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  • Is the corrected (altered) cast technique in RPD really necessary?
    When constructing RPDs with free end saddles we need to make another (or third) impression using the metal framework. Is that step really necessary?
    Steven Eckert · Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
    I think that everything the Peter just said is absolutely correct. The key in removable partial denture treatment is not in the technique but is in the constant reassessment of the effect of the differential between compressible soft tissue and relatively un-compressible hard tissue. An altered cast impression is a way to capture the compressible soft tissue in a more compressed state than it would be if you simply made an impression with a free-flowing material initially. The key is to be able to assess the clinical situation when the differential differentially applies forces to one structure (let's say the teeth) rather than another (let's say the tissue). From my standpoint I'm not exactly sure what I would teach if I were teaching at the undergraduate level. At the graduate level in a prosthodontic graduate training program I would probably be a lot more aggressive in my expectations. My graduate students, over the years, have routinely done altered cast impressions. I think this is a skill that they must understand. More importantly however is the ability to determine when a reline is important because that becomes the procedure that protects the patient from the differential in compressibility.
  • Arvydas Guogis asked a question in Good Governance
    Is New Governance opposite or supplementary to New Public Management?
    New Public Management with its private sectors methods in many fields has exhausted its potential and is more often criticized at present. New Governance with its openness, transparency, social responsibility and social justice is appearing on the stage at least theoretically. Do You consider New Governance ideas with its sociality as supplementary or the opposite to New Public Management with its individualism?
  • Employees' skills and commitment create a competitive advantage. What about technology? Does it affect competitive advantage?
    Can technology help generate greater sales or increase business efficiency?
    Ismat Aldmour · Al Baha University
    I agree with @Debi on that technology will not be a strategic advantage (on the long run) if it is freely available in the market. However, it will be a great competitive advantage to those adopting it early. For example, the use of e-commerce technology helped many to be the first or to grow up from small business in rural areas to world wide business. The example of "Sew What? Inc is given to MIS students as an example of the role of information technology in small business success (see Management Information Systems, O'Brian Marakas, 9th ed). Sew what was in early 1990’s a small part time business of a lady (Megan Ducket) who makes draperies to school theaters in her area to becoming an international theatrical -custom made- backdrops designer and manufacturer thanks to the early adoption of web technology ( see also http://www.sewwhatinc.com/ ). Of course, e-commerce is the norm nowadays but this entrepreneur made use of being one the first to adopt e-commerce tools. Other than adopting the technology early and ahead of others, some companies made use of adopting its own technology and secrets. Examples are many. There are also cases in which adopting new information technology tools, such as new ERP or CRM products, has negatively impacted the competitive advantage of some companies (at least for a while before recovering). Introducing technologies should be carefully aligned with developing the skills and commitment of the employees (and the administration) to using it properly and efficiently as also said by some colleagues above (@Jalal, @Nageswara). I will give a simple example, I know universities which invested in smart boards in all lecture rooms but very few faculty members are using their full features and many don't even use them with some of them became defective shortly. Thanks. @AlDmour.
  • Kazaros S. Kazarian added an answer in Biology
    What has been the biggest scientific injustice, fraud or intellectual illegality that you know?
    One of the most known is the cold fusion that Fleischmann and Pons claimed to find in 1989 a chemical reaction at room temperature, which had an implicit nuclear reaction produced at tens of millions of degrees at normal conditions. Their experiment involved electrolysis of heavy water at on the surface of palladium electrode and very soon it was rejected by most of the scientific community. But in spite of that the University of Utah financed one great project on this issue and also Japan opened one program from 1992 till 1997 as other countries. How can it be possible with all the presumed filters fail on such a basic knowledge? Another famous one is Woo Suk cloning human cells in 2005 and making a good publication in Science. Do you know of more recent ones in your own country?
    Kazaros Kazarian · Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
    Dear Daniel, It is a real pleasure to discuss with you. Let me explain my “obsession” with the ages of researchers. 1. a) I believe that the younger researchers should have possibility to find their place in the system and it should not depend on the sympathies or antipathies of powerful guys. b) If a person has not find his place in the system before 45 or 50 then the probability that he would do it afterwards is equal to zero. c) While it looks reasonable to help beginners to get some stability, I believe that more or less established investigators should get gratification only for the work that they have performed. Thus there will be no need to have huge bureaucracy related with funding the projects. 2. I don’t see any solution to the problem related with universal objective criterion for measuring the quality of scientific research. Personally this problem doesn’t bother me. The problem will disappear by itself if the number of pseudo researchers will be less visible.
