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  • Can anybody suggest standards in vocational training for people with disabilities?

    Hi! We are working in a Project trying to define standards for training to employment, vocational training for people with disabilities.

    We are looking for different standards based on types of disability, and related to Methodology, Resources and Equipment and Infrastructure reviews or articles were welcomed if anybody knows.

    Thanks in advance!!!

    N. McClennahan · Arcadia University

    Here is a link to a web site that list sources that may be useful to you:


  • Can anyone tell me in what respect legendre polynomial is better than chebeyshev , while using for polynomial approximation?

    Can anyone tell me in what respect legendre polynomial is better than chebeyshev , while using for polynomial approximation?

    R. C. Mittal · Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

    In polynomial approximation, Legendre polynomials are not better than Chebychev ones in the sense that the interpolation error is minimum only when you select nodes as zeros of Chebychev polynomials. However, error in Legendre polynomial is less. Both them do not exhibit Runge phenomenon which generally happens in case of equispaced points interpolation.The Legendre polynomials are useful in finding solutions of Laplace equation in Spherical coordinates.

  • Kamal Eddin Bani-Hani added an answer in Tea:
    What are the medicinal benefits of lemon tea?

    Some excerpts from the article: "Medicinal benefits of lemon tea" by Mala Srivastava:

    "Tea is a good calorie-free substitute for sugary beverages, according to the Harvard School of Public Health. If you add a squirt of lemon juice to your tea, it will not only enhance its flavor but will also provide multiple health benefits. For example, if you are experiencing nasal congestion, drinking lemon tea can help to decongest your blocked nose, reports the University Health Service of Rochester University.

    Vitamin C Benefits

    One fluid ounce of lemon juice contains 12 milligrams of vitamin C. Water-soluble, vitamin C helps fight free radicals -- rogue molecules that damage your DNA. Free radicals may contribute to the development of diseases such as cancer and heart disease, notes University of Maryland Medical Center. By counteracting the negative effects of free radicals, vitamin C helps decrease the risk of developing cataracts by 80 percent, according to the book "The Secret Benefits of Lemon and Honey: Secret Guides.” In addition to healing wounds, vitamin C helps maintain and repair your teeth and bones. Moreover, your body requires this antioxidant to form collagen, a protein used to build skin, blood vessels, cartilage and tendons.
    Bioflavonoid Quercetin

    Citrus fruits, such as lemon, are one of the primary dietary sources of quercetin. A flavonoid, quercetin protects the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas from the damaging effects of free radicals. In addition, quercetin has an anti-inflammatory effect, as it helps stabilize the cells that release histamine in your body. Histamines are chemicals that trigger allergic reactions. According to the American Cancer Society, quercetin can inhibit the growth of cancer cells and can help promote apoptosis, a type of cell death. Animal studies have shown that quercetin may exhibit a protective effect against certain types of cancer, especially colon cancer.

    Blood Sugar Control

    High blood sugar occurs when your body produces inadequate amounts of insulin or when it cannot utilize insulin properly. Hesperidin, a compound in lemons, can modify the function of enzymes that affect your blood sugar levels, according to a study published in the January 2010 issue of the “Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition.” This not only shields your body from the early stages of diabetes but also helps avert diabetes complications if you already have high blood sugar. Additionally, hesperidin has cholesterol-lowering effects.
    Powerful Limonoids

    A study published in the “Journal of Nutrition” in April 2005 revealed that lemons contain compounds called limonoids that have the potential to impede the growth and development of cancer cells. Not only did limonoids decelerate the growth rate of cancer cells, but they also enhanced cancer cell death when tested against human cancer cells. The study further states that these anti-cancer agents have free-radical scavenging activities."

    Your views are welcome! Thank you - Sundar

    Kamal Eddin Bani-Hani · Hashemite University

    Dear Sundar,

    Lemon juice and lemon tea are very healthy drinks and excellent substitutes to sugary beverages and soft drinks. It has a prophylactic and treatment potentials. A lot of the benefits of lemon are mentioned in your question. Thank you

  • Roja Raman Mekalathur added an answer in IDL:
    How do I perform IMF analysis to find the harmonics using MATLAB or IDL?

    What is IMF or EMD?

    Where is it actually needed?

