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  • Manjur Kolhar added an answer in LabVIEW:
    Does any body have open source scanning laser microscope software?

    I need a scanning laser microscope software preferably in Labview?

    Manjur Kolhar · Prince Sattam Abdulaziz University

    Hi Pranav,

    IT should be tightly coupled with the H/W.  Anyways have a look on this paper


  • Meera Raj added an answer in CloudSim:
    How can I implement a new scheduling algorithm in CloudSim?

    How can I implement a new scheduling algorithm in CloudSim?

    Meera Raj · Telecommunication Engineering Centre

    Started implementing scheduling algo in cloudsim. I want to schedule the cloudlets based on execution time. I have calculated the execution time. But i dont know how to submit. in setcloudletlists. Plz suggest

  • Irina Gocheva added an answer in Silver Nanowires:
    How to Chloridize silver nanowires?

    I am working on biosensor using silver nanowires. Does anyone have any idea how to chloridize silver nanowires for reference electrode?

  • Can I use Mincer's earnings function as a research model?

    My research scope is to measure the contribution that University education brings to an employee's (annual salary).

    From what I've studied, Mincer's earnings function is the commonly used function for this kind of estimation.

    It's form is:

    lnY = lnB + aED + b1EX + b2EX2 (+ disturbance)


    Y --- salary of employee with univ. degree

    which is explained by:

    B --- salary of employee with base education (for example, high school degree)

    ED --- number of years of univ. education

    EX --- number of years of work experience (which is calculated "age - total formal education - 6)

    Now.., I am at a point where I have received the needed questionnaire data and I am able to figure Y, B, ED and EX.

    For the sake of the argument, let's assume that:

    1. sample size BA degree interviewees is 500 people.
    2. sample size of High School degree interviewees is 400 people.
    3. Interviewees of both samples are roughly in the same age group: 30 to 40 years old, with a mean of 37 years of age)
    4. assuming that a BA degree lasts roughly 5 years, variable "ED" would be = 5
    5. assuming that BA degree interviewees start work at roughly 23 years of age, variable "EX" would be 37 - 23 = 14

    so we have:

    Y = $65000/year (average of 500 BA degree interviewees)

    B = $52000/year (average of 400 high school interviewees)

    ED = 5

    EX = 14

    Plugging in the numbers, we have:

    lnY = lnB + aED + b1EX + b2EX2

    ln(65000) = ln(52000) + a*5 + b1*14 + b2*14

    My goal here, of course is to solve for a. a would basically tell me the percentage of earnings deriving solely from those 5 years of university education. But in order to solve for a, I need to have the values of coefficients b1 and b2 given. And I don't have those...

    Maybe SPSS calculates them automatically once the dataset variables are entered in the program? If yes, to what specific quesions in the quesitionnaire will these two coefficients be connected? Because I feel I need to pay very much attention to including those questions.

    Is it even possible to plug this equation into SPSS? Or any other statistics program for that matter? Or I am following a "dead end" in this case?

    Your thoughts are very much appreciated. Thank you.

    Orion Garo · Independent Researcher

    Hi Benjamin. Sorry, I am fairly inexperienced at this kind of analysis. Would you be kind to put it more specifically, in a step-by-step fashion?

  • What is the relationship between strategic purchasing and supply management capability?

    I would be very grateful if someone can recommend one or more articles that have discussed the difference between strategic purchasing and supply management capability, I need scientific papers to support that there is a relationship between these two constructs and how they are measured.

    Vivek Roy · Indian Institute of Management Raipur

    Please refer below. Hope it helps.

    Chen, I. J., Paulraj, A., & Lado, A. A. (2004). Strategic purchasing, supply management, and firm performance. Journal of operations management, 22(5), 505-523.

    Carr, A. S., & Smeltzer, L. R. (1999). The relationship of strategic purchasing to supply chain management. European Journal of Purchasing & Supply Management, 5(1), 43-51.

