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  • Aayush Gupta added an answer in Thermochemistry:
    Any coefficients of heat capacity from a single source for thermodynamic study of phase transition(otherwise it is useless)?

    I need the values heat capacity coefficients for C, H2, Mg, MgO, H2O, CO and CO2 from single source because these values change from 1 source to another source.

    I got one reference https://books.google.co.in/books?id=zDdRAAAAMAAJ&q=%F4%80%80%8DO.+Kubaschewski,+C.B.+Alcock+and+R.J+Spencer;+%F4%80%82%94Materials+Thermochemistry,+6th+edition,+pergamon+press,+oxford,+1993.&dq=%F4%80%80%8DO.+Kubaschewski,+C.B.+Alcock+and+R.J+Spencer;+%F4%80%82%94Materials+Thermochemistry,+6th+edition,+pergamon+press,+oxford,+1993.&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CCYQ6AEwAmoVChMIl5Gf-8SpyAIVDxiOCh118gNe

    But it is not available for reading on google. Can anyone suggest me any available book for this purpose?

    Aayush Gupta

    Mr. Carlos, the mentioned reference is not available online even on googlebooks. and the values of coefficients differ from source to source, one should take care in adopting the values from single source.

    Do you have this reference?

  • Abdul aziz Jaafar added an answer in FLUENT:
    While doing CFD analysis using Fluent for unsteady 2D flow past cylinder I m getting very low values of lift coefficient.How to correct it?


    have checked common areas of concern like 

    1) Reference values.

    2) Mesh quality.

    I m getting drag values spot on but i dnt know what is issue with lift coefficient

    Abdul aziz Jaafar

    Dear Sagar

    I think you have done a good job if able to see converge solution.  The flow around a cylinder is one of diffult engineering problem and people is still working on this problem until now as if it never ends..

    If the cylinder is a rigid body and does not rotate along its axis.. and the flow is incompressible I would guess that the pressure distribution on the upper and lower surfaces  would be nearly symmetry and the value may be close to zero


  • Dibyajyoti Chutia added an answer in Model Maker:
    ?can any body help me to do change vector analysis and image ratioing?

    I am using Landsat images for LULC changes. I want to apply change detection technique like change vector analysis and image rationing for this land use change analysis.I am tried to do image rationing in ERDAS model maker but it always shows division by zero is undefined.  I have no idea regarding these methods. Which software is used for this analysis? what are the methods for doing these analysis? 

    Dibyajyoti Chutia


    You can use AutoSync module of ERDAS IMAGINE. 

  • Brian P Chaplin added an answer in Ozonation:
    How do surface OH groups on the metal oxides catalyst can be quantitatively determined? Anyone know a reliable and easy method.

    I fabricated Mn-Oxides with SiO2 as a composite to use for catalytic ozonation. surface Oh groups play an important role in this kind of catalysis. can anyone suggest me a reliable method to quantify them. i read many papers but so complicated and no detail about procedure. so i need a clear procedure.

    Brian P Chaplin

    XPS coupled with Boehm titration.

  • Vishal Singh added an answer in Educational Policy:
    What changes in education policy related to technology do you think are necessary to fully embrace its potential for learning?

    In the US at least - we are somewhat hampered by policy related mandates on what should be taught and how it should be taught and assessed. This inhibits the integration of technology for many of the high impact practices that theory would lead us to believe will make a large difference in student learning. What changes do you think need to be put in place to change the current architecture in such a way to afford better technology-mediated/integrated learning? I would love to hear not just about changes to US policy - but also policies that other countries have put in place that are making a difference with respect to the use of technology in the classroom.

    Vishal Singh

    Dear Kimberly,

    Technology play significant role these days in education policy due to change in students learning behaviour. Technology is essential to be use in a right set of manner which should integrate with teaching pedagogy and tutor persona which will enable quality instruction to students.

  • Shama Mujawar asked a question in NCBI:
    Hey friends registered for NCBI Next Generation Sequencing workshop?

    Online workshop for first 1000 participants starting on 13th October..... go for it you may be the lucky one

  • Bhargav Prajwal Pathri asked a question in Regression Analysis:
    Can anyone explain be briefly what is the significance of F-test in Regression analysis

    I have been trying to establish relation between dependent and independent variable for that i have used regression analysis and checked its relation using R2 value. But i also want to validate with F-test.

