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  • Amar Jukuntla asked a question in Head:
    Any Algorithm/Technique for increasing the energy efficient for Sensor Nodes in Wireless Sensor Network.... ???

    I want to increase energy efficiency for sensors nodes which present in Wireless Sensor Network. These sensor nodes sends/forwards information to mobile sink when it is near to that cluster. Entire information passes through only Cluster Head after that cluster head forwards the information through Rendezvous Node. So here I want to increase network life time.Any Algorithm or technique for increasing life time for WSN.   

  • What is the best form to make a proposal for master thesis ?

    I need some advice to do a good thesis for software engineering .

  • Michel Verstraete added an answer in Wind:
    How to synthesize hourly wind speed data from monthly wind averaged wind speed values?

    I am looking to synthesize hourly wind speed (for 8760 hrs) using only Average monthly wind speed data (12 nos) provided by NASA-SSE at 50m above earth surface.

    Please suggest...

    I looked over Windographer (as you suggested), but it required 4 another parameters to synthesize hourly wind speed (8760 hr) by using Average monthly wind speed data.  But I have no idea about those 4 parameters. How do I do?

    Michel Verstraete · The South African National Space Agency

    You may want to search the Internet for "weather generator software wind". Weather generator is a generic term describing statistical tools to artificially simulate weather records. In your case, you would constrain the simulator with the average monthly values, probably specify the statistical distribution that is typical for the wind speed at your place of interest, and expect to estimate a somewhat realistic sequence of values at much higher frequency, based on prior knowledge of turbulence and other properties of the atmosphere.

    You will need to treat those sequences with great care and remember that these are just stochastic simulations. Whether they truthfully represent the actual patterns at a particular place or for a specific period of time depend entirely on the tools you use, the assumptions you make, and the constraints you impose. Nevertheless, weather generators are often used to test scenarios or evaluate possible impacts associated with some pre-determined range of weather situations.

  • Why does copper diffuse rapidly in a thin film of silicon?

    copper diffusion, silicon

    Mebarki Mourad · Université de Béjaïa

    Dear Tarik Ömer Oğurtani, 

    Yes, here my study is focused for low thickness of thin silicon films for solar cells (junction pn) and i'm interesting to this domains, of copper (metallization) diffusion.

  • Ierardi Enzo added an answer in Personality Traits:
    How and why great achievers are different?

    What makes a person great? Are they possess superior genes? Are they hold a better personality traits? Are they visionary? Are they essentially faced adverse-conditions?.......or ...what?

    What is your opinion on this?

    Ierardi Enzo · Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro

    I met personally a Nobel Prize. He told me the secrets of his great achievement. Casuality more than causality:

    - he forgot to make a laboratory operation before the weekend and on Monday he found the surprise of having discovered something of relevant;

    - his head was unwilling to fly, so he went around the world to diffuse his discovery.

  • Harry ten Brink added an answer in Greenhouse Gases:
    Is CO2 increasing in all levels of troposphere? If yes, in which way the global warming is influenced by the different temperature of CO2 layers?

    In climate change/global warming studies, the Stefan Boltzmann
    formula is often used to estimate the amount of radiant energy which
    escapes outward into outer space from earth. The formula is derived
    under the assumption that the relevant emissivity of the emitter is a
    constant for all wave lengths, and its temperature exponent is 4. However,
    the earth’s greenhouse gases permit radiations to pass through
    the atmosphere freely only in some specific wave length windows. It is
    shown that the wave length dependence of emissivity can change the
    effective temperature exponent of the Stefan Boltzmann formula. (Source: Lam, H. S. (2007). On the Effective Stefan-Boltzmann Temperature Exponent of the Earth).

    Harry ten Brink · Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands


    I appreciate your detailed answer: however this event started in April 1997?

    And to repeat my question: what temperature are you referring to? global, NH, SH or USA

  • Prafulla Chandra Tiwari added an answer in BCl2:
    Which positive control I should select targeting bcl2 and bax pathway in breast cancer cells?

    I am targeting bcl2 and bax pathway in breast cancer cells, MCF7 and MDAMb231 and my drug may block this pathway. According to my hypothesis, I will use western blot and qRT-PCR to confirm this effect. Should I use a positive control to study its effect in this pathway? if yes, which positive control I should select?

