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  • Why do you think that architecture of constructions varies geographically?

    What do you think are the underlying causes of geographic variation in architecture? Potential causes: spatial variation in intelligence, competence, resource availability, local adaptation, cultural expression, motivation, etc?

    Do you think that the same broad causes are responsible for geographic variation in animal versus human constructions?

    Marcel M. Lambrechts · Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, Montpellier, France

    If climate would be a dominant factor influencing architecture, what does a local community/ city express huge variation in architecture?

  • Yasser M. Abd-elrhman asked a question in Corrosion:
    How can I determine the atomic weight of a composition?

    My composition is (Ti-5Mo-9Fe) and another series, and I want to determine the corrosion rate. So, I need the exact atomic weight.

  • Is it possible to quantify the expression of mRNA in MDA-MB-231 without using norma breast epithelial cell ?

    I want to check the differential expression of a gene(over expression or down expression) in MDA-MB-231 cell line. But I want to do it without using normal breast cancer cell line. Will it be possible by any means?

    Mehmet Gunduz · Turgut Özal University

    Basically house keeping genes such as GAPDH or b actin are not considered to show different expression in cancer cell lines. Thus you can compare any of your target gene expression with house keeping genes expression. Alternatively you may use nor al breast epithelial cells for comparision. But in that case you should first normalize house keeping genes expression between normal breast epithelia cells and cancer cell line then your target gene expression can be compared between cancer and normal epithelial cells

  • Ljubomir Jacić added an answer in Biodiversity:
    Why teach heterodox approach to economics? Is the dominance of mainstream economics a reflection of the dominant political ideology?

    I am very interesting in pluralism, and moreover in the perception that my colleagues have about the importance of pluralism. Especially today in many Italian and European departments economics is not so healthy (there is a decreasing number of students that seem to prefer business or management's department where economics is not deepen); heterodox approaches should favor biodiversity and with biodiversity, in a complex world, economics should have more varieties if it is to survive.

    Ljubomir Jacić · Technical College Požarevac

    Dear @Stefano, thanks for sharing this question. I was not aware that Association for Heterodox Economics exists! 

    THE EMERGENCE OF HETERODOX ECONOMICS, 1990 - 2006 by Frederic S. Lee is very good reading about!

    In Serbia, Management studies have overcame the Economic studies. I do agree with You, economics should have more varieties in order to survive!

  • Atilla Atli added an answer in X-Rays:
    Does anyone knows the typical x-rays spot diameter?

    I want to calculate the interaction volume from a philips x'pert mpd diffractometer. But i can't find the spot diameter. Can anyone help?

    Thanks in advance!

    Atilla Atli · École Catholique d'Arts et Métiers

    Right. The spot size is determined by your own set-up parameters (slit dimensions, the divergence in your mirror system including goniometer radius, etc.).

    You can observe the spot on a fluorescent target placed as a sample when you darken your experiment room (event it is difficult). 

  • Solanki Raman added an answer in Wind:
    How to calculate roughness length for momentum and heat?

    I have the wind component and temperature measurements at two levels over ground. How do I calculate the roughness length for momentum and heat.

    Solanki Raman · Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences

    Thank you sir. The article is very much appropriate.

  • M. Vivarelli added an answer in Socio-Cultural:
    Is there any significant importance of sociocultural factors on entrepreneurship?

    In developing countries the impact of sociocultural factors exists so is there any role of sociocultural factors in designing the entrepreneurship?

    M. Vivarelli · Catholic University of the Sacred Heart

    You can have a look to the attached forthcoming article

  • Michael Heine added an answer in TGA:
    How can increase the temperature because I did TGA and found the plastic pyrolyse between 440-550 C can I do my experiments more than that range ?

    I understood from answers the temp. is not enough to conduct cracking 

    Michael Heine · University of Augsburg

    Dear Faten Kamil,...

    obviously you are pyrolysing polyethylen to produce oil, as I got it from your other question at researchgate. Perhaps you can give us some more information about that.

    If you have the intention to produce oil, you should not crack the new formed pyrolysis products.

    That means your temperatures should be as low as possible.

    Anyway, to give constructive answers, we need some more details about your experimental status.

    With best regards


  • Theodor C. H. Cole added an answer in Epiphytes:
    Can anyone help identifying this epiphytic plant on Pinus roxburghii?

    Picture is taken at Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand, India at elevation 900 m.