    Where can I stop IMFs?

    Roja Raman Mekalathur · Academia Sinica

    I feel IMF and EMD are similar functions. They are generally used to extract the different periodicities and natural forcings like QBO,ENSO, Solarcycle ext hidden in the original time series. For more details follow https://www.clear.rice.edu/elec301/Projects02/empiricalMode/

  • Louis Depasquale added an answer in Elderly:
    Which is the best test to prevent falls in the elderly?

    I need a simple protocol that can be used in large populations

    Louis Depasquale · Good Samaritan at Shervier New York

    TGUT is very do-able but possesses ceiling effects and is not very discriminating nor responsive or sensitive to change at high performance levels. Pardassaney et al, Pai et al, Schoene, Arnold and other recent studies have ID limitations of TGUT in active older adults in particular.  Because a test is "do-able" doe not translate into useful. Perturbation assessment, stepping responses,reactive postural responses need assessment. Developing effective stepping responses at body weight forces of the magnitude of at least 10 % TBW will provide protection against falls.  Individuals 65 years and older should be tested for reactive stepping annually to determine % TBW effective stepping limits in AP directions. In my 40 year experience, RIPPS % TBW measure best ID fall risk and provides  quantitative, serial clinical decision making for older adults. TUGT, Gait Speed,Single limb stand time, Tandem stand time are ineffective measures of fall risk alone or in combination. Add  four square step test Tinetti to that list as well for active older adults.

    I n separate studies, Pai, Martinez, Mille, Carty, Mansfield and DePasquale provide orientation to stepping and perturbation assessment.

  • Farzane Gh added an answer in Circuits:
    Whats the real behavior of rc circuits?

    In series RC circuit with dc power supply the maximum capacitor voltage should be equal to power supply but in my experiments it's less than expected value and it's proportional to resistor, while in theory it's not reasonable. Please tell me your opinions.

    Farzane Gh · Materials and Energy Research Center

    Hello everybody. I should apologize for my late response due to some involvements. but as Cyril had anticipated, in a moment I faced a collection of ideas and it was great. I read them carefully. Thanks a lot for your attention.
    I didn’t use a specific circuit arrangement, But I would explain about my instrument and data. Rectification process was done with a power supply with single phase AC source and as Barrie said, I think the kind of this process is important.
    For measuring capacitor voltage, I used both analog and digital scopes and deviation from ideal values (after 5 time constant) was almost the same. So I think using electrometer, in spite of it’s benefits, is not the final solution in my case.
    Then It seems that I should pay more attention to capacitor leakage resistance as Sujit and the others said. But what’s the range of this leakage in various capacitors and how can I get rid of this loss? With negative resistance theory of Cyril? perhaps ;)
    They are my experimental data in two cases:
    1) capacitor and resistor are both variable and are series with a power supply that I explained.
    C=100 pF
    R=100 Kohm
    V=10 V
    Measured voltage of capacitor by scope (after 5 tao) is 6 V (and this measured voltage was a function of resistance just) So I should conclude that capacitor leakage resistance is 0.15 Mohm If we use this equality: Vc=V*Rc/(R+Rc)
    2) after changing the capacitor I used a ceramic ones and a constant resistor:
    C=0.01 MicroF
    R=0.24 Mohm
    Measured voltage of capacitor was 3.4 V. So capacitor leakage is 0.51 Mohm.
    Are they reasonable values and do you think that just resistance leakage is response of this deviation?

  • Brian Poole added an answer in Teaching English:
    In teaching English as a Foreign Language, how much of the class should be about culture?

    Most teachers agree that teaching the culture of nature speaking countries is valuable, but how MUCH should this be done?  Do you have a percentage in mind or other way of saying how much of the course should be about culture?

    Brian Poole · Caledonian College of Engineering, Oman

    As learners progress to higher levels of competence it is important (and perhaps inevitable too) that they should acquire cultural knowledge relevant to the target language. For example, how can you fully understand idiomatic phrases arising from sport (such as 'ballpark figure', 'clear the next hurdle' or 'a sticky wicket') if you don't know anything about their origins? However, if you take more of an English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) view, cultural references (and opaque idiomatic expressions) are not so necessary for the learner.

