Q&A

ResearchGate Q&A lets scientists and researchers exchange questions and answers relating to their research expertise, including areas such as techniques and methodologies.

Browse by research topic to find out what others in your field are discussing.

Browse Topics

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
  • M.S. Latifi asked a question in Review:
    Review process

    Hi,

    I have submitted my paper 7 month ago and it is still under review. I sent two emails to Handling Editor but I didn't got any response except  every time I sent an email the status date  was changed! my last email was one month ago and then the date status changed to February 6. I don't know what should I do . is there any suggestion?

    Thanks

  • Trying to find articles about web standards, any help with this topic please?
    Web standards is the way to make the web really world wide. My research is following this principle.
  • Ioan Cosma added an answer in Graphs:
    How do I calculate Curie constant and effective magnetic moment values from inverse susceptibility graph?

    Herewith I attached inverse susceptibility graph with linear fit. Please suggest me how to extrapolate the data and how to calculate C and μeff from the graph?

    Thank you

    Ioan Cosma · Universitatea Tehnica Cluj-Napoca

    I think my submissions are useful for you.

    Knowledge of magnetic behavior of a material is made by measuring the mass-susceptibility versus temperature. But magnetic phases are better shown by the graph of the so called magnetic hardness (1/χ). So the linear part of your graph, show that the bulk behavior is paramagnetic; evidently, one of the free spin moments in the temperature range 120 ~ 290 K. The contributions to magnetic susceptibility of other ferro, or antiferro interactions, overlapping spin moments, are highlights below Tp, in the temperature range Tp -Tc (~ 10 - 20K, and diamagnetic smaller ones observable only at high temperatures. Their detecting and separating is very difficult and involves dynamic methods for determining. The issues raised by other respondents are correct, but in practice the-masse-susceptibility is measured; not volume or molar susceptibilities which are determined for each samples composition started from the first.

  • Are there any valuable textbooks re structural equation modeling in Arabic language?

    Textbooks re structural equation modeling in English language are available, what about other languages and specifically in Arabic? And if not, is it worthy to translate an English one to other languages?

    Hadya Adel · Suez Canal University

    I think that there is a book about using LISREl program and it includes a chapter in structural equation modeling its author is professor Ezzat Abdelhamid. Sorry I can't remember its title. 

  • Madeeha Javed asked a question in Social Science:
    What is more specific in social sciences research?? Hypothesis or Research Question??

    Explain in detail . . . . .

  • Alessia Di Capua asked a question in Curcumin:
    Does anyone know how the curcumin dissolve in a mixture of Ethanol/Water?

    The curcumin doesn't dissolve in water, but what happens using a mixture?

  • Piotr Malak added an answer in Web Programming:
    How good is Lisp as a web programming language?

    Is Lisp a good programming language for web development.

    Piotr Malak · Nicolaus Copernicus University

    It depends on the particular purpose - if you add more details we can answer more pertinent, but it is rather rare used for web, for pure web purposes try PHP or some of its forks, if you have a lot of data to process in the background Python (or maybe DJango) is very good choice.

  • Dhavaseelan R added an answer in PRIME:
    Is it possible for product of two different classes of cordial graphs?

    i want know about for product two different classes of cordial graphs.

    example : is it possible for product of divisor cordial and prime cordial ? 

    Dhavaseelan R · Sona College of Technology

    we assign a label as 1 or 0 in edge using some condition and satisfied cordial condition
    if |ef(0)-ef(1)|<=1 then the graph is cordial.

    example :  tree,  k{1,n} are cordial graph when vertices set as {0,1} or {1,2,...|V|}.

  • Sandeep Kumar asked a question in Biomass:
    Is it is fine to define the natural carbon cycle in terms of carbon sequestration?

    I'm totally confused with the term carbon sequestration potential of any biomass (plant or animal) and carbon accumulation potential in the form of biomass.

    Is carbon sequestration is natural process or something effort-ed by human beings (anthropogenically)?    

  • Regit Mail added an answer in Polymer Chemistry:
    How can I make a solution to consist of two different parts?

    The article says as followings:

    First:

    2 different solutions are produced as below:

    3% Poly A solution in DMF
    2% Poly B solution in DMF

    Second:

    Poly B solution was added to Poly A solution

    Third:

    The total composition of final solution should be as below:

    poly A: 1.5 %

    poly B: 1 %

    DMF: 97.5%

    (Poly A )/ (Poly A+Poly B) = 60 %

    MY purpose is to make 10 ml of final solution, what are the amount of Poly A and B (gram) should use in DMF (ml) ?

    please help me

    Regit Mail · Tek-Dev

    It never ceases to amaze me how the education system fails to teach simple logical thinking and how to do these types of calculations.

