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  • Confused with the selection of thesis topic. Can any one suggest me some good areas to work with?

    Though my major is Artificial Intelligence I love to work in Network security. Kindly help me with your suggestions

    Selvarajah Thuseethan · Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka

    Since you are interested in NS and as well as in AI I can suggest you a nice way to apply AI methods to NS. Here you can choose one of the followings;

    1. Intrusion Detection Systems Based on Artificial Intelligence Techniques (Use particular AI technique)
    2. Cyber defense using AI techniques
    3. Application of AI in cryptography
  • Juste Rajaonson added an answer in Smart City:
    What are the indicators of smart mobility?

    A concept of smart city still doesn't have a clear explanation. It can be different from different source. Is there any source have explain the concept until detail, include the indicators or the parameters in each characters(smart living, smart government, smart people,smart mobility,smart environment,smart economy)

    Juste Rajaonson · Université du Québec à Montréal

    Dear Alfa,

    I am not sure if the word "smart" means the same thing in the concepts you mentioned earlier (i.e. smart mobility, smart city, smart economy, smart governance, smart indicators, etc.). In my opinion, the best way to find out is: i) to perform a systemic literature review from research databases such as ScienceDirect or Google Scholar using selected keywords such as "smart mobility"or "smart city"; ii) to classify the relevant papers according to their respective theoretical background (e.g. smart = highly technologically connected; smart = strategic-driven approach; smart = Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Time-bound), and iii) to analyse quantitatively and qualitatively how "smart" is generally used. I hope this could help answering your question.



  • What's the ideal group size in teaching communication skills in nursing, using roleplay?

    - first year bachelor nursing students

    Richmond Querubin Acosta · Philippine Council for Health Research and Development

    At least 10 to 15. It is best if students can pair up to practice. One can be the patient and the other can be the nurse. While having mannequins is helpful in learning, nothing beats an actual insertion of IV cannula through the skin of a real person. 

  • Any online data source for download- on which various data mining algorithms can be performed?

    Datasource which is as well free of cost and permitted to download...

    Dr. Vaishali S. Parsania · Atmiya Institute Of Technology & Science

    Thanks Lalitha....

  • Yunzhou Li added an answer in microRNA:
    Is there a chemical inhibitor of Dicer?

    We need to inhibit ribonuclease Dicer to see whether miRNAs are functional.

    Thanks in advance..

    Yunzhou Li · Northwest A & F University

    I have using VIGS silencing Dicer2 and4, to understand the role in the plant defence (virus)

  • James Leigh added an answer in T3:
    Waht is the required sample size for my longtuidanl study?

    Currently I am conducting a prospective longitudinal study by collecting the data at three time points. There is no similar study among the studied group, but other study that is not also the same but might be helpful was conducted among other people in other country with different tools. I need to know what is the required sample size for this study, espcially that it wasting time and effort. I recruited till now 35 cases T2, next month I will start the data collection for T3. I tried to use the sample size calculator in some free sites but could not calculate it as the required data is not available to me. Can I use the current sample that I have to estimate the required sample size? or what I can do? 

    James Leigh · University of Sydney

    It depends on the size of the effect you are trying to measure , the   alpha level and the power required.

    you do not mention a control group or why you are collecting in 3 phases.

    If you are studying time evolution of some variable, you could use any effect found in the first 35 cases to get an idea of effect magnitude.

    the best source on this is Breslow and Day  Statistical Methods in Cancer Research vol 2  IARC 1987 publication  82

    Another useful book is Cancer Epidemiology Principles and Methods IARC 1999

  • Is there any work done by image security through wireless sensor network?

    Is there any work done by image security through wireless sensor network?

    Günter Fahrnberger · FernUniversität in Hagen


  • Juste Rajaonson added an answer in Tourism:
    I need assistance with research papers on green tourism if any?

    Focusing on factors that affect the adoption of green tourism practices.

    Juste Rajaonson · Université du Québec à Montréal

    Dear Kumbirai,

    Perhaps, you can take a look at Prof. Rachel Dodds' publications.



  • Patsy George asked a question in Well-Being:
    Can anyone tell me what is the best tool to measure employee well-being or just well-being?

