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  • Jayson Enciso added an answer in Marine Algae:
    Can you help me identify the scientific name of this marine algae?

    This species was collected in Romblon, Philippines.

    Jayson Enciso · Romblon State University

    Just wait Sir until tomorrow. I'll go to beach later for gathering a fresh sample of young and mature.

  • Chandana Buddhala added an answer in RIPA Buffer:
    Why do i see multiple bands in my western?

    Recently I have been seeing multiple bands in my westerns. I am using the same
    method I have been using for years, and it was fine till now. I am using RIPA buffer with protease inhibitors(2X). The protocol for western is even pretty standard. Please suggest if anyone knows whats going on?

    Sub Ques: Can Heat cause this? I has started using Bis tris gel and they run at 200V which makes the gel and buffer very Hot.

    Chandana Buddhala · Washington University in St. Louis

    Hi Mitesh

    I would try the following:

    1. Repeat the western if this is the image only from one experiment. You may have skipped the blocking step, or increase the blocking time from 30 mins to 1-2 hrs.

    b. Try different blocking buffers - Milk vs BSA blocking buffer.

    c. Is your antigen a phosphoprotein and the antibody specific to this phosphoprotein? If yes, then this is expected. Also have you used this Ab previously in western blot runs with recombinant proteins and are now running blots with cell/tissue lysates? Please confirm if "c" is correct and I can explain what is going on and help you trouble-shoot.

    Best wishes,


  • Subhash C. Kundu added an answer in Geopolitics:
    From geopolitical point of view, how real is the possibility that Iran returns on global gas market and replaces Russian gas?

    With 18 percent of total world gas reserves Iran is right behind Russia....

    Subhash C. Kundu · Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology

    It is a market function, in market competitive pressures work.

    Geopolitical issues/efforts are not permanent.

  • Brennan Baker added an answer in Articles:
    Where do I find articles after I request the full text to be sent to me?

    The article I was looking for is 

    Moving as a gift: Relocation in older adulthood

    Tam E. Perry in
    Journal of Aging Studies: 2014

    Brennan Baker · University of Central Florida

    I would visit your university's library for assistance regarding online databases.

    I also attached the article.


  • Kathryn Barnard added an answer in Development:
    Does anyone know about caring development theory?

    It is assumed that caring continues to grow as a student progresses through the various educational and experiential levels, but is there an empirical data on this?

    Kathryn Barnard · University of Washington Seattle


  • Karthic R. Narayanan added an answer in Abaqus:
    Is there any two-surface plasticity model in Abaqus?


    Is there any built-in material constitutive law based on a two-surface plasticity model in ABAQUS?


    Karthic R. Narayanan · Nanyang Technological University

    HI morteza

    2 surface plasticity model : it it like a multiyield surface criteria? What is the rationale behind it. Can you kind explain!

    People who have commented regarding CPFEM, it is basically a different story altogether. You have 12 slip systems for FCC, we need to add the shear strain of the slip system to see whether it is active or not. So all the slip systems need to be verified with yield surface condition. There we can use one yield surface or more, depends on the problem.

  • Edward Harwood added an answer in Leaf:
    How can a higher plant leaf brix be achieved in the most agricultural arable lands?

    Perhaps any degree above a minimal of 12?

    Edward Harwood · Just Greens, LLC

    Try harvesting earlier and using only those plants with first true leaves

  • Can anyone recommend me data acquisition tools to collect velocity, voltage and current from actual driving cycle?

    Now I use Kayaba recorder. Any idea for collecting these data using other data acquisition for Electric Vehicle driving cycle? 

    Thank you

  • Vojtech Baláž added an answer in Invasive Species:
    Does anyone have a paper that discusses that alpine newts are asympotomatic for chytrid disease?

    This is for a review of chytrid disease in amphibians in Britiain, specifically alpine newts as they are an invasive species. Specifically an example case study is required for their showing no symptoms. Thank you!

    Vojtech Baláž · University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno

    these contain data on cases of detected infections in field with no clilnical symptoms mentioned/observed. hope it helps.

  • Vijay Bhaskar Semwal asked a question in Axis:
    How using PCA we decide the principal axis of observation ?

    my question if data is in ellipsoid shape them in n-dimensionless how we decided top most k eigen directions. Statistically I need to visualize it.

    explain below

    PCA can be thought of as fitting an n-dimensional ellipsoid to the data, where each axis of the ellipsoid represents a principal component. If some axis of the ellipse is small, then the variance along that axis is also small, and by omitting that axis and its corresponding principal component from our representation of the dataset, we lose only a commensurately small amount of information.

  • I have another areer for my profile, how do I enter that?

    I have not fully engaged with my purely educatiopnal career in recent times and have been pursuing a culture arts programmes for Indigenous people, which I have 30 years experience with. I would like to enter that also on my profile. How do I do that?

