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  • Bhange D.S. added an answer in Zeolites:
    Is it possible to identify BEA zeolite by XRD without a database containing reference peaks?

    Hi, I have just the license for the COD database where the structure for BETA zeolite is not present. How Can I use the CIF files produced by the IZA website to identify my samples? Another problem is related to the structure reported by IZA which are made by pure Si and O, How can I take into account the Si/Al ratio I have into my samples? How can I take into account the faulting stack between polymorph A and B? I am just at the beginning studying XRD, so I hope my questions are not to vague or of little interest. Thanks

    Bhange D.S.

    Collection of powder xrd patterns of zeolite book is available free of charge.. Just google it or you can calculate pxrd pattern of aany zeolite on website, zeolite structure database website has this option. Once you ccalculate xrd pattern you an save it in cav format and plot with your data for comparison ..

  • Anthony G Gordon added an answer in Genetics:
    Examples, please, of biological determinism?
    By determinism I mean the dogma that some human characteristics and behavior are programmed by our biological/genetic makeup, such there is zero room for chance, free will or any environmental influence. I think its meaning is quite clear, unlike so many other concepts that merge into mush or contradiction when discussed in the popular media. However, when I tried to confirm my understanding of the concept in the scientific literature or by asking people who would be expected to know, I cannot find anyone living or dead who espouses this narrow rigid belief. So can we please have chapter and verse for any scientist who believes in non-probabilistic determinism? Determinism is a very popular term of abuse against anyone who believes in any biological influence on any human behavior, and geneticists are always being carelessly or deliberately misrepresented. Hence you will need to show that any such person explicitly believes in determinism, and not just that you suppose that they must do. After all, racists and fascists are not shy about admitting their beliefs. So, out yourselves, determinists!
    Anthony G Gordon

    It appears that racism is an example or actually a subset of biological determinism!

    "Richard J. Perry examines the origins and persistence of biological determinism--the idea that human behavior is set by our biology and very difficult, if not impossible, to change. He explores how the concept has made its way into popular, academic, and political discussions and debates, and looks at what that means for public policy, race relations, scientific research, and more. Hippo Reads Politics and Economics editor David Moscrop asked Dr. Perry about his research...

    DM: Why have certain ideas about "human nature"--for instance, racial or genetic determinism--gained popular uptake? What is it about the idea that certain human attributes and behaviors are fixed that appeals to the public?

    RP: It's not clear to me whether the prevalence of ideas about biological determinism lately has arisen from a general public interest, or if it's is more a product of the media...

    But then of course racism, that particular form of biological determinism, has always been at the core of the American tradition--an aspect of the very formation of the society. Destruction of Native American communities and slavery were there at the beginning..."   (Huff Post Oct 2 2015)


    Could someone please explain to me what is the logical connection between racism and biological determinism?   Surely slavery is basically an economic phenomenon and people can enslave members of their own race?   And were the Wild West settlers reading too much into Darwin, or were the Indian Wars not a genuine conflict of interest over land?

    If there is indeed a connection, then it is unethical to conduct and hence give respectability to human genetic research.

    Although this article mentioned genetic determinists, no names were given.

  • Yousaf Ali added an answer in Anti-Cancer Drug Design and Discovery:
    Is there any azo compound (Ar-N=N-Ar) under clinical trial showing anti cancer activity?

    azo compounds are considered carcinogenic, but some of them show anti microbial activity. However, I did not find sufficient work recently published that reports  anti cancer activity of azo compounds. 

    Yousaf Ali

    Thank You Prof.

  • Subhash C. Kundu added an answer in Discovery:
    Will the 2015 Nobel Prize in physics be based on false-positive data?

    On April 30, 2011, at an American Physical Society meeting, I presented my initial findings that showed that Albert Einstein's notion of hidden variables, although not local, was indeed correct.

