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  • Is New Governance opposite or supplementary to New Public Management?
    New Public Management with its private sector methods in many fields has exhausted its potential and is more often criticized at present. New Governance with its openness, transparency, social responsibility and social justice is appearing on the stage at least theoretically. Do you consider New Governance ideas with its sociality as supplementary, or the opposite to New Public Management with its individualism?
    Thaneshwar Bhusal · Institute of Governance and Policy Analysis, Australia

    If Hood (1991) is the authentic person to tell about NPM, he doesn't describe these planning and budget reforms that much exclusively. Therefore, I suspect if these components were of NPM solely. Instead, they were the products of politico-economic reforms outside the basket of NPM reforms.

    Hence, arguably NPG might not take any stake in carrying MTEF stuffs in budget and planning reforms. 

    I might be wrong though.


  • Can anyone suggest some methods for total anaerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria?
    I would like to determine LAB and total anaerobic bacteria in vacuum packed fish. What are the best medias and incubation parameters?
    Xabier Vázquez Campos · University of New South Wales

    While by aerobes you already specify the final electron aceptor (oxygen), and it usually refers to heterotrophic aerobes so, it indicates their main energy requirements.

    With anaerobes... well, things are way more complicated, you only indicate that they can live without oxygen. The electron acceptor can be nitrate, Fe(III), Mn(IV), CO2, U(VI), organic acids, highly chlorinated compounds, sulfate, sulfur,... and I'm only talking about anaerobic respiration leaving fermentations aside

  • If there in a glass ice cubes are in side water and in another glass ice cubes are above water then whic have more volume?

    The water level remains the same when the ice cube melts.

    Atish Kumar Sahoo · Centurion University of Technology and Management

    Lets see now. Some intuitive center in my brain is screaming 'it will remain the same', but we will try to think it over.

    In the first state, we have an ice cube of mass m floating in the water. If it is floating (in equilibrium), it will have to displace enough water to support its weight. How much is that? It is just Volume = m/d , where m is the mass of the ice cube, and d is the density of water.

    In the second state, where the ice has melted, it turns into water of volume.... Volume = m/d! exactly the same volume as it displaced before. So the added volume is the same, so the level of the water will not change.

  • Do you agree with Stephen Hawking's recent conclusion that black holes don't exist?
    Black holes don't exist. I published this many years ago. Cantor's Universe doesn't allow the concept. Stephen Hawking now came up with the same conclusion. Read: http://www.spektrum.de/news/es-gibt-keine-schwarzen-loecher/1222059 In my opinion he is right this time. What is your opinion? Was he right then or is he correct now?

    I’m unsure what exactly is meant by Cantor’s universe, as I have searched for the term several times and found nothing with relevance. Is this an actual cosmological model that has either been published or proposed in a solid form?

    The reasons discussed in my “theory of everything” as to why the space-time metric is a mathematical construct relates to previous efforts in deriving a unified field theory. When trying to figure out what particles and fields are at the most fundamental level, the simplest solution is Planck-scale vibrations of space itself. Say that we wish to know the structure of a single electron; how could a physical structure be attributed to it beyond the application of point-like sources? Well, the only physical construct in the universe is space itself. At the macroscopic level, we treat space as a rigid manifold in which classical dynamics is built upon. In Einstein’s field equations (which I do not support), space is treated as a manifold that can be deformed or allow waves upon it. At the Planck-scale, space is instead treated similar to an elastic medium where it can also deform. The problem with any other approach is that it will fail to provide a physical foundation such as this. For example, what are virtual particles? What is the Higgs field? What is the electromagnetic field? The standard model and general relativity provide no insight what-so-ever as to the physical nature of these mathematical constructs. However, I will say that the standard model of particle physics is much closer to the answer than Einstein’s field equations.

    In short, the energy density (Hamiltonian) of the Planck-scale fluctuations of space is what defines the classical space-time metric relative to each particle. It is analogous to waves (particles) traveling through a medium, where the medium is the vacuum energy density of other waves (particles). Thus, this interpretation is fully consistent with special relativity, general relativity and quantum mechanics.