  • Julio Amador added an answer in Moral Psychology:
    Is myth an essential component of political discourse and political practice?

    Even in modern times myth has served as a fundamental ingredient of politics: idealization of leaders, of historical events, of the origins of a community or a nation, are some of the most common. Myth and structured mythologies have played several essential functions in human life: 1) cognitive: myth explains the origin of all things, the reason of their existence, why is life as it is; 2) ontological: it roots human life in a cosmos and its archetypical order; 3) moral and psychological: it presents the conflicts inherent to human existence, the relation between interior conscience and the external world, offering harmonious solutions to those conflicts; 4) social and political: it creates the codes of collective identity, unifies the beliefs of social groups and legitimates social and political institutions.
    However, we should distinguish between traditional myths that have a religious character and modern myths, which are predominantly profane.

    Julio Amador · Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

    Rafael: I agree with Charles. Categories should be used precisely. That’s the only possibility that enables us to describe the events we study with certain precision; either in natural or in social sciences we render our knowledge by the means of language. In science, as in any other field of human activity (art, religion, etc.) we are not relating with reality itself, but only through the linguistic or symbolic (image in the visual arts) translation we produce. The mental image has to be transformed into a socially accepted system of codification (language), so it can be understood and communicated. As Gadamer puts it: the linguistic character of our experience, precedes everything that can be recognized, named and treated as an entity. Or as Cassirer demonstrates: we cannot relate directly with the world, but only by the means of language, myth, religion, art, science. This is what culture is: and we, modern human beings, are the only ones who have culture. Using the concept to describe activities and neurobiological processes of other animal species is an exaggeration of the metaphoric qualities, meanings and limits of the concept: culture. You are walking over the line that separates science from New Age beliefs and the boundaries are blurring. This is the last answer I’ll give about this specific aspect of the discussion, there’s no point in going further in your kind of argumentation.

  • Karthic R. Narayanan added an answer in ANSYS:
    How can I integrate FORGE (Bulk forming results) into ANSYS for structural validation considering pre-stress?

    To import mesh with pre-stress values into ANSYS?

    Karthic R. Narayanan · Nanyang Technological University

    Hi elango

    I have not used ANSYS much. But I have used abaqus etc.. We write a short code in fortran subroutine called (SIGINI) that is initial stress to the number of elements you give. Let's say you have 100 elements with different prestress which needs to be transferred to the next step. The next step also should have same number of elements which can be mapped. Why not try this run the simulation in 2 steps . Let's say first step general loading for bulk forming and in the next step, just do any analysis on what you want, to the deformed body. Abaqus (recent versions) can do this, which i have heard. I have used pretty old versions!

    Just my 2 cents

  • Matthew Wheal added an answer in Dissertations:
    Is there any research about fire effects on soil micro-nutrient such as Fe and Zn?

    This research could be an article, thesis, dissertation etc.

    Matthew Wheal · Flinders University

    There appears to have been a conference on the topic:

    Effects of a low severity prescribed fire on water-soluble elements in ash from a cork oak (Quercus suber) forest located in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula
    By: Pereira, Paulo; Ubeda, Xavier; Martin, Deborah; et al.
    Conference: International Meeting on Fire Effects on Soil Properties Location: Marmaris, TURKEY Date:FEB 11-15, 2009 
    Sponsor(s): Hacettepe Univ, Dept Biol; Ankara Univ, Dept Soil Sci
    ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH  Volume: 111   Issue: 2   Pages: 237-247   Published: FEB 2011

    I found several papers with asearch of Web of Science. You might want to read :

    Short and medium-term effects of a wildfire and two emergency stabilization treatments on the availability of macronutrients and trace elements in topsoil
    By: Xesus Gomez-Rey, Maria; Jesus Gonzalez-Prieto, Serafin
    SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT  Volume: 493   Pages: 251-261   Published: SEP 15 2014


    Wildfire effects on extractable elements in ash from a Pinus pinaster forest in Portugal
    By: Pereira, Paulo; Ubeda, Xavier; Martin, Deborah; et al.
    HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES  Volume: 28   Issue: 11   Pages: 3681-3690   Published: MAY 30 2014


    Wild fire impact on copper, zinc, lead and cadmium distribution in soil and relation with abundance in selected plants of Lamiaceae family from Vidlic Mountain (Serbia)
    By: Jovanovic, V. P. Stankov; Ilic, M. D.; Markovic, M. S.; et al.
    CHEMOSPHERE  Volume: 84   Issue: 11   Pages: 1584-1591   Published: SEP 2011

    and for an Australian perspective (the above are European), but less about the soils and more on foliar nutrition:

    Fire history and understorey vegetation: Water and nutrient relations of Eucalyptus gomphocephala and E. delegatensis overstorey trees
    By: Close, Dugald C.; Davidson, Neill.; Swanborough, Perry W.
    FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT  Volume: 262   Issue: 2   Pages: 208-214   Published: JUL 15 2011

  • Vivek Morya added an answer in Glyoxylates:
    How to prepare glyoxyl agarose?

