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  • Eduardo oliva-lópez added an answer in Kaizen
    In the current era, is kaizen still a relevant approach to organizational life?

    While kaizen has been a pervasive phenomenon that guides the organization’s approach to daily tasks and existence over the longer-term, the oft-reported lackluster performance of the Japanese economy has inevitably resulted in questioning the real effectiveness of kaizen as the underpinning, custodial philosophy of Japanese industry.

    Eduardo oliva-lópez · National Polytechnic Institute

    I very much agree with Nageswara's answer. So much so, that would also invite you to recall some of our wise family ancestors who, not only taught us that life SHOULD be a continuous improvement of ourselves but, they went as far as to show to the whole family that they could do it. Of course, they never heard the word Kaizen. 

  • Can regulation of microfinance institutions help in achieving their twin objectives?

    Instead of theoretical importance, prominent studies across the countries and some individual country cases do not support the role of regulation in terms of higher outreach and operational self-sustainability. When the impact was decomposed into capitalization of MFIs, government intervention and interactive effect even no influence was observed. I wonder how some researchers preaching the positive impact and  claim magical solution of poverty by institutionalizing MFIs?

    Upananda Witta Arachchilage · Wayamba University of Sri lanka

    Dear Mark,

     I agree with you on reactive response to abuse. Similarly, regulations serve as an institutions to reduce uncertainty and transaction cost. while regulation could reduce uncertainty under question it could increase the transaction cost. Observations, which provide evidence on negative effect of regulation, could be higher be higher transaction cost emanated from those regulations.


  • Thomas Schwarz added an answer in Sodium Azide
    Sodium azide as an alternative to stripping

    I want to reprobe my blot but don't want to strip unless I have to (so as to avoid losing protein - when I strip I use the pH2.5 glycine method which is supposed to be the preferred method for retaining protein but isn't necessarily the best for thoroughly removing antibodies).

    I *know* I can use sodium azide to inactivate out HRP reporters and would prefer to do that whenever possible (I know to use this method you must have primary antibodies produced in different species) however I'm not sure what percentage sodium azide to use. I've seen 10% which seems unbelievably high. I was thinking 0.5-1% would probably do the trick but I was wondering if anyone knew for sure.

    If anyone has experience or a recipe (especially if there's more to it than just dH2O and sodium azide) I would really appreciate it!

  • In Postgraduate studies full time VS part time any difference in the outcome and quality?

    does part time studies produce less quality

    Ljubomir Jacić · Technical College Požarevac

    Maybe this research on The Part-Time Doctoral Student Experience may give a new light on this issue! There are good comparisons in this research,  "this study explored the experiences of 10 part-time doctoral students in different disciplines through semi-structured interviews"!

  • Artur Burzynski added an answer in Buffer
    TE Buffer vs Phosphate Buffer in DNA dilution.

    Would it make any trouble if I we use phosphate buffer instead of TE buffer in diluting Nucleic acids?

    If I am correct, phosphate buffer is used typically to maintain the viability of live cells. On the other hand, TE buffer preserves the integrity of DNA samples. 

  • Multiple Regression

    I have an outcome divided in three categories and the determinant in tertiles, and I would like to perform a multiple regression analysis.

    Can you explain me please how to interpret and present the results?

    Andrew Ekstrom · University of Michigan

    What Patrick is getting at is; suppose that you have data that ranges from 0 to 100. If you break this group into quantiles, say 4, you just decided that there IS a difference between a '23' and a '26'. But, there is NO DIFFERENCE between '2' and '23'. If this idea is true, then carry on with our blessing. If not, you should rethink what it is you want to do. 

  • Is "whole genome sequencing" useful for soil metagenome analysis?

    I want to evaluate microbial diversity of soil sample with metagenomics. Is the "whole genome sequencing " useful for this purpose?

    Anirban Dutta · Tata Research Development and Design Centre

    If you only want to estimate the microbial diversity, use of 16S amplicon sequencing (with NGS) is recommended. Later, tools like MOTHUR or RDP classifier can be used for identifying the taxonomic groups present. Going for whole genome sequencing will cost you a lot more... and is not recommended unless you want to elucidate the functional diversity too...