    In 2012, I applied my discovery of these hidden variables to the Higgs boson initial discovery and found it to be based on omitted-variable bias since the two origin variables that caused the predicted effects observed were not factored into the results (see "Assumed Higgs" link). Since the two origin variables are mutually exclusive yet can produce the same results, obtaining false-positive data from experiments based on omitted-variable bias is unavoidable (see "Tempt Destiny Experiment Results" link). In science, a discovery cannot be obtained based on false-positive data. Yet in 2013, physicists confirmed that they discovered the Higgs boson and then was awarded the same year the Noble Prize for their discovery. This all took place despite both parties being informed in 2012 of the discovery of Einstein's hidden variables which would negate the Higgs boson discovery since the Large Hadron Collider cannot detect which origin variable caused which particle collision effect which in turned caused the decay product used as evidence for their discovery.

    In the meantime, I have invited the general public to confirm if the Higgs boson discovery was or was not based on an omission error (see "How Grade School Children Can Confirm If Quantum Mechanics Is a Fundamental Theory - Class Assignment Search For First Cause" link).

    It is rumored that science self-corrects itself when a new discovery supersedes previous knowledge. If this is true then how long does it take for such a correction to take place and will the 2015 Nobel Prize in physics be given for yet another discovery based on false-positive data?

    + 2 more attachments

    Subhash C. Kundu

    Wait! Let it happen! We are not in Jury!

    What ever it will be, we are to see.

  • Nathan Nathan asked a question in Leadership:
    Any questionnaire about women leadership?

    other than LBDQ

  • Mohammad Shayesteh asked a question in MCF-7 Cells:
    Can you help me about micro RNA mimic transfection and negative control?

    I want to transfect 10 nM, 20 nM and 30 nM of miR145 mimic to MCF-7 cell line. Then I want to transfect a plasmid containing miR 145 target sequences at the end of my gene. I want to evaluate expression my gene versus miR 145 concentrations (10 nM, 20 nM and 30 nM).
    I have two question?
    1. Using miR negative control is necessary for this test?
    2. It is necessary using 10 nM, 20 nM and 30 nM of miR negative control or I can use from one concentration?

  • Bhange D.S. added an answer in PXRD:
    How can I access the stacking disorder in zeolite Beta by just comparing different pxrd patterns?

    I need just a qualitative interpretation.. What are the features in the diffractogram should I look at? Is it possible using Rietveld refinement between polymorf A and B for quantitative analysis?

    Bhange D.S.

    Instead of Rietveld refinement, you can use Diffax code to simulate the xrd patterns with different probabilities and then match with yours.. It will give you an idea regarding quantitative phase fraction determination ..

  • Artur Sergyeyev added an answer in Solr:
    Which one do you think is better in indexing and searching large PDF and OCRed documents? ElasticSearch, Solr or simple Lucerne?

    A number of open source solutions are available that can be used in indexing and searching documents. However, I want to index and search large PDF documents. Which one should I use, ElasticSearch, Solr or simple Lucerne? And why? Does any body know any open-source solution or project that has used any of these or others for the said purpose?

    Artur Sergyeyev

    I have found two links comparing Solr vs ElasticSearch, so I hope these would help you.

    + 1 more attachment

  • Burak Derkus asked a question in Crosslinking:
    Anybody know how to collagen make UV crosslinkable or curable?

    I'm gonna design a project towards to prepare some nanopatterned collagen materials. Despite some reseachers perform this process with peeling off following the drop cast, i wanna use uv crosslinkable collagen to prepare the materials efficiently.

  • Christine Ebbeler added an answer in Stereotypes:
    Which stimuli could be used for a German IAT about Sinti and Roma?

    I am searching for stimuli that can be used in an implicit association test (IAT) to measure associations with Sinti and Roma.

    Existing research used surnames or photographs, which would not be practicable or useful in Germany, as typical Roma surnames do not exist here and photographs of Roma people wouldn’t be recognizable without using stereotypes again.

    Does anyone have an idea which stimuli (apart from "Sinti", "Roma" and "Sinti and Roma") could be used for the target category?

    Thank you in advance!

    Christine Ebbeler

    Dear Joel,
    Thank you for your comment and for reminding me of the Govan and Williams paper (2004). They showed quite impressively that one should be cautions when choosing IAT stimuli, but also remarked that when using the IAT as a dependent measure after a between-subjects manipulation (what we are planning to do), stimuli selection might be of less concern.
    However, I would still prefer to use stimuli that should be as "neutral" as possible, if only to prevent priming stereotypes again.

