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  • Amanda Michelle Jones added an answer in Political Participation:
    Does anyone know where I can find information about “youth (democratic) participation index”?

    I am focusing on what sort of youth indices are available; mapping state of the art indexes; recommendations related to potentially most rewarding future paths of involvement.

    I am interested in any information about youth index (youth and gender topics). I know European Commission uses Youth index but I am focusing more on political participation.

    Thank you for help.

    Amanda Michelle Jones

    I'm not sure about European resources but here are a few US-based ones.

    • CIRCLE (Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement): http://www.civicyouth.org – for info mostly related to voting & similar civic activities
    • YPP (Youth & Participatory Politics): http://ypp.dmlcentral.net – "seeks to understand the quantity, quality, and equality of young people's civic and political practices online and off, their pathways between the cultural and the political, and the supports that sustain civic and political engagement."
    • Black Youth Project: http://blackyouthproject.com/research – focuses on the political activities of black youth, often in comparison to youth of other races

    Good luck!

    + 2 more attachments

  • Harishwar Kale asked a question in Ethanol:
    Which is most preferred dispersion medium for MoS2 powder ?

    I have preferred some of the researchers work.

    which don't work for me, like water and ethanol.

  • Mahdi Safarpour added an answer in SPSS:
    Could you tell me how to calculate the SNPs results with OR and compare the genotypic frequency of each SNPs type with SPSS?

    I have done the project about genetic polymorphism and now I face some problem about how to use the statistical analysis to evaluate my results. Could you give me some suggestion for SNPs interpretation?

    Mahdi Safarpour

    Dear Methee,

    The attached file is a manual about how to calculate odds ratio using SPSS. Hope you find it helpful.

  • Prashant Kumar Mishra added an answer in Environmental Law:
    What is the effectiveness of biodiversity in environmental law?

    Through research work and googling.

    Prashant Kumar Mishra

    Biodiversity has a pivotal role in environment as well as in environmental law. Laws are formulated to protect rights and interest of common people.We know that survival of man is dependent on biota. Hence proper information of biodiversity, their ecological implications, their functions and their economic contribution need to be talen care of while formulation environmental law.

  • Ingrid Wenk-Siefert added an answer in Liver Metastasis:
    Any advice on a liver metastasis experiment where mice were injected with pancreatic cancer cells but after three weeks no tumor was found?

    but after three weeks no tumor was found in the liver either in large number of cancer cell , anyone know what could be the problem?

    Ingrid Wenk-Siefert

    Highly interesting you seem to have a model with invasive and non-invasive pancreatic cancer cells. As metastasis is such an important problem - what does make one line non-invasive whereas the other line is? Is there a key to invasiveness?

  • Yalçın Tepe added an answer in Filtering:
    As filtering organisms, can sponges play an important role in filtering offshore aquaculture effluents?

    Sponges are very effective active filter feeders. The volume of water passing through a sponge can be enormous; a sponge with 10 cm in length and four cm in diameter can filter up to 80 L water in a day. So can we build sponge farm based on the idea on their potential as biofilters near fish farms or land-based sewage water? By this way, can we both eliminate the organic pollution from fish farm and produce a valuable sponges???

    Yalçın Tepe

    thanks Belen and Craig. 

  • Hasan Rosyadi added an answer in Language Translators:
    How can we translate nicknames?

    How can we translate Nicknames?
    What are the strategies of translating nicknames?

    Hasan Rosyadi

    Dear Raid...
    I did not translate my nick name which based on passport or ID. I had friend from Korea who used calling name. Thanks

  • Yidong Xia asked a question in Turbulence:
    Definition of normalized turbulent kinetic energy?

    I came across some literature containing plots of k+ versus distance-to-the-wall

    (for example, http://web.stanford.edu/class/me469b/handouts/turbulence.pdf

    But I was not able to find a mathematical expression for k+ (normalized turbulent kinetic energy, I guess).

    Could anyone have a clear idea about it?

  • Brother Leith Keegan added an answer in Police:
    IR: Can we explain/suggest with English School that we need a world police and at the same time other states who (should) act for checks and balance?

    On the basis of the concept/interpretation of (an) International Society (English School of IR). Can we allege reasons for having a (effective or even formal) world police/executive branch (currently US lead) as a societal institution. And other states as a counterweight, acting as checks and balances (like Russia, China), as a kind of societal control institution or as a substitute for (the role of) the civil society.

    In positive perspective: explaining the factual/current societal roles of states. And/or normatively: suggesting that—in the assumed framework of an International Society—there should be the particular role of a police as well as division of powers.