    Prafulla Chandra Tiwari · King George's Medical University

    Dear Siddarth this could b helpful to u http://www.nature.com/leu/journal/v28/n8/full/leu201444a.html

  • Should the law enforce conventional morality?

    What is conventional morality? What is the consequence for the enforcement of conventional morality? Could anyone provide the case studies about it, thank you in advance. 

    Douglas R. Daugherty · University of New Mexico

    Dear Chingyeh,

    When the term conventional is used it is usually assigned to a Christian morality. This is the case well over 95% of the time. Therefore, the conventional morality would be that based in Christian biblical texts. Examples are love they neighbor as they self, do unto others as you would have them do unto you, turn the other check ect. The more controversial moral issues would be the Christian stance on homosexuality, abortion, sex before marriage, prostitution, and ones right to die.

    In regards to the consequences to law enforcement there are some but not as many as I would have hoped for. For example Lawerence V Texas overturned the case of Bowers V. Hardwick 1986 Supreme Court which upheld the sodomy laws in Texas. This decision by the Supreme Court was based in the legal theory of equal protection under the law. Hence sense heterosexual couples were allowed to have privacy in there bedrooms so to did Lawrence and whom ever his partner was. The same holds true for Roe V. Wade as to a women right to chose, Griswold V. Connecticut regarding contraceptive, and Loving V. Virginia was the landmark case in which invalidated laws banning interracial marriage. 

    Through out all of these decisions the major consequence was the financial burden placed on the states , counties, and cities for the legal experiences as the cases winded there way through the courts. Secondly, there is some  "bad" publicity, namely the states at the time were labeled as backwoods, behind the times, and to conservative but this had little to no effect. So to answer your question there is little to no consequences except for the finical costs.

    Last I have attached some case studies I just glanced at but they should provide you with the basics in case study and how the issues were framed.

    I hope this will help






  • Rajesh Sharma asked a question in Randomized:
    What is the difference between random effect model and random coefficient model?

    I just came across random coefficient model given by Hsiao and Pesaran 2004, so I have doubt whether it is same as the conventional random effect model. Please tell me the difference in simple language or provide the reference where I can get to know this difference clearly

  • Why is the air gap in a synchronous machine larger than in an induction machine?
    Why is the air gap in a synchronous machine larger than in an induction machine?
    Mohammad Naser Hashemnia · Sharif University of Technology

    In addition to the justifications above, which take into account that in induction machine model the magnetizing reactance is in parallel, but in synchronous machines the synchronous reactance is in series, another reason for larger airgaps in synchronous (and DC) machines in comparison to induction machines is the effect of armature reaction. It is desirable to avoid distortion of the main flux (created by rotor in synchronous machines and by stator in DC machines), this can be achieved by a larger airgap. Of course, this will lead to higher field current requirements and thus higher field circuit copper losses.

  • Harry ten Brink added an answer in Global Warming:
    Will recent warming hiatus with respect to mean temperature continue or not?

    2014 became the warmest year on record, without a strong El Niño. The so-called global warming hiatus (1998-2012) are widely concerned. In the following decade, global mean temperature warming will continue to slow down, or will rise much more rapidly than in the "slowdown" period? What are main physical causes responsible for inter-decadal changes of mean temperature?

    Harry ten Brink · Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands


    I was referring to the fig 6.1 in the pdf from 2013 on the site of IPCC; this is now box1 fig 6.1

    What you have there is the total reservoir of CO2 and that is not the issue:

    The greenhouse effect is exerted by the CO2 in the atmosphere. This s the box1 fig 6.1 that shows what really happens with CO2 emitted in the atmosphere over the years. Certainly the CO2 emitted will be rapidly be taken up by land and upper ocean but an equivalent nr of molecuels will be exchanged. It is only by deep ocean penetration that the extra CO2 is lost from the layers that are in the atmosphere or in direct exchange with the atmosphere

  • Viktor Chernii added an answer in Hydrochloric Acid:
    How can I remove unreacted acids and prepare pure HAuCl4?