  • What are the current research trends in application of Graphene in Lithium Ion Batteries?

    The question pertains to the exploration of synergistic effects between Graphene and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles for Anode material of Lithium Ion Batteries. What are the current challenges being faced in this regard?

  • Is there any control mechanism or a chance of mutations in a virus (animal) outside a host? Are there any patterns in the outbreaks of viral diseases?

    We knew how nature selection works within the host but, regarding this question? Please do elaborate in the view point of “Role and Mechanism (if any) of natural selection in viral evolution, outside the host”.

    Jalil Zorriehzahra · Iranian Fisheries Research Organization

    Climate change has an important role in viral diseases outbreak. Some important ecological environment factors were changed continuously and this fact  was approved that temperature is the most important environmental factor that can affecting on the severity of disease in fish. So, there is a global increase in emerging diseases of fish and shrimp in the world. In fact, melting ice and snow, more violent weather, droughts and floods, ecosystem disruption, sea level rise totally effected on morbidity, mortality rate, prevalence, incidence, species affected,  disappearance and reappearance of few infectious disease in Aquatic animal. So new emerging and re-merging diseases are increasing in wild and farmed aquatic population.

  • Michael Cheng asked a question in Solution
    Do aqueous solutions of strongly hygroscopic salts continue to hydrate over time?

    For example, our lab has been experiencing problems with dry Lithium Bromide taking on water mass when we work with it. If we make a highly concentrated solution of this salt as a stock solution, will it continue to attract water from the atmosphere and thus become more dilute over time? 

  • Robert John Loughnane asked a question in Cyanide
    L-type doubling

    Does l-type doubling affect the lowest bending vibrations in small molecules such as the linear rotor HC5N (v11=1) or the symmetric top methyl cyanide, CH3CN (v8=1)?

  • Andrew Ekstrom added an answer in SPSS
    How does one carry out Response Surface Methodology in SPSS?

    I tried it using SPSS syntax, but I could not deduce the outcome

    Andrew Ekstrom · University of Michigan

    SPSS does not have a defined "Response Surface" analysis capability. If you put your data with the levels you tested into SPSS, you can recreate the coefficients for you model. However, SPSS will think that your factors are highly correlated with each other. So, using SPSS with actual levels will give you a different/false final model. To get around this, you need to go back and code your variables the way Design Expert, Minitab, JMP or Umetrics would do. 

    Suppose that you tested temperatures of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250. To code these variables like how the software above would do it, you need to recode the levels as, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2. Using SPSS on this data will give you the correct model but the coefficients will be wrong. 

    Most of the time, after you create your final model, you want to "optimize" it somehow. SPSS does not have this option. I would save myself some time and headache and just use Design Expert or JMP. 

  • What is the difference between crystal size and particle size?

    From powder x-ray diffraction, some of the peoples are calculating crystal size using sherror formula.  The results are noway related to unit cell size or single crystal or particle size.  What is meant by crystal size ? Is it means unit cell size or particle size.

    Sergey P Bogdanov · Saint Petersburg State Institute of Technology (Technical University)

    The Scherrer equation shows the relationship of the size of the coherently diffracting domains (crystallite size) and width of reflex. Almost every crystal has defects. Dislocation can share crystal on the coherently diffracting domains (crystallites). Using Scherrer equation you can find the size of these regions in the crystal. Small crystals can be without dislocation, then the crystallite size coincides with the size of the crystal.

    It is very important that in the Sherrer formula it is necessary to set the width of the reflex is caused only by the size of the crystallites. The width of the actual reflex on the x-ray diffractogram due not only to the size of the crystallites, but other effects. Reflexes become wider due to the device design, the nature of the radiation, stresses in the crystal lattice and other. Therefore, for the correct use of the sherrer equation it is necessary to select from the whole width of the reflex only the desired portion.