  • Kazeem Adepoju added an answer in Exponentiation:
    How to estimate Kinked exponential growth rate?

    Explanation with example

    Kazeem Adepoju

    Please give more clarification by stating your main objective.

  • Abdelhalim Zekry added an answer in Electronics and Communication Engineering:
    Anyone familiar with Dual Polarized MSK Transmission and Receiver System?

    Dear All,
    I am trying to realize the Dual polarized MSK based optical transmission and receiver system for high data rate (100 Gbps). Upto the transmission level, I am getting spectrum is as per expectations, however at the receiver end, using coherent detector, I am getting the signal points in one coordinate per polarization only, however it should be in four coordinates. Moreover, eye diagram is also not showing as per expectations. Kindly help in finding the fault in logic if any. 
    Thanks in advanced.

    Abdelhalim Zekry


    Sorry for delayed answer. I see no difference between the constellation diagrams of the transmitted and received signals. Therefore the problem is with the transmitter  since the constellation must be that of MFSK which is a complete circle with its center at 0,0 coordinates If you represent the real part only, then you must have a complete range from +V to -V around the zero point. Is this okay? So, we have to modified the transmitter to produce the required constellation.I speak  here from the base band constellation diagram.

  • Kamal Sadeghi added an answer in Trichoderma:
    How can I find metallothinein origin in genome of Trichoderma to design Primer?

    this oringin isn't detected in Trichoderma spp. . Or I don't know ...

    Kamal Sadeghi


    Dear Kshitiz Singh

    thanks a lot

    Thank you that was so so useful for us

    I found it ....

    Best wishes

  • Francis Steven Mickus added an answer in Art:
    Do we need any definition of Art?

    I´am wondering if we need any kind of definition of Art. In the last period of time, the Fine Art lack any boundaries, or rather should I say any bounderies that couldn´t be falsified. For example if some artist make sincerely a piece of Art and react on something, and some years later, somebody else make something simmilar but inspired only by succes of the first artist and we recognise him, is the second artist also real artist and maker of Fine Art? So I think, there should be some ground rules, and we couldn´t just agree with everything. What I am trying to say, is that despite the overcome normativity in art there should be some rules.

    Francis Steven Mickus

    All words have different meanings at different times. There is nothing special about art in that sense. Think of all the complexities behind the word food. And we don't work up such a lather around such a difficult concept as we do about Art.

    The greeks labeled 'art' all human creative activity. The desire to embellish that actvity is inherent in all of them, if only to ward off boredom. The esthetic or philosophical aspect as an imperiative only came with the Renaissance. Indeed it is Leonardo who phrase that Painting was a cosa mentale, and that was the tail end of a thought process that had started with Petrarchio two centuries earlier (and even he wasn't all that excited about the esthectics of art)

    My point being that to have a coherent discussion about anything, you have to be clear about the meaning of the words you use, if not your entire argument collapses into a mass of incoherent psychobabble.

    if you want ot be Platonic about it, there may be an Idea of Art, which may not be clear in our heads, and that the varying practices of art grope at attaining that Idea.

    But even then, you must (somewhat arbitrarily) decide that Art consists of a certain number of activities that achieve a certain number of results. What they are changes in time and space, but in order to function, you must decide, alongside your various partners in a givien discussion, what practices and results constitute Art, if only for the sake of the discussion.

    if Art can be anything, than Art is nothing and the entire discussion is moot.

  • Josef Punčochář added an answer in Oscillators:
    How can we classify or group oscillators ?

    So far I have found that the number of amplifiers may be used as follows:

    Oscillators type A:

    1 amplifier and a feedback circuit.  

    This is the Barkhausen topology

    Oscillators type B:

    2 or more amplifiers and a connection circuit.  

    This is the Non Barkhausen topology

    Oscillators type C:

    No amplifiers !

    These oscillators are based on a dynamic negative resistance e.g. a tunnel diode

    In short

    Oscillators are nonlinear electronic circuits

    which are searching for a bias-point

    Josef Punčochář

    Very inspiring talk, I think.

  • Abdelmageed Othman added an answer in Laccase:
    How I can differentiate between the activity of Laccase and Mn Peroxidase?

