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  • Ion C. Andronache added an answer in ImageJ:
    Can anyone suggest that how to convert lif file format to lsm file format for biofilm formation analysis?

    Here, i am using ImageJ associated with COMSTAT software which only reads lsm file format but i have my confocal raw data in lif file format so pls. suggest how to solve or convert lif file format to lsm file format. 

    Ion C. Andronache · University of Bucharest

    It's work. Download MRI Image Conversion Tools.txt from url:


    After put it in folder macros/toolsets.

    It isi necessary to put in folder plugins bioformat_package.jar. You can download it from: 


    Restart ImageJ or Fiji,and select the "MRI Image Conversion Tools" toolset from the >> button of the ImageJ launcher.

    the *?* button opens this help page
    the Lif button runs the Lif2Tif conversion
    the Lsm button runs the Lsm2Tif conversion
    the Zvi button runs the Zvi2Tif conversion

    Best wishes,


  • Is there any adaptation of the protocol to detect phosphorylated proteins by immunofluorescence?

    I would like to detect a phosphorylated protein by immunofluorescence in skeletal muscle sections. Is there any adaptation of the protocol specific for phosphorylated proteins, use of phosphatase inhibitor or something else? A recommended protocol to use?

    Arthur Chandler Beall · Paine College

    If you looking at a known phosphoprotein of skeletal muscle there is likely phosphospecific antibodies to detect the protein and then just use a fluorescent secondary antibody. 

  • Which solvent is better to dissolve different solvent extracts for antimicrobial assay (Disc diffussion method) ?

    Hi, I am doing antibacterial activity of plant extracts (Methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water.). And I am using DMSO as solvent to dissolve extracts, but some extracts are not dissolving completely. Please, Can any one help me to solve this problem?

    Adam B Shapiro · AstraZeneca

    An extract dissolved in water can be sterilized by passing it through a sterile membrane filter.

  • Isa Dehghani added an answer in Abaqus:
    Is it necessary to use of 3D8R element in damage plasticity model in abaqus?

    I want to use of damage plasticity model in abaqus. when i use of 3D8R elements, the running complete easily, but when i use of 3D20R, abaqus cant solve the model.

    Is it necessary to use of 3D8R element in damage plasticity model in abaqus?

    Isa Dehghani · Yazd University

    Hi Nezisian

    Almost using from 3D8R elements in any FE software can led to higher speed of analysis but achieved accuracy from using of these elements is low. For fully damage plasticity Modelling we should use from other elements such as 3D20R. For using from these elements, thermo mechanical and metallurgical behaviors must be considered. If you use from simple models, it is not necessary to use from other elements if accuracy of results is not very important otherwise you must import mentioned behavior parameters in your analysis and then use from 3D20R elements.

  • Shivani Kachroo added an answer in Oral Cancer:
    What is the latest data on prevalence/incidence of oral cancer in India?
    The data available in most publications are from 2005 or earlier, was wondering if any one knew of a more recent dependable source?
    Shivani Kachroo · Delhi Technological University

    Mam as as per my information it is as following: 

    The age-adjusted incidence of oral cancer is highly variable in India and has been demonstrated by several studies. The population based cancer registry data, as well as the literature reviewed by Ken Rusell in 2012 demonstrated the nationwide incidence can be as high as 20 per 100,000 population, which varied considerably based on study designs, sampling methodology and case ascertainment, as well as by age, gender and location. Variations in age-specific incidence rates also increased with age, which drops at the age of seventy, a trend which is consistent in multiple studies from 1990 to 2012 (Ken Rusell 2012).

  • Is there a way to differentiate, using some staining, between porcine and bovine decellularized vein or artery?

    I cannot use antibody because there are no cells and I have to take over this project but the data is very confusing.

    Arthur Chandler Beall · Paine College

    Actually another way, if you have an analytic balance, is take the same amount of tissue from each sample. You can use Picrosirius Red in a quantitive photometer method to measure collagen and then use hot alkali  leaving just the elastin that you can measure the dry weight of elastin residue. That way you can calculate a collagen to elastin ratio to determine if artery or vein. 

