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  • Ranga Migara Weerakkody added an answer in Chronic Kidney Disease:
    How can we identify CKDU patients in their early stages of stage 1 and 2?

    In Sri Lanka, CKDu patients come to know about their disease only when they reach stages 3 and above, by which time their kidneys are mostly damaged. If there is a way in which we could identify the CKDu patients in early stages, through awareness programs they could be motivated to seek treatment at the hospitals, and as a result their life span can be prolonged. 

    Ranga Migara Weerakkody

    Iohexol is the gold standard together with inulin clearance. But in dry zone in Sri Lanka, we have a situation of 5 million people at risk of CKDu, and the initial surveys showing 10 - 17% of people affected. This is a massive number.

    As far as I know SL has no facilities to perform Iohexol clearance, and facilities to perform a Inulin clearance is only available in Colombo, 200km away from the field. This is the reason why a good estimating equation, and standardized testing for creatinine is important. In these far reachs of the country, even urine strips are not available and proteins are detected using good old heat coagulation method.

    I think this will give a perspective of the issue we are having on our hands as Sri Lankan Nephrologists.

  • Yeşerin Yıldırım added an answer in Exome:
    Which bed file is necessary to create covBED file for exome data: empricialtargets.bed or capturedtargets.bed?

    I have exome data obtained from "Roche SeqCap EZ MedExome Target Enrichment Kit". I need to create a covBED file to investigate the read-depths of the genes of interest. This kit has two bedfiles: "empricialtargets.bed" and "capturedtargets.bed". I need to know which bed file I should use as reference. I would appreciate your answer.

    Yeşerin Yıldırım

    Thank you for having a look.

  • Miquel À. Capó-Juan added an answer in Sport Psychology:
    What are the most common tests to measure the motivation for sport in disability?

    I think that  I could use:

    • Physical Activity and Disability Survey (PADS) (Rimmer et al., 1999)
    • BREQ-2 (Markland & Tobbin, 2004)

    Do you Know a better test?

    Miquel À. Capó-Juan

    Thanks for your help



  • Vikas Singh added an answer in Thin Films:
    Measuring thickness of thin film using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)??

    How to measure thickness of thin film using AFM?

    I have see some people have determined thickness of thin film using AFM.

    I have also tried but found that thickness is changing with changing the scanning area.

    eg. the thickness is 13 nm for 500*500 nm^2 and around 27 for 1000*1000 nm^2

    could someone elaborate it?

    are there any other methods to measure the thickness of MBE grown thin film?

    Thank you in advance !

    Vikas Singh

    Dear Thomas

    Thanks for your advice.

    I found the spot and tried to do AFM but its thickness is changing with changing the scan area as I mentioned earlier in my question.

  • N.C. Ghatak Ghatak added an answer in Webometrics:
    How do I get (locate) the archive data (world university ranking) on webometrics?

    I want to collect the data archive  (world university rankings/country ranking) from 2007, 2010 and 2013.

    There is only archive data of only top universities.

    thanks in advance



    N.C. Ghatak Ghatak

     See the links for your information. Regards, Dr.N C Ghatak.

    1.       https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/QS_World_University_Rankings

    2.       https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Academic_Ranking_of_World_Universities

    3.       https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/College_and_university_rankings#SCImago_Institutions_Rankings

    4.       http://www.shanghairanking.com/World-University-Rankings/Saint-Petersburg-State-University.html


  • Łukasz Jopek added an answer in Image Segmentation:
    Can anyone recommend me some good techniques of food image segmentation?

    I want to segment a food image. Lets say there are three fruits (i.e. an apple, an orange, a banana) kept in a plate. i want to separate these fruits from image.

