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  • Starr Robinson asked a question in Individuality:
    Does anyone know of artistic on how good The Peabody Individual Achievement?

    I am looking for artistic on how good The Peabody Individual Achievement, does anyone know of one?

  • Cheng-Che Tsai added an answer in Capacitor:
    How does the AC current flow through a capacitor?

    Capacitor blocks the dc current when it is fully charged

    Cheng-Che Tsai · Tung Fang Design Institute, Taiwan

    When a voltage sourcr v is connected to the capacitor, the source deposits  a positive charge q on one plate and a negative charge -q on the other. The amount of charge stored by q is directly proportional to the applied voltage v so that  q = C v where C is the capacitance. Therefore, the AC current i is the derivative of the stored charge on  its plate of  capacitor giving the equation i = dq/dt . As can be seen in the equation, the current does not flow into the capacitor, but it generates by the chane of charge on the plate, This type of current is called the displacement current.  

  • Yuan-Yeu Yau added an answer in Genetic Mapping:
    How can we map Yellow Mosaic Virus resistant gene in Cereals?

    I want to know about the mapping strategy for viral diseases. How Can we map the YMV resistant gene in susceptible varieties and their subsequent populations?

    Yuan-Yeu Yau · Northeastern State University

    1. Generate mapping populations by crossing YMV resistant line and a susceptible line.

    2. Use mapping populations to look for makers which closely link to this resistant gene. Ideally, the closer the marker to the resistant gene the better. There are many tools for generating markers, including Microsatellite, SSR (co-dominant).......

    3. Once you have these closely linked markers in hand, you may use the info of these markers to walk to the gene. For example, you can design probe from these markers and hybridize to BAC library to find candidate 'DNA fragments' and fish out the gene and the gene physical location on the chromosome.

  • Jack Haiden Britt added an answer in Meat Quality:
    I have GPS data on a sheep flock. Now what?

    Hi everybody!

    We are currentely running an experiment concerning the quality of lamb meat. In addition to "standard" analyses we also have GPS data (position, air temperature ecc. ) of the flock (transhumant system). Do you have any suggestions regarding how GPS data can be analysed?  (Statistical analysis, other...)

    Thank you! 

    Jack Haiden Britt · North Carolina State University

    Is this a single flock with GPS coordinates for the entire flock or does each animal have a GPS transponder? If each lamb has GPS data, one could look at total distance traveled by tracking the GPS path daily or maybe GPS data could be used to estimate grazing or nursing time if the lambs are nursing ewes. If there are multiple flocks, one could do much more.

  • Roy M Kimble added an answer in Wounds:
    Does anyone use negative pressure wound therapy in the management of acute burns?

    We have commenced an RCT in children with <10% TBSA partial thickness burns.

    Roy M Kimble · Lady Cilento Children's Hospital, Brisbane, University of Queensland & Queensland University of Technology

    Totally agree, we too use NPWT over all graft sites. We are using Mepitel under Acticoat as the interface both for new burns (in the RCT) and for over grafts.

  • James F Peters added an answer in Crime:
    Is there a bigger crime in mathematics than "divide by 0"?

    We know that not checking the value of the divisor for 0 leads to such 'absurdum' as the following 'proof':

    Let us have x=0 hence giving a true equation x=2*x which we can simplify dividing both side over x getting: 1=2 which I belie is not true :) since we overlooked to give up the division operations since the divisor (x) was assumed to be 0.

    However, the "0 division" is a kind of definite (hence "death") phenomena.  Even a very very small divisor: 0.0000000000000000000000000000000000000000001 still can be used. So, my question is if you know any other "no case" which is similar to it but evidently different in nature (no division is involved :)

    [Pls hit the green ^ if you like it]

    James F Peters · University of Manitoba

    Good question, Waldemar.   I also wondered about how to insert ∞.    Perhaps @Qefsere Doko Gjonbalaj  will share the secret with us.

  • Jack M Gallup added an answer in PCR Primer Design:
    The first point of a serial dilution to test the efficiency of my primer seems to have inhibitors, what should I do?

    I am testing the efficiency of my primers by doing a serial dilution. The efficiency is decent, but when I remove the first point it improves, leading me to think that the first, undiluted point, is too concentrated. Should I pick the next point (in this case my 1:5) as my guide and dilute all my samples to that when running them, or should I do another serial dilution to check the efficiency, but this time, diluting the first point as well?