  • Steve Zein asked a question in Optisystem
    Can someone help me in the problem I am finding in Optisystem?

    I am simulating an OTDR in Optisystem and I am using matlab to import the rayleigh scattering formula to Optisystem. When I run the Optisystem, it load the matlab code and the graph is plotted, but there is no output from matlab component on Optisytem though when I go to matlab and display the output it gives a result.

  • What are the best methods I can use to determine the Hydraulic parameters of discontinuous perched aquifers?
    The aquifers Im hoping to study are currently being utilised by many villagers for water supply through hand dug wells. Not much is known about their lateral extend.
    Taehee Kim · Korean Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources

    If you want to obtain some simple hydraulic parameters, such as hydraulic conductivity and specific storage, I recommend the single well hydraulic test with the small impact; such as a slug test or a pumping test with the small pumping rate. But if your concerns are focused on the water budget in the referred perched aquifer and you just have the limited fund, I recommend the long term water level monitoring (including rainfall and withdrawl) and the simple linear time series analysis. In some cases, the cluster analysis with water level time series can provide the helpful information on the aquifer.

  • Are patterns in human designs a mirror of patterns found in nature or are patterns in human designs somehow different from patterns found in nature?
    The word "pattern" in everyday parlance often means something typical that can be repeated, something characteristically capable of repetition into similar copies (Ulf Grenander, Elements of Pattern Theory, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1996, p. 94). For example, in nature one can observe myriads of patterns in plant leaves or in beehives or in branches of trees or in the honeycomb-like shapes in dragonfly wings. Again, for example, in nature definite patterns can be observed in the daily life of animals: waking at sunrise time, finding water, hunting for food, socializing, and going to sleep at sunset time. In each case, there are observable patterns. So then the question arises as to whether the patterns in human geometric designs simply reflect patterns found in nature. Or whether patterns in human designs are somehow different in noticeable ways. For an example of a human geometric pattern, consider a pattern in a Penrose tiling. A penrose tiling (inspired by Roger Penrose) is a non-periodic tiling generated by an aperiodic set of prototiles. For a sample Penrose tiling, see the attached image. A Penrose pattern is self-similar, so the same patterns are repeated in larger and larger scales. Such patterns, introduced by the British physicist and cosmologist, are examples of periodic tilings. M.C. Escher, the Dutch artist, is famous for pictures of periodic tilings with shapes that resemble living things.
    Manuel Morales · Institute of Prephysical Research

    The Tempt Destiny experimental model does not predict the existence of effects in order to establish causality. It is design to establish causality 'first' in order establish the deterministic an non-deterministic properties of its effects.

    Your example, "if the H (healthy) maps weights W to behavior B, hence, H = {(normal weight, energetic), (overweight, sluggish), …}" describes effects as being indicative of other effects. This is indeed how we have currently perceive causality... as being effectual, not causal of the effects observed.

    Regarding relations between selection states, such relations are mutually exclusive as are what caused them. Cause writes its code prior to its existence because 'how' cause comes into existence is predetermined as exhibited in Fig. 8.

    The findings are contestable via the Final Selection Thought Experiment as posited in the last paragraph of pg. 9. The findings are unambiguous because nature is indeed super deterministic.



  • Pei Xiaoli added an answer in Luminescence
    Why does the luminescent QY increase between Ag(I) complex with its Au(I) analogue?

    I have a series of Au(I) Ag(I) clusters which are luminescent, their structures are similar. The only difference is one silver atom substitute gold atom. Then the QY of Ag(I) cluster doubles than Au(I) analogue.  What makes such a difference? 

    I have verified two clusters by an X-ray diffraction study. They are structurally analogue, the only difference is one gold atom was substituted by silver atom. The luminescent studies are conducted with isolated crystals. The maximum emissions of the two clusters are also similar except the difference of QY. The latest reference is Doped AgxAu25x Nanoclusters by Rongchao Jin, which is related with enhanced fluorescence by silver dopoed. But my clusters are Au(I) Ag(I), which may different from mixed-valence nanoclusters.

