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  • Syed Arif Rizvi asked a question in Smart Grid:
    DO you have any Matlab code for DG placement in Smart Grid ?

    Hi There !!  I am one of new Matlab user . My Objective Function is to reduce the reactive power loss(refer to attachment ) .

    I got a code for simple objective function val = (x - 15)^2 + (y - 20)^2 , I run this and observe the results  and now i am quite familiar with PSO working on matlab . But 

    My objective is quite complex so please share program for reactive power loss minimization if any one have. Similar program will also help me in this regards 

  • Kenneth M Towe added an answer in Climate Change:
    Are there authentic published work confidently pinpointing the sole anthropogenic factors contributing to Climate Change?

    Combined natural and anthropogenic factors (geologically recent phenomenon) govern Climate Change. It is, therefore, of paramount importance to discretely recognize the role of humans in Climate Change and to plan efficient strategy to mitigate it.

  • Saghir Ahmad added an answer in Vector-Borne Diseases:
    •What are the ecological consequences of suppressing or removing the vectors of vector borne diseases?

    Removing or suppressing the vectors of vector borne diseases has any impact on environment and ecosystem?

    Saghir Ahmad

    Yah, sure the elimination of vector can help eradicating the parasite but this notion varies in different cases.

  • Christian Ley added an answer in Anaerobic Digestion:
    What is the best method to inoculate a lab scale anaerobic digester from a WWTP anaerobic digester?

    In the literature, many authors briefly mention that the seed for the lab digester was obtained from a wastewater treatment plant. However, they fail to mention whether or not they stored the inoculum before use. Storing a large sample would preserve the microbial community against seasonal variations. Is it better to sample the WWTP digester  before starting each lab digester or to acquire a large digester sample and freeze-store it before use? Or are there other methods?

    Christian Ley

     How long can the inoculum be stored at 4o C? Do you have to pre-treat the inoculum before storing it at that  temperature?

  • Mrinalini Menon asked a question in Amylase:
    Native gel electrophoresis for amylase activity staining

    Could anyone suggest a suitable paper/protocol link to a method involving activity staining for amylase. Is there any protocol wherein the vertical PAGE setup could be used?

  • Ajay Padmawar added an answer in Natural Dyes:
    How to extract Natural dye from red rose petals?

    How to extract Natural dye from red  rose petals?

    Ajay Padmawar

    The Red Pigment of rose flower is belongs to Anthocynin class. Mainly consist of Cynidin , Pelargonin etc.Anthocynin can be extracted by acidic methanol (0.1% HCl, Citric Acid or Tartaric Acid). Attaching Presentation help you lot.

  • Mahmood Parsamanesh added an answer in Biomathematics:
    I am looking for helpful books in biomathematics. would you please suggest me some?

    I am looking for helpful books in biomathematics. would you please suggest me some?

    Mahmood Parsamanesh

    Hi,Dear Araghirostami,

    Have a look at these:

    An Introduction to Mathematical Biology, by Linad Allen, 2007


    Mathematical Models in Population Biology and Epidemiology, by Fred Brauer, Carlos Castillo-Chavez, 2012


    Mathematical Epidemiology, by  Fred Brauer, 2008


  • Mrinalini Menon added an answer in Enzyme Kinetics:
    What is the relationship between Km and Kmax to Substrate and Enzyme concentration?

    What happen to Km when the substrate concentration level increased?

    Mrinalini Menon

    'Km is a Michaelis-Menton constant and it won't change due to the level of substrate' - i.e it is specific for an enzyme with respect to the substrate in question. Just to add a small point to the earlier posts- substrate concentration or [S] should be >> Km so as to not become a limiting factor.

  • Ishag Adam added an answer in Vivax Malaria:
    Is necessary to have glucose 6 Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase level in every setting where there is vivax malaria?

    Is necessary to have glucose 6 Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase level in every setting where there is vivax malaria?

    Ishag Adam

    Thank  you very much Miles B Markus  for valuable link

  • Kaleem Ullah asked a question in Graphs:
    How to become master in summing up and displaying results in research article???

    Hello everyone hope so you will be fine. i have now a days reading research articles some are really good and they published in not very high impact factor journal but some are really not good to meet high quality research. I have noticed in some papers researchers closed whole story into a set of three or 4 results(graph,images etc) i want to know yours point of view on the followings:

    1.How to sum up results and discuss it???

    2.which software you usually used for editing equations,pictures and graphs???

    3.What are the important thing which author should must keep into mind???