    Jack M Gallup · Iowa State University

    Template inhibition of the qPCR can indeed be affecting your first point.  Yes, start your standard curves at the point where inhibition lets up, and then, for each sample, dilute them to a good point within the standard curve range that is not exhaustive of your samples - depending on how many targets you are looking for.  If only looking for 1 to 3 targets, you most likely have enough sample to accommodate that, and thus dilute them to the 1st good point in your standard curve - to allow the targets the best chance to bark if indeed the dog's you seek are present.

  • James F Peters added an answer in MATLAB:
    How to plot an optimal stopping boundary?

    I'm currently working on  a Bermudian American Option.

    I would like to plot an optimal stopping boundary for a put and call on an underlying (of process let say Brownian Geometric Motion of given drift and volatility).

    Taking a 2 years maturity and a monthly discretized process of (24 time steps).

    I struggle to do it on Matlab. Any help or code would be welcome.

    James F Peters · University of Manitoba

    This is a good question with many possible answers.

    A good place to start looking for an answer is

    B.A. Surya, Optimal Stopping Problems Driven by Levy Processes and Pasting Examples, Universiteit Utrecht, 2007:


    It is shown that an optimal stopping boundary can be characterized as a solution to nonlinear integral equations (p. ii).

    See ch. 4, staring on page 33m on the Novikov-Shiryaev optimal stopping problems in continuous time.   And see ch. 5, stating on page 47, on an approach to solving perpetual optimal stopping problems driven by Levy processes.

    More to the point, see Fig. 4.2 and Fig. 4.3 on page 43, showing the shape of the value function of an optimal stopping problem with a payoff function driven by downward jumps.    More plots are given in Fig. 4.4 and Fig. 4.5, on page 44,  for the value function of an optimal stopping problem.    See, also, Fig. 5.3 and Fig. 5.4, page 73, and Fig. 5.5 and Fig. 5.6 on page 76 for more plots.  

    The Matlab script on pages 125-126 should prove useful.

  • How do I interpret the standardized differences test in the bottleneck analysis?

    Can somebody tell me or suggest a good paper?

    So far I found many papers commenting just about the strenght/weakness of this test, or further information about the sign test. But I would like to use the results of this test as well and unfortunatly I can't find a good explanaition, how to understand this value.

    Thank you!

    Gabriele Joanna Kowalski · Bielefeld University

    Dear Temim,

    So just for clearity, Standardized differences test and Wilcoxon test are both onetailed tests?

    Thank you! :)

  • What is the best way to measure the flow rate of superheated steam in a small tube?

    I am looking for the most practical way to measure either the mass or volume flow rate of the steam at 1-1.2 bar and 150-200 degC in an insulated 1/4" stainless steel tube?

    Are there any measurement devices or techniques that are able to do this while exerting minimum pressure and temperature drop to the system?

    Mas Fawzi Mohd Ali · Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

    Thank you all for your answers.

    Most of the available measuring equipment is not suitable for my application because of two reasons:

    1. High operating temperature

    2. The tube is too small

    I will try Shreyas Harsha suggestion first.


    Mas Fawzi

  • Mohmmad Behi added an answer in Slurry:
    What is a typical range of %wt solid fraction needed to obtain a concentrated ceramic slurry?

    Hi all,

    Can anyone suggest me what would be a typical range of %wt solid fraction needed to obtain a concentrated ceramic slurry for spray-drying? I have come across some works wherein 50 %wt of solid fraction have been employed.

    Any justifications will be greatly appreciated.

    Thanks a lot.
    Best Regards.

    Mohmmad Behi · New Jersey Institute of Technology

    What is the particle size of your powder? You have to do DOE with these variables:

    Dispersant type,

    amount of dispersant

    solid content

    pH of the slurry

    milling time.

    Try these dispersant s for your DOE:  Darvan C, PVA, PEG and Darvan 821A

  • Ba Thanh Dinh asked a question in Abaqus:
    How do I create steel rebars and embed in Concrete section (Shell Element) in ABAQUS?

    I am trying to create steel rebars to embed in Concrete section (Shell element) in ABAQUS. If you know the steps of doing it, would you be able to suggest me how ?