    Theodor C. H. Cole · Universität Heidelberg

    From the Flora of China:

    Neohymenopogon parasiticus (Wallich) Bennet, Indian Forester. 107: 436. 1981.
    石丁香 shi ding xiang
    Hymenopogon parasiticus Wallich in Roxburgh, Fl. Ind. 2: 157. 1824; H. parasiticus var. longiflorus F. C. How ex W. C. Chen.
    Small shrubs, 0.3-2 m tall; branches stout, villosulous to hirtellous sometimes becoming glabrescent with age. Leaves sometimes grouped at apex of shortened branches; petiole 0.4-2 cm, villosulous to hirsutulous; blade drying papery or membranous, often grayish black, elliptic-obovate, lanceolate, oblanceolate, or obovate, 5-25 × 1.5-11 cm, adaxially puberulent to hirtellous, strigillose, or glabrescent, abaxially strigillose to pilosulous at least on principal veins, base obtuse to acute, apex obtuse, acute, or rarely acuminate; secondary veins 15-28 pairs; stipules ovate to suborbicular, 6-12 mm, strigillose to glabrous, cuspidate or obtuse to rounded. Inflorescences tomentulose to villosulous or villous, sessile and 3- or 5-partite, 4-18 × 4-24 cm (including petaloid bracts); bracts stipuliform, ovate, 5-15 mm, acuminate to 2-lobed, petaloid bracts white to cream, with blade portion drying papery to stiffly papery, elliptic-oblong to elliptic, 3-10 × 1.5-3.3 cm, strigillose to pilosulous or glabrescent, obtuse to acute, with stipe 2.5-4 cm; pedicels 0.8-1.2 cm. Calyx densely villosulous to tomentulose; ovary portion obconic, ca. 3 mm; limb deeply lobed, strigillose to glabrous; lobes lanceolate to narrowly triangular, 6-10 mm, acute. Corolla white [to pale green in Thailand], outside crisped villosulous to strigillose or strigose; tube 25-60 mm; lobes ovate-oblong to ovate, 5-10 mm, acute to obtuse. Capsules ellipsoid-oblong to ellipsoid, smooth or longitudinally weakly ridged, 1.5-3 × 0.6-1 cm, villosulous to pilosulous or strigillose; seeds 5-6 mm. Fl. Jun-Aug, fr. Sep-Dec.
    On trees or rocks in thickets or forests in valleys; 1200-2700 m. Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, N India, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam].
    Hymenopogon parasiticus var. longiflorus was originally dis-tinguished by its corolla length (5-7 cm vs. 2.5-4 cm in var. parasiticus). W. C. Chen (in FRPS 71(1): 233. 1999) synonymized these with some commentary.

  • Post Doc Research Topic ?

    Selecting a related topic with doctoral research topic or entirely different field .Which one will be good for post doctoral studies.

  • M. Vivarelli added an answer in Entrepreneurship:
    Please suggest a suitable scale for measuring the role of family background on entrepreneurial intention?

    Dear Research Gate friends, I need your help in finding suitable scale to measure the role of family background, in career choice decision. Please suggest a suitable scale for measuring the role of family background on entrepreneurial intention?

    With my very humble regards & thanks in advance.


    M. Vivarelli · Catholic University of the Sacred Heart

    I would suggest a non-exclusive question based on a Likert scale 1-10, in order to maximize the data variability

  • Explain the difference between controlled release and sustained release drug dosage forms?

    the difference between the two

    Mohamed Awad Dadamouny · University of Greifswald

    Hi Francis,

    Both terms used to describe a tablet that has been manufactured so as to release a small amount of drug continually over a period of time eg. 12 or 24 hours.
    You can find an answer in the similiar questions in the following link:


  • Amir Shadbooretan asked a question in TGF-beta:
    Is TGF-beta downstream gene of Ah receptor?

    I want to know whether TGF-beta gene is downstream of AhR or vice versa?

  • How to remove badly aligned sequences from multiple sequence alignments?

    I have >1500 sequence clusters, all have 7 orthologous sequences from different species. When I look at multiple sequence alignments of some of these sequence clusters, I found some of the sequences weakly aligned with the other sequence in the same cluster. I want to remove these sequences. Is there any tool available to remove such sequences from all clusters in an automated way.

    Anna Gophane · Shivaji University, Kolhapur

    Hello Dear Ashmit,

    Yes there is a tool "BioEdit" . You can remove your badly aligned sequence by deleting the bad alignments and improve your alignment. This software tool is freely available online for various operating system. There are also various versions of it present on web- http://www.mbio.ncsu.edu/bioedit/bioedit.html. 

    Hope it will help you....

  • To Disperse or not to Disperse, what is the importance of Dispersion Corrections?
    I have a reviewer that wants dispersion corrections for an excimer metal complex I have submitted. The excimer is clearly "covalently" bonded through a Metal-to-Metal bond with a relative energy of -95 kJ/mol compared to the monomers (in PCM ethanol, no counterpoise using PBE1PBE/6-31G(d)(C,H,N)/SDD(Pt)). I understand the importance of dispersion correction for supramolecular interactions, which can be subtly affected by small changes in energy, but how important are they compared to the relative energy above? What are the magnitudes of correction we can expect, and are they important enough to consider for actual bonding situations?