    As both of them can be determined using the same substrates, just in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and manganese in case of MnP. I mean that there is a combined activity between them, how I can say that this is the specific activity of individual enzyme?

    Abdelmageed Othman

    Many thanks Adam B Shapiro. Really I have not any problem with detection of laccase activity, as you mentioned it did not require Mn or peroxide, but when I assess MnP as you know there is some interference between the both.

    Thanks for your help

  • Rituparna Mohanty added an answer in Structural Equation Modeling:
    I am unable to get a good model fit in my data analysis- Structural Equation Modelling.?

    I am completely new to SEM. I have tried reducing the co-variances by checking the modification indices.  Please help me out with this problem.

    Attaching the screenshot of my model for reference.

    1. Does connecting error terms from one latent variable to error term in another give wrong results?
    2. When I add error terms to a latent variable falling under another latent variable (A second order factor), my analysis is not getting completed. Why am I getting a message on (model notes) constraints need to be added?
    Rituparna Mohanty

    Dear @Zainudin Awang  

    Is this the right model. I am able to run the model now.

  • Stam Nicolis added an answer in Quantum Mechanics:
    Within the framework of quantum mechanics, what accounts for the apparent irreversibility of time?

    Within the framework of quantum mechanics, what accounts for the apparent irreversibility of time?

    Stam Nicolis

    Then one should be more precise, because there appears to be considerable misunderstanding, so it would be useful to agree on what is the definition of irreversibility used. Of course any measurement, that involves acting with a projector, is irreversible, since the projector is not invertible. However the phase space itself is not affected, in the sense that, subsequent evolution of the same system means that the same evolution operator is used to act on the state that has been measured, as was used before the measurement. This evolution operator acts on the space of all states. Were this space affected, i.e. were evolution, subsequent to a measurement, to take place in a ``smaller'' or ``larger'' space of states, is what's, in fact, frequently, associated with irreversibility of time evolution: Whether the spaces of states pre and post measurement, on which acts the evolution operator are ``the same'', or not. In quantum mechanics, usually, they are: the fact of measuring the x-component of the position vector doesn't eliminate any state of position from subsequent measurements. It affects relative phases of position states. It simply means that subsequent evolution has as new initial condition a particular eigenstate of the position operator-but it doesn't mean that subsequent measurements will not be able to measure the y-component of the position, if this were possible before the measurement of the x-component. Therefore the space of states, on which acts the evolution operator, is not affected by the measurement process itself. And it's in that sense that it's not possible to describe the variation of phase space volume, by the measurement process used in quantum mechanics.  

    Of course these statements do change, if a phase transition can occur-this is what the term means: the two spaces of states are no longer equivalent. 

  • Erkki J. Brändas added an answer in Cognitive Systems:
    Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.

    Erkki J. Brändas


    There is no discomfort on my side only disagreement. As a physicalist, but not a materialist, I must demonstrate that the dual aspects of the material and the mental world(s) must evolve from the same monistic origin based on teleomatic and teleonomic physical laws. This is not mainstream, so in this sense I can understand your statements.

  • Ed Baker added an answer in Acoustic Communication:
    Can any body suggests me some specific journals for publishing research work regarding acoustic communication of insects?

    We have recorded VB signals of BPH firstime in Malaysia with laser, need to publish

    Ed Baker

    Biodiversity Data Journal (BDJ) would be my recommendation, unless you have other novel data to publish or plan to write a larger manuscript placing this in context. BDJ tends to be very quick from submission to publication, is open access, and is currently free to publish in. (I am a subject editor, but not for your group).

    Consider also depositing sound recording files in an appropriate sound repository (there are a few, including BioAcoustica which I work on).

  • Ahmad Bahramian added an answer in France:
    What kind of France Visa should an Iranian PhD candidate apply for?


    I want to apply for France Visa, However, there is two kind of Visa (Student and Scientific). Is anybody know which one I should apply for? It seems the procedures are very different, and wrong submission may cause the rejection.

    Thanks in advance for your time,

    Ahmad Bahramian

    Thank you very much. I found out that a PhD student should apply for Scientific Visa, while a M.Sc or B,Sc. student has to apply for student one.