    Pei Xiaoli · Xiamen University

    I have verified two clusters by an X-ray diffraction study. They are structurally analogue, the only difference is one gold atom was substituted by silver atom. The luminescent studies are conducted with isolated crystals. The maximum emissions of the two clusters are also similar except the difference of QY. The latest reference is Doped AgxAu25x Nanoclusters by Rongchao Jin, which is related with enhanced fluorescence by silver dopoed. But my clusters are Au(I) Ag(I), which may different from mixed-valence nanoclusters.

  • Spandan Veggalam asked a question in Compilers
    Can any one help in re-writing bnf rules for Antlr parser?

    With grammar (bnf form) and source code as input, Antlr is generating AST/Parse tree with tokens as terminals and "nil" as parent/root in this case.This is not appropriate tree. I came to know that grammar has to be rewritten in order to generate proper AST/Parse tree. But I couldnt find any appropriate rules to rewrite grammar.

  • Pugazhenthi Thananjayan asked a question in Buckling of shell structures
    How can I model a dent in a thin walled shell structure?

    For shell structures like cylinder, plate or cone, dent has to be modeled, Is there any equation for dent or is there any modeling software to model the dent in shell structures?

  • Chai Eng Tan added an answer in Community Health
    How does nursing home care to elderly patients living in their own homes work?
    I´m a spanish primary care nurse and I'm interested in how nursing home care to elderly patients living in their own homes works in different countries. I appreciate your information.
    Chai Eng Tan · Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (HUKM)

    For the first question:

    The plan for domiciliary care under the Ministry of Health Malaysia is to be executed by the primary care team (currently being piloted in several states before nationwide implementation).  Postnatal home visits have been long established by the maternal and child health section of the public primary care clinics.  I am also a family medicine specialist who happens to have an interest in home care, and thus, am working together with the nurses to develop the service further.  In Singapore, it is also run by the Family Medicine / primary care unit. 


    For the second question:

    For the home care service offered by the teaching hospital I'm working in, patients referred to us are patients who have reasonable logistic difficulty to come to the hospital / clinic for nursing procedures, staying within the catchment area, and agreeable to the terms of service.  These include stroke patients, patients with spinal cord injuries, cerebral palsy, diabetic foot ulcers, post-amputation etc. 


    For the third question:

    Services offered are nursing procedures such as changing Ryle's tube, changing urinary catheters and suprapubic catheters, wound dressing, caregiver education and monitoring of blood pressure and capillary blood glucose.  We are working to extend our services and now we include doctors doing house calls for complex cases, and in future may coordinate with rehabilitation or dietetic services.  However, due to logistics, it is still very challenging to coordinate services from various other departments.  Our services are partially subsidized as our teaching hospital is under the purvey of the Ministry of Education, whereas clinics under teh Ministry of Health offer their services at an even more highly subsidized rates.  We don't have the facility for telemonitoring at the moment.  So I do envy the Australians as described by Ms Franks above. 

  • In Bipolar Disorder, which pole presents a greater clinical risk: Depression or Mania?
    Specific risks are associated with depressive and manic poles of this disorder. One might ask, for example, whether suicidal ideation and/or behavior occurs more frequently during depressive or manic episodes.
    Margaret Mchenney · Eli Lilly

    Hi Anthony,

    '"It is called "Manic-Depressive Illness" by Frederick K. Goodwin and Kay Redfield Jamison"

    I have just been checking the second edition of this -- much bigger than the first ed I'm afraid!'

    Thank-you for pointing me in the direction of the second edition.  It gave me an adrenalin rush.  I am still recovering from it.  I don't like to feel this way, but I am excited to have ordered this updated version.  I am only on the fifth chapter of the first edition, and I can sell it at Half Price Books when I receive the second edition.


    "Nevertheless, I could find only one sentence relevant to my hunt for the prodromal syndrome of psychosis. I believe Meniere Spectrum Disoder is intimately connected with incipient schizophrenia, at least for the auditory hallucinations, so was looking to see if there was any evidence in MD illness as well, but all there was was a reference to audiosensitivity in mania.

    In Manic-Depressive Disease by J D Campbell (1953), on the other hand, there was abundant evidence for MSD as an integral part of the psychosis."


