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- 3How do I reduce bacterial and fungal endophytic contamination in bamboo tissue culture?
auxillary node culture
i used 3 mg/l of cefataxime sodium salt
can i use antifungal agents in media? if so what?
To reduce fungal contamination use Bavastin. i.e. washy your seed or plants with Bavistin.
To reduce bacterial contamination wash ut seed or plant with 2 x antibiotic solution.
If the seed coat is strange use fumigation method to sterilize your seed in desiccator ( ml Sodium Hypo-chloride and 3ml con HCl in desiccator for over night.Following
- 45How can we proceed for decision on soil resource-based cropping sequence?
Development of soil resource inventory of a given area , is considered highly imperative to take decisions on the options about the suitability of different crops in a farming system mode. At the same time, the information on edaphological requirements of different crops , is equally paramount , so that both are super-imposed in such a way, to delineate soil-crop analogues. This will pave the way for better land utilization efficiency. My further querries in this regard are as follows:
* How should we develop a soil resource inventory ?. Shall we go for master soil pfofile stdies or follow the grid- based soil sampling coupled soil profiles to be later used for developing soil fertility variograms?.
* How shall we identify the soil fertility constraints of multiple nature from such soil resource inventory?.
* What methodology , shall we adopt to identify optimum soil requirement for different crops ?.
* How should we identify the cropping sequence based on such soil resource inventory?.
* Whether cropping sequence and land utilization efficiency are inter-related ?.If so , in what way?.
I request my esteemed colleagues to share their experiences on these issues. Regards
Let me share with my learned colleagues on this important point raised earlier . We still have a long way to go before we have precision -based assessment of site evaluation and crop-based assessment of nutrient constraints. We in India , do not think , we have the soil fertility criteria with respect to horticultural crops including tuber , plantation, spices and vegetable crops, off course with certain exceptions for the crops like potato , banana, citrus , mango , grapes, rubber , tea, coffee etc... We do have digitized soil fertility maps for many districts ( some 160 odd districts or..) , which is being now used as a part of the second phase by superimposing the specific crop boundary to have a first hand information about the nutrient constraint assessment . This will gave the generalized information , not more than that . In this regard , very shortly geo-portals are in the pipeline to be flagged off very soon .Following
- 4I have 14 data sets for 5 location in an area in terms of elemental profiles, then what possible source apportionment method can be used effectively?
What model to be used given 14 data sets are available for receptor sites? (given source profiles are available and major sources are known) Will CMB work with only 14 data sets of only elemental concentration??
Any other alternative to find re-suspended dust and combustion sources impact quantitatively??
Sorry for the confusion here but i have total 15 samples or 3*5 datasets you can say.
So only 15 elemental profiles i have in total in receptor area. I dont think PCA or PMF could be an option here as they need atleast 100 datasets. So the problem im facing is to find the impact of resuspended dust with such minimal samples.Following
- NewI have the series of PET and CT images from PET/CT scan. Can anyone suggest me some books or papers for interpreting those images?
I am working in image fusion. I got those images from CancerImaging Archieve. Also I need some help to know how to correlate the corresponding images from both series and to convert them to same size.Following
- 2How do I measure alpha diversity when measuring plant diversity in household gardens
We are working a rearch project in a village located next to a National Park in Guatemala, and we are interested in finding out the contributions to in situ biodiversity conservation that takes place in household gardens. Based on some literature review, alpha diversity can be measured at the household level (as a conservation unit that has a particular management regime), nevertheless we are interested in receving feedback and comments about it.
This will depend on the conceptual framework of your research or the questions you intend answering. I would advice you to go by Whittaker (1972) and use differential species assessment (number of species) and abundance of each assessed species i.e proportion in which each of the assessed species is represented within your reference point. Shannon's diversity index is useful for a more complex assessment sites which your garden is not.
Alternatively,you can also take a look at our paper where,we assessed biodiversity in an urban green area of Copenhagen, Denmark. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269409218_Assessing_the_Effectiveness_of_Urban_Nature_Reserves_on_Biodiversity_Conservation
You could also take a look at the following publications: Podani, J. and Schmera, D. 2011. A new conceptual and methodological framework for exploring and explaining pattern in presence-absence data. – Oikos 120: 1625–1638
-Lawton, H., Bignell, E., Bolton, B., Bloemers, F., Eggleton, P., Hammond, P (1998). Biodiversity inventories, indicator taxa and effects of habitat modification in tropical forest. Nature 391: 72-75.
-Coetzee, B; Kevin, J and Steven, L (2014). Local Scale Comparisons of Biodiversity as a Test for Global Protected Area Ecological Performance: A Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE, 2014; 9 (8): e105824.