    I am in need of the correct protocol.

    Vivek Morya · Inha University

    check your message box, I already mailed the same. 

  • Osama Al Tameemi added an answer in Ranking:
    International University Ranking

    Which International University Rankings are credible?

    I found some lists of top Universities, but we need a list, where most universities are listed.

    Osama Al Tameemi · University of Central Florida


     As u said there are too many rankings for the universities, however, I would go by the department ranking as the ranking of the university takes into consideration the class size, support for international students, impact of the university on the community etc..., which are not into the core of the scientific aspect and a university might have fantastic departments doing great research, however they might be lacking on some of these aspect which will lower their rank. Add to that, some departments might not be doing great as compared to the other (although they are within the same university), this will affect the overall rating.

    This is why i recommend going by the department ranking to get a pure sense about what each department of the university is doing in terms of research.

  • How is health literacy for youth measured?
    Have any measurements been developed regarding health literacy in the context of youth or young people?
    Mohammad Rezal Hamzah · Universiti Malaysia Perlis

    Thanks Diana

  • Sridhar Vadahanambi added an answer in Water Vapor:
    And if it was possible to desalt seawater with solar energy?

    By setting up a sun-reflecting parabola (with for example recycled metal-old cans) and oriented towards the sea water and thus evaporating sea water. The water vapor would be desalted and may be cooled at ambient temperature (by placing an inclined cover next to the water vapor)..

    Sridhar Vadahanambi · Global Core Research Center for Ships and Offshore Plants,

    As pointed by Larrabee... Solar stills

    There are other reports on solar energy (ex: photo-voltaic) driven water purification and desalination.



  • How to process raw data files for X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis?

    I am having difficulty in processing the raw data file, given to me by the technician (who is on holidays now), for determining the X-ray diffraction pattern for Copper. Tried CMRP software but couldn't succeed is processing the file... got an error on the first step...i.e. while reading the raw file.

    I would be really thankful if I could get some useful advice related to the processing of the raw file, and what analysis software to use. Below is the link to the the raw file.

    Karthic R. Narayanan · Nanyang Technological University

    Try MAUD. It can do the job for you!

  • Aiman Fozi asked a question in Pressure:
    Regarding pressure garment, is there any pressure prediction using Laplace Law on complex contour such as facial area?

    Laplace law was used to calculate pressure based on fabric tension and radius of curvature. It is known that most previous studies are referring to limbs area which is have cylindrical shape.However, the concave and convex areas such as facial contour does not have the cylindrical shape and the gap exist when applying head garment. Does the calculation still can be applied at this area?

  • Yurii V Geletii added an answer in Water Splitting:
    What is the lowest oxygen over potential ever reported for IrO2 catalyst in OER? I mean, To generate 10mA.cm-2 at ..(lowest????)........V) ?

    Water splitting , OER, Photoelectro water oxidation

    Yurii V Geletii · Emory University

    Why do you expect that someone should work for you? You have a simple question which requires much time to read original papers. Do your job yourself. 

  • Omar Tovar Ramos added an answer in His-Tag:
    What should be the ideal dialysis buffer composition for a His-tagged purified protein to remove salt (NaCl)?

    I want to remove salt, specifically NaCl, because I need to analyze my protein by Maldi-TOF, I´m currently using only deionized water but it does not seem to work.

    Omar Tovar Ramos · Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

    Because the mass spectrum is like this:

  • Jie Shan Qiu added an answer in Materials:
    What is a difference between sponge-like and foam-like materials.?

    What is a difference between sponge-like and foam-like materials.?

    Jie Shan Qiu · Dalian University of Technology

    The difference between the sponge-like and foam-like materials is due to their mechanical properties. The sponge-like materials can be compressed repeatedly, and once the applied force is removed, the pressed sponge-like materials can resume their original morphology; while in the case of foam-like material, their structure is regid and cannot be compressed like the sponge-like materials.

  • Mengmeng Du asked a question in Wheat:
    Is it practicable to estimate the biomass of wheat by using multi-spectral imaging technology?

    Good morning.

    I am wondering how to measure or estimate the biomass of wheat just at the same time when harvesting is implemented.

    Is it practicable to analyze the mass of wheat by using remote sensors such as multi-spectral imaging technology?

    Thank you!

  • Xianling Wang added an answer in Laparoscopic:
    Is there laparoscopic training box especially for laparoscopic Gynaecology now? and do you think that is it useful?

    Is there laparoscopic training box especially for laparoscopic Gynaecology now? and do you think that is it useful?

