 50% knockdown.

  • Norelle C. Wildburger asked a question in Antibody Labeling:
    Need sample prep troubleshooting for Immuno-SEM?

    Hi Everyone, 

    I would like to do Immuno-SEM (not TEM) on brain slices. The antibody labeling will need to be post-embedding for reasons I don't want to get into. However, I will need to omit the osmium tetroxide step during sample fixation/prep because it destroys antigenicity and also slice very thin (~70 nm) to ensure antibody penetration through the sample.

    1) What are the disadvantages of omitting osmium tetroxide in brain preps (embedded in LR white). The brain is 50% lipid by dry weight 

    2) Are "plastic sections" (i.e. LR white embedded) suitable for SEM and are ~70 nm slices, which is more typical for TEM, suitable for SEM?. 

  • Sean Keir Moriarty asked a question in Entoptic Vision:
    Why have archaeologists clung to the irrefutable and non-predictive speculations as to the meaning of the rock art of Ireland, the UK and France?

    The three man schools of thought are that the panels of motifs are either abstract/highly stylized art, entoptic visions by shamans while under altered states of consciousness or depictions of celestial objects/astronomical events.  None of those speculations has ever been tested, nor can they ever be tested.  Moreover, they have no predictive power whatsoever. “an irrefutable hypothesis simply imposes some meaning on the art, without effectively paying any attention to its content or context.” “Only unrefuted refutable conjectures deserve any confidence at all.” (O’Farrell)

    In contrast, the ‘map’ hypothesis set forth in my papers, can easily be tested.  Furthermore, it can predict the relative location of heretofore unknown sites and monuments, and give us a glimpse into the chronology of sites and monuments.

    • Source
      [Show description] [Hide description]
      DESCRIPTION: Stretching back in time, the Hill of Tara has been the spiritual heart of Ireland, yet little is known about the site other than what has been gleaned from the ancient manuscripts, which tell us nothing about how it appeared during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age. Although the excavations in the 1950’s of Ráith na Senad and Duma na nGiall; the Mound of the Hostages, by Professor Sean P. O’Riordain and Professor Ruaidhri de Valera have given us a glimpse into that period of history, they merely scratched the surface. It is therefore the purpose of this paper to examine an ‘historical record’ that has been overlooked ever since its discovery nearly sixty years ago… one that is quite literally carved in stone.

    + 2 more attachments

  • Joan Vaccaro added an answer in Diabetes Mellitus:
    Could Lactulose consumption worsen Diabetes mellitus?

    if yes by which mechanism?

    Joan Vaccaro

    Mauro Jose  - thank you for the important information. Please explain why hepatic encephalopathy is a concern for lactulose. I am a nutritionist and would like a more detailed answer.

  • Sébastien Rojkoff added an answer in Beetles:
    Can anyone help me identify these Scarab beetles?

    These insects collected from beach forests in north of Iran.

    Do you agree with my identification of them ?

    1.Protaetia lugubris

    2.Chlorocala (Smaragdesthes) africana

    + 1 more attachment

    Sébastien Rojkoff

    To help, picture from the Under and aedegus is necessary.