    Bowen, F. E., Cousins, P. D., Lamming, R. C., & Farukt, A. C. (2001). The role of supply management capabilities in green supply. Production and operations management, 10(2), 174-189.

    Ageron, B., Gunasekaran, A., & Spalanzani, A. (2012). Sustainable supply management: An empirical study. International Journal of Production Economics, 140(1), 168-182.

  • Balan Joseph added an answer in MATLAB:
    How to simulate a BELBiC controller in matlab for transformer protection?
    How to simulate BELBiC controller in matlab for transformer protection?
    Balan Joseph · Anna University of Technology, Coimbatore

    thank you sir balan.eee@sriguru.ac.in this is my e-mail id

  • James R Knaub added an answer in Linear Regression:
    Why am I getting a different r-square value computed from regression analysis and from fitting a trendline in excel?

    While I was trying to fit a linear relationship between two variable (x,y) with no constants, I had come across this strange thing. Fitting a trendline to the plotted data gave me a relationship of y=0.863x with an R2 value of 0.3769. While a linear regression gave me the same relationship of y=0.863x, but with an R2 value of 0.899. Is it possible to have such a wide difference in the value of R2. My file is attached with this.

    James R Knaub · N/A

    Mithun - 

    I was able to download your scatterplot, as shown here, and these data do not appear to be linear through the origin. 

    Perhaps some information on the nature of the subject matter would help further discussion. 


  • Manjur Kolhar added an answer in Simulation Tools:
    Is there any simulation tools on mpls-vpn?

    is there any simulation tools on mpls-vpn?

    Manjur Kolhar · Prince Sattam Abdulaziz University

    Thanks a lot to all who have replied

  • Amar Jyoti Das asked a question in Biosurfactants:
    Why most of the Gylcolpid and Lipopetide Biosurfactant shows stabilty at 100 degree celcius ?

    Is there any mechanism?

  • Tausif Alam added an answer in Cognitive Systems:
    Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.

    Tausif Alam · University of Wisconsin–Madison


    "Tausif , You know that the delta , theta , Alpha , Beta and Gamma are all oscillations that are detected when EEG is done at rest ..."

    Indeed, most of us have at least heard a little something about EEG and brain waves but you do seem to have a way with phrases where simple things become confounding - pathways oscillating - but perhaps that is what it takes to sell things as new/improved!  ;)

    If the point is that various regions interact with each other, why not simply say so?

  • Shaktiman Singh added an answer in Glacier:
    How to calculate the change in runoff from the mountain to the river if I found the change in glacier extent using remote sensing?

    What should I do in order to transfer area change of mountain glacier into discharge rate of meltwater?

    Shaktiman Singh · Sharda University

    It can be only done when you can estimate the discharge contributed by seasonal snow melt and rainfall and glacier melt separately. For that you can use temperature index model which requires input of temperature, precipitation and change in area of glacier and seasonal snow cover.

    If this is what you mean, then I can share some documents that can be useful.

  • Attila Lehotzky added an answer in HRP:
    Will FACS work when I use an Anti-HRP sec antibody against the HRP of the protein A-primary antibody construct?


    At the moment I'm dealing with the detection of my expressed protein. I already have an primary antibody against this protein (purified form) for ELISA where  I'm using a Protein-A-HRP conjugate system. Now I want to follow the expression of the membrane bound version of this protein via FACS. 
    Because I also have an Anti-HRP sec Antibody, I'm wondering if FACS will work when I use this one against the HRP of the Protein A-primary Antibody construct?

    thanks for your help


    Attila Lehotzky · Hungarian Academy of Sciences

    In this way, it is OK perfectly for FACS, I think. 

  • I want to use Histochemistry for detection of protein and lipids. Can anyone suggest a procedure without using Cryocut?

    I had all basic instruments regarding histology

    Mahendra Singh · Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University

    Several protocols are available for histochemistry without cryostat section

    but always keep in mind that if you are using the samples fixed very long back may encounter problems with antigen retrieval. 