    I am currently working on my dissertation and would like to know which measures are valid and reliable.

  • Is there a common proxy/index for measuring Corporate Governance in banks?

    I am wondering if there is an acceptable proxy/index in accounting & finance literature to measure CG in banks (or in general).

    Ravi Prakash Poudel · University of New England (Australia)

    You can develop CG index yourself on the ground of CG guidelines for bank.

  • Xinfu Gu added an answer in Electron Diffraction:
    What is the easiest way to identify the axis zone of a phase identified in a electron diffraction pattern SADP in TEM?

    I have successfully measured the spots in reciprocal space and have identified the crystallographic planes of the possible phase, but I can not clearly identify which axis zone is the diffraction on which I measured (with standard indexed DP of bcc, fcc and hcp crystals), there is some free software to generate patterns of various axes zone of the possible crystallographic phase?

    Thank you very much for your answers..

    Xinfu Gu · Tsinghua University

    Hi, you can start from here (https://www.tcd.ie/Physics/ultramicroscopy/teaching/PY5019/notes/IndexingDPs.pdf) for how to index a diffraction pattern. 

    To simulate DP of various zones, have a look at (1) https://sourceforge.net/projects/tclab/  (2) http://emaps.mrl.uiuc.edu/emaps.asp

  • Abdur Mirajkar added an answer in Volatile Oils:
    How to estimate the volatile oil content in oleoresins?

    how can we separate the oil part from oleoresin?

    Abdur Mirajkar · Pivotal Therapeutics Inc. Canada

    By  steam distillation or also known as hydro distillation .I have done this volatile oil content in cinnamon  oleoresin. Let me know if you would like to know about it.

  • How to find out the Curie temperature of iron oxide nanoparticles dispersed in water?

    hi. i am working on silica -coated MFe2O4 (M=Fe, Co, Mn, and Ni). i did measure the heating curves of my samples and now i want to measure the Curie temp. of all the silica coated samples.

    how can i measure and my particles sizes are 15, 15, 14 and 16 nm for FeFe2O4, CoFe2O4, MnFe2O4 and NiFe2O4.


    Yousaf iqbal

    Yousaf Iqbal · Kyungpook National University

    dear Malik Adnan

    This link is not on the server....

  • Ace Agustin asked a question in CROPWAT:
    In computation of ETo using CROPWAT, what parameter should I input under Sun (hours)? Is it the total hours of bright sunshine or length of the day?

    I want to compute ETo using CROPWAT and the only available data related to solar radiation from weather station are total hours of bright sunshine and length of the day.

  • Peter T Breuer added an answer in Ubuntu Linux:
    How to stream a video output on VLC player on Ubuntu using VGA camera with framegrabber and point to point connection setup?

    Hi all,

    I have a VGA camera which is connected to framegrabber and framegrabber then connected to host PC. Connetion is point to point and both are connected using ethernet cable. DHCP has not been used. In this setup, I got the static IP address which starts from 169.x.x.x but I am not able to stream using this same IP in VLC player. Please suggest me how to stream it on VLC.

    I am trying with rtsp://<IPaddress_of camera>:8554/stream

    But not able to get the actual stream.

    thanks in advance.



    Peter T Breuer · Birmingham City University

    Vlc works fine with rtsp, so the only questions for you are what IP address your camera has, what port it serves rtsp on, and if it does, and if it allows access from the IP address your host has.

    All those things should be within your control via the admin interface of the camera.

    Note that you will need the right video decoding libraries to support vlc. Try installing anything with the name of the encoding you are using in the name! "libavcodec" and friends are pretty well essential to have on board.

    Also go to vlc preferences -> input and codecs and set for rtp over rtsp, not http. Play around! Read the error messages from vlc on the command line and act accordingly. "main video output error: video output creation failed", for example is a pretty good indication that you need to configure a different video output driver (try "X11"! That must work!). 

    Provide us with some diagnostics (error messages) and we'll suggest some experiment to determine the cause and suggest a remedy.

    BTW, "554" is the/a standard port for rtp, not "8554".

  • Does man made ecosystem enhance invasion of unwanted species?