  • Potential case of beta thalassemia trait unresolved; any advice?
    A pregnant woman seeking prenatal diagnosis of beta thalassemia demonstrated the following test results: Hemoglobin electrophoresis: Hb A1 92.3% Hb A2 7.7% CBC: Hb 11.8 g/dL MCH 20 pg MCV 63.6 fL RBC 5.91 million/uL However, when beta globin gene was sequenced, no mutations were found. The sequence information obtained covered two regions: 1. from the upstream nucleotide -101 to the nucleotide 35 of intron 2 2. from the nucleotide 556 of intron 2 till the end of 3' UTR Only homozygous polymorphisms such as CD-2 C>T, IVS II-16 C>G, and IVS II-666 T>C were found. A definite answer is needed for genetic counseling. Any advice will be very much appreciated. Thank you.
    Salem Abbes · Institut Pasteur International Network
    If one child of the offspring of this couple presents a major b thalassemia and homozygote for trhe father's mutation, this will be a good argument for the presence of heterozygote b gene deletion in the mother.
  • Can we develop a Health Literacy measurement tool for countries like Pakistan? How to develop such tool?
    Give suggestions please and tell how to get Health Literacy measurement tool approved.
  • Elena Rokou added an answer in AHP
    Is the AHP a linear or a nonlinear method?
    The Saaty rating scale is rather nonlinear, but aggregation approach is definitely linear. Is the AHP a linear or a nonlinear method? I think it is a linear method (e.g. Zarghami and Szidarovszky). Zarghami M. and Szidarovszky F. (2011). Multicriteria Analysis, Springer, pp. 33-39.
    Elena Rokou · National Technical University of Athens
    It is a multilinear form because of the way that composition works. Multilinear forms are the foundation of solutions of polynomial equations and so the conclusion is a non-linear method. You can look the following link for more details: http://www.google.gr/books?id=rhhlQ0FyBTkC&lpg=PT13&ots=SbCWA1M8VP&dq=principia%20mathematica%20%20saaty&lr&pg=PT145#v=snippet&q=multilinear&f=false
  • If I am to promote RG in a research paper, what inputs should I include?
    Dear RG colleagues, kindly respond. Thank you.
    Ahed Alkhatib · Jordan University of Science and Technology
    actually, all previous answers are good and you can benefit from all o them. I personally appreciate all of my colleagues and consider them as the stars in my sky. you can ask a question in RG and analyze responses in a form of paper.
  • What is the concept of pressure necrosis in dental implants?
    Steven Eckert · Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
    Pressure necrosis is different from thermal necrosis. If you overheat the bone during the preparation or insertion of the dental implant you run the risk of causing denaturization of proteins. Most implant surgical techniques involve methods that are designed to control the heating of the bone and the heating of the instruments that prepare the bone. Pressure necrosis is a hypothetical issue they gained a lot of popularity early but does not seem to live up to the investigation… Meaning that we are not very convinced today that pressure necrosis causes implants to fail. Have no doubt that uncontrolled heating of bone will lead to implant failure but at the same time there is unlikely to be a specific insertion torque that would cause failure of implants routinely. 47°C is the point where proteins denature, 75 Ncm of insertion torque is not guaranteed to succeed or to fail relative to pressure necrosis.
  • Does anyone have any insight on where to focus for a PhD in Cloud Security?
    I'd love to focus my PhD work on cloud security. I need someone to help with current problems in this area. Thanks
    Dilshodjon Gafurov · Yeungnam University
    You can focus on privacy issues as it becomes more vulnerable because of pervasiveness of mobile technologies, cloud based applications and big data. Refer to my answer on: https://www.researchgate.net/post/Can_someone_suggest_an_abstract_topic_or_title_for_my_PhD_research_in_Mobile_Cloud_Security?ev=tp_feed_post_xview
  • Conrad Noll added an answer in Neurophilosophy
    Is consciousness giving human beings an evolutionary advantage?