    Łukasz Jopek

    your problem is very wide.
    But, if I were to advise you where to find a solution, I'd start from these issues:
    1) image texture features (statistical, mathematical, features obtained from frequency space, autoregressive model, local binary patterns, laws filters etc)
    2) image shape and geometry features
    3) To classify you can use simply statistical classifiers like kNN, but probably more interesting for you will be solutions based on boost classifiers.
    4) For separate different type of fruits you can try also methods based on optimized some objective function (e.g fitness function calculate energy from Gabor filter. If the energy difference for each object type (class) is higher, the higher the value of the objective function. Your aim is to find that parameters of Gabor filter when objective function has the highest value.)
    But, that i say, your problem is very wide, so is difficult give a best solution.

  • Michael Engstrom asked a question in Addiction:
    Does anyone know where I can access the online self-administered version of the ASI (addiction severity index)?

    There is a lot of research out there about the self-administered versions but I cannot find an actual copy of one.

  • viabhav kumar Upadhyay asked a question in Plant Extracts:
    How to prevent the molds growth on chopped plant parts kept for shade drying?

    The shade dried plant materials are good for preparation of plant extracts. But the chopped plant materials containing high moisture favors the growth of molds. Please  suggest me how to overcome this problem so I can keep my plant material for shade dry without growth of molds?

  • Mohamed El Naschie added an answer in Universe:
    Why is there something instead of nothing ?

     LET US START BY WHAT  Robert Adler  WROTE   ON 6 NOVEMBER 2014--:
    People have wrestled with the mystery of why the universe exists for thousands of years. Pretty much every ancient culture came up with its own creation story - most of them leaving the matter in the hands of the gods - and philosophers have written reams on the subject. But science has had little to say about this ultimate question.

    Mohamed El Naschie

     Could   IT BE ALL JUST ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF The Anthropic Principle  ?

  • Nitin Joseph asked a question in GATE:
    How to unsubscribe from research gate?

    How to unsubscribe from research gate?

  • Adinath M Funde asked a question in Concentrated Solar Power:
    Which is the best material for application in high temperature receiver coating?

    Looking for application in solar thermal application as receiver in Concentrating Solar Thermal (CST) Systems

  • Rakhi Naresh Gowalani asked a question in Research Topics:
    Would any body suggest me research topic related to pneumococcal?

    I need to do research on pneumococcal based on microbiological test.

  • sayed mehdi Dehdashti asked a question in TSP:
    Is there any correlation between Growth Rate of particular plant(g fw \ m2 \ day) and Total soluble protein (TSP) concentration (µg/gFW)?

    Is there any correlation between Growth Rate  of particular plant(g fw \ m2 \ day) and Total soluble protein (TSP) concentration (µg/gFW)?

    For example we culture in vitro condition 2 different plants, X and Y plants, as the growth rate of X plant is 50% more than Y plant. After 3 weeks we harvest both plants and calculate Total soluble protein. Which plant, X or Y, consist more TSP?

  • Umair Nisar added an answer in Acids:
    How can I neutralize and separate CNTs after acid treatment?

    I am fictionalizing CNTs by acid (HNO3:H2SO4) treatment.

    1) what is the procedure to neutralize the acid after the treatment? 

    I know one way is filtering and washing repeatedly, but it takes few weeks. Is there any shorter way?

    2) how to separate the CNTs efficiently? 

    Umair Nisar

    I think efficient way to wash and separate CNTs is by using a centrifuge but it takes some time to neutralize them as you have to wash many times. But obviously it depends on your centrifuge tubes size, larger the tubes, lesser will be the time to wash and neutralize them. 

  • Xingjian Xu asked a question in Sterilization:
    What is the most suitable approach for sterilizing sulphur?

    Hei, I want to sterilize sulphur.  UV irradiation sterilization or  high pressure of steam sterilization, which one is the most appropriate? 

  • Pradeep Kumar asked a question in Sphincter of Oddi:
    Does sphincter oddi relaxed after cholecystectomy?


  • Elhaj A. Elsiddig added an answer in Multiple Regression Analysis:
    How do I minimize multicollinearity in multiple regression analysis?