    Disturbed ecosystem restored  in the particular area showed invasion of new species. The new species are probable found common and unwanted species which spread over the area. For example these species are Parthinium spp, Lantena camara, Epatorium spp and Michenia spp. Does It?

  • Leah Garber asked a question in RGD:
    How do I couple rgd to alginate?

    I have tried coupling RGD to alginate by first dissolving 1% alginate(sigma bioreagent) in 6.5 MES buffer. I then took 1gram of the 1%alginate solution and added the EDS at 50mg/1g alginate then 25mg of sulfo-NHS. I added 10mg of RGD/1gram alginate. The coupling did not work as the morphology of the cells didn't change. Any advice/tips on getting this reaction to work? 

  • Abass Olaode added an answer in SIFT:
    How can I obtain the SIFT descriptors for an arbitrary point?

    Given an arbitrary point (x,y) in an image. Can I to obtain the 128-d SIFT descriptor for this point? How can I proceed to do this?

    Abass Olaode · University of Wollongong

    yes, you can obtain a SIFT descriptor for any chosen point within an image. all you need to do is skip the detection step, and implement the Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) at the chosen point.

  • Has anyone sources about the relationship between nursing and gender in history?

    I'm interested in the contextual construction and development of nursing through history. The specific context I am interested in  is gender and sexual differences and its modifications in occidental civilations.

    Richmond Querubin Acosta · Philippine Council for Health Research and Development

    In the first season of Heroes, I was thrilled to find out the Peter Petrelli was a nurse.

    In this line, I think in the West or at least in general male nurses are common in Emergency wards, disaster response teams, etc. That is just my personal opinion since when I apssed my RN license, Disaster and Emergency Response was among my first target for employment although I  eventually ended in a research funding agency.

    Anyway, here is a link to a Journal article about Men in Nursing in the US. Some of the sources used were from the 1970s to 1980s


  • Xiyao Long asked a question in Sampling:
    Question about converting fpkm back to reads that normalized by effective length?

    I'm trying to de-convolute the normalization methods and also their MLE algorithm used by cufflinks to get transcript level expression. My understanding is that FPKM normalize read counts by their effective length and library size (total reads). I'm interested in applying another method for normalizing for the library size of my samples as the samples have spike in. And I'm interested in applying the method to transcript level. So I'm thinking about restoring the library variance by simply multiplying the FPKM of each transcript with the library size of the sample. And then apply the normalization method in account of the library size. And by doing this I'm assuming that the MLE and effective length normalization is not conflicted by such practice. I'm just applying the single model in account of the library size which is the later method utilizing spike in. Am I right?

  • Trung Nghia added an answer in Gels:
    How much samples can I apply to a cation exchange column?


    I'm using Hitrap SP FF collumn (cation exchange collums) to purifiy PDGF. The collumn's details show binding capacity of some proteins: 

    70 mg Ribonuclease A/ml gel (Mw: 13 700 D)

    50 mg human IgG/ml gel (Mw: 160 000 D)

    50 mg Bovine COHb/ml gel (Mw: 69 000 D)

    Therefore, how much amount of samples can I apply maximum into Hitrap SP FF collumn? How can I configure out that amounts?

    *Collumn's volume is 5ml

    Thanks for you help!


    Trung Nghia · Ho Chi Minh City University of Science

    Thanks, Ravi.

    However, I don't know the capacity available of collumn for PDGF. I'm finding the answer.

  • Abdur Mirajkar added an answer in Distillation:
    Does any one knows which solvent should be used for the plant extract used in various antioxidant assays?

    respected sir/mam..i have been deeply troubled by one question and couldn't find any satisfying answer

    I am working on antioxidant activity of leaves.I have extracted the phenolic compounds by using aqueous Methanol.Now when i'm following the protocols for various antioxidant assays ,in some protocols dried plant extract is dissolved in distilled water and in some it is in alcohol, even for same assay..so my query is should be dissolved in Distilled water because phenolic compounds are insoluble in it or in alcohol where as in standard protocol it is dissolved in distilled water..what to do..please help...

    Abdur Mirajkar · Pivotal Therapeutics Inc. Canada

    Not all antioxidants are water soluble .You can use aqueous solution of ethanol or methanol to dissolve them. In case of phenolic antioxidants you may have use only alcohols .The protocol you are referring might be good for water soluble  antioxidants only. 