  • Ammar Ali Neamah added an answer in Comparative Research:
    I wonder if it is possible to improve pollard's Rho method for solving the ECDLP by finding new collisions (new equations or new iteration functions)?

    It could be thought this question as a different approach if it is compared with research recently.

    Ammar Ali Neamah

    It would be great to work together or with other researchers who have desire to work with together.

  • Safia Aslam asked a question in Instruments:
    How many Instruments may I take in DPD model in Stata?

    I am applying DPD model in stata. I have taken 9 independent variables. My I take 3 dependent variables out of 9 as instruments? When I am taking 2 ind variable with 2 lags and 3rd with no lags, results I am getting are perfect. but I have doubt on taking 3rd variable as instruments with no lags. 

  • Josef Punčochář added an answer in Electronic Engineering:
    What are the general stability margins related with sensitivity and complementary sensitivity transfer functions ?

    Like Gain Margin and Phase margin are the two well defined stability margin. There is something called general stability margin which is beased on sensitivity tranfer function 1/(1+G(s)) and Complementary transfer function G(s)/(1+G(s)). If anybody can provide some source (book/paper/material/lectures) it will be very helpful for me

    Josef Punčochář

    Despite the negative assessment of one of my previous answers I still think that the distribution of the poles of the transfer function is fundamental (default) Quality in stability. Positive real part of the pole leads to undamped oscillations. It can be used the compensation with the appropriate zero transmission, but it is rather subtle matter. All the criteria in principle determine whether the condition is fulfilled, without the roots of equations accurately determined. This is in fact at the equations of higher order complicated matter. Therefore, these criteria! :-))

  • Serdar Altin added an answer in Crystallins:
    How can i increase the oxygen content of crystalline oxide materials?

    material which have ABO2.5 formula and iwant to fabricate ABO3 composition how can I achieve it?

    Serdar Altin

    thank you all, according to The comments, we decided to use the high pressure over 30 tons and then annealing at high temperature under rich oxygen atmosphere. After xrd I will share the results with all of you

  • Shuichi Shinmura asked a question in Model Selection:
    How can I refuse some category of questions?

    Now, I check the question about one hours and am very tiered to cancel some categories of questions such as the usage of SPSS, R, Matlab etc. If I need this situation, I ignore the questions. Tell me the good advice. On the other hand, I'd like to accept such as the discriminant analisis, collinearity and model selection.

  • Sebastián Dupraz added an answer in Endosomes:
    How can I predict the fate of an internalized protein in present in endosomes?

    I am looking to the uptake of a protein by two different mammalian cells and would like to know more about how proteins in Rab5 endosomes are either degraded in the lysosomes or recycled at the cell membrane.

    Many thanks!


    Sebastián Dupraz

    Hi Aurelie,

    Is there any way you can label the assayed protein with a fluorescent tag? Is this is feasible you can follow the internalization in a time lapse experiment. Also I would try to determine whether there are colocalization of the internalized protein with markers for specific endomembrane/plasma membrane compartments. I'm pretty sure there are good antibodies for proteins, including rab family members, that are specifically sorted to early or late endosomes as well as lisosomal bodies.

    Hope somebody will help you with the antibodies.

    Good luck

  • Sihan Wang asked a question in Cleaning:
    How can I clean the PMMA surface and gold line on it?

    under the condition that gold and PMMA will not be affected.

  • Seyed Mehdi Mohammadizadeh added an answer in Tourism:
    What is the role of scientific conferences ?

    Meeting, business, tourism or others ! ...

    Seyed Mehdi Mohammadizadeh

    I believe that scientific conferences are a chance to meet new researchers and to accept new skills. And they can develop scientific body of knowledge.


  • Mellony Graven added an answer in Teaching:
    How can I help demotivated and tiresome students to become interested in learning and love the English language?

    I am teaching students who are not enthusiastic and don't like learning. I wonder how I can help them develop good attitudes towards English. Dear colleagues can anyone tell me how to deal with such a situation? 

    Mellony Graven

    Developing a love of language can often be stimulated by developing friendships with people who speak that language as their home language. The old traditions of 'pen pals' with children from other countries is one made much easier through social media as long as all safety checks can be in place for enabling safe communication between children across different contexts and languages.