    Xianling Wang · University of Shanghai for Science and Technology

    thank you very much ,but the video that you have provided is about laparoscopic training box for training basic laparoscopic operation skills. and my question is about training box specialized for Gynecology.  so i want to know  is there training box specialized for Gynecology ?

  • Ibtisam Abbas added an answer in MOFs:
    Which polymer for metal-organic framework (MOF) solution dispersion?

    Aiming on dispersing MOF particles in a suitable polymer matrix for thermal desorption and/or preconcentration, I am looking for a polymer that fulfills the following requirements:

    • soluble in organic solvents that can be removed by vacuum and elevated temperature (100-200 °C maximum). Neutral or almost neutral pH water would also be ok
    • thermal stability up to 200°C and low outgassing because this is a sensing application
    • macro- and/or mesoporsosity because the pore accessibility of the MOF should not be hampered too much
    • good dispersion for MOF particles with 10-60µm particle diameter and bearing mostly carboxylate groups on the surface.
    • Being compatible with the substrates to be finally coated on. This will be alumina, silicon or gold.

    The reason for this is to have a universal method in order to fast screen MOFs for this purpose and being able to characterize the - synthesized in bulk - MOF powder prior to this dispersion.

    Preliminary experiments with PMMA(996k) in THF - and afterwards added MOF powder - showed that the BET surface area was diminished but only by 20% as compared on a mass-percentage basis. Higher percentages of MOF ithin this system showed a linear increased BET surface area.

    I am sure there are some polymer-heads out there who may have some interesting suggestions. I am far away from being a polymer expert.

    Ibtisam Abbas · Massey University

    you can use polyurthane that is soluble in THF solvents that can be removed by vacuum and elevated temperature (100-200 °C maximum).

    This paper may has some references that can help your research

    Metal organic framework mixed matrix membranes for gas separations
    Ryan Adamsa,
    Cantwell Carsona, b,
    Jason Warda,
    Rina Tannenbaumb,
    William Korosa, , 

    Microporous and Mesoporous Materials
    Volume 131, Issues 1–3, June 2010, Pages 13–20

    for example: The relative ease of creating defect-free MMMs from low glass transition temperature, Tg, polymers and rubbery polymers versus higher Tg polymers is well documented [8], [36], [37], [38] and [39]. Car et al. addressed this issue by investigating PDMS-based MOF-MMMs, but the high permeabilities of gases through PDMS may have diluted the contribution of the MOFs to overall gas transport.

    I hope this help you 


  • Abdul Jaffar added an answer in Tamil Nadu:
    Can anybody identify this animal in the picture?

    It looks like a bit of coal without any pores or openings. Body is slimy during collection and rigid after preservation. Tested and it respires! Collected along kanyakumari coast, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Abdul Jaffar · Islamiah College

    It is phallusia nigra, a solitary ascidian. Can you tell me the exact place of collection of this ascidian in Kanyakumari coast?

  • Matt Jans added an answer in Research Methodology:
    What is the difference between experimental and quasi-experimental research?

    Is there any difference between them rather than randomize issue?

    Matt Jans · University of California, Los Angeles

    Ahmad, what's the research context in which you work? In psychology and maybe most of social science, "experimental" implies a randomized experiment. Sometimes those have true control groups, but sometimes they don't (just comparison groups). I agree with almost everything Ariel said (Go Blue!), but would add that I don't know that quasi-experimental has a clear and universal definition. For example, I always thought that if you diverged too much from a true experiment (control group, individual randomization) that you were in quasi-experimental land. For example, if you randomize classrooms instead of students (but your unit of analysis is student) you still have an experiment but it's less than pure due to the clustering within classroom. I always thought this would be quasi-experimental. I definitely wouldn't include surveys or other "observational" studies without any experiment in them as even quasi-experimental. Remember that there's category in the universe of all studies, and that's "non-experimental."

    The categories you forwarded are in a lot of intro text books. I think they come from the Campbell and Stanley (196x) book that uses them in the title (I don't have it handy, and am on mobile). If anyone knows the roots of this dichotomy, I'm interested to learn. I've never found the quasi-experimental category very useful in practice. Also, I find it more helpful to think of the features of a given study than what "type" it is, as many of those type descriptions are limited. So I'd ask "does the study have any kind of randomized experiment to it," and if so "what was the randomization?" Keep in mind that a study can be both a sample survey AND an experiment. I hope that helps.

  • R. C. Mittal added an answer in Server:
    Do you agree with comment below?

    Today where most applications are based on real-time interaction and at the same time forced to be reachable online, the RDBS approach can result in a bottleneck either at the central master server or the complex network protocol that communicates between all the servers. Is NoSQL a solution?

    R. C. Mittal · Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

    Certainly NoSQL are now used to store big data and for many real time applications. But there is not any full proof method which provides all in one. Here some operations are faster than RDBS. Things are evolved like this.