  • Lucky Z Maulana asked a question in Magnetic Materials:
    Could you give me an advice(journal/data sheet/hand book) about optical constant value of Ni-Fe in 632.8 nm?

    I would like to investigate optical/dielectric constant of several magnetic material including Ni-Fe alloy in single wave length (He-Ne laser), but i don't have any reference about that,

    if you have any idea about that, please give me an advice, thanks

  • Irshad Samdani Mujawar asked a question in Packages:
    What are the tools and packages/softwares available for probabilistic knowledge structure?


    I am currently using "pks" -an R package for fitting the basic linear independent model for given knowledge structure. Does anyone know any other package/ software except "kst" and "DAKS" which has more features?

    It need not be an R package. It can be be any other software or a library.

    Thank you in advance. :)

  • Shailendra kumar Pandey asked a question in Electrochemical Analysis:
    What is the best method to Deposit Graphene oxide or graphene sheet over ITO for electrochemical application ?

    I want to deposit the graphene oxide(GO) over ITO plates, i used the GO dispersed solution in water and drop casted over ITO and dried in desiccator . But using this in electrochemical analysis i found the film is some how disturbed .

     Please suggest me the better way to apppy graphene oxide over ITO. I am also thinking about spin coating or sol gel method , is it good one.

  • Janmejaya Nanda asked a question in SimMechanics:
    How can I find ground reaction force acting on Hexapod leg in Matlab Simmechanics?

    Hi..Everyone...I am designing a Hexapod model in Simmechanics. on which I  am going to test a joint trajectory controller(dynamic Movement Primitive).

    I need to know how can I design different(plain/inclined) terrain & how can i get GRF acting on each leg in simmechanics. 

    I am looking for any book/chapter which can give me an Idea about it. 

  • Asdam Tambusay added an answer in Abaqus:
    Is there any publication that contains the complete modeling procedure of cyclic loading analysis by using ABAQUS (whether Explicit or Implicit)?

    Dear Researchers.

    I am currently modeling the behavior of concrete structure under cyclic loading test by using ABAQUS. I am sort of confused regarding the proper modeling technique in order to predict the appropriate behavior of the specimen model. Maybe some of you have the knowledge about the case that I've been struggling with?

    Thank You and Regards

    Asdam Tambusay

    Hi Mr. Kong

    Thank you for your answer. What's the name of Chinese Concrete Structure Design Code?

    Actually, I have defined the damage evolution for CDP based on the several journals. In my sensitivity simulation, I found that Viscosity Parameter significantly affect the form of hysteresis loop. Do you have any reference related to that parameters? 

  • Hasan Tariq added an answer in Steel:
    How can I specify acceptance strains of concrete and steel materials for immediate occupancy, life safety and collapse prevention levels?

    How can I specify Acceptance strains of concrete and steel materials for Immediate Occupancy (IO),Life Safety (LS) and Collapse Prevention (CP) levels in Nonlinear Analysis?

    Hasan Tariq

    You can check the acceptance of your members rather material because your section is a combination of composite materials (concrete and steel ) and curvature diagram will explain you the section behavior and  external end rotations can be calculated subsequently ,similarly the acceptance criteria can be checked  as specified by ASCE and the material strains are related to the end rotations by integrating the area over the length of the member  so in short you caliberate your material or member behavior  and specify the strains accordingly .Moreover the limit states define the physical meaning of the number in the numerical analysis .You can follow ASCE or FEMA .


  • Jagalingam P asked a question in Algorithms:
    To Process the quality metrics of RMSE and CC, we need a reference image and processed image?

    I used a satellite image, and applied  enhancement algorithm, In-order to see the performance of algorithm, i like to use quality metrics such as RMSE and CC. To process this algorithm need two input image, one processed image, and reference image. How can i get reference image. 

  • Fangfang Qi added an answer in Dura Mater:
    Anyone familiar with the immunofluorescence staining of MHC-II in dura mater?

    Hi, all. I am staining of MHC-II-postive cells in the dura mater of mouse. I find that the MHC-II-postive cells contain two cell morphology, the rounded and the branched, please see the green cells in the figure of attachment. I think the cells contain lymphocyte and macrophages. But now i would like to distinguish the two types of cells using different immune makers? Anybody can tell me?