  • Yunzhou Li asked a question in RNA:
    Dicer gene or dicer-like protein,what is the function in the RNAi process or plant defence?

    Dicer is important in the RNA interence Process , and what is the functionality for the plant defense or RnA interfence ?   

  • Ningjun Duan asked a question in HaCaT:
    How to culture HaCat cell well?

    I want to culture HaCat cell for some experience, But the condition of the cell is not well. I want to know some skills and suggestions for this cell. Thanks a lot.

  • Are there any literatures which show effect of NP fertilizer on alpine meadow ecosystem?

    Is there any modeling used in this field?

    Digambar Singh Dahal · Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Thank you very much Juha.

  • Is anyone familiar with Autism and Epilepsy, effectiveness of CBT?

    How effective is CBT for autistic characteristics in epilepsy if the ability to self-reflect is impaired?

    Sohoo Mujeeb ur Rehman · PMAS - Arid Agriculture University

    With Kind Regards,

    Thanks to everyone working in the field of Neurosciences, Neurogenesis and reserve for the welfare of mankind.

    Autism and  Epilepsy- Differences >  Brain - Anatomy- Histology- Physiology, Pathology, Molecular- Genetics. Nutrition / Many causes.

    Kind Regards, 

    Mujeeb ur Rehman Sohoo,


  • What is the scientific explanation of fish rain as it's happening in Thailand?

    Please can you give me a scientific prove with regards to fish rain as happened recently in. Thailand 

    K.H.M. Ashoka Deepananda · University of Ruhuna

    This is due to waterspouts and found several occasions in my country. I wrote a small article on this and hope this useful. Read the article (Raining Fish) in this newsletter attached.

  • Yuan Lee added an answer in Rat Models:
    Does anyone have good rat cortex neuronal culture protocol?

    Dear all,

    We are trying to obtain rat cortex neuronal (pyramidal) cell culture with no success so far. We currently use P1-3 rat pups and procedure is as follows:

    Decapitation ->

    Decapitated head immediately placed into 96% EtOH @RT for ~5sec. ->

    Then head is immediately transferred to ice cold dissection media (PBS with glucose and pen/strept) and brain is removed (procedure takes 2-3 min)->

    Brain then placed to fresh ice cold dissection media and cerebellum, olfactory bulbs, meninges and etc. are removed this takes ~8 min. (per brain). ->

    Cortex then is transferred to the fresh ice cold dissection media and is finely (~1x1 mm) chopped with the scalpel blade (takes ~2 min) ->

    Pieces of cortex then collected and transferred to the preheated (37 C) Versene media, gently mixed and incubated 5 min in 37 C gently mixing the solution every 1 min. -> 

    After Incubation with Versene 2 different diameter fire polished Pasteur pipets are used for trituration still in 5 mL of Versene solution (this procedure additionally takes ~5 min.) ->

    After trituration 5 mL of ice cold growth media (Neurobasal-A supplemented with B27, L-Glutamine, FBS and Pen/Strept) is added to the cell suspension and mixed to deactivate Versene. ->

    To wash cells of Versene, suspension is then centrifuged 250 x g @4C and supernatant then removed. ->

    Cells then are resuspended in 5 mL of ice cold growth media and transfered to the new tube through cell strainer. ->

    Cells are counted in the Neubauer chamber, yield of live cells is normally 1-2*106 cells/mL ->

    Finally cells are placed on laminin and poly-L-lysine pretreated 24x24 cover-slips (concentration is 5*105 cells/mL) and grown at 37C 5% CO2 incubator. ->

    Next day after procedure half of growth medium is replaced with preheated fresh growth media. Same procedure is performed later every 3 days.

    So the question is: We get lots of glia (that we once were suppresing by AraC, but do not do it anymore) but only few if at all live neurons, so does anyone have any suggestions what is wrong with our protocol or what can be improved, or maybe by any chance you do have another protocol that would work for you and that you could share with us? Thank you in advance.

    Yuan Lee · Sun Yat-Sen University

    Thanks a lot ,Enrico Marani.  I get it ~~