  • Victor Palma added an answer in Desalination:
    What is best to use for SWRO, using 7 PV each one contains 6 membrane elements or using 6 PV each one contains 7 membrane elements?

    sea water desalination

    Victor Palma · Federal University of Rio de Janeiro

    You can simulate the two condittions using ROSA software and see which configuration is the best for your requirements

  • Rajagopal Appavu asked a question in Drug Delivery:
    Drug delivery Liposome?

    Which is the best Lipids (to make liposome) for Drug Delivery so far the Literature and Clinically?

  • Why do utilities perform state estimation rather than using the results of load flow analysis?

    State estimation and Load Flow.

    Morteza Shabanzadeh · Tarbiat Modares University

    Due to the lack of metering devices and probable imperfect measurements.

  • Hanglin Ye added an answer in FEM Simulation:
    Should stress-strain plot be independent of the integration point in FEM simulation (even in shear banding)?

    Dear all,

    This question has been confusing me for a while : when obtaining stress-strain plot from a certain integration point from FEM simulation, is it true that no matter what integration point we pick, the stress-strain plot should appear to be the same (or similar) ?

    If that is true, what about the stress-strain plot we obtain from shear banding simulation ? Since when shear band sets in, the material inside the band deforms at a different rate to those outside the band. Thus when the material inside the band undergoes loading, those outside the band is undergoing elastic unloading. Would stress-strain plot still be independent of integration point in this case?

    Thank you very much.

    Hanglin Ye · Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

    Thank you all very much for the reply.

    So based on all the replies,  can I conclude as follow : if the material is undergoing homogeneous deformation, it is possible to associate the stress-strain plot from one integration point to the whole specimen. If the material is undergoing in-homogeneous deformation, then it is likely that stress-strain plot differs from one integration to another, because of multiple reasons mentioned above.

  • Navid Rezapour added an answer in Lammps:
    Has anyone worked on predicting the thermal conductivity of bio-molecules using LAMMPS?

    I am working on topic to predict thermal conductivity of bio-molecule using Lammps. I have got read_data file with all angles and dihedrals. If somebody can provide the Lammps code for worked out problems like this that would be more helpful (apart from Lammps website examples).

    Navid Rezapour · Iran University of Science and Technology

    Hi Jaime,

    cannot open file amorf.dump

  • Justine Calise asked a question in Haploview:
    Who can help me with using Haploview for SNP analysis?

    I have 3 large files with case control data for various SNPs on my gene of interest. The files are in the format .bed, .bim, and .fam. Apparently Haploview only accepts .ped and .info files. Do I need to convert these? What is the best way to move forward with this?

  • What are the precise conditions required for the fictionalization of polyethylene glycol?

    I have been trying to functionalize polyethylene glycol but none of the reactions I tried worked. I tried to tosylate it in the presence of KI and Ag2O. I also tried to tosylate it in the presence of triethyl amine and both didn't work. Any suggestions? 

    Thank you in advance 

  • Ariel Linden added an answer in Logit:
    Why does logit regression fail when Log likelyhood is zero?

    Hi! I'm a novice at this, so please explain as if I were a kid. I receive results in a Logit regression where Log likelyhood is zero. What does this mean? Is the probability zero, or what?

    Ariel Linden · University of Michigan

    I suggest that you hire a statistician. It is unlikely that a peer-reviewer will not notice that you have longitudinal data and not using the correct model

  • Is anyone familiar with crop area estimation with Remote Sensing?

    With detail and without ground operations?

    Behrooz Arastoo · Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization

    Dear Yaseen 

    thanks a lot .what is your idea about unsupervised classification methods?

  • Johnathan James Clayborn asked a question in LinkedIn:
    What's an effective way to advertise about a new journal?

    There is a new journal that launched in December and we have received a handful of submissions through posting links to groups in LinkedIn. We're gearing up for our next issue and I'm hoping to draw more submissions. There are a plethora of other journals out there. Is there an effective way of getting the word out that we're open for submissions that I'm overlooking? 