    First of all, let's make some abbreviations. PA = poly A; PB = poly B; PAS = poly A solution; PBS = poly B solution; FINAL = final solution. According to the "total composition" section, it seems we need to work in wt/wt. (If this is found in a published article, it is shameful that it was published without the units stated explicitly.} However, you desire a VOLUME quantity for your final use. (Are you certain that it said to use 10 mLs and not 10 grams of FINAL?) So that is why your calculations seem to come out a bit strange.   So because of this, if you REALLY want to use 10 mL of final solution (say by pipetting), then it will NOT contain the weights of PA and PB that you desired! (but they will be very close.)

    PAS: 3 g PA / 97 g DMF

    PAB:  2g PB / 98 g DMF

    FINAL: (1.5 g PA + 1 g PB ) / 97.5 g DMF

    So, how to obtain 1.5 g PA from the PAS, and 1 g PB from the PBS?

    1.5 g PA * (100 g PAS /3 g PA) = 50 g PAS needed.

    1 g PB * (100 g PBS /2 g PBS) = 50 g PAB needed.

    So, by mixing together 50 g PAS with 50 g PBS, you get 100 g FINAL.

    To verify this meets the "final composition" requirements:

    50 g PAS * (97 g DMF / 100 g PAS) = 48.5 g DMF present.

    50 g PBS * (98 g DMF / 100 g PBS) = 49 g DMF present.

    So the total amount of DMF in FINAL is 97.5 g. And we already did the calculations that showed there are 1.5 g PA and 1 g PB in FINAL.

    Now, you probably want to scale down because you only desired 10 mLs of FINAL.

    So, make 1/10 the size.

    PAS: 300 mg PA dissolved in 9.7 g DMF.

    PBS: 200 mg PB dissolved in 9.8 g DMF.

    Mix the two together to give 20 grams FINAL.

    Now you can take a 10 mL aliquot for your desired solution amount.

    Note that you COULD instead dissolve 150 mg PA in 4.85 g DMF and 100 mg PB in 4.9 g DMF and mix together to give 10 g FINAL, but this would be a bit tricky to take from this a 10 mL aliquot.

    (I am interested in reading this publication, if you can post a copy or the URL  or DOI for it.)

  • Piotr Malak added an answer in Python Scripting:
    How do I make my python script run faster?

    I need to process large database within a time frame of three weeks. First I tried by retrieving the entire data collected within three weeks with MySQL statement (million of rows) but the process got killed as the %MEM reached 100%. Then I modified the python code to retrieve the data within a sequence of time frames and processing with one row at a time instead of dealing with entire data. Though it improves the memory utilization a bit but made the scripts very slow. How can I improve the performance of the script? Is there any tip for that. I tried with pypy but it conflicted with MySQLdb module

    Piotr Malak · Nicolaus Copernicus University

    I agree with Luc Dekoninck and Simon Cropper solutions - try to execute as much as possible on the MySQL server side, even by posting proper SQL queries vie Python handler. And, maybe trivial but try not to close the connection after each query (tutorials provide such schema opening executing closing) but since you are working on large data set leave the database connection open it saves time. 

    In general it is hard to give you more useful solution without seeing at least part of your code.

  • Imtiyaz Khan asked a question in Signal Processing:
    How to Plot ROC ?

    If i am trying to plot an ROC then which way is more correct in simulation i have following parameters

    1) Probablity of detection Theoritical (Pd_theory)

    2) Probablity of false alarm assumed (Pfa)

    3) Probablity of detection simulated (Pd_sim)

    4) Probablity of false alarm simulated (Pf_sim)

    And I want to plot Pd_sim with respect to false alarm. But I don't know which false alarm would be more correct to take. Pfa or Pf_sim and why? 

  • László Kovács asked a question in MySQL:
    Anybody interested in Word Associations in Hungarian?


    A Hungarian Word Association database with 1000+ participants, 22.000 words, 170.000 connections is available in MySQL format for research. Please contact me, if You are interested. klaszlo1@gmail.com
    Thanks

  • Pablo Caligiore Gei added an answer in PDA:
    Which fungi did I isolate ...... dear plant pathologists and mycologists?