    So better to give minimum fixation time. 

    What kind antigen you want to locate in birds.

    If you need any help you can contact me @ mahensvet@yahoo.co.in

  • Vivek Roy added an answer in Qualitative Interviews:
    During the transcription process of qualitative interviews, how do I deal with the multiple language responses obtained during the interviews?

    For an instance, during the interviews, if any response (or a fraction of it) is received in a language other than English. How do we enter such portions in the transcripts.

    If we need to Translate such portions to English, please elaborate on the aspects to be taken care of.

    Thanks in advance

    Vivek Roy · Indian Institute of Management Raipur

    Thanks to all for enriching the discussion.



  • Is there any numerical solution to solve nonlinear coupled PDEs?

    Is there any numerical solution to solve nonlinear coupled PDEs?

    Samuli Piipponen · University of Tampere

    Dear Moshen 

    What programs do you have at your disposal ? If the equations involve space variables in 2 dimensions or higher and the domain and boundary is fairly complicated I think FEM method is preferable. If there is only 1 space variable you can also use finite difference method succesfully. 

    There are several FEM-based programs which you can use for example 

    - Comsol Multiphysics 
    - Ansys 
    - Abaqus 

    just to mention a few where coupled PDE and Integral equations can be considered.

    Now I just noticed you gave the equations in previous page and it seems they 
    involve only one space variable. 

    If you want to code a program which gives you numerical solution use finite difference method and Matlab. However it looks like you also have temperature 
    T in your equations ? Does T change so much it actually affects to the evolution 
    of the system. Or could it be possible to make an approximation 
    partial T/partial t =0 so that T do not change much and you could drop the
    time derivative of T from eqs. ?

    kind regards

    Samuli Piipponen
    UN of Tampere, Finland

  • How do you deal with colleagues that try to hold you back and bring you down?
    While you try to do your work and "go the extra mile" in teaching and research, some of your colleagues try to hold you back and bring you down. This may be due to their complex of inferiority, unethical upbringing, jealousy, etc. How can you convince them that if you succeed in some endeavor, then the whole department/faculty/university succeeds? While you always try to be a good team player and try a constructive approach always keeping in mind how to get to a win-win situation, all the politics they do is a destructive practice where they only think about themselves and their personal benefits! How do you deal with this type of colleagues?
    Satyaprasad Venkata · Manipal Hospital, KAYA

    Dr Arup I was reading your article on Six Sigma interesting one but didn't get more details.

  • What is best material selection for a Silicate abrasive environment?

    I want to select material for part of a machine which operates in silicate and silica Abrasive environment. It is a magnetic separator that is used in iron ore processing and separate iron form other material existing in iron ore. Iron ore contain silica (quartz) and silicate which are very abrasive materials. I am considering tungsten. But I want to make sure it is the best choice in terms of resistance to abrasion and cost.

    Does anyone have any suggestion?

    Any suggestion would really be appreciated.  

    Bahram Bandeshah · Ferdowsi University Of Mashhad

    Thanks for your useful answer Dear P. Christiaan Pistorius. 

    Yes, you are absolutely right; Iron ore does not contain silicon carbide. I have heard once that because iron ore contain silicon dioxide it is abrasive and because of this abrasion property I confused it with silicon carbide which is used as an abrasive material in grinding wheels and emery wheels. 

    I will find aforementioned questions answers. 

    Hope to benefit much from your valuable advice.

  • Can anyone suggest how I can start work on T1 weighted MRI brain images using VBM?

    Please suggest how I can start work on T1 weighted mri brain images using VBM?

    Amirhussein Abdolalizadeh · Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    You can go through the steps provided in this guide published in Nature Protocols:


  • Does somebody have good references regarding radiocarbon plateau effect (effet de plateau or age plateau) ?

    I would like to have more infos regarding the different "age plateaux " in the Northeastern part of North America from 10 000BP until the 19th Century. Thanks!