    While having the concept of Self as opposed to others or to the environment seems good for focusing the organism functions on survivability and on DNA spreading, is there any evidence that consciousness has an evolutionary advantage? To elaborate further, here I'm talking about consciousness as the first person experience. And for "first person experience" I'm not talking about "experience OF first person": conversly, I'm specifically addressing the "experience IN first person MODALITY" (as a corollary to this question, I'm proposing that the word "consciousness" refers to too many concepts). In this view, I consider self-consciousness "experience of first person in first person modality". If we embrace the assumption that consciousness is always consciousness of something, we still lack an explanation for the nature and the purpose ("what is/what's for" rather than "how is it") of the first person experience, and as such why evolution favored it. In a lot of other Q/A about self and consciousness people are talking about consctructs that may function even without consciousness. Two examples: -self: a neural network comprising semantic concepts about the world could very well include the concept of self as a non-other or non-environment, or even a concept of self as an independent organism with such and such features; why do we need consciousness to conceptualize it? Would a machine decoding all the concepts coming across the node of (or the distributed knowledge about) self be considered conscious? We do not have to attribute consciousness to the machine to explain the machine processing its concept of self. -thinking: processing is certainly different from consciously elaborate something, as all the studies on automatic and subconscious processing show. On the other hand, this point address the free will problem: when we consciously elaborate something, does it mean we are voluntarly doing so? Or are we just experiencing a first person "show" of something already happened subconsciously (as Libet's studies suggest)? Without touching upon the ad infinitum regression problems, this poses the question if consciousness is useful without free will: if the conscious experience is just a screen on which things are projected, no free will is needed and thus what's the whole point of consciousness? As such, do we also need free will for accepting consciousness? If we are working with the least number of assumptions, it seems unlikely the we can accept consciousness. It seems to me that the general attitude of cognitive theories in a biological information processing/computational theory of mind framework is to try to explain everything without putting consciousness in the equation. And indeed it seems to me that no one is actually putting consciousness in the equation, when explaining cognition or behaviour (at least in modern times). All in all, it seems to me that all the above reasonings bring the suggestion that consciousness is not needed and has no evolutionary advantage over automatic non-conscious entities. Or that we should make more and more assumptions (such as accepting free will) to make sense of consciousness. I think that asking why we have consciousness could lead us to understand it better.
    Conrad Noll · Royal Roads University
    Thank you for your response to my post Jonathan. This discussion of Monads and what Leibniz may have been suggesting as well as what some within Panpsychism think regarding the possible ontological primacy of aspects of mind over matter has prompted thinking of a kind I find raises my quality of life. As I already enjoy an envious quality of life as it is, this is not a trivial remark. I recommend some thought be given to the potential for feedback loops in process models--similar to those described in cybernetics--to aggregate into systems that take what Dan Dennett might describe as an 'Intentional Stance'. Thanks to all who contribute here.
  • Khalifa Aguir added an answer in Fabrication
    How to get an uniform, 50nm film thickness of SU-8 direct on the glass substrate?
    Hello everyones, for nanofabrication I need to have a less than 50nm film thickness of SU-8 on the glass substrate. I've tried with spin-coating but seems that this method doesn't work. Any one can help me please, thanks.
    Khalifa Aguir · Aix-Marseille Université
    Spin coating is the right technique for deposition of thin layers. Do you have changed the parameters such as rotation speed of the spin coater ?
  • packages not available for R version 3.02
    this problem maybe somewhat commen since I find many people have asked similar question, but not one suitable solution can be accepted.details are followed: > source("http://bioconductor.org/biocLite.R") Bioconductor version 2.13 (BiocInstaller 1.12.1), ?biocLite for help A newer version of Bioconductor is available after installing a new version of R, ?BiocUpgrade for help > biocLite("MeSHDbi") BioC_mirror: http://bioconductor.org Using Bioconductor version 2.13 (BiocInstaller 1.12.1), R version 3.0.2. Installing package(s) 'MeSHDbi' warning: package ‘MeSHDbi’ is not available (for R version 3.0.2) I tried to install this package manually ,warning info also emerged: Then> install.packages("MeSHDbi_1.0.1", contriburl="/home/chaonan") Installing package into ‘/home/chaonan/R/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu-library/3.0’ (as ‘lib’ is unspecified) warning: package ‘MeSHDbi_1.0.1’ is not available (for R version 3.0.2) I also tried update my miirror and then install.packages,warning info still occured I am waiting for the solutions for this problem
    Charles Warden · City of Hope National Medical Center
    This is because the newest version of Bioconductor came out last week and it is only compatible with the latest version of R. You can tell because it is trying to use Bioconductor 2.13 instead of Bioconductor 2.14 If you update to R-2.1.0, you shouldn't have this problem.