    I want to synthesis pure Chloroauric acid. When I solve gold in to aqua regia, I produce large amount of unreacted nitric and hydrochloric acid

    Viktor Chernii · National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

    Dear  Reza

    In this article, there is a technique  need for you.

    (Beiträge zur systematischen Verwandtschaftslehre XXXV. Über Ammoniakate der Aurohalogenide (pages 192–206)
    Wilhelm Biltz and Walter Wein)

    Kind Regards

  • Ali Nouri asked a question in Emotion:
    Can anyone share with me the differences between “emotions”, “affect”, “feelings”, “mode” and “dispositions”?

    These terms have been often used interchangeably in the literature. Is it any operational definition? 

  • Jorge Ruiz Carrascal added an answer in Meat:
    What is the best method for determining chemicals in decaying meat?

    Is there any related papers that you can recommend?

    I need answers to my query because I have an on-going research on biochemicals in decaying tissues of an animal meat. Thank you

    Jorge Ruiz Carrascal · University of Copenhagen

    I think SPME would be an interesting option for a first approach. It's cheap and do not need extra instrumentation (but a GC/MS). If you are aiming for specific compounds, I would say that there is nothing cheaper than this. Nevertheless, you can go for markers of oxidation (TBARs, peroxide index, conjugated dienes) or bacterial spoilage indicators (basic volatile nitrogen, amine content), but then you have no specific compound.   

  • Senthilvel Vasudevan added an answer in Rockworks:
    How can I educate of draw fence diagram by Rockworks software?

    I want information about the type and thickness of the formations of the study area is obtained from wells logs as fence diagrams and show them in GIS environment .

    Senthilvel Vasudevan · King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences


    Your question:  How to draw fence diagram by Rockworks software





  • How much increasing CO2 into the atmosphere affects the global temperature?

    As we all hear recently that CO2 concentration into the atmosphere has increase (as far as I remember) 390 ppm. Keep in mind that the report mentioned that the critical concentration of CO2 must not exceed (as far as I remember) 350 ppm. The question is: how much will this deference (i.e. 350 to 390 ppm) affect the global temperature?

    Mohamad Kharseh · Qatar University

    What shall you do if you want to desscuss an indea, do  not you ask question?

    please Harry do so!

  • Dia Eddin Nassani added an answer in Cracks:
    Is anyone familiar with the reinforcement of a steel beam ?

    If a beam is damaged, corroded or cracked, how could be reinforced ?

    Dia Eddin Nassani · Hasan Kalyoncu University

    Hello Aicha
    we did such a work in some projects.
    if the steel is corroded, you can strengthen it by welding steel sheet "dimension and thickness of steel sheet should be calculated carefully".

  • How can I find or calculate nuclear wave function when I just have its configuration at the shell model?

    For example when I know nuclear shell model configurations of S32 or Ne20 or C12 or Be8, how can I write their wavefunctions and their Hamiltonian?

    Dear Yessimzhan;

    I think it is better that you ask your question form scientist in wolfram mathematica websites. They can help you so better.

    Best Regards;

    Hadiseh Shirzadi

  • Paul Germann asked a question in Healthcare Industry:
    What are in your eyes jump innovations in healthcare which substantially influenced the median life expectation of the human population ?

    We tend to overestimate our achievements in innovation, especially in the healthcare industry. To ground ourselve a little bit, please reflect what are the real jump innovations in the healthcare, which influenced positively the mean life expectation of the human population.


  • Mariano Pierantozzi added an answer in Mathematics:
    What topics should be covered in an undergraduate program in mathematical biology?

    Background, topics in mathematical biology, non-mathematics courses, etc.

    Mariano Pierantozzi · Università Politecnica delle Marche

    I completely agree with Tarik Ömer Oğurtani.

    Perhaps also using a statistical software such as R, or Wolfram Mathematica.


  • Rudy Ternbach asked a question in Basic:
    What are some basic research investigations regarding light-molecular interactions?

    Looking primarily for chemical investigations.

  • Semir Vranic added an answer in Ductal Carcinoma:
    Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Grade 3?


    My mother was diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma grade 3. A biopsy showed this result. I would like to know more about it, specially how fast these cells could spread.