    Peter Daminan Jarowski · University of Surrey

    Hi Thanks. However, my system has a proper metallophilic bond between the interacting species. To be sure there are supramolecular interaction energies. You numbers suggest they are on the order of bonding so thanks, they should matter.

  • M. Vivarelli added an answer in Spin-Offs:
    Could you please recommend some fundamental literature available online about innovation and tech. transfer, start up, spin-off, spinout?

    Fundamental literature about history and development of innovation and technology transfer (TT), factors affecting innovation and TT and/or any related literature you think might be useful to study to better understand how start up, spin-off, spinout companies could be developed. Thank You all very much!

    M. Vivarelli · Catholic University of the Sacred Heart

    I woudl suggest to browse the Journal of Technology Transfer, Research Policy and Economics of Innovation and New technology. See also the attached survey article.

  • Imran Ahmed asked a question in Mobile:
    How to extract pattern from Time Series data. I want to label the TSD, but data is continuos, by hand I can do that, how to do it Automatically?

    I want to assign labels to Time Series Data. Like in attached fig I have accelerometer data for pushups. I put my mobile in pocket, made 10 push ups, stand up and take out the mobile from pocket. Now from 800 time stamp to 3000 I have actual counts. I want to assign two labels to this TSD, i.e. Pushup (i.e. how manytimes are there) or noPushup. Now question is how to assign the labels? By hand I can assign labels and build the Classifiers. But how to do it with automatic way to extract the labels. At the prediction stage how can find that the values from 0 to 800 actually there is no pushup data in it and when the actual pushup data started? 

  • Publications on Entrepreneurship ?

    What publications can be recommended on Environmental Entrepreneurship and Educational Entrepreneurship ? Who has practical experience with those fields ?

    M. Vivarelli · Catholic University of the Sacred Heart

    Please, see my recent survey attached

  • Geng Ouyang added an answer in Mathematics:
    How does the current view of infinity differ from Greek mathematics?
    Infinity in mathematics is a property of a set of objects that is not finite. The traditional view of infinity has its origin in the writings of Aristotle and the notion of potential infinity. "It is always possible to think of a large number of things, for the number of times a magnitude can be bisected is infinite. Hence the infinite is potential, never actual; the number of parts that can be taken always surpasses any assigned number." [Physics 207b8] ). For the current view of infinity, see the attached file.
    Geng Ouyang · MinNan Normal University

    Dear Ulrich, thank you very much for your suggestion. Now I change my question into following:

    Can we use the “brackets-placing rule" [1+1/2 +(1/3+1/4 )+(1/5+1/6+1/7+1/8)+...]  in the well known divergent proof of Harmonious Series (1+1/2 +1/3+1/4+...+1/n +...) in present limit theory to produce infinite numbers bigger than 1/2 or 1 or 2 or 3 or 4… and change an infinitely decreasing Harmonious Series with the property of Un--->0 into any infinite constant series with the property of Un--->constant or any infinitely increasing series with the property of Un--->infinity?

    Sincerely yours!

  • Lala Behari Sukla asked a question in Economics:
    What are the models available for Cross-border integration for predicting the accelerated growth of a region?

    International experts say that cross border integration would alone bring about an open market of  600 million people with economic opportunities worth of $280 billion to $615 billion by 2030.Benefits from urbanisation and technological advancement will add billion more to annual economic impact

  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of email therapy?

    What are the advantages and disadvantages of email therapy from the therapist's perspective? From the patient's perspective?

    Vilemar Magalhaes · Independent

    In some cases it can be a problem because the person who receives it will read the message with the "tone" according his mood. He is not feeling well already, what if he reads the message with sarcasm, or as if the therapist were fighting with him? Another aspect of such messages is that people tend to use this message as an unrefutable message. On direct contacts we can question, agree with part of the message and  in written we tend to accept it without any questioning. So, it is a great and strong means of approaching a patient. The therapist has to be exteemely cautious. From far a therapist does not speak to one's minds, he screams to people's minds and the message will not be printed on paper, but on stones. 

  • Hasan Mirzaei added an answer in Methylation:
    What are the ideal conditions for methylating the hydroxy groups of bromovanilline by using methyl iodide?

    I am trying to synthesize (3-Bromo-4,5-Dimethoxy-benzaldehyde) by using methyl iodide from( 3-Bromo-4-hydroxy-5-methoxy-benzaldehyde). Can anyone help me with this

    Hasan Mirzaei · Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences,sari, iran

    hi  Dr Dubey

    I am grateful for this comment

    I've modified the question

  • Emmanuelle Cugy added an answer in Scoring:
    Norms for Minnesota Tests of Manual Dexterity. Does anyone have norms for older adults?