  • Gert Nolze added an answer in Structure
    What is so unique about the egg?
    The egg is one of the unique feats of natural engineering. Its three-dimensional arch structure can support the weight of a standing human being yet it is so delicate that a baby bird can peck its way out of. Some of the questions that come to mind: 1) From an engineering standpoint; in what applications egg-shaped structures can be designed to serve special loading conditions? 2) Can we manipulate it strength with different materials? (the eggshell is mainly made of calcium carbonate), or does the egg's strength necessarily come from its shape, not material?
    Gert Nolze · Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung
    Eggs have a very fascinating microstructure. I investigated a number of different one and the overall property was that from inside you can see "prepared" notches which makes it obviously easy for the baby bird to produce a crack and "escape". This crack easily follows the grain boundaries of the lamellar calcite grains which grow mainly perpendicular to the egg surface. No idea how nature is doing this since for smaller eggs it is not that pronounced as for peacocks or ostriches. Finally, under pressure from outside extremely stable, but from inside quite weak :-).
  • András Bozsik added an answer in God
    Do scientists believe in God?
    I lived in many nations, talked to many people, and noted that most medical doctors (MD) and scholars - regardless of their ethnic origin or religion - believed in some supreme power that could impact our/their lives. This standpoint is "somewhat?" in contrast with the science-religion dualistic view. If you feel that you can and wish to assume an overt position on this question, I am eager to hear how do you feel about this issue. Thank you!
    András Bozsik · University of Debrecen
    Dear Giuseppe, What about the evil destruction in these days?
  • Dragan Pavlovic added an answer:
    Is mathematics a human contrivance or is it innate to nature?
    Do we invent mathematical forms as we need them and then merely discover their emergent properties later? Or are those mathematical forms innate to nature, and are hence discovered rather than invented? Does it really matter to science, which way around we view this? Is it just philosophy or could there be real consequences? https://www.researchgate.net/publication/256838918 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/derek-abbott/is-mathematics-invented-o_b_3895622.html
    Dragan Pavlovic · Université Paris 7, Paris, France; Greifswald University, Greifswald, Germany; European University, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Bernd, you say: "So I can only listen, provided you let me." Please, do it, I am not on your way. Yet, the most important is not to agree. And the two of us, we had already an excellent start. LG D.
  • Is Porcelain Veneer Dentin Bonding as Strong as Enamel bonding veneer ?
    Is Porcelain Veneer Dentin Bonding as Strong as Enamel bonding veneer ?
    Steven Eckert · Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
    No! It is neither as strong nor as durable. It is susceptible to fluid degradation. It is an entirely different situation.
  • How to differentiate between insert and vector after restriction digestion when both are of approximate equal size?
    The size of insert in a cloning vector is 2886 bp and size of my insert id 2970 bp. Can they be visualized as separate bands on agarose gel after restriction digestion?
    Nicholas Harmer · University of Exeter
    I completely agree with Amanda. The vector map should allow you to choose an enzyme that will break the vector fragment into two pieces of roughly equal size (that will not also cut your insert!). This should solve the problem quickly, and leave you confident that you won't get a bad result from the subsequent cloning.
  • Maria Ferreira added an answer in Cricket
    Has anyone got any suggested research aims when looking into cricket constructing social identity in India?
    Currently writing a dissertation proposal and considering exploring the construction of national identity in India through the game of cricket. I am considering how I can further explore this and alternative/ subsidiary questions to research.