    She says she gets a mammography done every year. Therefore, I believe it is something knew. She didn't know until last week because these two small lumps are internal, and she does not feel or see anything. 

    Please, doctors and researchers out there, help me with some information. I will start calling oncologists and surgeons on Monday early morning and see if I can get an appointment for the same day or Tuesday. What worries me the most is the spreading of the cancer through the lymphatic system to other organs. 

    Thank you very much for your time,


    Semir Vranic · University of Sarajevo Clinical Center

    How old is she? What is the tumor size? Status of axillary lymph nodes? Any associated DCIS? What about ER/PR/Her2?

    All these information together enable an appropriate treatment decision via multidisciplinary breast meeeting.

  • Interested in courses on Interfacial Engineering and Fluid Mechanics?

    Then the upcoming COST Action CM1101 Training School on "Interfacial Science and Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals, Applications, and Analytical Methods" in London may be worth looking at, see cost2015.stfca.nl

    Mariano Pierantozzi · Università Politecnica delle Marche

    Thanks a lot!

    Very interesting School.


  • Ghanbar Barzegar asked a question in No Compression:
    Could anyone give an appropriate illustration for "no tension or no compression " in property module(elastic matrials)?

    Thanks in advance for your replies.

  • Hayder Dibs added an answer in Geologic Mapping:
    Where can I get a detailed map of the Triassic of India?

    Does anyone know of detailed geologic maps of India? Thanks in advance...

    Hayder Dibs · Putra University, Malaysia

    try to use usgs website 

  • What is the formula to find effetiveness of heat transfer when hot water flow through curved pipe?

    I am researching on heat exchanger with curved pipes. I read some articles. I am not having clear idea.

    Rasool Bahrampoury · Khaje Nasir Toosi University of Technology

    Dear Sarath

    In my point of view as for a curved pipe still the flow can be considered one dimensional ( when curve radius to diameter is large enough ), The only parameter which is different is pressure drop which is not a critical matter for an incompressible fluid like hot water. Therefore you have to calculate the heat transfer area for the curved pipe and do the same as straight pipe.

  • Ishag Adam added an answer in Middle East:
    Is there a proven relationship between the spread of infection and the method of personal cleansing after toileting?

    This question arose while designing healthcare facilities in the Middle East, but the question is applicable in many regions. In some countries it seems common to use a spray wand (a.k.a. ablution hose or health faucet) after toileting. This seems to me that the water spray could cause increased growth and spreading of pathogens. However, I have not found much objective evidence on the issue.

    Other methods of washing are toilet paper, free-standing bidets, and integrated spray jets in the toilet seat. The preferred method appears to be culturally driven.

    Ishag Adam · University of Khartoum

    Thanks Senthilvel Vasudevan  for valuable link

  • Adil H.H. Bashir asked a question in Keloid:
    Are keloids a neoplastic condtion?

    keloids typically exhibit increased cellularity. Keloids malignant degeneration has been reported, although a fibrosarcoma can mimic keloid clinically.

  • Ishag Adam added an answer in Child Mortality:
    Does anybody want to work with me on child issues such as child mortality, immunization etc using demographic and health survey data?

    I want to make some emperical studies on child and issues such as child mortality, immunization etc using demographic and health survey data. I can analyses dat a as I'm student of statistics. I would like if some one with knowledge of public health collaborate with me as co-oauthour in these studies.


    Atta from Pakistan

    Ishag Adam · University of Khartoum

    Dear  Olufisayo Olufemi Ofusori

    Yes we are Africans and we are ready 

  • Victor Christianto asked a question in DNA Computing:
    Does DNA based computation offer a new computing paradigm?

    DNA computing is an alternative method of performing computations. DNA computing is fundamentally similar to parallel computing in that it takes advantage of the many different molecules of DNA to try many different possibilities at once. In case of classical computing, we use electronic logic gates which allow for storing and transforming information. Designing of an appropriate
    sequence or a net of “store” and “transform” operations (in a sense of building a device or writing a program) is equivalent to preparing some computations. In DNA computing, the principle is quiet same. But, the main difference is the type of computing devices, since in this new method of computing instead of electronic gates DNA molecules are used for storing and transforming information. Does DNA based computation offer a new computing paradigm? What do you think?