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  • Yunzhou Li asked a question in DICER:
    Dcier is the upstream of vsiRNA ?

    Dcier is the upstream of  vsiRNA ? and I research Dicer 2 and 4 genes on tomato yellow leaf curl virus. could you give me some suggestion about Dicer2and Dcier4

  • Fang Deyu asked a question in Enzyme Immobilization:
    Why more people choose chitosan rather than gelatin to immobilize enzymes and other biomolecules?

    The dissolution of chitosan need the addition of acid, which may harm the enzymes and other biomolecules. In contrast, gelatin can dissolve in hot water (37 degree Celsius) easily and freeze in room temperature. Both chitosan and gelatin have much carboxyl groups and amino groups.

  • Madhavi Vaidya added an answer in Big Data:
    Can anyone suggest a framework/tool to analyse big data?
    Trying to categories the data on a big data environment.
    Madhavi Vaidya · Vivekanand Education Society College of Arts, Science and Commerce

    Please suggest me a tool for analyzing the sensor data , and from where the sensor data repositories can be checked?

  • Can anyone recommend a CW laser system of 808 nm that I can use to treat rats injected with nanoparticles?

    Can anyone recommend a CW laser system of 808 nm that I can use to treat rats injected with nanoparticles. I have a portable CW diode laser (Chanchung New Industries Opto electronics Tech.co. Ltd) but I am not convinced that this could be used to illuminate the whole tumor in the animal. 

    Ramya Chandrasekaran · Monash University (Australia)

    Hi Boris, I couldn't find a company that sells the ruby laser suggested by you with the specification I want (I need the laser diameter spot that can cover approximately 1 cm). Could you please let me know where I can find this?

  • Bonnie tay yen ping asked a question in BSTFA:
    Will derivatization using BSTFA affect chlorpyrifos?

    i am planning to improve the GC MSD separation of  fatty acid from chlorpyrifos, and hope that by derivatization, the fatty acids will not interfere with chlorpyrifos

  • Rajiv G added an answer in Pymol:
    How to simulate structure of mutant metallopeptide?

    I have a metallopeptide that is 40 residues long and coordinates two zinc cations (each binding site has 3 Cys and 1 H). I want to make a mutant in pymol where I mutate two of the Cys at one binding site to glycines. I already have the crystal structure of the wild type, so how would I simulate the structure of the mutant? Could I put the mutated structure from pymol into a quantum simulator and let it reach its most stable conformation? Or would I need to simulate the whole folding event to get the final structure of the mutant?

  • Untangling Math added an answer in Natural Numbers:
    Is it logical to say: “real number set has more elements than natural number set”, so “real number set is more infinite than natural number set”?

    Why we say mathematically something is more or less, bigger or smaller … than the other (different grade)? One of the main scientific reasons is because of different quantities (not being bijective).

    So, just by different quantities, it is logical to say mathematically “real number set is bigger than natural number set”; “real number set is more infinite than natural number set” ….

    Untangling Math · researcher

    Hi Akira, 

    I am sorry to see you so frustrated and understand your reasons for it. 

    I have a question, though. Where, in your understanding, does logic and mathematics in general originate from? In other words, are you a constructivist, intuitionist, formalist or someone else. I believe that the answer to this questions could pinpoint a source of your frustration with physicists who regard themselves as realists. 

    The question I posed above could also be directed to all other participants of this discussion about real or perceived problems with infinity. 

  • Can some one share the protocol used in your lab for attaching thiolated DNA to citrate stabilized gold nanoparticle?

    I am looking for a efficient and easy protocol for attaching thiolated dna to citrate stabilize gold nanoparticle. 

    Ramya Chandrasekaran · Monash University (Australia)

    The thiolated DNA end will be protected as -SH  and you need to deprotect this end as -S to react with gold. I use TCEP (tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine) to reduce the -SH before adding the DNA to gold. The simple protocol would be:

    1. Add TCEP (0.1 M ) to the DNA and leave it for one hour.

    2. Add gold NPs to the DNA and leave it for 12 hrs.

    3. Spin down and remove the TCEP.

    Volume of DNA and Au NP varies depending on your experiment (ie how many number of DNAs you want to be on the NP).

  • Did anybody have an experience using the main Noether's theorem?

    It connects the symmetry and the conservation of laws of nature.