    A very interesting idea.  I will keep that in mind.  If I find anything of interest I will let you know.


  • Is there any photoheterotroph that can use water as an electron donor?

    That is so, a photoheterotroph with PS-I and PS-II

    Xabier Vázquez Campos · University of New South Wales

    Some Cyanobacteria can grow photohererotrophically with some simple organic compounds such glucose or acetate. I don't know which species though.

    This is an extract from the section about physiology of Cyanobacteria in the Brock:
    "Most species tested are obligate phototrophs, being unable to grow in the dark on organic compounds. However, some cyanobacteria can assimilate simple organic compounds such as glucose and acetate if light is present (photoheterotrophy). A few cyanobacteria, mainly filamentous species, can grow in the dark on glucose or sucrose, using the sugar as both carbon and energy source"

  • How do I calculate mathematically the deflection of RC beam under cyclic loading?

    When a simply supported RC beam is subjected to4 point cyclic loading, the deflections are measured with mechanical dial gauge. I want to know what is the appropriate formula for deflection to validate the deflection.

    Seshadri Sekhar · Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi Viswa Mahavidyalaya University

    thank you Mr.George Markou 

  • Hu Huan asked a question in Western Blot
    Does anybody have experience about MCP-1 western blot use plasma

    we want to look whether MCP-1 associated with inflammation, so use the sample mouse plasma, the result of detection with few bands where we use abcam ab7202 rat antibody, it said located at 18Kda  but the band at 25KDa was more detected... so if range 18~30 are MCP-1? 

  • How can I estimate the number of atoms per unit cell (Z) of intermediate compounds?

    The crystal structure of In5Bi3 have 32 atoms/cell (visible from structure, 20 Indium atoms and 12 Bi atoms). However, the atoms/cell (Z) calculated for In5BI3 by using a formula

    Density = (Z*Mol. Wt)/(Na*volume of the unit cell), (where Na is Avogadro number) is 4.

    Which number is correct, 32 or 4?

    The above formula works for the pure elements such as Bi, In and Pb and gives a value of 6, 2 and 4, respectively. 

    Note: Please see the attached file.

    Ashish chhaganlal Gandhi · National Dong Hwa University

    @Gregory Leitus

    Sir, thanks for explanation.

  • Satish Annigeri added an answer in Python
    Can anyone help with problems when installing NumPy?

    Hi guys, I am using MacOS 10.9.4 with Xcode 5.1 (command line tools installed)

    Today I upgraded macports and installed py27-numpy. Everything looked ok in my terminal window.

    Then I tried to install PyCogent but failed due to 'Runtime error: Numpy required but not found'. 

    I kept trying , using pip. And it showed:

    Requirement already satisfied (use --upgrade to upgrade): numpy in /System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/Extras/lib/python
    Cleaning up...

    Now I am confused. Did I install numpy or not? Do I need to source the environmental variables after macports install? 

    Any idea would be welcome. 



    Satish Annigeri · B.V. Bhoomaraddi College of Engineering and Technology (BVBCET)

    @Fang, I updated the URL in my post above. It is here again for your reference. Hope it solves your problem.

  • Bharat Vaidyanathan added an answer in ELISA
    How feasible is it to detect intracellular IL- 1 beta (pro IL 1 beta) using ELISA?


    I am trying to look at IL 1 beta levels in RAW 264.7 cells.

    Since these cells do not process the pro-IL 1 beta to release the mature form, I need to look for alternative ways to detect the IL 1 beta . I am recently trying to lyse the cells and collect the proteins and look for intracellular pro-IL 1 beta levels using ELISA. Is that a good way to detect this cytokine?

    Also, would adding extracellular ATP to release the pro form be  a better option? Either way, what are the pros and cons for both the methods?

    Any other suggestions, please?

    Thank you very much in advance.

    Bharat Vaidyanathan · Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center

    you can try to treat cells with monensin or brefeldin A or compounds that activate the inflammasome. Check this link for products/kit for the assay http://www.ebioscience.com/mouse-il-1b-ready-set-go-elisa-kit.htm


  • Kelong Fan asked a question in Cancer Animal Models
    Why the treatments are initiated when the average tumor volume reached 100 mm3 in xenograft tumor model?