    Ba Thanh Dinh

  • Louis Brassard added an answer in Chimpanzee:
    Have primate species other than Homo sapiens engaged in acts of aesthetic creation?

    For several years some scholars have accepted the engraved pieces of ochre from Blombos cave in South Africa, at least one of which has a geometric cross-hatched pattern, as evidence of early modern human aesthetic creation (ca. 75,000 BC). See: Henshilwood, Christopher S.; d’Errico, Francesco; et al., “Emergence of modern human behavior: Middle Stone Age engravings from South Africa,” in Science, new series, vol. 295, no. 5558, February 15, 2002, pp. 1278-1280 (http://www.sciencemag.org/content/295/5558/1278.abstract?sid=da7c3755-b2bc-4ced-93da-2c024c50b1fd, access: March 14, 2015).

    The recent discovery of similar engravings on shells on Java, from ca. 500,000 BC -that is, long before the emergence of modern Homo sapiens-, suggests that aesthetic creation evolved gradually. See: Joordans, Josephine C. A.; d’Errico, Francesco; et al., “Homo erectus at Trinil on Java used shells for tool production and engraving,” in Nature, December 3, 2014 (http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature13962.html, access: March 14, 2015).

    Suggestions that chimpanzees make aesthetic decisions while painting are intriguing. See the following texts and video:





    Can anybody point me toward additional studies on aesthetic creation by nonhuman primates, either in the archaeological record or among our contemporary primate cousins?

    In the part of the first draft of my Ph.D. thesis that never been published , I had a whole chapter on perception and symmetry.  Here is a little sample of that text.

    Questions for a science of Vision:

    If we make three dots with a pencil on a piece of paper, why do we see them as forming a triangle. Why do we see simple shapes such as circles, triangles or squares from very crude exemplars of these ideal Euclidean entities.  Why do we tend to see object shapes as more regular than they are.  Why is it that it is possible to convey the impression of a tree or of a face by a few pencil strokes.  Why is it that the abstract and very simple ways to paint or to make sculptures are so effective.

    The first humans produced such patterns on cave walls.  Using charcoal and clay, with a few lines, they made very simple sketches of humans huntings bison in a prairie.  In what respect are these animal figures drawn by our ice age ancestors on cavern walls similar to real animals.  What in these sketches is common from the images of familiar  scenes.  Why is it that some creases and reflectance patterns onwalls sometimes make us perceive strange faces or animals as if these walls were a window on imaginary 3-space scenes.  Abstract line drawings that have a 3-space surface mimetic effect are not produced by the reflection of light on such surfaces.  Where does the mimetic effect of these images come from.

    Why in comic strips do simple lines parallel to an object convey the impression of a certain type of moement while other lines give us the impression that an object has previously followed a given trajectory.  How do we perceive the shape of trajectories of moving bodies. 

    Why is it that reading this text makes you imagine these visual experiences.  Where does this mimetic language effect come from.  Many words in language are names associated with visual percepts.  The word line is useful for communication purposes because it is unambiguously associated with the same thing in images by all humans.  What is the image invariant that is the image correlated of this visual percept of line.  What is the image invariant that is the image correlated of this vvisual percept of line.  Without this stability, the word line would not be usefull for communication purposes and would not have been invented.  What are the stable realities in images behind our visual percepts.

    What is the relation between vision and image-making, imagination, explicit memory, tool-making, language, science-making and vision.  What is the role of vision in biological and human evolution.

    From the most ancient times, these questions have been raised by the philosophical craftsment that we are.  Confronted by these questions, we are as much puzzled today as our Ice Age ancestors living in the caves of southern France were 35000 years ago.  But ''A man who is puzzled and wanders thinks himself ignorant and seeks wisdom to escape ignorance''. Aristotle, De Anima 431 16

  • Alexander Malm asked a question in Patents:
    How to estimate the funding needed for a tech start up business?

    I am looking into the potential route to recommend in commercialising some university research which is patented and has been identified to have a potentially significant market, but I would like some way of estimating how much funding you would ask for from a Venture Capitalist or Business Angel to get the tech start up going.

    Any advice or recommended books or articles would be appreciated. 

  • Peter T Breuer added an answer in Hacking:
    Java's private constructor hacking?

    Reflection allows creating an instance of a class having private constructor, this is a loop hole of Java, is there any purpose behind this feature/bug?