  • Anyone know about the Young’s (Elastic) Modulus of CYMAT Aluminum Foam?

    Cymat Technologies Ltd is a materials technology company with exclusive worldwide rights to the technology to manufacture Stabilized Aluminum Foam (SAF). SAF is a closed cell aluminum foam that can be produced in flat sheets.

  • Possible reason for having significant sequence similarity between evolutionary distant proteins ?

    I generated a phylogenetic reconstruction of protein homologous belongs to different taxa using NJ method with 5000 bootstrap support . However, two sequences which showed relatively high sequence similarity (Obtained by MatGat software) clustered separately in the tree diagram, while there are closely clustering with relatively less similar sequences, respectively.  Is there any reasonable explanation behind this type of observations?

    Don Anushka Sandaruwan Elvitigala · Jeju National University


  • Gina Polo added an answer in Statistics:
    How can i calculate r squared for linear regression in statistic ?

    And what are the benefits of calculation r squared for linear regression ?

    Gina Polo · University of São Paulo


  • Victoria Blue added an answer in Didactics:
    Why students do not think critically?

    I gave two mathematical questions/tasks to my students. 

    1. What is the solution set of x2 = 1?

    2. Given that triangle ABC is a right angled triangle. Angle ABC is right angle, and the measure of angle BCA is 60 degree. BD is perpendicular to AC. If CD is 1 unit long and BC is 3 unit long, what is the perimeter of triangle ABD?

    Students' responses to the first question was mostly {-1,1}. When I asked them is it the only correct answer, they said YES. They thought that the universal set of this equation is the set of real numbers R. Even when I said that there are many other possible universal set for this equation, such as {2} if the universe is the set of natural number, {-2} if it universe is the set of negative integers, and an empty set if its universe is the set of even integers, they did not take it into their considerations. They claimed that whenever there is no clear definition of the universal set, the universe of the equation should be the set of real numbers R. 

    To the second task students directly used pythagorean theorem to find the length of BD, and followed by finding the measure of side AB using the sine of angle BAC (which is 30 degree). Finally, they used these facts to find the length of AC, and finally AD. They did not pay any attention to the incorrectness of the conditions given in the problem. The incorrect proportion of BD:BC was ignored. 

    Based on the definition of critical thinking, skills and/or dispositions, I think they do not think critically. 

    Anybody can give an explanation of this phenomena? I need your points of view. If you can show me any theory and research results that can be used to explain this phenomena, it will be a great contribution to me.

    Thanks in advance.


    Abdur Rahman As'ari  

    Victoria Blue · Northern Arizona University

    Dear Colleagues,

    So many valid points to consider here. My view is that critical thinking is cultivated - it is a process of emergence starting prior to primary school.  In my classes of young children, I NEVER give answers; I only pose another question, e.g., "What are your ideas about that?", or "What else?" I encourage "trying" out their ideas so they can experience what works and what doesn't.  If something doesn't work, which often happens, they again look to me for an answer - not forthcoming - just more inquiry guiding the path - scaffolding their critical thinking development. These simply practices will transfer to future problem solving in all areas. Our schooling systems, for the most part, discourage this in the many ways cited. It takes time on the part of the teacher-as-facilitator and I'm not so sure our society really embraces thinkers because, besides innovation, it also challenges the SQ.

    As educators, in what ways do you express (model) your critical thinking in the classroom, in the boardroom, etc.? If you are disregarded or chastised, in what ways might that affect your next opportunity?

    I would also like to comment on "smart".  All of us carry genius!!  We all learn in myriad ways and we all have hundreds of languages (Loris Malaguzzi) through which we express it. As children know, the hundred and hundreds of hundreds are there.  I propose we encourage students to demonstrate the hundreds they possess within the safety we've created for our community of learners.

    In what ways do your hundreds of languages emerge?

    http://www.thewonderoflearning.com/history/?lang=en_GB (check out "No Way! The Hundred Is There!"

  • What is the significance of the constant phase element (CPE) in Randles circuit for analyzing impedance data? Can it be replaced with a pure capacitor (C)?
    I am trying to fit the impedance data using Zsimpwin software.
    Jiawen Fang · Northwestern Polytechnical University

    Dear Senthil Venkatesan, could you give me the reference how the equation comes from? Thank you.

  • Kenneth M Towe added an answer in Cremation:
    Is anyone doing research on contaminants from crematorium/cremation process?