  • Why do people representing all faiths and creeds assert that the 'ancient origins' of belief systems give them credibility?

    There seems to be a universal view that because a set of beliefs, literature or civilisation itself is ancient that it has a moral and sometimes even scientific authority.

    For example ancient medical systems still influence treatment regimes when they are based on little but superstition and 'magic'. 

    What is it in the human psyche that leads anyone to assert that a belief system has authority simply because it is 'ancient'?

    Nageswara Rao Posinasetti · University of Northern Iowa

    Dear Barry
    I cannot argue about other fads such as faith healing, or whatever you may call, but some of the ancient medical practices have been proven probably based on tests that were carried at that point of time. We may not like to equate those with the current day science, but they were effective in their ways for many of the common ailments. As a result they are practiced even today. Some of these are not based on “superstition” and 'magic'. So trying to link all of them to a single denominator is what I am objecting. There may be some which are “superstition” and 'magic' but not all are based on faith alone. Like for example some of the medicinal practices are evolving continuously based on the knowledge gained.

  • How do you prevent bleeding from a pancreatico-gastrostomy after a pancreaticoduodenectomy?

    We had begun to perform a pancreatico-gastrostomy (in the posterior wall of the stomach) after a formal pancreatico-duodenectomy in case of soft pancreatic remnant with narrow Wirsung duct. The incidence of fistulas was low, but we experience too many bleeding (in most cases severe).

    Dimitrios Ntourakis · CHRU de Strasbourg

    It is necessary to control the two pancreatic transverse arteries with non resorbable monofilament full thickness figure of eight sutures (like Prolene 2/0). Then every bleeder on the pancreatic stump is meticulously controlled with figure of eight non resorbable stitches, as the use of coagulation may be a bit risky. The patient is kept on PPI during the postoperative course.

    Here is a link for a video at the website of the French Surgical Assosiation (AFC) of a pancreatogastrostomy performed by prof.Bachellier. I hope it helps.

  • Francinaldo Silva asked a question in Beetles
    How to determine the age of adult beetles based on their morphological aspects?

    I need a protocol for determining the age of beetles based on their morphological structures such as wings, labro, etc.

  • Does anybody know some important criteria in supplier selection besides price and quality?

    What are the most important attributes (besides quality and price) in dealing with the supplier selection problem?

    Hi, this classic paper by Peter Kraljic can be a very inspiring reading about the subject: 


  • Hüseyin Demirtaş added an answer in Microholes
    Is it ok to polish the workpiece before microEDM?

    We are drilling microholes on a 5mm thick material. Is it ok to polish the workpiece before microdrilling? Does the dielectric (deionised water/oil) used in microEDM affect the polishing?

    Hüseyin Demirtaş · Karabuk University

    I think, it can change according to your sample's hardness (or maybe parts for composite), but generally it doesn't affect, (for electron microscope if you don't use very high magnification).

  • Michael B LoMonaco added an answer in Turbidity
    Can anybody tell me what´s wrong with my cell culture?

    I started to see the artefacts inside the red circles one week ago in the culture of human colon cancer cells (ATTC: HTB-38) in DMEM+FBS+Antibiotics (90%+10%+Amp/Strep, 37°C, 5% CO2). The cell line has only 6 passages. The medium doesnt show color changes or turbidity. I would like to know if this culture it is contaminated or the cells are beginning apoptosis. 

    Michael B LoMonaco · University of Rochester

    It's difficult to tell from these images.  Could these be cells migrating away from the colonies?

  • Florin Babarada added an answer in MOSFET
    Can MOSFETs be used without shorting the source to the substrate?

    Can MOSFETs be used without shorting the source to the substrate. More specifically can an enhancement type n-MOSFET be used as a switch between the source and drain with the substrate and the gate acting as separate channel formation terminals?

    Florin Babarada · Polytechnic University of Bucharest

    Yes by example the vertical field given by polarisation of Gate-Substrate terminals will control the channel conduction (enhancement) and Drain and Source will act as switching terminals.