    Alwynne B. Beaudoin · Royal Alberta Museum

    An older reference but still useful:

    Fiedel, S.J., 1999. Older Than We Thought: Implications of Corrected Dates for Paleoindians. American Antiquity 64, 95-115.

    Deals with the late Pleistocene/Holocene transition.

  • Yuvraj Garg asked a question in DCM:
    Please tell the polarity of (petrol/Et2O/Et3N, 74:25:1) in terms of EtOAc/Hexane or MeOH/DCM?

    This is for isolation of a organic compound in Silica gel column chromatography.

  • Asit Baran Samui added an answer in Elastomers:
    Why the hardness and tensile strength showing a similar trend in case of elastomers?

    i am doing a project on compatibility of elastomers with E20. I have conducted the test as per SAE J1748 and i got the results. the results of hardness and tensile strength were showing the same trend(hardness is decreasing and in the same way tensile strength is also decreasing). can any one please tell me the reason behind it.

    Thank you.

    Asit Baran Samui · Defence Institute of Advanced Technology

    Hardness is surface phenomenon and tensile strength is matrix phenomenon. I agree with Dr. Amit's answer. If E20 has good compatibility with matrix the matrix will behave homogenously and both parameters will behave similarly.

  • Getachew Agegnehu added an answer in Fruit Quality:
    What are the Bio-remediation options for boron toxicity in Mandarins?

    Excess boron fertiliser was applied and this resulted in complete defoliation of the mandarins. We have been irrigating to excess attempting to leach the excess boron to a level below the root zone of the mandarins. They are young trees just 2/3 years planted.

    Getachew Agegnehu · James Cook University

    I think biochar can be used as one of viable bio-remediation options for contaminated soils. Several research works have been conducted in this regard. You may find a number of them, for example, to mention a few:

    Luke Beesley et al. 2011. A review of biochars’ potential role in the remediation, revegetation and restoration of contaminated soils. Environmental Pollution 159 (2011) 3269e3282

    Luke Beesley et al 2010. Effects of biochar and green waste compost amendments on mobility, bioavailability and toxicity of inorganic and organic contaminants in a multi-element polluted soil. Environmental Pollution

    Zhang et al. 2013. Using biochar for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2013) 20:8472–8483

  • Attila Lehotzky added an answer in Myoblasts:
    Does anyone have experience in doing reclones from H9c2 cells?

    According to ATCC ..."To prevent loss of myoblastic cells, cultures should be subcultured before they become confluent, and the line should be recloned periodically with selection for myoblastic cells".

    Could you please let me know how to select and differentiate the myoblastic cells from others? Until now, I'm using H9c2 cells (always keep them at less than 70% confluent). However, I would like to know how to reclone H9c2.

    Thank you!

    Attila Lehotzky · Hungarian Academy of Sciences

    1. yes for phase contrast. if you work later with some fluo signal, it is better to check it too for the selected wells.

    2. check your cell line current state. count this using few parallel samples. even repeat few times. use the system in which your experiment is planned (ie some fluo work on glass, do on that). this will be your starting point. I think if you reach some number over 50-60% for multi-nucleated, you do not need to subclone... but i do not know this exactly. 

    Note that this selection procedure above is not really subcloning. It just tries to isolate a part of your cell population which is more responsive for differentiation.  I think i can not help more. Good luck!

  • Does sombeody know a large database of human faces which one can use for research purposes?

    We are looking for a large database (200+) of pictures of human faces with neutral facial expression, in order to conduct an experiment on nonverbal learning mechanisms. We have difficulties finding appropriate pictures because we need people in the pictures to be  Caucasian, age 20 to 40, with neutral facial expression, and on neutral background. Also, it would be very good if the database is free for research purposes use. Can somebody please suggest the existing database that he or she knows?

    Thank you in advance, 


    Md. Nazrul Islam · Dhaka University of Engineering & Technology

    Extended Cohn-Kanade (CK+) is a large facial database including basic facial expressions. You can take a look at this database.