  • Do teachers need parenting skills?

    Because I asked several teachers and they said it is a must to know basic parenting skills. Is there any articles related to such idea?

    Daryn Dyer · York University

    Stephanie, you are right, parents are the most important teachers their children will ever have. So anything they can learn that helps that cognitive development is important. 

  • Boris Klimovich asked a question in Co Transfection:
    Co-infection with 2 retroviruses: package separately or not?

    Dear colleagues,

    I am performing an infection of HSC with retroviruses (MSCV-based vector). According to paper I am reproducing, viruses are packaged separately and supernatants are mixed right before infection. HSC are quite difficult-to-infect cells, so when I mix two supernatants concentration of each one drops 2 times and this influences infection rate: it drops approx 2 times. What if I package 2 viruses simultaneously by co-transfection of 2 plasmids in packaging cells? Will it influence viruses somehow (recombination or anything else)? Thank you.

  • How do I calculate the ICV infusion dose for drugs published only with subcutaneous infusion?

    I want to use a drug that does not exist in the reference literature ICV infusion.

    Is there any way to do this?

    Jordi S Silvestre · Universitat Oberta de Catalunya

    The better way to 'deduce' a ICV is from knowing the effective concetration (e.g. IC50 or EC50) to the the target for this drug.

  • Sina Mousavi asked a question in Nafion 117:
    I'm in the middle of setting up a microbial fuel cell and my supervisor has told me to change it to a single chamber type, can anyone suggest how?

    At the moment as for materials I have a simple carbon cloth (with no catalyst and wet-proofing and I'm not able to afford any) and a nafion 117 membrane as a PEM. I used two simple laboratory bottles to set it up and now I have difficulties to convert my system to a single chamber MFC. So I would really appreciate any kind of help and suggestions.   

  • Rajagopal Appavu added an answer in Liposomes:
    How can I purify or isolate the different sizes of liposomes?

    I have gold nanoparticle encap. liposome in different sizes in the flask. Please let me know how I can purify those different size liposome and protocol please.


    Dear Frantiescoli Dimer, Many thanks for your reply. I will update you soon.

  • Michael Fischer added an answer in GaussView:
    Why does Gaussview open a whole unit cell from a CIF file while other software only visualise one molecule?

    When I open a CIF file in GaussView, I can see several molecules that form the unit cell. Opening the same CIF file in other pieces of software only visualises one molecule and draws the borders of the unit cell. On reading the file in a text editor I only see the coordinates for one molecule, so there is something that GaussView does to translate it across the unit cell.

    Any suggestions for an alternative software that could also do this whole unit cell visualisation? A collegue does not have access to GaussView, so a free option would be nice.

    Michael Fischer · Universität Bremen

    In my view, VESTA is the best option, also for framework structures like zeolites or MOFs. The visualisation is quite fast, at least for reasonably sized unit cells (I don't think I have ever tried using it for MOFs with huge unit cells > 50 Å for each direction).

    gdis could be an alternative that might be even more efficient for very large structures because the visualisation is a bit less sophisticated than VESTA (i.e. the pictures are not quite as nice). 

  • Maysa Ismail asked a question in Nurse's Role:
    Cvp prevention tool?

    cvp prevention methods

    nursing role 

  • Peter Buyoyu asked a question in Fungal Culture:
    Please could anyone help to describe this fungal for me?

    Dear Scientific community, I came across with this wonderful-looking fungal culture which i really need someone to give a mycological description for me. The fungal culture is attached.


    Peter Buyoyu

  • Henry E Young added an answer in Muscle:
    Is there evidence for non-satellite cell resident muscle progenitors?
    On ResearchGate, there has been a very collegial discussion about the role of satellite cells during muscle hypertrophy. A number of us also cited increasing evidence that non-satellite cells play a role as niche support cells and/or can directly participate in the myogenic lineage. So, hoping for a fruitful discussion, lets start to put this data together to see if it forms a coherent picture? Jump in.
    Henry E Young · Mercer University

    Dear Dr. Tamaki,

    I understand your concern. We had similar concerns as well. We initially discovered the markers using FACS analysis from the freshly isolated state. We then looked at cultured cells, both short term and long term, and finally in cryostat sectioned frozen material. In all instances they matched. 