  • What species of freshwater molluscs worldwide are both highly invasive and can carry important parasites of humans, wildlife, or domestic animals?

    Gastropods and other molluscs are often obligate hosts for trematode parasites, many of which are important pathogens.  I am interested in developing a list of such molluscs that show the potential for invasion of new habitats around the world, and argue that there is a need for more biomonitoring for such situations as potential emerging disease threats of humans and/or animals.

    Alfredo Castro-Vazquez · National Scientific and Technical Research Council

    Pomacea canaliculata is a highly invasive freshwater snail and it has become an alternative host for Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the etiologic agent of eosinophilic meningitis.

  • Kenneth M Towe added an answer in Climate Change:
    What is the climate change induced increase (per decade) in surface water temperatures and salinity in the worlds oceans and seas?

    Climate change induced an increase in the surface water temperatures and salinity in various oceans and seas in the world. I need the amounts of their increase per decade in past several years. Please attach the article as references with your valuable reply.

  • Rasha Saad asked a question in Secondary Metabolites:
    Plant or microbe, secondary metabolites ?

    This time i would like to ask a general question from your experience, which source of natural products is more favored, herbs or microorganisms as a source of new compounds ?

  • On which basis you do set your priorities?

    You set priorities to determine which tasks, from a set of alternatives, will be done first. You have a long list of things to do. For example, conduct a research, write a textbook, prepare a conference paper, prepare for lecture, and score examinations. You may determine priority based on importance, value of money, urgency, etc.  What is your opinion?

    Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan · Vel Tech - Technical University

    Stephen Covey has prescribed a Time-Management Matrix in his famous book "7 Successful Habits". We need to manage our time effectively. With regards - Sundar

  • Lei Dong added an answer in Polyketide Synthases:
    What is the difference between PKS1 and PKS2?

    What is the difference between Polyketide synthases 1 and Polyketide synthases 2?

    Lei Dong · Chinese Academy of Sciences

    This attachment included abundant knowledge on PKS& NRPS  synthase assemble line.

  • Dr A. Kumar added an answer in HRXRD:
    If we are getting very low intensity in HRXRD of a thin films like 10 or 12 than is it justified with the data?

    If we are getting very low intensity in HRXRD of a thin films like 10 or 12 than is it justified with the data?

    Dr A. Kumar · Harcourt Butler Technological Institute

    You can try glass substrate to check the effect of Si substrate if any change in intensity is observed for the same thickness.

  • Rasha Saad added an answer in Mycelium:
    How can I extract secondary metabolites from fungus mycelium without homogenization?

    i would like to to extract the secondary metabolites trapped in the fungus mycelium without homogenizing them ?

    Any ideas 

    Rasha Saad · Management and Science University

    Thank You Dr Gemma  for your help and your ideas.

  • Is there any difference in the apparatus of Duplex scanning and Doppler ultrasonography?

    Answers and pictures would be great.

    Richard G Barr · Northeast Ohio Medical University

    Most clinical units do both.  I suspect most research units do the same

  • Can anybody answer a few questions on nonlinear optical process?

    Since I have a little understanding of nonlinear optical processes, then I want to develop some expertise about them. My knowledge about  nonlinear optical processes is mainly based on the book "Nonlinear optics" of the Boyd 2ed, and my questions are around this book:

    1)Which model of the nonlinear susceptibilities is more precise, one which derived from Maxwell equations or one which based on Quantum-Mechanical Theory?

    2) If we want to perform upconversion, for example with proustite crystal, I need to use d_eff, in the table 1.5.2 ("Nonlinear optics" of the Boyd 2ed) we have two parameters d_22 and d_15, how we obtain from them d_eff?

    3) If we enter in the non-linear crystal (with second order susceptibility (kay2)) with two waves, how we (from the physical point of view know ) know which nonlinear process will be dominant: sum frequency generation, difference frequency generation or second harmonic generation?

    Thank you in advance!

    Aleksandr A. Tarasov · LaserOptek Co. Ltd.

    Answer for question 2: If you want to get basic knowledges concerned d_eff calculations - read Boyd`s book, page 39-43 and related papes. If your interest is practical - use very simple and free computer program "SNLO" for any calculations, related to harmonic generation, parametric interactions, etc. You can download it from National Livermore Laboratory site. Or I can send you SNLO setup to your E-mail.