    I am looking to compare/discuss patterns of metals distribution in soils, vegetation, birds and small mammals in areas near the vicinities of crematorium, including associated human health risks in North America (Canada), Asia and Europe. I am open to collaborating with researchers from any country interested in following this line of inquiry.

  • Abdul Mannan asked a question in Soft Agar Assay:
    MCF-7 Soft Agar Assay colony formation and crystal staining?


    I did soft agar assay on MCF-7 cells. I used  0.7% and 0.5% for plate 1 and for plate 2  0.5 and 0.35% of agarose for bottom and upper layers respectively. %5000 cells were seeded in each well. I added 300 ul media weekly to each well for plate 1.

    After two weeks, I did not see any colonies in each plate.

    Plate 2 was stained after two weeks (because of fungal growth in one well) with 0.5% crystal violet. After an hour of staining, the upper layer was completely destroyed in all wells except in well and staining was too dark. What could be the reason for upper layer dislodgement?

    In plate 1 I did not see any colony even after 4 weeks and I stained this plate after  This time I stained with 0.0025 and 0.005% crystal violet. Although, it was not too dark again it led to upper layer destruction.

    In the literature people are getting colonies with MCF-7 cells after two weeks. Anyone who has done soft agar assay with MCF-7 cells, kindly suggest me what could be wrong?.

  • George Stoica added an answer in Ect:
    Do you believe in your studies are beneficial for people, environment ect.? and on use?

    Are they really beneficial or just we do for having names on paper...

    George Stoica · Mathematics and Statistics

    Anything goes: some studies are beneficial (first declared and then proved), some might become beneficial as time goes by, and other studies stay on a theoretical level with no practical benefit.

  • Michael Amadi asked a question in Secretion:
    Any protocols available on keratinocytes (epidermal cells) growth and what are some options for growth media?

    The goal is to observe and identify keratin secretion from tissue culture and components of secretion.

  • Janeiro Byrd asked a question in Child Health:
    Is child health alert a valid source?

    Is child health alert a reliable source?

  • Qari Muhammad Imran added an answer in Plants:
    What is the role of PR1 gene in plant resistance?
    I want to know the relation between nematode infection in plants and role of PR1 expression.
    Qari Muhammad Imran · Kyungpook National University

    PR1 is more or less related directly to salicylic acid. after attempted pathogen attack on plants the accumulation salycilic acid increases at the site of infection that leads to induce expression of PR1 gene. A type of defense response in plants

  • What could be the origin/source of even carbon number n-Alkenes from C12 to C22 in sedimentary organic matter?

    Presence of n-alkenes in sediments have reasonable maturity is questionable from long time. If anyone have clue about origin/source of even carbon number n-Alkenes from C12 to C22 in sediments.

    Amila Sandaruwan Ratnayake · Shimane University

    It can probably show contamination, biodegradation or specific source. Previous answer consider mainly origin of n-alkanes instead of n-alkenes.

  • Can we measure the relationship of BIG FIVE personality trait with corporate entrepreneurship at individual level?

    Is it possible to measure the relationship of personality traits ( individual) with the dimension of corporate entrepreneurship (risk taking, innovation, and pro-activeness)?

    Muhammad Farrukh · SEGi University College

    Thanks Mr,Raj,Mr Arslan Austin,Muhammad Saud and MS.Norasmah, i reaaly appreciate your suggestions and scholarly view about the topic.

  • Olivier Serrat added an answer in Marketing:
    Which metrics to use to measure marketing effectiveness and marketing efficiency?

    Which metrics should we use to measure marketing effectiveness and marketing efficiency?

    Do you agree that marketing performance = marketing effectiveness + marketing efficiency + adaptability ?

    Please list those metrics that you usually use in your MPMS. (marketing performance management system).

    Olivier Serrat · Asian Development Bank

    There is value in learning from other disciplines. Performance = effectiveness + efficiency + adaptability may not take a marketing strategy anywhere if the offering is irrelevant, has no impact, and/or is not "sustainable". The OECD-DAC Criteria for Evaluating Development Assistance, available at, http://www.oecd.org/dac/evaluation/daccriteriaforevaluatingdevelopmentassistance.htm, look into these very dimensions. The criteria are used by all bilateral and multilareral development agencies. With a modicum of tweaking with regard to sustainability, it is possible that they could apply to marketing if performance is indeed the object of this inquiry.