    I conducted multiple regression analysis but I found multicollinearity which leaded to results against my literature. I advised to centering the variable ( X- Mean(X)) but unfortionately regression can not be conducted becuz all variables became constants

    Elhaj A. Elsiddig

    thanks appreciated your nice comments

  • Ahmed Shafey added an answer in Urban Planning:
    What are the criticisms and limitations of ENVI-met in evaluating an urban microclimate?
    I want to choose a model to evaluate the quality of urban microclimate and the effects of urban structural factors on urban heat island in a city. I'm looking for the best modeling tool.
    Ahmed Shafey

     ENVI- met V3.1 is very good to estimate the thermal comfort, climate factors such as: Air temperature, humidity, wind speed, mean radiation temperature, But the limitation of Model is calculation of heat storage in walls is neglected, that means Model cant calculate the heat release from walls at night which has effected in raise air temperature at night, hence increase  Urban heat island intensity in street canyons, I have used also ENVI-met V 4.0, and find this limitation. From my knowledge MUKLIMO_3 model can calculate UHI , but I haven't use it yet. 

  • Muhammad Jamshed asked a question in Inflorescence:
    Hi, just wondering if anyone used anti-farnesyl cysteine antibody in plants?

    Hi, I want to check in vivo farnesylation in Arabidopsis ( Seedlings and inflorescence), just wondering if anyone used anti-farnesyl cysteine antibody in plants? Please suggest which antibody works best?

  • Adi Prasetio asked a question in Research Topics:
    How to characterize materials using EIS Spectroscopy?

    I'm researching carbon materials for counter electrodes application in DSSC . I read several articles related to my research topic. In the articles, authors said they used EIS spectroscopy for make nyquist plot. How to characterize materials using EIS Spectroscopy? I have to characterize the DSSC or counter electrode layer?

  • Umair Nisar added an answer in Rietveld Analysis:
    Can anyone recommend/send me some sources to Learn "Rietveld Analysis" (rietveld refinement) for Inorganic Materials.?

    PPT, PDF, online sources, videos are welcomed

    You can share any related data on umairnisar9@gmail.com 

    Umair Nisar

    Thanks Putu Tedy for the files, apart from guide on how to perform rietveld refinement, I am also interested in basic understanding about rietveld analysis i.e. theoretically understand what information can we get about crystal structural using rietveld analysis etc. 

  • Yair Suari added an answer in Environmental Management:
    Building a numerical modelling course for environmental managers?

    I am supposed to give numerical modeling course for  MA students in an environmental management degree. Most of these students do not have a mathematical background.

    I would love any advice as to how to build this course and if someone can link me with an equivalent course website, book or presentations.

    thanks in advanvce.


    Yair Suari

    This is the way I decided on going.

    Since they are not intended to really do the actual modelling, I will let them taste it using excel.

    I will allso do some post processing, since they are ment to be able to read model results.

  • Mohammed saleem Ali-shtayeh added an answer in Fungi:
    Can you identify this fungal growth (Fungi F)?

    I have provided picture of the fungal growth on sabouraud agar, and its reverse morphology, also the staining using lactophenol cotton blue (LPCB).

    Mohammed saleem Ali-shtayeh

    I agree with Hugo. Thanks 

  • Jacob Y. Stein added an answer in Autobiography:
    I would like to attempt analysing published autobiographies from a phenomenological approach - any literature supporting this?

    Typically, phenomenological approaches, to the best of my limited knowledge, seek out interviewing people and gaining insight as to their lived experiences from their accounts. Is there any literature supporting the choice to analyze published autobiographies from a phenomenological perspective? What are the advantages of such an approach (if any, and given that the disadvantages are self-evident)?


    Jacob Y. Stein

    Giovane, from the title, the article seems interesting and certainly one I would proffit from reading. Alas, if it is not in English I cannot.