- 1Is it feasible to depend on secondary data only for a study titled Risk Management and firm’s performance?
I would like to prepare a study plan on Risk Management and firm’s performance. Could you lease suggest me some articles on the area. Besides, I want to depend my study on secondary data only, can you please comment on my plan?
This can be done and depends on how you define risk or what exactly are you capturing by risk.Following
- NewHow to sub clone MYC tag Over expression Vector and use which method and restriction enzymes to digest it?
I am using pCUbi1390 over expression vector, while for MYC i use pAHC25. My gene of interest have KpnI, TaqI, HinfI, HindIII. So I have to clone both my gene of interest and MYC together in Over expression vector, as a C- terminal vector.Following
- 1How do we test if a nematode isolated from insect is parasitic on humans? Can anyone help us to screen this nematode?Entomopathogenic nematodes are used as bioagents against the control of insect pests in agriculture. We isolated a nematode which is easily multiplying on storage pest. We wish to cross check that this nematode is not parasitic against humans and other animals. Please help us to solve these doubts before we multiply the nermatode.
in first step you may work on laboratory animals such as rat ,or mice.Following
- 7Could Lactulose consumption worsen Diabetes mellitus?
if yes by which mechanism?
There are insufficient data to confirm that the use is harmful in the diabetic patient. However, the use must be restricted to those necessary cases as in hepatic encephalopathyFollowing
- 2What is the relation between income and college degree?
If we look at the successful and rich people's life (e.g. Henry Ford, Thomas Edison, Bill Gates, Steve Jobs and Michael Dell etc.)
We can understand that most of them expulsion from the university or dropping out university and they never graduate from the university. While everyone of them are the richest people in the world.
And this conflict very surprised me.
If we look through in their life we get they prefer to get success and riches use the experience of the other people instead of graduating the university.
In your opinion, is it right that the university just educate the specialist that they work for the others??
If they leave the university and find their ideas like Bill Gates can they successful in their job like Bill Gates or not??
This a quite interesting and important question. The problem is not remotely related with success but with knowledge since those examples stress that there are areas, groups, companies, individuals, etc, able to produce knowledge faster and with much more social impact than universities. In fact, nowadays areas as business, design, informatic, etc, are producing new knowledge and new products ahead of university much slower researches. So, the key question is if universities can still produce knowledge ahead of social and economic changes. In those cases from Ford to gates one finds a rare combination of new knowledge, innovation and opportunity.Following
- 4Research in islamic studies : modeling islamic practices ?
i am particularly interested in :
Modeling Islamic principles, practices, and rituals (Islamic Law, prayer, fasting, inheritance, society, culture, history, islamic life plan, islamic finance, and other possible ideas), using Information technology techniques (specially UML, and java).
Is there anyone interested ?
Wow its a very goof idea. I am also thinking on it since many years. It will be contibution to the humanity. I will feel pleasure if there would some service for me pleaseFollowing
- 3Does anyone knows any researcher /organization working in Buxa Tiger Reserve?
Please share contact details of a researchers/organizations working in Buxa Tiger reserve
You can also contact Gopal Krishna <firstname.lastname@example.org> and Anant Kumar <email@example.com> who are involved in floristic studies of Buxa Tiger Reserve for their Ph.D. They are both from Botanical Survey of India.Following
- 8What can be the reason for a big difference between predicted and actual values in quantitative calibration by NIR?
I performed the quantitative calibration (PLSR method) by NIR Spectrometer (Pharmatest IM 100) to measure the concentration ( in range of 0.02-0.5 mg/ml) of Resveratrol als drug in an Ethanol-Water (1:2) solution . The value of Multiple correlation coefficient is 0.96 and standard error of estimate is 0.05. I performed the Prediction for new known solution to test the calibration but the result is totally unacceptable and there is a big difference between the predicted values and the actual values and there isn’t any chance of prediction.
I guessed maybe the calibration is overfitted and I tried to carry out the calibration again by smaller range of Wavelength but the result was the same, any one have an explanation?
Hope someone can help me.
Thank you in advance for you answer.
I believe there are different lab conditions during calibration and testing the calibration. The measurements conditions during calibration must be adapted to those of later experiments. Otherwise, a correct prediction is not possible.
All the best,
- NewGene expression and biological impact?
How do we understand the amount of gene expression level and biological impact
for ex: some gene respond to the viral infection with only minor changes that still biologically relevant vice versa dramatic changes may be biologically irrelevant.Following
- 4Shrinkage and distortion in Gel Casting?
Hello, what is the range of shrinkage associated with gel casting process. Since in general this value seems to be high, how can warpage or distortions be predicted and tackled properly?
