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  • Mary C R Wilson added an answer in Empowerment:
    What are the limitations to the existing frameworks for patient empowerment?
    Common themes for patient empowerment framework

    Hello Aisha

    You have probably read the existing literature on this subject, but have you seen this recent addition?

    Nieroda, M., Keeling, D., & Keeling, K. (2015). Less Buzz More Action! Patient Empowerment= Responsibility+ Adoption+ Involvement. In Ideas in Marketing: Finding the New and Polishing the Old (pp. 65-65). Springer International Publishing.


    Best wishes


  • Is it possible that hydrogen peroxide can oxidize paper?

    Curious to know

    Govindarasu Murugavel · Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati


  • Nader Aghakhani added an answer in Materials:
    Does lady's finger help in contolling diabetes?

    In one news paper I came across a news article regarding controlling diabetes by lady's finger. The methodology is described below. Cut a lady's finger vertically. Remove all inner materials seeds etc. and put all scrapped materials and outer layer in about 250 ml water. Store it overnight and use the filtered water in empty stomach. I myself practised it and got good result. Can anybody suggest how these inner materials react with body sugar? or is it a natural source which has similarity with insulin.

    Nader Aghakhani · Urmia University of Medical Sciences

    Dear Dr. Sahoo,

    I read an article that may be useful for your question.


    Volume : 3 | Issue : 6 | June 2014

    Diabetes Mellitus is a multi-system disorder characterized by abnormal insulin production, impaired insulin
    utilization, or both. In India, the increase in type 2 diabetes was estimated to be 58%, from 51 million people in
    2010 to 87 million in 20302.This study aims to assess the effectiveness of lady’s finger juice in the control of blood sugar among type
    2 diabetes mellitus clients aged 45-60 years in selected areas of Mangalore. A quasi experimental research approach with purposive
    sampling technique was used. Data collection was done by baseline proforma, compliance diary and fasting blood sugar monitoring
    chart. The results revealed the mean FBS value of the experimental group in the pretest (219.3±69.3), post test 1 on 7th day
    (199±67.9),and post test 2 on the 11th day (189.45±67.2) .This shows the decline in the mean FBS value in the experimental group due
    to the administration of lady’s finger juice .

  • Kiran Rs added an answer in Rural Development:
    What are the various active ICT projects in Rural development?

    I am searching for few ruuning ICT projects in Rural development

    Kiran Rs · Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication Technology

    Dear Christoph Jungfleisch,  Thank you so much for the info, but I am  afraid that I will not be able to go through the website content since it is not in english. 

  • Rudak Pavel added an answer in Boron Nitride:
    Does anyone have experience with woodworking tools from CBN?

    Does anyone have experience with woodworking tools from cubic boron nitride (CBN)? Processes of milling, drilling, sawing of wood materials such as chipboard, MDF. What should be the angular parameters of the blade, modes of cutting? Who knows publication? Thank you.

    Rudak Pavel · Belarusian State Technological University

     Thank you for the answer and links to the publications.
    MDF really is processed using a heat resistant tool materials than high-speed steel. Apply hard alloys.
    When using the CBN is important to select the geometry of the blade. Important blade strength and surface quality.
    Belarus has experience of CBN tools for metalworking. But other metal cutting blade geometry, other cutting speed and feed.
    Thanks again.

  • Packo P Lamers added an answer in Lipase:
    Do you know a suitable method for the lysis of microalgal cell?

    In which should be inactive Lipase so it does not react with lipid molecules?

    Packo P Lamers · Wageningen University

    We routinely disrupt our microalgae in bead beater tubes containing dried sample and a chloroform/methanol mixture. Other methods for cell disruption showed incomplete disruption, which could be a problem in the case you want to determine the lipid content of the cells. You may safely assume that lipase activity is negligible with this approach. More info on our protocol in attached paper.

    Best regards,


  • Aneek Das Bhowmik added an answer in Human Cancer:
    How to know noval mutation found is pathogenic if it present in inntron(splice junction) ?

    i am working on human cancer tissue and i got mutation in one sample.it is not known snp.

    Aneek Das Bhowmik · The Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics

    There are many splice site mutation prediction sites you can try like NNSPLICE, MaxEntScan, AnalyzerSpliceTool, Splice Site Score, Human Splicing Finder v 3, RegRNA and many more. However I like HSF most. You can explore. http://www.umd.be/HSF3/index.html.... Just check..