  • Vishnu Revuri asked a question in GLP-1:
    Which is the most reliable cell lines for GLP-1 expression?

    Please suggest me with the best cell lines to quantify GLP-1 expressions. Is there any possibility to stimulate the GLP-1 expressions in CaCo-2 cell lines? Kindly annex the references if it can done.

    Thanks in advance. 

  • Adam Hughes asked a question in Labeling:
    Recommend a paper that compares labeled and label free methods?

    I've done a lot of work in plasmonics and label-free sensing, and would like to find some good review papers on progress in labeling and studies using labeling.  Can you recommend a review paper that either focuses on progress in labeling and experiments using labels (I know that's a huge subject), or a paper that does a thorough compare/contrast of label vs. label-free approaches?  

    It seems like most label-free papers hand-wave their way through labeled methods in a paragraph or so just to start talking about label-free stuff.

  • How do I count the total pixel of certain color in an image using 'bwlabel' command of MATLAB?

    I am working on a hyperspectral image and already extract a red color from the RGB image. How do I count the total pixel of the red area using 'bwlabel' command in MATLAB? or any other suggestions?

    Thomas Mattern · University of Otago

    bwlabel() only supports 2-D matrices. If you load an RGB image using imgread() you get three matrices representing each of the colour channels (i.e. Red, Green and Blue).

    Probably easier to convert your image to an indexed format via


    and then count the number of values in your image that match your colour's index key. If you are looking for pure red, which has RGB values of [255 0 0], this translates to [1 0 0] in decimal RGB notation (RGB values divided by 255).

    key=find(ismember(map,[1 0 0]),1);

    I would recommend posting coding related questions over at stackoverflow.com. You will get help in minutes.

  • Which one is right to describe Hafele-Keating experiment (twin paradox)? SRT, GR, absolute referential, modified clock frequencies?

    Is there a distinction of Sagnac effect between SRT and GR or absolute referential is enough? Are the clocks runing at same frequencies?

    What is your opinion about these calculations done by Sandor Fofai in http://www.thescienceforum.com/personal-theories-alternative-ideas/47660-what-does-hafele-keating-experiment-gps-prove.html

    The defenders of relativistic theories claim that the experiment performed in 1971 by Joseph C. Hafele and Richard E. Keating on commercial airplanes proves Einstein’s Special and General Relativity theories. The shortcomings of the experiment however undermine the authenticity of its results.

    H&K experiment (and GPS computing) support Lorentz’s transformation (LT) instead of Special Relativity (SR).because of using the centre of Earth as basic referential frame for relativistic calculations. In SR referential frames are equal, so time dilation should have been computing by the relative velocity of Observer and Source to each other. To evade ‘twin paradox’ of SR it is necessary to introduce a basic referential frame, but with that the experiment support LT. So it is misleading to claim that the H&K experiment (or GPS) prove SR and explain twin paradox, because they try to prove LT, where there is no ‘twin paradox’.

    Strange Consequence: Geocentric Universe?
    Nor GPS application, neither the H&K experiment involved the orbiting speed of Earth around Sun when computing relativistic time dilation. This is possible only if there is a stationary electromagnetic field around the Earth, or Ptolemy was right and we live in a geocentric Universe.

    The shortcomings of H&K experiment
    Atomic clocks are sensitive instruments, influenced by temperature, vibration, humidity, magnetic field etc. Because the drifting rate (measuring deviation) of the atomic clocks were higher then the detected time dilations, the experiment failed to reach the level of authenticity.
    "Most people (myself included) would be reluctant to agree that the time gained by any one of these clocks is indicative of anything" J.C. Hafele about the atomic clocks used in his experiment - 1971

    Missing calculation of GPS
    The H&K experiment triggered more then a dozen similar experiments measuring even the time dilation of cyclists traveling with 30km/h speed. What is needed however is not a speed of a snail against atomic clocks. The Global positioning system consists of 24 satellites which travel round the Earth and send signals from which the Observers can calculate their own positions. The satellites are orbiting with 3874 m/s velocity in about 20 170 km high (R= 26 541 km).