    Peter T Breuer · Birmingham City University

    Indeed, reflection is a necessary feature in languages that can do some analysis of their own codes' dynamic behaviours and (static/dynamic) organization. You know that the semantics of a method is context-dependent, don't you? Java has call-by-name semantics in some respects. That should be already way bad enough to worry you from a software engineeering point of view!

    Languages that can bootstrap new features at runtime also need some kind of access to their own structures.

    That java can serialize its own structures for transmission over the net is also already enough for you to be able to pick them apart and change them at will (just edit the serialized stream) without reflection. None of that impinges on the "runs in a sandbox" (the Java VM) security model. What happens in the sandbox stays in the sandbox and doesn't touch your machine.

    Reflection is generally a software engineering issue, not a security issue. One needs reflection for some kinds of stats collection and minor mods (change gc()?). It's good practice in SE terms for those purposes, but bad practice to use the interface for more generic acts of linguistic vandalism - well, obviously :-).

  • Is open-ended instruction a model of teaching?

    In my opinion, a model of teaching should consist of: (1) syntax, (2) social system, (3) principles of reactions, and (4) support system. Therefore, if someone claims that open-ended instruction is one of the models of teaching, the syntax should be clear. If it is true, I don't know for sure the syntax of open-ended instruction. Is there someone who can clarify this issue? 

    Abdur Rahman Asari · State University of Malang

    Thanks Martina,

    I strongly agree with you

    However, in the classroom, teacher can be considered as the conductor of students' learning. Teacher is the one who arrange, facilitate, encourage, and promote students' learning. Although the learned knowledge is mainly constructed by the students, teacher could plan, monitor,  evaluate and provide feedback or at least questions to promote better learning for their students.

    In my opinion, conducting these activities does not automatically  implementing a prescriptive model of instruction.  When we are doing Problem Based Learning, for example, teacher may begin with providing authentic, contextual, and ill structured problem to their students. After that, teacher strongly encourage the students to discuss, in small groups, about the problem to develop plans and strategies to solve the problem. I believe there are many other teacher activities. So, there are some teacher' activities, step by step, to enable the students to work with the problem, and come up with their unique solutions. I would like to say that these step by step teacher activities is called as the syntax.


    Now back to my previos question, ie. about Open-Ended Instruction

    If we are implementing an Open-Ended Instruction, is its syntax unique? Meaning... is there a special syntax for implementing open-ended instruction? If not, it means that open-ended instruction is not a model of teaching. We can use it in any kind of models of teaching. Is it true if I claim like this?

    Tell me more, please. I am happy learning with you all. I am trying to understand.


  • Jack M Gallup added an answer in Software:
    How to increase number of rows in excel sheet?

    I have huge data more than 3 million rows and I need to put them in an excel sheet How?


    Is there any other software that can do it?!

    Jack M Gallup · Iowa State University

    One excel sheet can handle 1,048,576 rows.  So use multiple sheets within the same excel file:   2 sheets of 1,048,576 rows, and 1 sheet of 902,848 rows will give you 3 million rows (and so on).  You can have many sub sheets in the same excel file (over 300).  300 sub sheets gives you access to 314,572,800 rows...

  • What is the most difficult fundamental concept, formula, fact or theory to understand or accept in physics ?

    Casimir effect, Hawking radiation ,Quantum Entanglement  , Dark Energy, Zero point energy of the Vacuum . .........and so on are all part of what we deal with every day in our physics research......what do you find hardest.....to swallow 

    I would like to understand how continually operating automata operate. For me,  information ("in-formation") would require either an unmoved mover in Aristotle's sense or a consciousnes which makes an embodied choice of scale - or possibly both?

  • Dhanashekar Manickam asked a question in Fractionation:
    How to calculate Volume fraction of matrix in a hybrid composites?

    as there is formula to calculate the Volume fraction of the reinforcement as given in the attached journal page no:3. Now how to calculate Volume fraction of matrix when the composite have multiple reinforcements.

  • Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.

    Ravinder Jerath · Augusta Women's Center

    Arnold, I am commenting on your reply :

    1. There is no question that the thalamus is the principal brain structure/hub for receiving exteroceptive and interoceptive sensory patterns and projecting them to all cortical modalities in thalamo-cortical feed-forward feed-back loops. There is also no question that the thalamus serves as an important sensory gating and modulating mechanism. But I don't know of any evidence that the thalamus represents 3D space from the fixed locus of perspectival origin that is required for subjectivity.