    I was trying to isolate Elsinoe from oranges showing symptoms of sweet orange scab. I was not successful, instead an ascomycete with particular colony morphology started to grow. I was not succesful so far in inducing sporulation of this guy.

    3 days on PDA

    http://andreasb.net46.net/responsive/naranja.jpg

    1 week on PDA

    http://andreasb.net46.net/responsive/naranja2.jpg

    any suggestions for a molecular which ascomycete this could be ?

    Please no more suggestions, how to isolate Elsinoe

    Right, I can add a microscopy picture taken from a 2 week old petri dish culture on PDA.

    Not sure, if it is of big help.....

    http://andreasb.net46.net/responsive/Image_690_02_02_2015_40x_isolateO5.jpg

    (40x, light microscopy)

    Pablo Caligiore Gei · Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria

    Hi,

    I agree with Rosario, the colony looks like an oomycetes and there are no septa in the microscope picture.

    You should try a V8 medium or similar to try to identify better.

    Good luck!

  • Fawzia Alzaharani asked a question in Buffer:
    Does anyone have a protocol to making NMR buffer using 0.2M sodium phosphat buffer with D2O?

    is the concentration change when add D2O to the phosphate buffer?

    and how about the pH, is it OK to adjust the pH using HCL or NaoH?

  • Can science provide solutions for the main problems of the world?

    Nowadays, there are some high priority problems at a global level, such as: poverty, limited energy resources, limited food and even drinking water (especially related to the population growth phenomenon), global warming and rapid climate changes, the gap between developed and undeveloped countries. 

    Subhash C. Kundu · Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology

    Dear Andrá,

    Yes, you are right.  All world’s problems are not scientific problems. Many problems needs to be solved by honest political intervention, introducing ethical ways, getting public participation, some social groups, etc. 

  • Frank Höger added an answer in Microbubbles:
    How can I prevent gas formation in enzymatic protein hydrolysis when adding nitric acid to lower the pH?

    I am performing enzymatic protein hydrolisis in a 300 l reactor to obtain free amino acids from a crude slurry of blue-green microalgae. Hydrolysis proceeds properly, but when at a last step I try to lower pH by adding nitric acid the volume of the hydrolysate suddenly increases.

    Data:

    - Hydrolysis takes place at 50 ºC

    - Unless it was necessary to avoid its use, I prefer to use nitric acid instead of other strong acids

    - At the end of the hydrolysis step, pH must be lowered from 7 to 3 to prevent growth of fungi

    - The issue (formation of microbubbles leading to a huge volume increase) takes place mainly between neutrality and pH 4. Below pH 4, apparently nitric acid can be poured without gas formation.

    Thanks in advance for any suggestion or for a explanation that could help me solve this issue

    Frank Höger · BASF SE

    Maybe you get a formation of nitroso gases if stronger ions like chloride or sulfates are present. In that case, maybe the change of concentration is not helping and you need to change to this acids or phosphoric acid, a slightly increased sulfate or phosphate level should not give you ecological problems, anyway less than the Nitrate-Level does...

    are you using Copper octanoate or something similar?

    I think you could think about usage of Formalin too, You have a permission of usage formic aldehyd up to 2000ppm, absolute in liquid,  in cosmetics and textile formulations that are designed for the direct and ready usage and handling for human purpose, it is not accumulating in the environment and is easily degraded and is exhausting extremly easy because of its boiling point.

  • Raúl Valldecabres added an answer in Badminton:
    How can I calculate the speed at which a player moves in a badminton court?

    I am trying to measure plantar pressure in badminton players when they make the shift to the net for linking with lower body injuries and need to have speed variable at which they are shifting around the court. Does anyone have a similar laboratory study with which to help me?

    Thanks in advance

    Raúl

    Raúl Valldecabres · Catholic University of Valencia "San Vicente Martir"

    Thanks Jesse Jutkowitz for your link and experience. I will check it.

    Kind regards

    Raúl

  • Pamela Wyatt added an answer in Weight Management:
    How can we encourage long term adherence to weight management programmes for parents and children?

    I am a third year adult nursing student and am doing the above topic for my dissertation.  I am interested in the fact that overweight parents often perpetuate this condition, and that their children are often also overweight.  I would be grateful for any information that is available.