    As the satellite orbits, its distance to a point on the Earth changes continually causing frequency change and time deviation for Observer, which can be calculated by the factor of Real Doppler Effect. If there is any relativistic time dilation, it must be over this time deviation (not counting the error factors):
    Relativistic Time dilation = Total time deviation – Time deviation of Real Doppler Effect

    Doppler Time deviation decreases when the satellite is nearing (the angle of move nears 90 degree) and increases when it moves away. Its accumulation is limited by time delay determined by distance (L/c). Relativistic time dilation accumulates by time so it can be separated from time deviation caused by Doppler Effect. Satellites and space stations could measure accumulated time dilations or the relative velocity of light by measuring its speed while traveling toward Sun, such experiments however weren’t published.

    GPS disproves Special Relativity
    GPS use Sagnac effect to calibrate the time delay of the arriving signals to the relative move of Observers. This proves that the relative speed of light changes depending on the speed of Observer, which contradicts Special Relativity.
    Sagnac effect with the relativistic or other corrections and filters may compensate the missing Doppler factor, but over some level cannot replace it.

    The data of the Hafele -Keating experiment:
    Starting point: USNO (U.S. Naval Observatory) in Washington DC, latitude: N 38.9
    East trip: 65.4 h; Traveled time:41,2 h; avr ground speed 243m/s; avr altitude 8,9km; avg latitude N 34;
    (USNO, Dulles, London , Frankfurt, Istanbul, Beirut, Tehran, New Delhi, Bangkok, Hong Kong, Tokyo,, Honolulu, Los Angeles, Dallas, Dulles, USNO)
    Time gain: -40ns
    West trip 80.33 h; Traveled time:48,6 h; avr ground speed 218m/s; avr altitude 9.36 km; avg latitude N 31;
    (USNO, Dulles, Los Angeles, Honolulu, Guam, Okinawa, Taipei, Hong Kong, Bangkok, Bombay, Tel Aviv, Athens, Rome, Paris, Shannon, Boston, Dulles, USNO)
    Time gain +275ns

    Let’s calculate time dilation ‘dt’ caused by gravity
    dt=tgh/c^2 (there are more equation in General Relativity. In non relativistic interpretation this formula gives the velocity change of light(dc) caused by gravity when h<<R, which contradicts SR):
    dt eastward = 148 320 x 9.82 x 8900/c^2 = 144 ns
    dt westward = 174 960 x 9.82 x 9360/c^2 = 179 ns, the same results calculated by Hafele and Keating.

    Calculating time dilation caused by relative velocities
    Here I use the v^2/2v^2 equation
    (Hafele and Keating are said toe have calculated Sagnac effect too. I neglect Sagnac effect because it compute time gain/delay which don’t accumulate. In spite of this I got quite close results.)
    The average velocity of Washington DC (USNO base) as turn with the Earth:
    v = l/t = 361 m/s - where l = 27 124m (distance Washington DC travels with Earth), t = 1day in sec.
    Time dilation of USNO during the trips:
    Eastward trip: t(dt) = 148 320 x 361^2/c^2 = 108 ns
    Westward trip: t’(dt) = 174 960 x 361^2/c^2 = 127 ns

    Time dilations of airplanes:
    Eastward trip velocity = v’ + v = 361+243= 604m/s – where v’= surface velocity of Earth at N34 lat.
    t(dt) = 148 320 x 604^2/c^2 = 301ns; relative to USNO = 108 - 301=-193ns (-184ns by H&K)

    Westward trip velocity = v’ - v = 398 -218 = 180 m/s – where v’= surface velocity of Earth at N31 lat.
    t(dt) = 174 960 x 180^2/c^2 = 32 ns; relative to USNO = 127 - 32 = 96 ns ( 96ns by H&K)

    Total dilations
    Eastward trip: dt = 144 – 193 = -49 ns ( 40ns by H&K; Original: -54 -59ns)
    Westward trip: dt = 179 + 96 = 275 ns ( 275ns by H&K; Original: +160 +273ns)

    The alteration of drift scales (ns/h) of the 4 portable atomic clocks on the airplanes:
    Clock numbers: 120; 361; 408; 447
    During Eastward Trip -4.39 +1.72 +5.00 -1.25
    During Westward Trip +4.31 -2.93 -2.68 -2.25
    Before Eastward Trip -4.50 +2.66 -1.78 - 7.16
    Before the Westward test -8.88 +6.89 +4.84 -7.17
    After Eastward Trip -8.89 +4.38 +3.22 -8.41
    After the Westward test -4.56 +3.97 +2.16 -9.42

    Expected time dilation for the faster plane in 1 hour = 3600x243^2/c^2 = 1.2ns which is smaller than the scale of the drifts of atomic clocks.
    GPS calculations
    Used corrections in GPS in meter: Signal arrival +/-3; Ionospheric effects +/-5; Ephemeris errors +/-2.5; Satellite clock errors 2; Multipath distorsion +/-1; Tropospheric effects +/-0.5; PDOP +/-6.7 m.
    Light travel 1m in 3,3ns.