  • Could anyone provide details on the carbon footprint of staple food production in developed countries?

    Any papers or details concerning the life cycle CO2 emissions of rice, wheat and maize in developed countries will help me. Thanks!

    Michael Arieh Padang Medina · Central Mindanao University

    The GHG Inventory Manual from the Philippines Environmental Management Bureau website includes calculations for this.

  • Who knows of any EXISTING instrument currently used to audit/measure the degree of sustainability included in the curriculum of a university course?

    we need to identify the level and degree of sustainability in a course and then we're going to compare the level with changes to student views, attitudes and behaviours towards sustainability 

    Liz Sidiropoulos · Central Queensland University

    Thanks Hector, I appreciate your comments

    Cheers, Liz

  • How to diagnose network of Nanofiller ,(cnt,etc.) in polymer phase,using SEM images?

    I want to do modeling of CNT network embeded in a polymer phase using SEM or TEM technique. looking for image processing softwares that can help to understand network and morphology of such type system.

    Ubirajara Rodrigues Filho · University of São Paulo

    Dear Khan,

    You can use SEM to study your samples by performing cross-section analysis or fracture analysis. Some detail on cross-section preparation you can get in the book Polymer Microscopy ( see http://www.springer.com/chemistry/industrial+chemistry+and+chemical+engineering/book/978-0-387-72627-4 or http://books.google.com.br/books/about/Polymer_Microscopy.html?id=z9Mvjy-eLM8C&redir_esc=y). 

    One example on the use of SEM for polymer nanocomposites is at Chem. Mater. 1996, 8, 1375-1379.

    Good luck

  • Vishal S. Undre asked a question in Electrical:
    What will be effect if i convert 440V AC to pulsecting DC on transimssion and how will be the behaviour of electrical equipment ?

    What will be effect if i convert 440V AC to pulsecting DC on transimssion and how will be the behaviour of electrical equipment ?

  • Anybody have Matlab code for Travelling Salesman problem using Particle Swarm Optimization?

    I am trying to learn Particle Swarm Optimization for Travelling Salesman Problem. If anyone provide me code for the algorithm, it  will be more useful to understand the concepts through implementation side.

  • Vladimir Joukov added an answer in Centrioles:
    How many centrioles in each poles of the first mitotic spindle ?

    How many  centrioles in each poles of the first mitotic division spindle during the cleavage of the zygote of humans and other mammals (except rodents) ?

    Vladimir Joukov · Harvard Medical School

    In humans (and in rhesus monkeys), each pole of the first mitotic spindle contains one intact (daughter) and one highly degenerated (mother) centriole. See references in (D. Clift & M. Schuh, Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2013, 14:549-62).

  • Du Xiang asked a question in Bacteria:
    Eppendorf Multiporator for Eukaryoktic Cells?

    We have an Eppendorf Multiporator labeled Bacteria Module 4308 805.005.

    Dose it suitable for Eukaryoktic Cells electrotransformation?

    Or we need buy a eukaryote module?

  • How do we write a matlab code for potential fields in collision avoidance?

    How do we write a matlab code for potential fields in collision avoidance?

    Dr. Indrajit Mandal · SASTRA University

    Dear friend


    Wish you and your family HAppy Merry Christmas and happy New year.

    For the above code on collision avoidance, first you decide what are the parameters that are independent and dependent variables.

    Then decide which metrics can be used for the collision detection.

    Then decide the different methods to avoid the collision.

    Chose the methods based on different cases.

    i hpe this helps you.

    Best regards

    Dr.Indrajit MAndal, Ph.D.

  • Mohammad Nooman Khalaf asked a question in Game Theory:
    Is there any case study in resource allocation with game theory ?

    there many empirical study on resource allocation with game theory .Is there any paper make a case study on resource allocation with game theory.

  • Mahboobeh Parsapoor added an answer in Heat Maps:
    How can I plot a fitness landscape when using particle swarm optimization?

    Hi all,

     I made a comparison between different types of optimization techniques, among them was particle swarm optimization..

    My question is how can I plot heat map or 3d plots to show what the fitness landscape look likes?



  • Can someone advise me for coding to genetic algorithm for prediction modeling?

    genetic algorithm for prediction modeling