    Pamela Wyatt · University of Southampton

    Many thanks to you both for your suggestions.  I will research them.

    Best wishes

    Pamela

  • Is it possible to analyse deuterium content on water samples, which are coloured by Brilliant Blue?

    We would like to analyze deuterium content in water samples by laser spectrometry. The samples are coloured by brilliant blue and we are not sure if it can destroy the spectrometr. Does anybody has an experience with this or can you recomment me any literature. 

    Thank you 

    Roman

    Roman Juras · Czech University of Life Sciences Prague

    Thank you Wolfram, 

    we will think about that, but rather use no dye tracer at firts. Do you know some research, when both tracers were used and analysed in one sample?

  • What are the physiological effects of toxins from Pyricularia oryzae in rice?

    What organs or metabolic pathways are influenced by toxins by Pyricularia oryzae sintetisadas?

    C.E. Aucique Perez · Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV)

    Dear Ephrem, your information was very important for my research. I will consider your comments. thank you very much.

  • Miranda Yeoh added an answer in Informal Learning:
    Why are mnemonics not provided to students (low and high education) in information-heavy courses?

    There are loads of mnemonic-techniques out there ranging from method of loci to musical mnemonics. It is my understanding and experience that mnemonics can increase the amount of information learned and prolong the period in which it can be recalled. I think musical mnemonics is a great example since one can easily realize the vast amount of lyrics from regular songs that one can recall. Imagine if these songs were enconded with meaningful information...

    Miranda Yeoh · Kolej Matrikulasi Selangor, MALAYSIA (Selangor Matriculation College)

    Thanks @Bo for sharing this: 'It is my understanding and experience that mnemonics can increase the amount of information learned and prolong the period in which it can be recalled. I think musical mnemonics is a great example since one can easily realize the vast amount of lyrics from regular songs that one can recall. Imagine if these songs were enconded with meaningful information...'

    I teach Biology and I use musical mnemonics.  Have a look at one of my papers.  In life sciences, instructors as well as students create mnemonics.  I created mnemonics when I was studying Biochemistry in varsity.  I observed that students of life sciences who used mnemonics obtained better grades.  I also attach a video recording.

  • Ravi Ananth added an answer in Stress Analysis:
    How can I do residual stress analysis of a solid component using X-ray diffraction?

    Whether it is a non-destructive method or a destructive one?

    Ravi Ananth · Onsight Technology USA

    Classical clash of "continuum mechanics" and real life "materials Nanostructure"! I'd  have to read and digest your posts thoroughly before sticking my big "foot-in-mouth". I'll be back!

  • Hans Kerp added an answer in Paleoclimate:
    Could any Palaeobotanist help me to identify the ancient plants?

    The picture was taken from a piece of core in the late Triassic Ordos basin. Could any Palaeobotanist please help me to identify the ancient plants and list its implications for paleoclimate : in the late Triassic Ordos Basin, central China.  It deposited in deltaic or lacustrine environment. I want to know its Latin name and implications for paleoclimate. Thanks a lot!

    Hans Kerp · University of Münster

    You should not focus on the coin, but on the fossil. Moreover, the coin as scale is not very informative, because non-Chinese colleagues will not know its size. Why not simply a centimetre for scale? That is the international standard.

  • Keld West added an answer in Amorphous Materials:
    Do ions only move in amorphous material?

    If amorphous nature is difficult to study then how it is helpful in conducting cell? Especially in polymer batteries. As we are interested in reducing the crystallinity of PEO to improve its conductivity. is it not reverse in gear? plz explain

    Keld West · University of Copenhagen

    When ionic conduction is seen in crystalline materials, it is because one of the components in the crystal lattice can jump from its equilibrium position to a neighboring site of comparable lattice energy. These sites can be vacant either because of lattice defects or because such sites are inherent in the crystal lattice in question.

    In liquids, there is no long-range order, and ions will move under an electric field, carrying some of the solvent molecules they are associated to with them. Liquids are thus both cation and anion conductors, whereas crystalline ion conductors typically only conducts a single ionic species (they are either anion or cation conductors).

    Polymers are microscopically solid, but above the glass transition temperature, the polymer chains has some freedom for local dynamic rearrangement. In ionic conducting polymers, a salt is dissolved in the polymer because the polymer chains are able to coordinate the ions (the solvation energy is larger than the lattice energy of the salt). Because of the polymer chain dynamics, the solvation shell around the ions is continuously changing, and under an external electric field, the ions will drift to new coordination's in a direction given by the electric field. Both cations and anions move. Because this only happens above the glass transition temperature, temperature variation of ionic conduction in polymers is best described by the Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) .quation. Crystalline parts of polymer materials are generally very poor conductors.