  • How many participant-observations are enough to achieve saturation?
    There are couple of studies which discussed possible number of interviews to achieve saturation in data; however, I am interested in knowing the number of participant-observations needed for this purpose.
    Upananda Witta Arachchilage · Wayamba University of Sri lanka

    Dear Joseph,

    In majority qualitative research, sampling is theoretical on which argument your are attempting to address your research question. Hence generalization is inherently been threatened unless your approach is theory building (Eisenhadt, 1989; Eisenhardt and Graebner, 2007).

  • Roya dp added an answer in PCR

    a few months ago i got my pcr product, but now I cant repeat it with the same DNA and the same pcr instruction . there are a lot of non specific bands in my pcr product and i cant remove them with changing instruction !!!

    what can i do now ??

    Roya dp · Shahrekord University

    but I did it before and im sure my components are not contaminated.

    thanks every body for helping me .Im still looking for new idea that can help me 

  • Bojana Hočevar Posavec added an answer in SLT
    How do you best evaluate nurse’s knowledge of dysphagia by quantitative research?

    In my masters thesis I am evaluating nurse’s knowledge of dysphagia. I would like to discover where the main problems (lack of knowledge) are and develop a standard to help them and make a patient care safer. In my questioner I included assessment of nursing practice, professional training and academic knowledge. Unfortunately I haven’t found any similar study to compare it with and so I have developed my own questioner. Has anyone evaluated nurse’s knowledge of dysphagia? In our hospitals SLT (Speech Pathologists/Therapists) are included after nurses perform the patient evaluation. If you have any information about any study I would appreciate it.

    Bojana Hočevar Posavec · University Rehabilitation Institute

    Thank you Carol, the article was helpful. I am so happy you visited Slovenia. It was a big surprise to hear that you know my country and I am glad you liked it. I hope you will visit us again.

    Walter I totally agree with you, but unfortunately SLPs have too much work (and we don’t have enough of them) and we nurses are the ones feeding the patient in hospitals or nursing homes. If we don’t see the signs, do the screening, test and then talk to the doctor and SLP, the patients would be hungry. In my hospital the nurses do the swallowing test as I described earlier.

    Mildred thank you for the info. How can I contact DeFilips and Leaton and find out witch questioner did they use to evaluate nurses knowledge. Maybe they would be interested in making international comparison. I came up with my own questioner and I am in the process of making a pilot survey now.

  • James J Coyle added an answer in Fortran
    Apart from a simplified model, what other modelling factors lead to higher CPU efficiency for a given workstation?

    I developed a FORTRAN based model for the heating and evaporation of multi-component (automotive fuel) droplets. When replacing the large number (100s) of components with smaller representative number of components, the CPU time will decrease significantly. For a given PC, what other factors apart from the format of the written code, routines, subroutines, syntax ..etc., can increase the CPU efficiency of the model?

    James J Coyle · Iowa State University


    Yes, you are correct, he did say for a given PC.

    In that case, I would try a different compiler.  Perhaps the Intel compiler at high optimization, and make sure he has not turned on run-time checks.  Padding of common blocks to avoid mis-alignments, and enabling inter-procedural analysis  can sometimes also help, especially if the entire source is compiled withing one file, as this may allow inlining of routines.

    I would also make sure to link in vendor high performance libraries, like Intel's MKL.

  • Is professional burnout a mechanism of psychological defense or depersonalization, leading to reduced quality of life?
    Fear and stress give rise to slavery. Absence of tangible reward (financial and psychological), nepotism, low salary, human rights violations, absence of perspectives of professional development, mental and physical stress cause Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (asthenia of exhaustion) and emotional burnout (Freudenberger, 1974). It's characteristic of "human-to human" professions. I face these problems in adult auditorium. Is it possible and how to ensure effectiveness of professional activity, to support a high level of functionality, to protect human health?
    Francesca Cansani · University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland

    I think that Familiar BurnOut is Something, and the Indian Hindu due Dowry is a Cause of possible Distress, while Arabo Islamic Culture foresee the Dowry by the Man for the Woman, [while BurOut comes as soon as People are involved, in a Relation: the unwished Wife/Husband, nasty Relatives, Parents and Parents-in-Law in severe Need of CareGiving, (...), too many Children + Husband/Wife to deal with, (...)],

    while the Working BurnOut is Something else, and depends on the Load of Work one has, and especially when working directly with People, involving a strict Relation [CareGiving], and involving strong Emotions that one must deal with and be able to deal with [when one feels healthy and strong, that's easier; when one feels almost ill and is weaker (for any Kind of Reasons, might be External Reasons, such as the Working Atmosphere among Professionals, or Salary Problems, or Familiar Problems which have Effects on one's Cognition/Psyche/Body)].

    The World of Work Today is Crazy: too Little Work for certain People, who are Jobless and Cannot Selfactualize, and too Much Work for certain other People, who often become Addicted [Drugs or other Compulsive Behaviours].

    Working Times which make No Sense, and very Little Consideration for Efficiency [who, when, how much/for how long, ...], Mental and Physical Rigidity, Priviledges versus Discriminations, Classism versus Slavery, Senseless Overproduction, Waste, Pollution, Unsustainability, and Vicious Tenets behind one's Job [instead of Virtous Tenets, such as working ''for the Benefit of Every1" and for the Sake of, or in the Name of, ''Equanimity''].


    BurnOut and Distress might be vey well ... Healthy Messages/Signs ... from Indivuals, that Something is being Managed in the Wrong Way [what's Wrong/Right? I think, Wrong is Vicious (see 7 Capital Sins) and Right is Virtous (see Dharma: for the Benefit of Every1, and in favour of Equanimity)].


    Solarity and Inner/Outer Light to Every1, or Delight [''the Light''] to Every1.

  • Could I use PCl3 combined HClSO3 for chlorosulfonation?

    I found a paper which PCl5 combined HClSO3H for chlorosulfonation process. But I have PCl3, can I use it?

    Thank you

    Yalagala Ravi shekar · Brock University

    It seems you wants to chlorinate either R-OH or R-COOH.

    Thionly chloride, PPH3-CCl4, Cl3CCONH2/PPh3 

  • Andrzej Lasia added an answer in pH meter
    In pH-meter does the glass electrode acts as anode or cathode?

    If it is acting as cathode then why?

    Andrzej Lasia · Université de Sherbrooke

    Terms anode and cathode are related to the oxidationand reduction reactions. At glass electrode there are no red-ox reactions and its mechanism is based on the ion exchange reaction. There is very low current circulating in the cuircuit (of the order of pA) but without red-ox reaction at this electrode.

  • Can we minimize social loafing in groups?
    Social loafing refers to the tendency of some members of the group to exert less effort than others. This tendency encourages other members to match the group's behavior, and as a result, the team output would be less productive.
    To minimize social loafing, can managers focus on recognizing the contributions and accomplishments of group members?
    Hanno Krieger · Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen

    Dear Mahfuz,

    you are right, but how to control it?

  • Khalid Ferji added an answer in Polymer Brushes
    What factors effect the ATRP Process?
    I am trying to do ATRP for the purpose of making brushes on it. For this I have been using chloride end monomer and CuBr and PMDETA as ligand but didn't observe change in the weight of the polymer on which brushes have to be grown.

    Do halogen group and catalyst have to be same means having same halogen atoms?

    Kindly elaborate / guide me regarding this problem.
    Khalid Ferji · Université du Maine

    Your system is a special case of ATRP polymerization, i suggest this paper for additional information:

    Matyjaszewski, K. And coll. Mechanism of halogen exchange in ATRP. Macromolecules 2011, 44, 7546-7557

  • Thomas Schwarz added an answer in Genome Editing
    Plasmid that can express both Cas9 and gRNA for bacteral genome editing

    The two Marraffini Lab CRISPR Plasmids for bactera genome editing have a spacer cloning site, just wondering why you need two spacers. Do you know if there is a plasmid that can express both Cas9 and gRNA?