    Brother Leith Keegan

    I like the idea of checks and balances, but who would enforce them? Is the US the 'world police' or a rogue state seeking to expand its hegemony under the façade of benevolence or a [carefully selective] responsibility to protect? If they are to fulfil the role of police, then a far more balanced approach would be required than is currently exhibited by the US. Agreed, a division of powers should be in place for this type of system, but is there any evidence of enforceable democratic functions at play at the global level of analysis? There appears to be no separation of powers or accountability built into transnational regimes as compared to what is seen in state level parliamentary systems. If a state is to fulfil the role of an international policing force, particularly the US, how is to be checked and balanced when they seem to be unwilling to bring their forces under the authority of international courts? The idea of a global level police force also seems to presuppose a global government to whom they would give answer, and as much as the high capital globalists elite might want this, it is not yet in place. Such a government is more likely to end up being a collectivistic fascism than a truly representative liberal democracy in the long run. So, it is hard to see how a state operating as a police force at the global level could possibly be beneficial to the living persons inhabiting the world if there is no actual accountability systems in place first. How would misconduct and corruption be dealt with when the US appears happy to act unilaterally, even covertly and possibly illegally at times? None of this is conducive to an ethical policing system that the people of Earth could have confidence in.

    And finally, why would we trust a state that has, or has attempted to overthrow more governments and leaders than any other country in modern history? The premise of the US being somehow the ideal candidate is flawed, just as expecting Russia or China to act with integrity as a balance is also moot, the relationship between the US and these states is not nearly stable enough at this point. However, this is a very good question, but it needs to incorporate further consideration of alternative actors, and alternative institutions even if they require prior creation, in my humble opinion.

  • Alireza Rajabipoor added an answer in Governance:
    What is the difference between governance and management?
    Is it possible to use them interchangeably?
    Alireza Rajabipoor

    I think, Main column of Management is good decision making and Main column of governance is making decisions for decision making.

  • Bauer-Duc Lara added an answer in Mysticism:
    Do you know any academic references on mystical tourism?

    Since the end of 1960's healers and shamans travel around the world and/or make people come to their place to experience sacred and therapeutical practices on their body, mind and soul. Any academic references on this social phenomenon?  


    Bauer-Duc Lara

    Dear Dimitri,

    Thank you very much for your clever suggestion. Economical aspects of that matter must indeed be related in my research. You made a point !

  • John Schloendorn added an answer in Pedigree:
    Which pedigree software do you suggest ?

    We are looking to buy new pedigree software for our lab. I have used cyrillic, I found it difficult to convert it to JPEG.

    John Schloendorn

    How about take a screenshot, save that as .jpg?

  • Prashant Kumar Mishra added an answer in Air Pollution:
    Children will bear the brunt of climate change tomorrow; what present generation need to accomplish in this regard?

    Climate change is a fact as we witness unusual droughts and heavy rain storms, temperature increase and air pollution. We need strategies to save our future generations not to suffer?

    Prashant Kumar Mishra

    Your concern is genuine Dr. Gafoor. See what is happening in Chennai. Every one now a day is talking about climate change. But most of the people really are Hippocratic in this regard. See it took more than two decades to accept reality of climate change. We shall have to formulate strategy at global level as well as local level. Locally we shall have to revive our traditional knowledge which have evolved in thousands of years and is based on local needs and conditions. For example traditional system of water management, biofertilizers, landraces etc. will help to mitigate and adapt to ill effect of climate change.

  • Jean-Francois Antoine added an answer in Current - Voltage:
    What is the relation between increasing armature current to affect the speed of a shunt motor?

    Relation between increasing armature current affect the speed of a shunt motor?

    Jean-Francois Antoine

    Some general informations about shunt motor.

    + 1 more attachment

  • Ines Bayoudh Saâdi added an answer in Collaborative Learning:
    Should the "Facilitator" be knowledgeable in a learning environment?

    Teachers, academia, market players and students collaborate in learning process through exchange of ideas, facts, and at times experiential viewpoints. As regards learning of the students, normally "facilitators" come in who create and nurture repository and establish environment for "guided"  learning in a classroom environment irrespective of its form  (digital, broadcast, multicast, uni cast, physical set up). So, is it necessary that the facilitator should be knowledgeable enough to handle such critical process!

    Ines Bayoudh Saâdi

    Yes I think So, because this will facilate to him the creation and the use of the right activity, tool and . media for the right leaners.

  • Abdul aziz Jaafar added an answer in Compressible Flow:
    How can I set the boundary layer thickness of an inlet flow boundary condition in FLUENT ?