    Thank you very much!

    Best regards,

    Fangfang Qi

    Fangfang Qi

    Thank you very much! I could search the European Journal of Immunology.

  • Ali A R Aldallal added an answer in Ulcer:
    What is the effect of collagen on diabetic ulcers?

    what is the effect of collagen on diabetic ulcers?

    Ali A R Aldallal

    Collagen-containing wound dressings have been used in the treatment of diabetes-related foot ulcers (DFU). Collagen components, such as fibroblast and keratinocytes, are a major part of skin development. Collagen may be harvested from a variety of sources including living and nonliving bovine, porcine, and equine skin. Once harvested (via a proprietary process), a native collagen bioscaffold matrix is created that stabilizes the vascular and cellar components, which become incorporated into the wound bed.1 Preliminary findings suggest that collagen-containing wound dressings may have several advantageous features. Cullen et al2 reported the findings from the testing of an oxygenized regenerated cellulose (ORC)/collagen dressing. After use of the ORC/collagen dressing, researchers analyzed wound fluid and found a significant decrease in collagenase-like activity; gelatinase, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 levels; and increased scavenged free radicals and binding of growth factors.For more please at the following link, its free paper.


  • Fang Wichii asked a question in Corrosion:
    Do you have any idea about standard of corrosion rate for SA210?

    Dear all,

    I have measured thickness of economizer tubes (SA 210) for yearly record, but I have no idea about corrosion rate of them. So, I would like to know that what is the allowable corrosion rate (min and max acceptable range), and which standard it is referred to?

  • K. Sreenivas added an answer in Acoustic Resonance:
    Please tell me,How piezoelectric Zno thin film works?

    I want to deposit piezoelectric Zno thin film for high overtone bulk acoustic resonator.

    K. Sreenivas

    You have to deposit thick ZnO films, and the thickness should be accordingly to the frequency of operation.

    The deposited ZnO films need to be deposited on metallic electrodes. (gold-Cr) electrodes are the best.

    The ZnO films of piezoelectric quality should have a preferred c-axis orientation, and should be insulating in nature.  Posess high resistivity, and low dielectric loss.

    There is a lot of literature on ZnU films deposition by sputtering methods, and many kinds of bulk resonators devices have been developed.

    K. Sreenivas

  • David Lubkowicz added an answer in Vectorization:
    Can pBAD vectors express in E.coli BL21 (plySE) or E.coli DH5alpha strains?


    I will try expression with pBAD vector system first time. It's recommended to use E.coli TOP10 or LMG194 strain. But there aren't this strain in our lab. I investigate the expression system. Can I use E.coli BL21 (plySE) or E.coli DH5alpha strains for you? Do you have experience in this regard ?

    David Lubkowicz

    Yes you can use either  I recommend using DH5alpha from those two. Gd luck!

  • Liang Xinxu asked a question in Topology Optimization:
    Can any one recommend a topic relate to construction structure,any aspects can be?

    as a Y4 student from department of civil engineering , i must put some time  in the final year individual  project which  is relate to structure especially construction. actually i have found one , topology optimization, but i am not sure it is involved in the content of construction structure, so , u can talk about your understanding of this topic or introduce some topic u think interested.

    thanks a lot 

  • Rajan Vishwakarma asked a question in Cycling:
    What are the causes for steam turbine casing (mainly in HP & IP casings) failure ?

    I have read many research papers regarding steam turbine casing failure, I found Cracking (thermal fatigue cracking) and casing distortion (thermal or creep) are the principal concern from the point of failure. In addition to theses, Fatigue-Low cycle or high cycle, Brittle fracture, combination of low cycle fatigue, brittle fracture & creep, Erosion are also the cause of failure. Please share any other known reason or case history for steam turbine casing failure.

  • Janmejaya Nanda asked a question in SimMechanics:
    How can i give a double vector as an input to motion Actuator in Simmechanics ?

    I have a joint trajectory in vector form.i differentiate it twice & give it as motion input through MUX. It shows an error.I think its due to the actuator requires 1*3 vector.I need a method which can help me to give a joint trajectory to motion actuator. an image of my model is attached.