    In some experiments for investigate drug effects, generally using mice which has 100 mm3 tumor volume. This was a general process within ethical rules. I wonder that, how did this general process determine ? Is there have any reason for using 100 mm3 tumor volume when it's starting therapy ? Any reference is appreciated.

  • Anirudh Gautam M asked a question in IT services
    How reliable are the glycosylation predictions available http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetNGlyc/ ?

    My protein seems to undergo glycosylation according to this prediction and I would like to know how accurate these predictions are because I am expressing the protein in E.coli and glycosylation can actually stabilize the protein further . 

  • Cheng Chen asked a question in Parallel Computing
    Are there any performance model for CPU/MIC, so when we are optimizing a project , we can know the peak performance we can get.

    About the performance model for 

  • How can we handle radioactive material in a laboratory (Example: Uranium) experiment? What type of precautions are needed for this?

    Radioactivity is the process by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting ionizing radiation. That material emits spontaneously this kind of radiation—which include the emission of alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays. Rays and particle always affects the health.

    Xabier Vázquez Campos · University of New South Wales

    Depends a lot on your source and legislation in your country. In Australia you cannot even buy a piece of uraninite (uranium mineral) as a collection item, they are really strict whith these matter.
    I work with natural uranium sources (low grade uranium ore) and I'm not obligated to take any special measures as it is not technically a radiactive source based on legislation parameters, i.e. radiation is not stronger than the background radiation. Nevertheless, we usually use powder masks when we manipulate the raw dry ore as it has very fine particles.

  • Can the organizational main culture have several sub-cultures?
    (Principles of Management) In the main organizational culture, employees accept the values that the organization promotes; it is deeply embedded into the ways a business or organization does things. Many large organizations have several "sub-cultures" that exist within the overall organizational culture. Sub-cultural differences exist because of differences between tasks, expertise and professions. If an employee is transferred from one department to another, s/he may find that it is almost like working for some other organization.
    Kalpana R · Bharathidasan University

    I agree Krishnan Umachandran's statement. Every organization have a strong culture for their vision and mission.  It split as sub-culture where the organization expand their business like long term, short term. Moreover the organization change their sub-culture due to some reasons. Like goal-oriented,  Effective leadership  and etc. 

  • Which enzyme plays the major role for the delayed hemorrhage after a pancreaticojejunostomy leakage? Is there any research evidence?

    Bett NJ reported that there was only minimal mucosal enterokinase activity in the remaining proximal jejunum in 5 patients given a proximal PD for a periampullary tumor in an endoscopic follow-up 6 months later. (Bett NJ. Regulation of enterokinase synthesis in animal and human small intestine by luminal signals: its implication in upper gastrointestinal surgery. Br J Surg 1979;66:708-711.)

    This means that enterokinase may not play the major role in activating the trypsinogen with the resection of the proximal jejunum after the pancreaticoduodenectomy. If the trypsinogen is not activated, which enzyme sholud have the role to cause delayed hemorrhage after a PJ leakage?

    Yu-Chung Chang · Chung Shan Medical University

    Dr.  Borodach and Dr. Negi:

    Thank you for your expert-comments. The common explanation in the literature about this question is trypsinogen and sometimes elastase. Of cause elastase needs to be activated by the enterkinase and trypsin as well.

    But, when I analyzed biliary diversion and non-biliary diversion PD reconstruction I found that PJ leakage, delayed hemorrhage, and mortality due to delayed hemorrhage rates were18.2% (12/66), 0%, 0% and13.1% (272/2079), 20.2% (55/272), 50.9% respectively.