    We also noted that if we induced the stem cells out of their uncommitted state into lineage commitment we would lose those particular cell surface markers but gain others in the process. For example, if we start with a totipotent stem cell with the CD66e+(human)/CEA+(non-human mammal) "fingerprint", as it differentiates it progresses through a series of cell surface markers denoting a transitional state between totipotent stem cells and pluripotent stem cells, i.e., CD66e+/CEA+ to CD66e+/CEA+/SSEA+/CD10+; to pluripotent stem cells, i.e., SSEA+/CD10+; to a transitional state between pluripotent stem cells and germ layer lineage stem cells, i.e., SSEA+/CD10+ to SSEA+/CD10+/CD90+/Thy-1+; to mesodermal stem cells having the Thy-1+/CD90+/CD13+ fingerprint.

    We also tested the differentiation potential of the cells with these particular cell surface marker profiles. The CD66e+/CEA+ (totipotent stem) cells could be induced to form 66/66 potential cell types across all three germ layer lineages as assessed by our inductive phenotypic expression/ELICA assay system.  The CD10+/SSEA+ (pluripotent stem) cells could be induced to form 63/66 possible cell types across all three germ layer lineages. Whereas the Thy-1+/CD90+/CD13+ (mesodermal stem) cells formed 37/66 possible cell types across only the mesodermal germ layer lineage.

    We also used different isolation paradigms to extract the cells from skeletal muscle as well as from other tissues, i.e., collagenase/dispase digest, collagenase digest, mincing followed by antibodies bound to magnetic beads in columns or panning, cryopreservation, Ficoll gradients, and differential centrifugation. 

    The above analyses were tested in both human cells and in cells from non-human mammals. 

  • Ariel Linden added an answer in Municipality:
    How can I improve audit outcomes and achieve clean audits in South African municipalities?

    For sometime now that South African municipalities have been struggling to achieve desirable audit outcomes. Then the question is "what is actually supposed to be done to ensure that these public institutions achieve as expected"?

    Ariel Linden · University of Michigan

    The idea is that if the municipalities were constantly under the threat of a surprise audit, they would need to ensure that they were audit ready. More over, it would discourage fraud and abuse, because it would be readily detected upon a surprise audit.

  • Yahya Al Naggar added an answer in Human Cell Lines:
    What is the best material for use as a human cell proliferation stimulant?

    i will test a new extract as  anti-proliferate to human cell line and  i need a proliferate stimulant? can anyone help?

    Yahya Al Naggar · University of Saskatchewan

    Thanks so much Prof. Divaker

  • What could be the mechanisms for vitamin D deficiency associated with radiation-induced intestinal injury ?

    In a prospective study on patients with pelvic malignancies undergoing pelvic radiotherapy, we found an association between vitamin D deficiency and severity of radiation induced proctitis. This association was independent from age, gender, cancer type, and BMI. What could be the mechanisms behind this association?

    Ali Gholamrezaei · Poursina Hakim Research Institution

    Dear All,

    I would like to inform you that our report on the association between vitamin D and radiation proctitis is no published by the Red journals:


  • Please guide me: what is different between nano particle deposition and film deposition in robust super hydrophobic fabric?

    please guide me: what is different between FluoroSiloxan Modified Silicone Nanoparticle Composite and film deposition by V4D4-L-PFDA ? Why is substrate temperature in 15-40 centimeter degree for poly ester fabrics in iCVD method?

    Saeedeh Kholghi · Amirkabir University of Technology

    thank you

    best regards

  • Whot method of Heavy Oil Recovery is most universal ?

    It all depends on the properties and geology of the particular Oil Deposit. Russkoe World Document uploaded on my personal RG site partially answers this question.

    Other participants may have different opinion. I hope to hear their voice.