  • Does any one draft a procedure on RSM - Central Composite Design?

    For chemical process Optimization.

    Amarnadh Reddy · University Malaysia Sarawak

    Thank you Raju Sir. 

    Its a 5 Level 3 Factor.

    Possible please send to my Email ID amarnadha@gmail.com.

  • Prerna Mishra asked a question in Visual Impairment:
    Disadvantages for blind/visually impaired in using Keyboard-based interaction ?

    what are the disadvantages for blind/visually impaired in using Keyboard-based interaction ?

    i am aware that keyboard-based interaction are better than mouse based-interaction if used by blinds, but i am more interested in its disadvantages and difficulties in using it.

    kindly help.

  • What would be a good solvent for the liquid nitrogen absorption measurements?

    I am looking for a good solvent to measure the liquid nitrogen absorption spectra (up to about 200nm) of pyromellitic diimide ( Benzene-1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylic diimide).

    The solvent should be aprotic, somewhat polar to improve the solubility but not too polar so that the vibronic structure is not wiped out. It should also form a good glass matrix to maintain the optical transparency also in the low temperature.

    It seems from very recent experience, that acetonitrile (which was my primary choice) becomes fuzzy in low temp. I would also consider 1,4-dioxane or DMSO, but I have little experience in the low temp. measurements. Please, help me out :)


    Marcin Andrzejak · Jagiellonian University

    Thank you, Benjamin for sharing your experience!I will definitely have a wide area for experimenting... For a theoretician like myself it is the whole new world ;)

  • When it comes to simultaneity is Einstein correct or is Dingle correct?

    Albert Einstein claimed in 1905 that a single event can occur simultaneously at different times within two inertial reference frames moving relative to one another. In 1950 Herbert Dingle argued that different times cannot be simultaneous. I have analysed this conflict by deriving the Lorentz equations using both points of view. According to this analysis Dingle must be correct. See youtube presentation of this analysis at  https://youtu.be/4XLYzhHQ64Y

    Valentin Danci · Science

    Charles wrote: "If you could follow Einstein's reasoning you would agree with it."

    So if you follow someone's reasoning that means you automatically agree with it?

    With this kind of illogical statements you are always showing your true yes-man nature. Your place is certainly in politics, not in science. And you can also be a prominent figure in the tabloid industry. You like to gossip as much as you like to play the victim. Good luck with that.

  • Polydor Mutombo asked a question in Lymphatic:
    What are the best methodologies to certify interruption of transmission of Lymphatic filiariasis is achieved after multiple mass drug administration?

    in  the pacific

  • Azuama Onyedikachi added an answer in Mammalian:
    Does anyone know the methods to measure gene expression in mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo?

    I am writing on gene expression and will appreciate papers on this.

    Azuama Onyedikachi · University of Bradford

    thanks a lot Christopher

  • Can a camera module send serial data to PC or another device to show the picture?

    I have an ov7670, and I want to see the picture through my PC using matlab and communicated it by serial, is it possible?

    Dilraj Nadarajan · Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham

    I saw a document in web, they are interfacing a serial JPEG camera with matlab


  • Krish Na added an answer in Composites:
    What are the thermal tests that can be done on Polymer Matrix Composites?


    Attached is a picture of an aircraft graded carbon/epoxy composite. Out of curiosity, what are the possible thermal tests and hence properties that can be investigated from such sample?

    Any contributions will be valued.

    Thank you.


    Krish Na · Kongunadu Arts and Science College

    you may do TGA , TMA, STA, analysis

  • Iftak Hussain added an answer in Holography:
    Is there any freely available digital hologram reconstruction software?

    I am working on digital  in-line holography and I am confused with how to numerically reconstruct the object image with the captured hologram...If there are in build construction software then it will be very helpful to me...

    Iftak Hussain · Tezpur University

    Thanks sir...

  • Critical thinking vs. truth in education?

    Many educators claim critical thinking as one of the major skills for 21st century students. Students may challenge any 'fact' to construct their own body of knowledge. 

    On the other hand, educators have to build on some truths (e.g., in maths we use axioms) in their teaching. This can be overwhelming students. How do you, as a teacher, find the right balance?