    We seem to be on the same page regarding the thalamus as being the principal brain/structure for receiving  and modulating sensory information. However I dd not see it being mentioned in the "overview and Reflections  " on the RG page. 

    2. If you look at Fig. 16.1 in "Overview and Reflections" on my RG page, you will see a depiction of some the mechanisms that are needed to "sense, think and act". I don't think that there is evidence that the thalamus has all of these mechanisms.

    I did look at the Fig 16.1 The Block flow diagram Starts with 1) Environment that flows  into Retina and processors ( what processors ?) Also there is no mention of sound and sensory info from skin  ? 

    The next box is afferent  field contractor  . What is the neuroanatomical location of that ? That leads to "Retinoid system. " That has terms such as short term memory , self locus centroid capture . Can you please make a diagram to show these ?

    The short term memory is several boxes such central hedonic system . Where is that ? What part of retinoid is this located ? That also contains " Cognitive homeostasis" This leads to another box that is "register for plans and actions " It also has memory , learning , magnitude binding , and consequences to actions.

    All these lead to a box that is just termed "field constrictor " , Rotation transformer Size transformer ,. This leads to synaptic matrix box .lower and higher level with learning , short term and long term memory in each box.

    Arnold with due respect to you, most of these terms are from physics . In every description of anatomy , neuroanatomy  , physiology , psychology , neuroscience many of these terms are not seen in  text books. . Except for the term you have used  "long term and short term memory , which I incidentally  noticed was in most boxes that flow into each other." 

            I have a lot to learn regarding the process of consciousness  however I believe that consciousness is extremely well organized and internal environment is connected to the cortico-thalamic system in a manner that is well defined and operates in identical ways in humans . The content of memory and emotional make up is different but it incorporates the basic anatomy , physiology , neuroscience  , moods and  emotions in  a similar process. There is an "I " in each of us and it singularly utilizes the resources to deal with environment to survive and thrive. 

         I do believe once we have a unified well defined working  model  of consciousness  your contribution from neuronal and synaptic links , short term and long term memory will be invaluable to this field  . 

  • Branislav Tomasevic asked a question in Ocular Surgery:
    How to make technological visualisation improvement during the ocular surgery ?

    I am planning to perform some steps to improve the ocular surgery visualisation. A binocular microscope is almost all we have now. Blurred cornea, cataract, intraocular bleeding and many reasons make us to fight for better insight.

    Is anyone interested in ?

  • How can we realize super-resolution manufacturing to overcome optical diffraction limits?

    the optical diffraction limit follows the Abbe's formula: d=wavelength/(2*n*sin2theta)

    Peter Bryanston-cross · The University of Warwick

    Just a thought. But making an optic which can resolve more than the first diffraction order  gains resolution. Also this may be effective  by using a holographic corrective.

    In reality this would mean probably using large reflective optics with a surfaces better than 1/10th of wave. Just a thought. The other technique I have used is sub-pixel resolution by partial sub pixel shifting..   


  • Dejenie A. Lakew added an answer in Friendship:
    Would you kindly join me in wishing a happy birthday, and pay homage to our dear RG friend LJUBOMIR JACIC?

    i just remembered that our dear friend Ljubomir was born on the 28th of March, a few years ago.

    I pay tribute to an inteligent, sensitive and sensible sweet adorable Serbian.

    You, dear sir, are a very special person, that I feel honoured to have met, and  thank you for letting me be your unconditional admirer !

    (I do hope that Î got the date right.... If not, please consider this a singular extravagant note of friendship, )

    Yours, truly, with warm respects !


    Dejenie A. Lakew · John Tyler Community College

    Dear Ljubomir,

    I wish you happy birthday and many more happier years! Enjoy your fishing as I see you with your catch!

  • Gunjan Dhawan added an answer in Macrophage:
    Has anyone looked at T-cells in the brains of humanized (CD34+) mice?

    I have been staining brain sections of humanized mice with a number of human microglial and macrophage markers but nothing is showing up. The same antibodies are positive for peripheral tissues. Has anyone looked at human macrophage markers in the brains of these mice. These mice are supposed to have human CD34+ CD45+ and CD68+ cells in the brain. But I have failed to see any of these yet.