  • Mari Annadhasan asked a question in Silicon:
    How SiQDs were fromed from APTES or APTMS by reduction method?

    When the APTMS or APTES were used as silicon source for the synthesis of SiQDs using reducing agents what happens to the silicon source. Can anyone briefly tell what is the reaction mechanism involves in the SiQDs formation from APTES or APTMS. 

  • Sajeda Chowdhury asked a question in QIAGEN:
    I forgot to add 2-ME into RLT(QIAGEN) buffer before RNA extraction from liver tissue. If I wish to add 2-ME and do RNA extraction again, is it OK?

    After getting cDNA, I fail to amplify target gene. So wish to have suggestion. Thank you. Should adding 2-ME help me anyway?

  • Lopa Pattanaik added an answer in Dissolved Oxygen:
    Why does pH increase with increase in redox and DO in a plant biomass fermented broth?

    I am oxidizing my plant fermented broth by air.I found increase in DO and redox because of more solubility of oxygen in the broth. The dissolved oxygen concentration increases and because the reaction in the broth is an oxidation process, the redox is also increasing.

    Oxidation also increases with pH decreasing but why?

    When I am supplying oxygen for a long time, redox decreases as well as the pH also behaves the same way.

    Why this is happening?

    Lopa Pattanaik · Indian Institute of Technology Delhi

    Dr. Salim !

    Thank you 

  • Prasad Pethe added an answer in Incubators:
    Is the oxygen level monitored in the incubator important?

    In our lab. we have 2 versions of cell culture incubator, one is an old fashion without oxygen controlled, the another is new designed with tri gases; nitrogen, oxygen and CO2.

    Will the new version with oxygen monitoring have a better condition for cell growth?

    The only benefit which I know is tri gases incubator can do hypoxic condition for cancer cell study.

    Any comments of this tri gases incubator?

    Prasad Pethe · National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health (NIRRH)

    Hi Sittisak,

    Both the incubator will have nitrogen (most abundant in your lab) CO2 (from growing cells and for maintaining pH of media and O2 for growth of cells. Most cell cultures can be done in your old incubator and you can also use the triple gas incubator for routine work. Your old incubator will have just a CO2 cylinder has only CO2 sensor and relies on N2 and O2 present in your culture room, whereas the triple gas cylinder will have fixed ratio of the three gases and also the incubator has sensors for O2 and Co2.

    The most important use of Triple gas incubators is for embryo culture in IVF, as embryos are very sensitive to levels of CO2 and O2, triple gas incubators monitors and maintains the set percentage of each gas. Since any change will result in abnormalities in embryo.

    Hope this helps.



  • Vinay Sharma asked a question in Glass:
    In thermal deposition what should be the standard quality of substrate"It should be very smooth ,or rough or crystalline surface"?

    I am preparing thin films of metals using thermal deposition and using glass as substrate but quality of film is very poor so is it due to the smooth surface of glass or amorphous surface of glass or should i take a crystalline substrate?

    Quality of film depends on substrate surface or not?

  • Singular and Macaulay2: which is better?

    Has anyone actually compared them on a specific problem?

    Samuli Piipponen · University of Tampere

    Dear Igor 

    Singular without a doubt: 

    1) Frequently updated 
    2) Developers respond actively and fast to possible problem situations in Singular forum
    3) Easy C/C++ like command structure 
    4) Excellent helps for each command 
    5) Largest library of sub commands related to commutative and non commutative algebra, singularity theory and algebraic geometry

    Of course in a small set of some specific problems some other system might be better/faster but as a whole I would give my vote to Singular and if you want to get serious work done this is what I suggest. Of course if you are considering some academic examples for students for example then it possibly makes no difference if you use CoCoa, Macaulay2 or Singular. 

    If you know C language start with Singular even if you are a beginner in algebra/alg.geometry. 

    Of course this is my opinion and I am not paid to advertise Singular :-)

    However you can look at my publications where I have used Singular successfully in real applications in every article whereas commercial programs like Maple failed every time !