    Marković G. Đoko · University of Montenegro

    Critical thinking is based on logic and dialectics. Law negation of the negation is its main feature. People who know how to think mathematically have a special developed sense for critical thinking.

    What mathematical thinking is different and stands out in relation to the social and natural sciences, is that its flexibility, activity, directivity, efficiency, depth, breadth, originality, laconism etc., but a characteristically operation abstractions, ie. mathematical phenomena, objects that are devoid of materiality, which may be present in a variety of ways, with the invariant, ie. only the invariant relationships between them.

  • Marcin Gajewski added an answer in Abaqus:
    How can I justify the use of coupled temp-displacement as analysis step in Abaqus?

    I am doing a study involving prediction of frictional generation. Coupled temp-displacement seems to work fine. However, I have run short of reasons to justify the use of this analysis.

    Your ideas will be highly appreciated.

    Marcin Gajewski · Instytut Badawczy Dróg i Mostów / Road and Bridge Research Institute / Warsaw University of Technology

    What do you mean ideas to justify? What is the standard way of heat generation modeling?

  • Hamza Kheddar added an answer in Plagiarism:
    Can any1 tell me what r the differ kind of algorithms available 2 find the Source Code Plagiarism & Which is the best ? Why its best thn other algos ?

    Can anyone tell me what r the different kind of algorithms available 2 find the Source Code Plagiarism & Which is the best ? Why its best then other algorithms ?

    Hamza Kheddar · University of Science and Technology Houari Boumediene


    please find in the attached file doc which may help you


  • What's the meaning of kinetic current density?

    As we know the experiment-measured current density can be divided into two parts: diffusion-limiting current density and kinetic current density using the Koutecky-Levich equation. I would like to know that what deep information can we get when we know the kinetic current density. What does kinetic current density means?

  • How can a teacher be able to get international students engaged in a class if they are a minority?

    How can a teacher be able to get international students engaged in a class if they are a minority, especially if the course is deeply on a culture completely different from theirs? Has anybody tackled the relationship between teaching and anthropology? 

    Dear Saudi,

    you raised a very important question, apparently: i have never so many answers and debates on this forum ! Hope it is not overwhelming. Can you tell us in a few months which of the methods you use proved more efficient ? Your's is a problem we all have.


  • Which is the best way to track down neurogenesis spatiotemporally in my samples?

    i would like to know the best way to track down neurogenesis spatiotemporally in my samples, please suggest the best method? which is the best method?

    Christopher Daniel Duntsch · Hybrid Bioscience, Inc., Synthetic Investments, Inc., The University of Tennessee Health Science Center


    Rewrite the question with much detail, overview of your project, experiments, objectives, starting materials, study models, assays and protocols, methods and biology, driving neurogenesis biology, source biomaterials, species of biomaterials, describe study models, Objectives, etc.

    Define space and time as used here ... do you mean 3-D and time kinetics of data collection? Do you mean 4-D? etc, etc.

    You gain much here from those who have the appropriate experience and knowledge base, and are willing to take the time, but no one can do much to help you without knowing what you are asking ....

    Email me if you would like a good template for project design that is comprehensive and strategic.


  • Does denaturing gradient concentration range depend on what region of the 16s rRNA gene is amplified?

    The 1st link nature.com deals with amplifying V3 region then DGGE with 25%-65% urea and formamide.
    The second link deals with V6,V7 and V8 and gradient at 40%-60%.

    Since my proposal centers on using mice gut microbiota I thought it would be appopriate to use the gradient at the 1st link. While using V6,V7, and V8 regions would be helpful to me since I already know the forward and reverse primers used (primers - 3rd link). The 1st link did not write the primer sequence.

    Brendan Marvin Dela Cruz · De La Salle University

    Thank you for that answer, it clarified things for me and I'm embarrassed that I did not see that the 3rd link's primers were for sequencing.  

  • What is the dynamic model of the forearm?

    For modeling hand and forearm and upperarm, I supposed 7 degrees of freedom: 3 degrees for rotations for shoulder, 1 degree for elbow and 3 degrees for wrist. But I know that I can rotate my forearm about its axis from wrist place while I supposed the seventh degree of freedom for rotating the hand about its axis. Should I import the effect of angular velocity of this degree for computing angular velocity of forearm? (Dynamic model of this degree is somehow complicated for me and I appreciate your help)

  • What are recent real time issues in distributed system security?