    Gunjan Dhawan · University of North Dakota

    We bought the mice. They use CD34.

  • Does the computer graphics can be used to simulate the real world environment and use the results of this simulation for object recognition?

    As is well known, object recognition in image understanding, photogrammetry, and computer vision is a difficult problem and it is not well understood at the conceptual level. Now the interesting question is: can we use the computer graphics in a reverse engineering fashion to simulate the real world and use the results of this simulation to guide the object recognition problem?

    Gamal Seedahmed · University of Khartoum

    In fact, I can see the use of GIS database for object recognition as a form of quasi computer graphics data. I used the term quasi since the GIS database are typically produced from real images or surveying data that depicts real world objects.

  • Bujar Hoxha added an answer in Listening:
    Is there any difference between to hear and to listen from the perception verbs in term of semantics?

    Is there any difference between to hear and to listen from the perception verbs in term of semantics?

    Bujar Hoxha · South East European University

    Well, the question is a bit tricky. 'To hear" looks to me like telling the result of action, and that is the way i semantically perceive it. "To listen" is somehow actively and habitually happening : I would rather put it into the field of perception.

    Otherwise, to my view, both verbs, like other linguistic notions should first be psychologically perceived, so that they get united to an adequate meaning. .

    Semantically, actually they mean the same.. Semiotically, at least as it sounds to me, one regards the form of expression and the next the meaning. Not many languages have such a difference: and if one speaks of tiny differences as a matter of fact, then we find ourselves in the field of semantics. As a semiioticioan, to me semantics belongs to the logic of science, therefore to meaning, rather then to linguistics.  Hopefully I have answered.

    Jakobson, after establishing his six poetic functions of language for instance, concludes that the final meaning choice is ours. 

    A good question indeed. 

  • How to measure oxidative stress in terrestrial isopods?

    Dear all,

    I am planning to investigate the effects of pollutants, substrate type and food quality on the physiology of farmland woodlice, and would like to include measures of oxidative stress. However, I am new to these model species, having primarily worked with birds and mammals, and I do not know what kind of markers could be measured, what are the particular constraints for this type of organisms and whether there are already standard protocols in these species?

    If you had some foundational references on this topics, that would also be very appreciated!

    Thanks a lot!

    Azubuike Victor Chukwuka · University of Ibadan

    one constraint in measuring oxidative stress in invertebrates is that particular organs give better measure of stress than other organs. Hence i suggest oxidative stress in hepatopancrease will give a good measure of stress in terrestrial isopods due to pollution and food quality. The hepatopancrease in invertebrates is analogous to the vertebrate liver and is critical for metabolism and detoxification.

  • Joshua Ndiwa Ngaina added an answer in Meteorology:
    How can I express Sen Slope estimator as a percent change?

    I am doing trend analysis based on time series of annual rainfall for a period of 30 years. Using Sen Slope Estimator, I have computed the magnitude of slopes. How do I convert these magnitude (slope) to percentage change.

    Joshua Ndiwa Ngaina · World Meteorological Organisation

    Mohammad Safeeq, I am using MannKen {wq} in R to calculate Sen slope as percent of the mean quantity per unit time i.e % trend = [Sen Slope Estimator Q]/mean f(year)

    Below is a sample output

    [1] -1.376

    [1] -0.05538256

    [1] 0.4977976

    [1] -39

    [1] 3141.667

    [1] 0

    I am getting all values (absolute) to be less than 1 i.e 0.1, 0.25 etc. Does this mean I have to multiply my values by 100 to get the percentage or the values are already expressed in percentage

  • Fatima Kies asked a question in Spirulina:
    I need the technique of isolation and identification of the microalgae 'Spirulina' for Pharmacognosy-thérapique use?

    I need the technique of isolation and identification of the microalgae 'Spirulina' for Pharmacognosy-thérapique use?

  • Nata Kuzlo added an answer in Linguistics:
    Who knows about linguistic competence formation in the framework of communicative-cognitive approach?

    How principles of communicative-cognitive approach are realized in the English-language linguistic competence?

    Nata Kuzlo · National university of water management and nature resources use, Ukraine, Rivne

    thanks i have already done it