    Maria Ferreira · Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ)
    Well, I´m not sure about how you intend to deal with the idea of "national identity". I´m afraid that national identity is a too big idea to investigate, because many of these ideas are imagined communities (Anderson, 1983) and are not so homogeneous as they seem to be. In my opinion, you could deal with (trans)local social identities, exploring the cultural aspects and hibridisms of some groups of players. Richard Bauman gives good pathways to work on identity/performance and cultural matters. If you like the idea, take a look at Bauman (1986) or Bauman and Briggs (1990): http://anthro.vancouver.wsu.edu/media/Course_files/anth-490-edward-h-hagen/bauman-and-briggs-1990-poetics-and-performance-as-critical-perspectives-on-language-and-social-life.pdf http://www.amazon.com/Story-Performance-Event-Contextual-Narrative/dp/052131111X Best wishes!
  • As a dentist, which method - in your opinion - is the best for determining the occlusal vertical dimension?
    there are many methods in predicting the vertical dimension of occlusion, However, tell now there is no scientific method approved in this field.
    Steven Eckert · Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
    Let's think about this a little bit. Our personal opinions are going to be based upon our own personal biases. Our biases are often dependent upon the clinical experiences that we have had. Indeed in this subject we have a few different categories of assessment of the occlusal vertical dimension. We often times assess this dimension on the basis of the vertical dimension of rest. The vertical dimension of rest is established through different techniques: radiographic, tactile, phonetics, aesthetics, etc. the vertical dimension of occlusion is usually some measurement closed relative to the vertical dimension of rest. It varies on the basis of skeletal jaw relationship with the largest differential being associated with a class II skeletal relationship in the smallest differential ring associated with a class III jaw relationship. The reality is that we will never really be able to test this through a randomized controlled clinical trial. The reason for this is that an RCT is going to be influenced by the skills of the clinicians running the RCT. So if you have a clinician who is very good at the radiographic assessment of the analysis of the vertical dimension of Rest that individual may not be very good at assessing the tactile method of determining the vertical dimension of rest. Consequently the person who is experienced and skilled in the radiographic technique who then develops and RCT testing it against the tactile technique will undoubtedly find that the radiographic technique is superior. All the while another clinician trying to replicate the same results was experienced in the tactile technique would find opposite results. Remember that the RCT is an exquisite method of eliminating bias or reducing bias. The problem is that bias is not the only factor that relates to research evidence. We have issues of consistency, directness and precision. You might want to look at: http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/index.cfm/search-for-guides-reviews-and-reports/?productid=328&pageaction=displayproduct So when you ask the question about our opinions on the best method to establish the clues of vertical dimension what you will receive is an answer based upon "our opinions" and those opinions are going to be very dramatically influenced by our experiences, our mentors, etc. Ultimately I think that you need to, in my opinion, address this situation from a couple of different aspects. When I look at the occlusal vertical dimension I invariably use the tactile method and combine it with the phonetic method and combine it with aesthetics. After the cast are mounted I look at the parallelism of the ridges. I don't do electromyography and it is rare that I do radiographic assessment although I do this from time to time. So all this is important for me. It might not be of any relevance to you. The reality is that these are techniques and techniques are skill-based and experience-based, they will differ from clinician to clinician.
  • Elena Rokou added an answer in AHP
    How to evaluate ANP with super decisions software for prioritization case?
    I am trying to evaluate the priority of 21 activities for a given case for one single goal (Goal: importance of activity for successful planning) with the Analytical Network Process: For the activities, 16 aspects have an influence. Each of this 16 aspects have characteristics that influence the importance of my activities. The characteristics are influencing each other as well. I tried to model this example with the Super Decisions Software but I didn't get useful results. Is there an example/paper with a similar problem where I could find help for modeling? Or is anyone able to answer the questions I have regarding the modeling of this decision making problem?
    Elena Rokou · National Technical University of Athens
    I think that you should check this presentation: http://www.superdecisions.com/tutorial-4-changing-from-ahp-to-anp-thinking/ that should help on polishing a little bit the model and maybe then work with ratings due to the large number of alternatives to be evaluated. You can see the attached file on how to work with ratings.
  • Does all the BL21-DE3 strain are resistant to phage contamination?
    I have been using BL21-DE3 strain for the expression studies by IPTG induction. But for the past 1 month, our lab was experiencing phage contamination. Even though we made several cleaning by NaoH and formalin, phage contamination still persists. But i came to know that NEB and some other companies provide BL21-DE3 phage resistant competent cells. So, I have doubt whether BL21-DE3 generally has phage resistant gene or not or do i need to purchase particularly phage resistant BL21-DE3?