  • Jeong Hoon Pan added an answer in Cryosections:
    How to properly dissect soleus muscle for cryosection?

    Hello,

    I'm trying to dissect out the mouse soleus & EDL muscles for cryosection.

    First I isolated the muscle using isopentane and liquid nitrogen as described in many papers, but the tissue sections were damaged (many holes) in a microscopy observation (Figure attached). Thus I've been trying to find a method to protect the tissue from the damage.

    I just found a video from Youtube attached below. In the video, he or she was using 'viscous liquid' during the dissection. I guess it's maybe sucrose PBS or OCT coumpound. Does anyone know what the liquid is? What if someone knows it, please let me know its identification and the exact composition such as the percent of sucrose or something.

    Jeong Hoon Pan · Korea University

    To Stefano Ciciliot,

    Thanks a lot Stefano.

    I was like "wow~" when I saw that you worked in Schiaffino's lab!!

    You must be an expert on the muscle typing. Makes me jealous!

    I'm struggling with the muscle alone because I'm in food science, which means there is not many people who can advise me. 

    Anyways, you asked me how I prepare the samples before the section. Here's the full protocol;

    1. Prepare LN2
    2. Prepare Isopentane in a jar made with stainless
    3. Prepare a plunger of 1mL syringe (substitute for OCT mold)
    4. Dissect out a soleus muscle fiber of a mouse
    5. Put the tissue on the bottom of plunger pre-coated with OCT cpd, then cover the tissue using OCT cpd (This was performed after the isopentane started freeze)
    6. Then soak the bottom of plunger into the Isopentane in LN2 for about 30s.
    7. Put the OCT mold into EP tube and store in LN2 until the end of autopsy
    8. Transfer the tubes in -70℃ 

    For the section
    1. Transfer the tubes containing OCT block to -20℃ O/N

    2. Mount the OCT block to chuck and cut the section (10 um of thickness)

    This protocol was for the picture attached. Now I use sucrose solution and cork for the muscle freezing.

    I've already been using BA-F3, SC-71, BA-F8. Well, let me ask you something. What is the size of those proteins in western blot? There is nothing about the size in the antibody description. I purchased the antibodies from Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank. There is nothing about it. BTW, I found single band at the top of the membrane. I guess it's over 250kDa. However, I am not 100% sure the band is "the band". You must know about it because you worked in Schiaffino's lab.  

    I look forward to seeing your answer.

    Best regards,

    Jeong Hoon Pan

  • How can I find a new microsatellite in the human genome in new regions?

    it is easy to find SNPs in region that you know or search by SNP that is known but how to search by microsatellite and which database could search by microsatellite and show all region that contain the microsatellites.

    Yeşerin Yıldırım · Massey University

    http://tandem.bu.edu/cgi-bin/trdb/trdb.exe?taskid=42&id=10399&accessnumber=5839&projectId=39

  • Uduakobong Edet asked a question in Clay Minerals:
    How can you determine the clay minerals present in a clay sample.

    My sample is only identified as boulder clay from Marks Tey in Colchester UK. How do I do the predominant clay mineral in it.

  • Patrick De Bock asked a question in Cryotherapy:
    How about the combination of cryotherapy and shockwaves?

    What are your expiriences with the combination of cryotherapy and (focal or radial) shockwaves? Is the combination a better option and what do you think should come first?

  • Did anyone has publications aboutheavy metals content in arable soils and plants from northern Poland?

    I'm making a research about total content of heavy metals: in arable and forest soils, and in plants from these areas, but only from northern part of Poland. Did anyone done such a research or know such a publication and can suggest me where to search?  I will be much grateful for any advices.

    Agnieszka JK

    Agnieszka Jeske-Kaczanowska · Institute of Environmental Protection – National Research Institute

    Dear colleague,

    Thank You a lot for the article, it will be suitable in the future.

    But now the first step is to describe, total content of the elements in soils, only from northern Poland (local, regional scale). In second step I will compare data from the data from other countries, so then I will of course write to You! Can I also write to You with other scientific problems?

    Best Regards

    Agnieszka Jeske-Kaczanowska