Hello there thanx for responding. I am referring to gel casting of ceramic material. It has been shown that this process can be used to get turbine rotors of ceramic material... The shrinkage ,I am enquiring here is during the drying and sintering stages of the process. Just wanted to know advantages of gel casting process over ceramic Injection process as far as turbine rotors are concerned.
- 3Why does Pulsed laser ablation in liquids result in defect free nanoparticles?
Why does Pulsed laser ablation in liquids result in defect free nanoparticles?
No impurity does not mean defect free actually. Defect free means almost perfect crystals without defects, dislocations and even strains.Following
- 5Does anyone know a good serum (FBS) for HEK293 cell culture?
We used to have "FBS Gold" from PAA. However, since they stopped production, we have big problems in seeing currents through TRPC3 channels using whole-cell patch clamping.
Many thanks in advance!
I'm not entirely sure which species it's from or if the sell FBS from more than one species. Probably best to contact them.
We mostly do work on TRPV1 and TRPA1 but we have also worked with TRPC5 and TRPM8.Following
- 99+Is consciousness giving human beings an evolutionary advantage?While having the concept of Self as opposed to others or to the environment seems good for focusing the organism functions on survivability and on DNA spreading, is there any evidence that consciousness has an evolutionary advantage?
To elaborate further, here I'm talking about consciousness as the first person experience. And for "first person experience" I'm not talking about "experience OF first person": conversly, I'm specifically addressing the "experience IN first person MODALITY" (as a corollary to this question, I'm proposing that the word "consciousness" refers to too many concepts). In this view, I consider self-consciousness "experience of first person in first person modality".
If we embrace the assumption that consciousness is always consciousness of something, we still lack an explanation for the nature and the purpose ("what is/what's for" rather than "how is it") of the first person experience, and as such why evolution favored it.
In a lot of other Q/A about self and consciousness people are talking about consctructs that may function even without consciousness. Two examples:
-self: a neural network comprising semantic concepts about the world could very well include the concept of self as a non-other or non-environment, or even a concept of self as an independent organism with such and such features; why do we need consciousness to conceptualize it? Would a machine decoding all the concepts coming across the node of (or the distributed knowledge about) self be considered conscious? We do not have to attribute consciousness to the machine to explain the machine processing its concept of self.
-thinking: processing is certainly different from consciously elaborate something, as all the studies on automatic and subconscious processing show. On the other hand, this point address the free will problem: when we consciously elaborate something, does it mean we are voluntarly doing so? Or are we just experiencing a first person "show" of something already happened subconsciously (as Libet's studies suggest)? Without touching upon the ad infinitum regression problems, this poses the question if consciousness is useful without free will: if the conscious experience is just a screen on which things are projected, no free will is needed and thus what's the whole point of consciousness? As such, do we also need free will for accepting consciousness? If we are working with the least number of assumptions, it seems unlikely the we can accept consciousness.
It seems to me that the general attitude of cognitive theories in a biological information processing/computational theory of mind framework is to try to explain everything without putting consciousness in the equation. And indeed it seems to me that no one is actually putting consciousness in the equation, when explaining cognition or behaviour (at least in modern times).
All in all, it seems to me that all the above reasonings bring the suggestion that consciousness is not needed and has no evolutionary advantage over automatic non-conscious entities. Or that we should make more and more assumptions (such as accepting free will) to make sense of consciousness.
I think that asking why we have consciousness could lead us to understand it better.
@Louis Brassard ·.
Thank you. self enacting is new thing i learnt.Following
- 2What are the procedure and methods for estimation of fructose, calcium, cholesterol, ketone bodies , only from the tissue not from blood or urine?
what are the standard procedures ....
I have gone through several papers but I didnt find specific procedures ..
Ketone bodies can be measured in urine or blood. In urine using reactive strips and apparatus for measuring blood have B-OH butyrate. The cholesterol and fractions best method (more precise), regardless of type, is electrophoresis. But the total cholesterol and total calcium can be measured by dry chemistry.Following
- Imani Sohrab added an answer in Analytical Environmental Chemistry:1Has anyone any data on dichlorvos in water or how rapidly it breaks down under different conditions?We are interested in whether dichlorvos poses any risk to drinking water, particularly in developing countries.
dichlorvos rapidly breaks in water condition , it is sensitive against hydrolytic condition,I like to work about its metabolite in drinking water.Following
- NewLate amplification at ~35 cycles, RT PCR?
I am seeing late amplification at about 35 cycles. Also, I believe that the difference in expression curves is due to not having normalized my templates (not certain, could be completely wrong).. I did not have a Qubit to measure some of the cDNA controls that were made before my time in the lab. I was able to normalize the other cDNA samples at the RNA level before reverse transcriptase..
Ct values range from 26-35 (not sure if this helps for this question)
Image attached. Please help :) thank you!