    Nicholas Harmer · University of Exeter
    I think that it depends rather on which type of phage you have a problem with. Some BL21 strains may be resistant to certain types of phage, but there are rather a lot of different phage types that can infect E. coli. The best advice that I have heard in this situation is to isolate a clone of each cell type that is resistant to the phage that are contaminating your samples. If you keep subculturing cells that have been infected with the phage, then sooner or later a clone will arise that has a mutation that prevents phage infection. Natural selection should cause this to become dominant if you keep selecting for it (i.e. growing in the presence of phage). It's slow, but not as bad as spending a month failing to eliminate the contamination!
  • Do You think that in many Western societies nationalism is "dead", god is "dead" and the welfare state is dismantled?
    With very few exceptions I consider the first two -nationalism and god - as almost "dead" phenomena in the Western countries. Considering welfare state, the retreat of it during the last 30 years is felt everywhere too, as G. Esping-Andersen's three welfare capitalisms models division is not so actual and important as before. Left-right political division's disappearance point to the same direction of welfare state diminishing. Who can be the political, social and cultural vehicles for the present and future Western societies?
  • What analytical instruments are used in the food industry?
    Analytical instruments
    Nishant Swami Hulle · IIT Kharagpur
    Dear Sruthi check this link...it may find helpful to you. http://www.fnbnews.com/article/detnews.asp?articleid=19360&sectionid=32
  • Anming Hu added an answer in Nanotechnology
    AFM-Raman Spectroscopy
    Hi, anyone have experience using Nanonics and AIST-NT scanning probe microscopy for TERS, SNOM and AFM-Raman application? What is the advantage of both brands for these 3 applications?
    Anming Hu · University of Tennessee
    I use Park system before.
  • Does anybody know how to calculate the size of nanoparticles from images obtained from TEM?
    I have been using Microsoft paint to calculate the average size of nanoparticles. But, I don't think its relevant. So, If anyone working on the determination of the size of nano-crystal, please share your method how you calculate the size.
    Anming Hu · University of Tennessee
    Wow, so many people use it. That is great!
  • How can I model Xray diffraction theta-2theta spectra from polycrystalline oxide films on polycrystalline substrates?
    I want to model X-ray diffraction spectra from varying thickness polycrystalline films on solid metal polycrystalline substrates.
    Gert Nolze · Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung
    This is a good question. As far as I know all refinement programs like the mentioned Fullprof assume an ideal homogenisation of phases, but even this is already problematic if the particle size (not the grain size) for different phases is different, especially for phases with very different absorption. In a layered structure as discussed it is perhaps easier to handle. At least one can point out that with increasing theta the information depth of your beam will increase as well so that you should see more from your substrate at higher angles. On the other hand because of the continuously reducing intensity these reflections are perhaps not that nicely visible, but the physics still works and the refinement should be problematic. Of course, theoretically it should be possible to consider this effect in an adapted "model" since the absorption for your phases are known, however I don't know a running program which is able to do this presently.
  • D. V. Grigoriev added an answer in Palaeoecology
    What do you think about Pannoniasaurus inexpectatus? Is it really the first freshwater mosasaur or this is some kind of mistake?
    D. Grigoriev · Saint Petersburg State University
    Many thanks to all for your reply! Additional paper for those who are interested in the geochemical aspects of this issue is in the attachment. "Geochemical study of vertebrate fossils from the Upper Cretaceous (Santonian) Csehbánya Formation (Hungary): Evidence for a freshwater habitat of mosasaurs and pycnodont fish" by László Kocsis, Attila Ősi, Torsten Vennemann, Clive N. Trueman and Martin R. Palmer.
  • Marina C M Franck added an answer in Neuroscience
    How to discuss results which are not statisically significant in a dissertation?
    Have a P value >0.05 for all my IHC, how can I discuss why this is a relevant result in the broad scheme of things? Thanks!
    Marina Franck · Uppsala University
    I would always discuss. Maybe say that further studies (i.e. higher n) are needed to verify it, but discuss what it implies if it is true.