  • Michelle Katusele asked a question in Entomology:
    Is there a safer alternate to chloroform for killing wild adult mosquitoes collected using standard collection methods?

    Most of our entomological  collection methods involves adult mosquito collections and storing them dry in silica-filled tubed for processing in the laboratory. However, recently due to safety concerns, we have been advised to cease the use of chloroform to chloroform-kill the mosquitoes before morphological identification and storage. Are there other safer alternatives to use? Any relevant literature on the subject is greatly appreciated.

  • Khalil El-Saghir asked a question in Affective Learning:
    Does learning affect motivation?

    There is a large corpus of research on how motivation affects learning. Additionally, neurological research brought evidence on how learning affects the brain. I am interested in what happened after motivated learners achieve their learning goals. It is very likely that, due to higher self-efficacy and self-regulation, newly achieved learning would stimulate a higher level of motivation to learn more, and much deeper, about the same or related topics.

    It could thus be argued that motivated learning has positive effect on learner’s motivation to further their learning, therefore igniting a progressive cycle of learning and motivation that would eventually lead to specialization and expertise.

    Are there any empirical studies that examined this, and what are your thoughts about it?

  • Snehasis Bhunia added an answer in Cations:
    Can anybody tell me, what will be the value of charge and multiplicity of radical cation and dehydrogenated radical cation?

    Can you anybody tell me, what will be the value of charge and multiplicity of radical cation and dehydrogenated radical cation for the calculation in Gaussian?

    Snehasis Bhunia

    Thank u for your reply. I like to inform you that as an example, for a neutral state geometry, the value of charge and geometry 0, 1. Due to formation of radical cation, what will be charge and multiplicity.. same question is arised for also dehydrogenated radical cation...

  • Michael Tay asked a question in Walking:
    What is the maximum running speed of a drunk person?

    How fast can a male adult (of about 30 years old) run or walk when moderately or severely drunk (alcohol impaired)? Any studies or scientific literature linking the BAC to running speed impairment?

  • A. B. Salahudeen added an answer in Artificial Neural Networks:
    Which other software can I use apart from MATLAB for artificial neural networks (ANNs)?

    I will appreciate suggestions on other software I can use (that is/are relatively common) apart from MATLAB to predict foundation settlement by means of its artificial neural networks (ANNs) tools?

    A. B. Salahudeen

    I really thank you all for the attention given to my question. Best regard.

  • Nishith A Dharaiya asked a question in Tigers:
    Does anyone knows any researcher /organization working in Buxa Tiger Reserve??

    Please share contact details of a researchers/organizations working in Buxa Tiger reserve
    PM me on nadharaiya@gmail.com

  • Oliver Manuel added an answer in Solar System:
    Why early solar system favored Al-Cu alloys of natural quasicrystals (Icosahedrite, Khatyrkite and Cupalite) in carbonaceous Chondrites?

    Why should early solar system prevent formation of natural periodic crystals including twinned crystals? Why natural quasicrystals are not visible to unaided human eye? Why non-meteoritic natural quasicrystals remain elusive on planet earth?

    Oliver Manuel

    [Thank you, Syed.  I attempted to post the above answer from my phone.  It is incomplete.  Below is a more complete answer.

    Early condensates in the solar system formed directly from fresh, poorly mixed debris from the pulsar core of the solar supernova that:

    • Made our chemical elements
    • Birthed the entire solar system 5 Ga ago
    • Sustained the origin and evolution of life on Earth after 3.5 Ga
    • Still sustains every atom, life and planet in the solar system today 

    1. Some of the earliest SiC formed within 1-5 My of the blast, capturing life Al-26 and displaying feature, like "fall-out" particles from a nuclear bomb blast in air.  


    2. The isotopic compositions of some trans-iron elements exhibit "mirror-image isotopic anomaly patters" in microscopic diamonds (C) and silicon carbide (SiC).

    • Isotopes made by the r- and p- processes of nucleosynthesis are enriched in diamonds (C).
    • Iotopes made by the s-process of nucleosynthesis are enriched in silicon carbide (SiC)


    3. Natural periodic crystals including twinned crystals that formed here on Earth grew under very different, equilibrium-type conditions.