    4.What should be best representation of your story of writing???

  • Nyuk ping Ling asked a question in Quality of Work Life:
    Hi! Does anyone know about journals/articles/research that are related to mediator for quality of work life and mediator for career success?

    I am looking for mediator between quality of work life and career success.Any idea about such mediator? I hope that you can provide me with green lights by sharing latest journals and research about mediator for quality of work life and mediator for career success too. Your assistance is highly appreciated.Thank you. 

  • Jae Park added an answer in Science, Technology & Society Studies (STS):
    Is there still a gulf between scientists and ‘intellectuals’? Which of them have more influence on people’s worldviews?

    Traditional intellectuals –thinkers, writers, political and social commentators, and artists- have historically played a major role in the diffusion of the ideas that shape the ways people see the world and their own society and lives

    In the prominent book The Third Culture (1995), John Brockman claimed that these kinds of intellectuals have “become increasingly marginalized”. They are being replaced by scientists who, “through their work and expository writing”, communicate directly with the general public. These “third-culture intellectuals” would be represented by the likes of Paul Davies, Martin Rees, Richard Dawkins, Steve Jones, Daniel C. Dennett, Brian Goodwin, W. Daniel Hillis, Nicholas Humphrey and many others.  

    The culture of traditional intellectuals, says Brockman, “dismisses science”, is “often nonempirical”, uses “its own jargon”, and “is chiefly characterized by comment on comments, the swelling spiral of commentary eventually reaching the point where the real world gets lost”.

    The idea of a Third Culture has its origin in C.P. Snow’s influential “Two Cultures”   essay (1959), in which the British scientist and novelist deplored the “mutual incomprehension” –“sometimes hostility”-- between science and the arts. Scientists shared a “culture” –no matter their political, religious, social class and even disciplinary differences-, with common attitudes, standards, approaches, assumptions and patterns of behavior, At the opposite pole, attitudes were more diverse, but the total incomprehension gave an “unscientific flavor” –often almost “antiscientific”— to the whole “traditional culture”. Moreover, scientists largely overlooked traditional literature, which they perceived as irrelevant to their interests, while most intellectuals were unable to describe something as basic as the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

    Snow saw such disconnection and polarization as a “sheer lose” to society and stressed the need to build bridges between the sides. In a second essay, published in 1963, he suggested that the gap would be closed by a “Third Culture” that would eventually emerge. In his version of this new culture, intellectuals would communicate with scientists.    

    Not long ago, a column in Scientific American stated that Snow’s vision “has gone unrealized” (see Krauss, Lawrence M.: “An Update on C.P. Snow’s ‘Two Cultures’”, August 17, 2009).

    What is your opinion? Is there such a cultural divide? Are intellectuals scientifically illiterate? Do scientists ignore the basics of the humanities? Which of them have more influence on the public? What kind of Third Culture –if any- is emerging?

    + 4 more attachments

    Jae Park

    Perhaps  the 'gulf'  is our mental construct. Does such a sharp distinction really exist, for example, a 'distilled scientist' who is an anti-matter of 'humanistic intellectual'?

  • Karthika Natarajan asked a question in Soil Carbon:
    How to determine cation exchange capacity of soil and soil carbon?

    in the laboratory 

  • Rohan Gandhi added an answer in Environmental Biotechnology:
    What is the best method to design 25 KLD STP and calculations for same?

    Detailed design procedure for extended aeration or MBBR process

    Rohan Gandhi

    Thanks will be in touch. Appreciate it.

  • Ng Ci Xuan asked a question in Temperature:
    How to estimate the thermodynamic properties of mixture of polymer and hydrocarbons?

    For the mixture of hydrocarbons only, we can estimate its bubble temperature or dew temperature of the mixture by using EOS. However, if the polymer exists in the mixtures, how are we going to estimate the thermodynamic properties of the mixture? I cannot find the thermodynamic properties like critical temperature and critical pressure of the polymer which are needed in EOS calculation. The polymer involved is highly reactive polyisobutylene. 

  • Rohan Gandhi added an answer in Sewage Treatment Plant:
    Can someone provide detailed design calculations of STP plant using MBBR Process?

    Assume Design Flow : 200KLD 

    Can someone provide detailed design calculations of STP plant using MBBR Process?

    Rohan Gandhi

    Thank you all. Appreciate your time and prompt response. Will be in touch for further reference.