    I need to know how to set the boundary layer thickness of an inlet flow boundary condition in FLUENT. The simulated flow has an inlet Mach number of 0.7 which could not be treated as an in compressible flow. Thus, using pressure inlet condition will be more convenient to use in such case. I can not figure out how to set the boundary layer thickness with inlet pressure boundary.
    With my regards,

    Abdul aziz Jaafar

    Dear Ahmed

    You can try two of approaches available 

    a.  set the velocity profiles of the fluid at inlet covering those in the boundary layer and in the core of flow

    b.  extended the computational domain covering the domain upstream of those you are interested in


  • Arti Rai asked a question in Self-Organizing Maps:
    Can someone tell me how to make self organizing map using MATLAB or any other software..????

    i want to make Self organizing map for upregulated and downregulated genes under salt stress at four different time point....

  • M. A. HANNAN KHAN asked a question in HRP:
    Facing problem in preparation of DAB(sigma cat no. D8001) solution in Tris-HCl buffer for HRP localization in tissues?

    DAB is not dissolving 

  • John Schloendorn added an answer in Cells:
    Can bacteria clump together in solutions outside of a biofilm?

    I've been looking through the literature, but there's a heavy search bias towards biofilms when using terms like 'clump' and 'cell aggregate'. I know that a true biofilm forms when a cell irreversibly attaches to a surface, and that there is then a change in gene expression and the cell(s) start to produce EPS, which helps catch nutrients & other cells etc. My question is, if you get a large clump of free floating cells inside a static flask with no shear and no visible biofilm on any surfaces, is this part of a biofilm that’s sloughed off and kept growing (live/dead stain reveals live cells), or could it something else? Thank you!

    John Schloendorn

    I believe I have seen some critters clump.  I had Nocardia and Rhodococcus, isolated them myself from the wild.  When grown in M9 mineral water with glucose as carbon source, they appeared to aggregate in clumps of about 10, as measured by dilution platings.  It gave me hell trying to isolate clonal mutants, until I figured this out.  In my case I could dissociate the clumps into what appeared to be single cells, with detergent (I think 0.1% triton?) -- and all of a sudden I had 10x the CFU -- that's how I "know" they were clumped.  

  • Reza Yousefi Maragheh asked a question in Linear Programming:
    Are the reduced costs of variables of a standard form linear programming problem related to dual variables?

    Consider a simple standard form linear programming problem of the form:

    Min c'x




    Start solving it by simplex. Obtain reduced costs of non-basic variables at each iteration. Consider that the constraints are of the form Ax=b (without any slack or surplus variable). Can we relate these reduced costs to problem's dual variables? (we can do for canonical form; but my question is about standard form)

  • Rachid Sbiaa asked a question in OOMMF:
    Is there an available version of OOMMF for modeling the hystereisi loop of two antiferromagnetically coupled ferromagnetic layers ?

    We are looking for a software to model the magnetization reversal of two antiferromagnetically coupled layers. We would like to evaluate the effect of several parameters including the coupling strength. We have been using AskOOMMF for a single layer reversal. Is there a version for two layers with antiferromagnetic coupling ?

    Thank you,

  • Mallika Nataraj added an answer in Gateway Cloning:
    How can I solve problems with BP reaction?

    I am trying BP reaction for gateway cloning for a long time, but not getting colonies. I am getting amplified product of expected size. I am also using the recommended concentration of both Donor and entry clone. I have tried with different competent cells also dh5a ot top10. I am getting colonies in positive control. I have also tried it with fresh lot of enzymes. Can anyone suggest how can I overcome this problem? I am struggling for more than 2 months. 

    The details: 

    Gene size: 1.17 KB

    Donor: pDONR 221

    amount: 150 ng for both amplified product and donor. 

    total reaction volume: 10 ul

    BP clonase: 2 ul, 25oC incubation for more than 24 hours. reaction was stopped by adding pronease k and incubation for 10 min at 37oC. 

    Cells used for transformation: TOP10 and DH5a. 

    Mallika Nataraj

    Sometimes using a little more of pDONR221 will not harm your reaction. I recommend that you try a 1: 3 ratio of insert to vector and recheck. Also, the clonase enzymes are a little unstable and therefore stored at -80. You can make small aliquots of it and store. And just before use you can thaw it on ice and use. Also, as mentioned by Mr. Borgmeyer,  check for the primer sequences and also for your competent cell efficiency. You need a high efficient comp cell (atleast 106/ug ) since anything less than this will usually not yield good colonies.

  • Haroon Rashid asked a question in Cement:
    Cement or Screw Retained ?

    What do you prefer while restoring implants ? Screw retained prosthesis or cement retained prosthesis ?

  • Martin Baeker added an answer in Abaqus:
    Can anyone help me with my a stent and balloon inflation model in Abaqus?

    I currently have a portion of a stent and balloon that I have assigned boundary conditions to such that they will account for symmetry and only move in the appropriate directions.