P.S. -- using SensiFast, Hi-Rox Probe kit from Bioline with TaqMan gene expression pre-designed probes and beta-actin endogenous controls.
Cycling conditions: 1X at 95C for 2 minutes, (95C for 10s, 65C for 30s)X40Following
- 2How can I devise an algorithm which generates all possible edge disjoint spanning tree of graph G?
Let G be an undirected graph with n vertices and m edges, such that each edge has a real-valued cost. How can we devise an algorithm which generates all possible edge disjoint spanning tree of graph G ?
Can someone provide me the article entitled as "A Note on Finding Maximum-Cost Edge-Disjoint Spanning Trees" by J. Roskind and R. Tarjan, Nov. 1985 ?
Thank you Albert sir.
So, the above mentioned algorithm will list all possible edge disjoint spanning tree in O(V(V+E)) time.Following
- 4Does anyone know a very high resolution gridded database of daily precipitation for China?
I need DAILY precipitation dataset at a resolution around 30 arc-seconds (~1km) for China, covering the period of 2000-2014. Is there any?
I would appreciate every single recommendation.
As well as the global reanalyses there are at least two high resolution data sets specific to this region which use local rainfall observations:
I am not sure of the quality of these but they both cover your region of interest. They are well documented and are high resolution but I don't think you will find anything at 1km resolution.
I recommend you consider both to account for observational uncertainty and also consider the lower resolution GPCP dataset: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.gpcp.html
- 1Is there any practical way to synthesise graphene quantum dot with IR peak nIR region?
As you know graphene quantum dots have luminescent properties. I'm looking for an applicable method which yields graphene QD with emission in IR or NIR region!
You can use follow articles:
Fabrication of highly fluorescent graphene quantum dots using L-glutamic acid for in vitro/in vivo imaging and sensing. DOI: 10.1039/c3tc30820k
Three Colors Emission from S,N Co-doped Graphene Quantum Dots for Visible Light H2 Production and Bioimaging. DOI: 10.1002/adom.201400549
N, S co-doped graphene quantum dots from a single source precursor used for photodynamic cancer therapy under two-photon excitation. DOI: 10.1039/b000000x
minFluorescence Carbon Nanoparticles Derived from Natural Material of Mango Fruit for Bio-imaging Probes. DOI: 10.1039/C4NR04805A
Quantum-Sized Carbon Dots for Bright and Colorful Photoluminescence. DOI: 10.1021/ja062677dFollowing
- NewCan anyone suggest an ideal protocol for purifying spin column?
We want to re-use a spin column for our project..
How to purify the spin column to use it again..Following
- NewHow to calculate vapor concentration of gas inside the chamber, for gas sensor application?
I have refer based on two articles. there are two equation on how to calculate the vapor concentration Cg (ppm) inside the chamber :
1) C (ppm) = CxVxdxRxT x 10
2) C (ppm) = VxdxRxT x 10^6
C: Concentration of liquid analyte
V: volume of liquid injected
R: universal gas constant
T: absolute temperature (K)
M: molecular weight
P: chamber pressure
V: volume of chamber
My question is what does the x10 and x10^6 represent? Why there have two different value there?
- 8How can I calculate the number of walls in MWCNT from TEM images?
Using the interatomic distance. Please, if there is a reference, I'll be grateful.
If I'm not wrong, Raman spectroscopy is more adequate tecnique to ask this question. Search works of M. Pimenta or A. G. Souza Filho.Following
- 3How I can hydrolyses gelatin fiber?
I am making core shell nanofiber with shell as PCL and core part is gelatin. After that I want to make a hollow kind of structure such that remove the gelatin. So is their any chemical method to hydrolyse the gelatin.
- 58Can we call it a non-inverting summing amplifier?
Inverting summing amplifiers are well known. However, attached is a circuit with two versions. The first gives an output from the amplifier that is equal to the average value of three input signals. The second gives an output equal to the sum. The topology can be extended to higher inputs, but I cannot recall it being documented in text books on op amps. Can it be called as a non-inverting summing amplifier ?
I prefer the inverting summer for summing as it is non interactive. the 'gain" of other channels are not affected when I change the weightage resistor for the channel of interest. This is due to the low input resistance of the type of feedback used in inverting summers, as low as Rf/effective Av. this might be just a few ohms and hence we are actually converting the voltage to currents and adding the currents finally producing a voltage using Rf. the noninverting average/summer is way different. If the sum is what is the output, what is the amplification factor? no doubt you can also have amplification of more than 1, by suitably changing the feedback resistor. The summer does not allow changing the contribution from each channel, an advantage obtained with inverting summer, without also, the interaction between various channel gains.Following