  • Darshini s asked a question in NOX:
    Scale of measurement ?

    scale of reasurement? in some analysis the beta coefficient is measured in terms of standard deviation?
    price= .340nox -.143crime +.514rooms-.235dist-.270stratio
    this is the equation
    interpretation one standard deviation increase in nox dereases price by .34 standard deviation like so.... how to undersatnd this? why like this?
    please help me in this.
    in my case dependent variable is index value and independent variables are in normal like revenue,tax share....
    why standard deviation is used in the measurement and in interpretation

  • Valentin Danci added an answer in Gravitational Field:
    Is the non locality of the gravitational field energy a serious problem for General Relativity (GRT)?



    "Although there is no room for such a thing in the energy–

    momentum tensor T, it is clear that there are situations where a ‘disembodied’

    gravitational energy is actually playing a physical role.

    Imagine  two massive bodies (planets, say). If they are close together (and we can

    suppose that they are instantaneously at rest relative to each other), then

    there will be a (negative) gravitational potential energy contribution which

    makes the total energy, and therefore the total mass, smaller than it would

    be if they are far apart.  Ignoring much tinier energy effects,

    such as distortions of each body’s shape due to the gravitational tidal field

    of the other, we see that the total contributions from the actual energy–

    momentum tensor T will be the same whether the two bodies are close

    together or far apart. Yet, the total mass/energy will differ in the two cases,

    and this difference would be attributed to the energy in the gravitational

    field itself (in fact a negative contribution, that is more sizeable when the

    bodies are close than when they are far apart)." 


    The same problem was also rised by Thirring, Kalman and Feynman in the FGT theory, they inserted the gravitational energy in the tensor equations...

    It is a problem of paramount importance which prevents the General relativity theory from describing any motion in which the hamiltonian is time dependent or rather in case of non isolated systems, or in case of non stationary interactions between different bodies.

    The attempt to model a free falling body in a gravitational field for GRT seems impossible.

    GRT has been tested  only for static or stationary systems where there is not a net exchange of energy (excluding gravitational radiation)

    Don't we need another GRAVITATIONAL THEORY which includes the results give by GRT in order to explain with a better accuracy the simple phenomenon like the free falling of a mass in a gravitational field?

    Valentin Danci

    Stam, you're contradicting yourself in a desperate attempt to make sense of your claims which are obviously illogic:

    - First  you said :

    "No, they simply express the fact that, by observations within one frame, it's not possible to distinguish it from the other... Lorentz transformations do leave a specific velocity invariant, for instance, by combining two sets of experiments, this would be possible."

    That means you need to *compare* the two sets, otherwise nobody can claim that the sets are distinguished -or not- from each other.

    - But then you claimed:

    "It's meaningless to compare coordinates in different frames, so going on and on about contractions and dilatations doesn't make sense-maybe good for popular accounts that use buzzwords"

    As soon as the comparisons were made, every honest researcher who did such comparisons found the contradictions. But now you claim it's "meaningless to compare".

    For your information, all observations in Physics are made by comparisons. Also, all decisions in Mathematics are also made by comparisons.

    "The only quantities that make sense to compute are the invariants-that are the same in all frames"

    Good luck with those "invariants". That is another myth of the relativistic dogma. Once the comparison is started between frames, all the values of the so called "invariants" are contradicting between frames. All of them, the proper time, the proper lengths, and even the values of the velocity of light (despite the enforcement of the second postulate of STR), obtained respectively between frames, are contradicting each other.

    This is where the relativistic dogma, as any dogma, loses the game. Humans use their minds to inquire and to compare. As soon as a relation between two entities is found as dual and contradicting, it is deemed as false and it starts to be eliminated from the usage, as it is useless for any human purpose.

    No textbooks, no fixes, and no mainstream bureaucracies will make something false to be true.

  • Kaaliarasan A/L Ramachandran asked a question in Tungsten:
    What is the significant differenece between uncoated tungsten carbide and coated tungsten carbide?

    Refer to this link below:

  • prof V.S Muralidharan added an answer in Cyclic Voltammetry:
    How can I coat the working electrode sample on the Nickel substrate for taking electrochemical studies?

    How can I coat the working electrode sample on the nickel substrate for taking electrochemical studies?

    prof V.S Muralidharan

    That is brush plating 

  • Jane Maley added an answer in Psychological Contract:
    What is/are links among psychological contract, performance appraisal and intention to stay among employees in IT industries?

    Is it possible that  performance appraisal moderates the relationship between psychological contract and intention to stay?

    Thank you.