    Here is the setup for my simulation:

    • Homogeneous solid for the stent & homogeneous shell for the balloon
    • SS 316 for Stent and rubber for balloon (Young Modulus: 4000MPa ; Poisson: 0.45)
    • "General Contact" interaction with "No friction" and "Hard Contact" interaction properties
    • two steps: the initial and a displacement step

    In the displacement step, I have assigned a boundary condition to the balloon such that the nodes all move radially outward, interact with the stent, and will ultimately inflate the stent.

    • Displacement step: Time period: 5 ; NLGEOM: On ; # of increments: 1000

    One of the main problems, if not THE problem, is that the time step increment decreases so much that the simulation always maxes out the number of increments I have assigned.

    I have the simulation set to run for 5s and after about 2.75s (total time) the time step has dropped to the 10^-16 magnitude. This always causes the simulation to abort because it has reach the max number of increments.

    Does anyone know what I can do to get this simulation running properly? Thanks.

    Martin Baeker


    O.k. - this is still not too helpful (not your fault...), but it may be that convergence is simply too difficult without any clear error/warning given. (You can look at the force balance info in the msg file to see whether the residual force is too large or whether it is the disp. correction - the momentum warning is usually irrelevant).

    One thing to try is to increase the numbr of iterations in the nonlinear analysis. If you work with the inp-file, add

    *controls, analysis=discontinuous

    to the step-definition, in CAE you can do this somewhere in the step module under controls (I think it's general solution controls). This often helps resolving convergence issues if there is no instability but just a difficult solution process.

    If this does not help, could you upload your model?

  • Paras Gupta added an answer in Gears:
    Does anybody know how to calculate the transmission error of gears?
    I am looking for some articles which give me clue about the method for finding transmission error of gear set without requiring finite element modeling?
    Paras Gupta

    Dear  Theodore Costopoulos

    Thanks for the input

     Will you tell me the name of the all the papers or relevant literature on TE calculation

  • Ubong Ekerete Josiah asked a question in Language Learning:
    What theoretical model is the most suitable for analyzing cases of spelling pronunciation in a second language learning situation?

    In classroom practice, many L2 English learners resort to pronouncing words based on their knowledge of the orthographic forms available in the language. For instance, the word 'victuals' would be realized as /vɪktʊəlz/ instead of /vɪtlz/, which is the correct version. So, which theoretical model is best suitable for an analysis that could explicate the formal or conventional pronunciation pattern?

  • Ezz Al-Dein Muhammed Al-ramamneh added an answer in Plant Tissue Culture:
    How do season play role in plant tissue culture micro propagation?

    I have been observe that there are different growth response of plant tissues  even in controlled conditions of growth room. I want to know how the season play the role in plant growth in laboratory growth room apart from the temp-humidity criteria?

    Ezz Al-Dein Muhammed Al-ramamneh

    It is true that the growing season and condition surrounding donor plants can affect regeneration of explants in vitro. For example,  the migration of nutrients in small twigs and limbs, especially in deciduous trees, differ before bud break, after bud break and toward the onset of dormant season, associated by changes in hormones which is triggered by changes in light intercepted by plants. Therefore the application of the same concentrations of exogenous hormones to explants in vitro, can probably produce different external hormonal balance in vitro, leading to variation in eventual morphogenic responses.

  • Dr. M. Anand Kumar added an answer in Wireless Sensor Network:
    Anyone familiar with Random Number Generation in WSN?

    Hello , 

    I am writing a code for event detection in WSN. Generally we generate random number between (0,1) and we set a certain threshold (e.g temperature) or any randomly generated threshold .  I am having trouble with the threshold value . Beside (0,1) and temperature range . Is there any alternate method for setting the threshold value .


    Dr. M. Anand Kumar

    When you create random numbers using software, the results are not random in a strict, mathematical sense. However, software applications, such 
    as MATLAB, use algorithms that make your results appear to be random and independent. The results also pass various statistical tests of 
    randomness and independence. These apparently random and independent numbers are often described as pseudorandom and pseudoindependent. 
    You can use these numbers as if they are truly random and independent.

  • Ajay Saini added an answer in Agrobacterium:
    Any advice on my problem in transforming Agrobacterium GV3101?

    I am transforming Agrobacterium GV3010 competent cells with the plasmid after Gateway cloning(after LR reaction) by electroporation but after transformation I am getting bacterial lawn in next 12 hours only.Please suggest me why is it like that as Agrobacterium needs atleast 24 hrs to grow.

    Ajay Saini

    Hi Sony,

    The  other factors for this reason cane be:

    1)  if the plasmid amount used for transformation in very high and if the number of cells are also high. You can dilute the cells and plate the cells.

    2) Also if the competent cell preparation is contaminated with some other resistant strain...it will out grow the recombinant strain and will result into a lawn.....in this case dilution may not be of much help...you'll have to prepare the cells again..