    I want to know the issues around distributed system security and how can be remoduled to give proposed possible things to overcome?

    Günter Fahrnberger · FernUniversität in Hagen

    I still see resilience as one of the most important security objectives. What does a fully secure system help if it does not work. In case of distributed computing, network outages easily cause split brain situations. Thus, recovering from them is obviously a crucial area of research, especially for real time applications.

  • Rahimi Ali added an answer in Gender Equality:
    What are the misconceptions inflicting the concepts of feminism, misandry and misogyny?

    We are working on these concepts to disambiguate and demystify them and eradicate , as far as possible , the misunderstandings and misinterpretations  involved , personal experiences, psychological, social insights are much appreciated.  

    Rahimi Ali · Bangkok University

    sure enough , saima

  • Arsen Igityan added an answer in Memristor:
    Which equipment should I order for memristive measurements?

    Since some funds were allocated to our lab, I'm planning to order an equipment that allows to obtain "ON-READ-OFF-READ" characteristic for memristive thin film structures, somewhat similar to the picture in attachment.
    I consider AGILENT TECHNOLOGIES 33511B arbitrary waveform generator:

    Does anyone have experience in such measurements? Is this type of generator suits for that and is it enough? Or maybe some other equipment?
    And what you think about Chinese equivalents of such generators (branded as Rigol, Siglent etc.) 

    My budget is limited to only $1600.

    I would appreciate any suggestions. Thanks. 

    I was given advice to order so called VirtualBench from National Instruments.

    It is 4 in one device and kind of a parody of parameter analyzers, but requires some IT skilss.
    However I'm skeptical towards that? Isn't just Arbitrary generator just better?  
    Can you say something about this?

    Arsen Igityan · National Academy of Sciences of Armenia

    Keithley 4200 is definetly better, but unfortunately our budget is limited to $1600 ...

  • Panayot Tanchev added an answer in Shoulder Surgery:
    What is the ideal resection for subacromial impingement syndrome?

    How can we calculate the acromion we resected? 

    Panayot Tanchev · Medical University of Sofia

    I agree with Dr. Klueber. First one should identify the cause for impingement and then attack it. Resection of acromion is even not so often indicated.

  • Yuan-Yeu Yau added an answer in DNA Concentration:
    Is it necessary to have a consistent / close to uniform DNA concentration for the templates / samples I am going to use for PAGE following PCR?

    I have DNA concentration readings now (in ng/uL) and I am planning to create at least uniform DNA concentrations for my templates that are to be used in PAGE; that is to bring down to 15 ng/uL those high concentration samples and at least make them uniform for the PCR to work on. I just wanted to rule out the factor of DNA concentration when visualizing the gels in the succeeding steps. Just needed some advice! Thanks for your help!

    Yuan-Yeu Yau · Northeastern State University

    Hi Vhon,

    Not only dilute to similar concentration (ng/uL), you should use same amount of DNA sample (such as 10 ng) for each sample. So, the present or absent of the PCR product from a specific marker primer pair won't due to, for example, too few DNA template (no band amplified). I attached 2 papers for you as a reference for microsatellite marker PCR experiments. One from animal (lizard), and the other one from plant (maize), and both use 10 ng gDNA as PCR template. I think you can try 10 ng too.

  • Tahereh Jafary asked a question in Cuvette:
    Does anyone know how to fix the matter with floating particles in COD test?

    Hi All, I will appreciate if anyone could share his/her experience or any info about this matter with me. I am doing COD test on some industrial waste samples. to make it economic, i make reagents solution by  myself by following the standard method. after all sample and standards preparation, two hours digestion in oven , and cooling down to ambient temperature, when i am gonna to transfer samples from cod vials  to spectrophotometer cuvette to read the absorbency, the problems with floating particles in cuvette comes out. no one has faced this matter and you know the reason or anyway that can fix it. Actually i am not using the ready COD vials with solution in market and i dont have COD spectrophotometer that be able to put COD vial directly inside to read the absorbency. i just have general application spectrophotometer that just support its own cuvette.