    Jane Maley

    Yes, indeed  feedback is a huge part of PA and a very important part. I have conducted two empirical studies on PA and in both studies feedback and follow-up of the PA emerged as essential for an effective PA, relationship with the supervisor and intention to remain in post. An effective PA also build trust (See:   Maley, J. & Moeller, M. (2014). The effect of the performance appraisal system on trust for the inpatriate manager. Journal of Business Research. 67(1), 2803-2810.

  • Lev Kra added an answer in Resveratrol:
    Are there any known chemicals that can potentiate the effects of Resveratrol?

    Or, are there any chemicals known to potentiate the effects of any DPP-4 inhibitor?

    Lev Kra

    Yes this is exactly what I needed, thank you!

  • Ronald Wennersten asked a question in Positioning:
    How do I delete one position in Research Experience?

    I have by mistake added the same position twice in Research Exeperience.

    How do I delete one of them?

  • Pl bb asked a question in Viral Infection:
    Why WBCs have irregular shape in cytoplasma ?

    Can help to....

    Why the lymphocyte having the irregular cytoplasma....?

    due to serve viral infection?

    Patient information: 6yrs / Female

    WBC count :11.0,    Hb: normal

    DC count:

    N: 25%

    L: 70%

    M: 5%

    + 2 more attachments

  • Paul Reed Hepperly added an answer in Soil Organic Carbon:
    How do I convert organic carbon (%) of soil for value & interpretation into available nitrogen (Kg/Ha) & rating?

    Say in my area soil organic carbon measured is 0.28, 0.30, 0.18 %

    as per soil fertility rating it is low in organic carbon or low in nitrogen (Kg/Ha)

    now for all my data like above I want to convert into available nitrogen (Kg/Ha)

    so what will be any formulae ?

    Paul Reed Hepperly

    For me the lower the soil carbon concentration the greater the benefit for each incremental addition of soil carbon.

    The accrual of Carbon tends to plateau so the value shows some diminishing returns.

    If I have more than 5% soil organic matter the need to continue to increase it would from my experience by of diminished importance.

  • Mohamed medo Mody asked a question in Solar Cells:
    How to prepare Biosynthetic solar cells ?

    Using microbes or fungus

  • Nguyen Truong added an answer in Real-Time PCR:
    How do I publish qPCR data in a bar graph?
    I have my raw data according to two groups of different types of animals that are being tested with pharmacological compounds or PBS. I am using the 2deltaCT method. I've seen different papers with many ways of graphing results, lets say for instance: relative expression vs gene of interest, fold change vs gene of interest, RQ vs Gene. Does anyone have an opinion on the best way to depict your relative quantification data?
    Nguyen Truong

    Thanks for your clear explanation! 

  • Dejenie A. Lakew added an answer in Fluctuations:
    Could you please tell your point of view on the current situation worldwide ?

    Is it a stable or fluctuating and we are faced to the glabal danger

    Dejenie A. Lakew

    It is true that systems in nature loose energy and tend to be in lesser order in time by the principle of thermodynamics and the human society will not be different. We passed through such states of existence in a cyclical manner and returned to normalcy, the state of existence our collective well being demands.

    Therefore what keeps us together is our higher order consciousness and thinking capacity to override the natural tendency of entropy by creating new and stronger binding laws, orders  and controlling mechanisms not to loose cohesion, as we come to know cohesion is our strength to survive than going apart.

    Individuals and few groups of individuals tend to display impulsive behaviors of that are centered on individualistic and group satisfactions, which are devoid of thoughtfulness, knowledge of the past  and wisdom, to create chaos and orderlessness,  contrary to the collective desire and well being of society, which at the end society changes course to the better.

    After world wars I and II, time has elapsed with strong sense of communal purpose, order of stability and it seems the world is getting older and start to loose energy which leads to entropy once again. All human conflicts that were local and global, and which still are commonplace locally, scary mixed with human tragedies and tend to emerge to become global, are due to that virtue-less impulse of individual humans. Aside from what I put earlier as controlling mechanisms not to lose order, fear of the strength of the other is another mollifier that controls the temptation of being rouge.

  • Lai Nguyen Huy added an answer in Trucks:
    Does anyone has example of CO emission factor generated from natural gas-fueled bus or truck?

    Comparison of CO emission factors from natural gas-fuels bus/truck compared to other fuel such as (gasoline, diesel) of the same exhaust control technology.

    Lai Nguyen Huy

    Thank you so much for your responses