    There is a very narrow normal curve for the Minnesota dexterity tests, around one minute duration. I think they must have had a super class of youngsters practicing to make up the norms. A youngster here scored highly because she was at the top end of curve, and we older guys score low because just 10 seconds slower than 1 minute puts us near the bottom, which is ridiculous. Strategy to do the test faster is to only concentrate on the hand putting blocks in the board. Only look at the board. Only pick up the pucks by touch without looking at them. This will give you less to think about and more microseconds to concentrate on placing pucks. We can also lower the board to make it faster to use the hands reaching. I think using this strategy I can get below 1 minute. But failing that, where are the norms for older adults? 

    Emmanuelle Cugy · Centre Hospitalier D'Arcachon

    A canadian team worked on this topic. Here a link to the article. And you could also request full text or communicated with first author, Johanne Desrosiers, on Researchgate.

  • M. Vivarelli added an answer in Innovation:
    How can we demonstrate that the market orientation, innovation orientation and marketing innovation are components of marketing of innovation ?

    How can we assume and demonstrate that the market orientation, innovation orientation and marketing innovation are components of marketing of innovation ?

    M. Vivarelli · Catholic University of the Sacred Heart

    I would suggest to run complementarity vs substitutability tests

  • What's the interpretation of single photon interference in a double slit experiment?

    I want to know what are the reasons of this interference.

    How does quantum mechanics look for this interference? Does the photon interfere with itself or are the waves accompanied with it interfering with each other?

    What's the relation of wave particle duality with this experiment?

    What are the most acceptable interpretations of this experiment?

    Johan Frans Prins · Sage Wise 66 (Pty) Ltd

    Dear Harry,

    It is obviously YOU who do not understand anti-bunching since you are totally incapable of explaining why this concept requires that a photon must be a wave packet; as you wrongly claim that it is.

    It is up to YOU to explain your absurd claim; not to ME to try and find out how your muddled mind is reasoning! A person who in an argument refers the other person to other manuscripts, is acting like a priest quoting a verse from the Bible without explaining why this verse has any relevance to reality.

  • Luigi Folco added an answer in Steel:
    Who can recommend a set of standards for Fe-meteorite analysis?

    Dear all,

    I need to do some analysis of polished sections of Fe-meteorites by pXRF. As there is a bunch of certified standard steel materials, I wonder if someone can recommend a suitable set of these to build a calibration curve that works well on Fe-meteorites.

    thx, Florian

    Luigi Folco · Università di Pisa

    Dear Florian et al.

    I think the paper by Gemelli et al (GGR; 2014) provides a good evaluation (pros and cons) of HHXRF in the geochemical analyses of iron meteorites and their preliminary classification.

    Luigi Folco

  • How anaerobic bacteria may help us in treating cancer?

    I have heard that certain kinds of microorganisms are very sensitive to oxygen and grow only anaerobic conditions. On the contrary, normal, vascularized tissues are hostile environments for such anaerobic microbes which, however, can selectively proliferate in the hypoxic regions of tumors, destroy cancer cells and feed on the debris, that's very interesting and I'm eager to know how?

  • Is the concept of field the proper way to describe physical processes?

    What is a field? Everywhere around a 'source' of the field, if we put a 'test particle', then a 'force' will be applied to it, coming from the source.
    This definition has a critical drawback:

    • if you calculate, using volume integrals, the total energy of the field , then you will find it infinite. Is this acceptable?

    On the contrary, there exists the interaction from a distance view, where a force is applied to the test particle only when it is being present in the neighborhood of the source. So, we have not any kind of infinite energy here.
    Which approach do you believe that is correct and why? 

    Demetris Christopoulos · National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

    Sorry for interrupting, but I think that QM gives the right answers just because nature or tell it as you like is always locally linear, so a linear oriented theory makes miracles. Euclid was the first who defined linearity as I remember. All next theories just formulate linearity in a different and more general way.

  • Ewa Stepien added an answer in Hemolysis:
    Does anyone have a protocol or advice on how to avoid hemolysis while taking blood samples from a mouse?

    I perform a colorimetric assay on serum prepared from these blood samples and the red color due to hemolysis is highly interfering with my readout.

    I tried tail vein, cardiac puncture and still have quite some hemolysis in some of the samples.

    I collect the blood in BD Microtainer SST tubes (ref 365951) and spin them 5 minutes at 10000 rpm, room temperature to prepare the serum.

    Ewa Stepien · Jagiellonian University

    For computing Relative Centrifugal Forces (G) from rpm and a rotor radius volumes please see this norogram. I hope that it helps.