    Therefore, I use a Q shape biliary diversion for PD reconstruction, I had one PJ lekage patient with a initial whitish dischage (without mixing the bile) found from the drain at POD-7 and the patient did well for 24 days (POD-31) without sentinel hemorrhage. He had two weeks of severe constipation without being noticed. Then, bile discharge (yellowish stained) began to appear from the drain at POD-31. Eight days later (POD-39), sentinel hemorrhage appeared and progressed to massive bleeding with impending shock at POD-54. At the waiting period (3 hours) for the operation, I try normal saline instillation from the fistula above the PJ to neutralize the patient’s pH condition (bile and lipase work in alkaline condition). Unexpectedly, within 30 minutes, the patient’s bleeding gradually slowed sufficiently to justify cancelling the scheduled reoperation and finally stopped 3 days later.

    The above evidence, although not strong enough, may indicate that the bile have involved in the process of delayed hemorrhage after PJ leakage.

    Can you comment on the role of the bile?

  • Can anyone help with fusion PCR?
    I have two genes. I am isolating both of them (gel purification), then using each gene in one reaction of PCR with end primers for fusion of both genes, but each time I don't get any results for fusion. I tried different Tm, 10ul reaction but still got no results. genes are:- GFP and bZIP genes
    Pratima Kochhar · Tohoku University


    Thank you so much for your kind reply.

    I am just dividing the master mix without any different condition, so that less volume of PCR mix may work more efficiently (only reason)

    Sure, I will try the suggestion you gave and let you know as I will have results.

    Thanks a lot



  • Arturo Geigel added an answer in Computer Networks
    What is the digital signature? Can you differentiate between physical and digital signatures?

    What is digital signature? Differentiate between physical and digital dignature

    Arturo Geigel · Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico

    As Joachim so perfectly summarized it a digital signature uses asymmetric encryption protocols along with hashing to provide security mechanisms in the validation of a signature. This needs to be differentiated from the more general term of electronic signature which can be anything that can be considered a signature(A scan of your signature, a typed signature in your computer, etc).

    For example in the US the use of electronic signature standard is based on a mutual agreement between parties and the use of digital signatures is not enforced since the security of an encryption cannot be completely guaranteed (you only have the assurance that it has not been broken until a moment in time, it does not imply that tomorrow the encryption can be compromised).

    In this sense the legal requirements of a digital signature are the same as the electronic signature and the physical signature, you have to trust  the signature generation protocol in both instance and that nobody violated the protocol through forgery. What differentiates one from the other is in  the methods of proving authenticity and the protocols that were followed in its generation.

  • Bonita Chavez added an answer in Poverty Analysis
    How can the new sustainable development goals (Post-2015) reflect child poverty?

    A key issue that I would like to highlight is that child poverty is distinct from household poverty, although they are often related. With this in mind, eradicating extreme poverty ($1.25 a day) is only relevant to child poverty insofar as households invest in their children, but is not a direct indication of whether a child is poor or not. Indicators to measure child poverty in a multidimensional way can be derived from the Convention of the Rights of Child, in areas such as nutrition, healthcare, education, leisure, information, (no) exploitation, among others, and measured with the use of household surveys. This would allow us to capture the multiple dimension of poverty, and to do it in a way that is relevant for children, and not only for adults or households. Taking this into consideration is essential to tackle child poverty reaching all children.

    Bonita Chavez · Western New Mexico University

    Most women over 55 live alone in poverty as I do. Going further deeper in debt with $14 a day with student loans interest. society expects us to volunteer but won't even count it for our scholarship obligations.

    "Statistics is people with the tears wiped away"


  • William E Harrell added an answer in Obstructive Sleep Apnea
    Should mild sleep apnea without daytime sleepiness be treated?
    What should we do with patients who have mild OSA and no daytime consequences?

    The question that we need to ask is OSA progressive.  Will mild lead to moderate then to severe. Not sure we could ethically do a controlled study because we know OSA has significant associated  health issues.  Get a full sleep study by a board certified sleep physician.  Oral appliances do work on mild to moderate OSA and many but not all CPAP intolerant patients. My personal experience with a split night documented sleep study RDI 25 first 1/2 of night and RDI of 5 with a custom titratable oral appliance. I am CPAP intolerant. We are presently doing studies on orthodontic age patients with 3D facial surface capture (non-radiographic) for biomarkers on the face to evaluate clues for allergy and airway, asymmetry, etc. This helps us determine the need for more definitive diagnosis with 3D Conebeam CT imaging.