    Ben, thank you for your thoughts and your encouragement. The discussion we are about to embark goes beyon the current question, and so I will keep my reply brief, and hope we may continue corresponding on the issue at hand. Rooted in social constructionism, I perceive myself as being ontologically ignorant, and thus refrain from saying what loneliness (or PTSD for that matter) IS. All I can say is how we discuss it through discourse, and acknowledge various perspectives from various disciplines (see attached paper - would LOVE to hear your thoughts of it in private correspondence). Loneliness is not either biological or an existential matter of consciousness. Rather, it may be discussed from either, or other perspectives (once again, the same goes for PTSD). Loneliness is a meaning we give to a human phenomenon we have identified.

  • Henrik von Hofsten added an answer in Transportation Engineering:
    Is it possible to estimate the payload of a vehicle (i.e. a truck) knowing the power spent by its engine along a road having certain characteristics?

    I mean: in my case, I'm talking about trucks payload. So, knowing data about the engine usage (gear, torque) of a truck driving along a certain road (of which are known the characteristics); is it possible to estimate the payload of the truck during its journey?

    I am analyzing data about truck fleet fuel consumption and I would like to consider negligible the effect of the payload on the trucks. If I could estimate the payload of the truck during its journey I would compare just data about trucks traveling in similar conditions. Do you know any possible way which would permit me to estimate it? Can you suggest me any publication about similar studies (for trucks but for airplanes or for trains also)?

    Henrik von Hofsten

    I know that the Swedish Truck manufacturer Scania is currently testing a system where they use Newton’s second law to estimate weight. Personally, this is not my expertise but I if I understood them right you can estimate the weight by using the acceleration and retardation between gear-shifts.

    Hopefully this might help you a bit


  • Abdur Rahman added an answer in GPU:
    In a GPU matrix multiplication what does the size of the matrix refer to?

    I have been looking at research paper that discuss the performance of a parallel matrix multiplication algorithm on GPU and often time they refer to different sizes of a matrix and the show the performance for each size.

    What I like to know is, what does this size refer to? Is it the size of the matrix A or matrix B or the resultant matrix C?


    Abdur Rahman

    @Martin - Thanks for the reply. So I understand clearly that we have to keep the size of the matrix equal during experimentation and performance analysis of the algorithm.

  • Jae Jun Lee added an answer in Logic Gates:
    Is this logic gate possible ?

     Please any one help for me

    Table 1. indicated that logic table.

    I have some question for this case.

    The table 1 omitted that the inputs of both B and C were 1 like the case of Table 2.

    Is there any problem for getting the logic gate from only Table 1.

    Also, If possible, the logic gate in last picture is proper for Table 1.

    + 1 more attachment

    Jae Jun Lee

    Thank you, sir!

    I'm so appreciated with your reply.

  • Hina Ahmad added an answer in Dissociation Constant:
    Why does dissociation constant increase with increase in saturation time in STD NMR?

    I am reading a paper about STD NMR and it states that by increasing saturation time dissociation constant increases. Why is this so? And what does apparerent dissociation constant mean?

    Hina Ahmad

    Thank you Sir....:-) it is really helpful...Thanks again

  • Mithra Kishore asked a question in Refractometer:
    Possible uses of refractometer?

    Refractometer can be used to find dn/dc values for SLS. Is there any other inference that could be drawn from measurement of refractive index? Possibly by changing the wavelength or temperature? 

  • Li Weidong added an answer in Agricultural Mechanization:
    Waht happens when the detergent enters into freshwater ecosystem?

    I am very ​much interested ​in water, water ​pollution and ​its purification ​etc. My forte ​is farming and ​agriculture ​mechanization. ​I want to know ​as we use so ​much of ​detergent for ​domestic and ​industrial ​purpose, what ​happens when it ​enters in ​freshwater ​ecosystem? ​

     thanks in advance.

    Li Weidong

    It woudl polluted  water and break the balance of freshwater ecosystem。