    Calculating time dilation caused by gravity = GM/rc^2 - GM/Rc^2 = 0.53 ns
    - where G = gravity constant; M = mass of Earth; r = radius of Earth;
    (GM/rc^2= Schwarzschild equation for gravitation caused time dilation. In non relativistic interpretation this equation gives the velocity of deflection of light caused by gravitation (dv), the other component is (dc) – see Light deflection. Einstein’s formula for General Relativity is so theoretical that it cannot be used.)
    Time dilation caused by velocity = v^2/2c^2=0.08ns
    Total Time dilation = 0.53-0,08 = 0.45 ns
    This means 1.62microsec in 1 hour which is well over the drift rate of atomic clocks, so if there is any time dilation, satellites easily can detect it.

    Calculating the missing Real Doppler Effect for GPS
    First the distance change and its Time frame must be determined.
    The distance of a satellite from Observer as it appears on the horizon:
    L’ = root(R^2-r^2) =25 765 km - where L’ = distance between satellite and Observer,
    L = R-r = 20 170km -nearest distance to the satellite (when it flies over Observer)
    T’= 18 215.87 sec -where T’= Time frame needed by the satellite to reach the nearest position.
    T=T’-(L’-L)/c = 18,215.85 sec T= Time frame of Observer to receive events emitted by Source in T’.
    average D = T/T’ = 0,999999 where D = factor of Real Doppler Effect for T’ Time frame.
    average dt = D-1 = -1 microsec
    Speed of satellite on the horizon toward Observer: u = 3874r/R = 930 m/s
    Upper limit of dt’ =(c-464)/(c-930)-1 = -1.55 microsec when the satellite is on the horizon and Observer moves away on the Equator with a speed of 464m/s.
    (Inner angle of movement on horizon: Beta=103,9 grade)
    Lower limit of dt = 0 when the satellite is above the Observer (90-(5x10^-11) grade if Time frame=10 ns)

    Sagnac Effect for GPS
    dt = Lv/c^2 where L=distance between satellite and Observer; v = 463,89m/s -velocity of Observer on Equator. (this equation results the half of Sagnac effect because there is only one way light)
    (R= 26 541km -distance between Observer and satellite, r=6 371km –radius of Earth)
    Lower limit dt = 0 ns – when satellite flies over Observer (short after leaving 90 degree).
    Upper limit dt‘= 133 ns delay – when satellite appears on horizon.

  • Mehdi Lima added an answer in Abaqus:
    How can fix this error in ABAQUS? Excessive distortion at a total of # integration points in solid (continuum) elements

    Hi every one

    I have a model in Abaqus with large deformation. When I run this model , Abaqus exit with this error:

    "Excessive distortion at a total of # integration points in solid (continuum) elements."

    How I can fix this error?It is important to note that NLGEO is on.


    Mehdi Lima · Griffith University

    it can be  from the excessive load that you are applying and your system can not tolerate up to that stage. You can  check the material properties to be sure that everything is going right.If it is from mesh, then you may change the mesh and try to use brick element. 

  • Does any expert in RBF (radial basis function) want to collaborate?

    I am working on spectral method and want to work on RBF as well because these methods are very accurate.

    Olaniyi Samuel Iyiola · King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM

    It is interesting to see people working in this area. I am encouraged to continue looking into it especially the applications into fractional differential equations.

  • Eddie Seva See added an answer in Plagiarism:
    Do open-access plagiarism checkers teach students how to avoid plagiarism or how to disguise plagiarism?

    I see some evidence that allowing students to see the plagiarism checker reports and then resubmit, results in a lot of tweaking of text rather than learning about plagiarism free writing.

    Eddie Seva See · Bicol University

    It could be both; either or; or neither nor. It will depend on the student's level of intelligence, accumulated moral values, emergent needs, peer influence, and school influence.