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  • Arpana Mishra added an answer in Biopesticides:
    How to control weed parthenum(Carrot grass)using chemical agent or any other means effectively ?

    We are working on the weed control strategy. Can any body suggest how to control weed parthenum (Carrot grass) using pesticides/Biopesticides ?

    Arpana Mishra · Mahatma Gandhi Chitrakoot Gramoday University

    Plz.view my publication on RG.

  • Charles Francis added an answer in Theoretical Physics:
    Can Quantum 'Mechanical' Description of Physical Reality be considered Completed?

    Simplicity is the key to the interpretation of physics. Nothing more simple in the analysis than supposing the existence of some parameter "hidden," invisible and not measurable which is an integral part of a pair of photons and that tells at the time of their creation: "you are oriented east" or "you are oriented to the west. "This analysis requires us to introduce "hidden variables", a process which in physics is debatable, but allows in a very elegant way to explain everything in realistic terms. The pair of photons has its own objective reality that can describe them completely. Part of this reality is unknowable but never mind, the problem is only human, nature is safe.

    We have two options: 1) quantum mechanics is inherently probabilistic; 2) quantum mechanics is not inherently probabilistic, but deterministic. The first position is that of the so-called "Copenhagen interpretation", still very accredited by physicists, while the second was that of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) and of the "hidden variables". Subsequently, Bell showed that the hidden variables can not be there. John Bell in 1964 pointed the way for an experimental verification of the existence of hidden variables, but subsequent experiments, especially the French group of Alain Aspect, have shown the full validity of quantum mechanics.

    Then, the second theoretical position is no longer sustainable. Instead it is if we consider the fact that the "ontological materiality" turns out to be greater than the "physical". There are no additional variables that may enter into the physic calculation, but there are physical materials that physics fails to consider which have an impact on theorizing. These factors determine the overall behavior of matter which, therefore, appears inherently probabilistic. It can be said that Einstein was right: the hidden variables exist, only that they lurk outside of physics, in ontology.

    Many physicists (Einstein leading) have always refused that indetermination be an inherent feature of physical reality. Consequently, they preferred to assume that the description provided by quantum mechanics was simply incomplete. Their reasoning, in practice, consists in saying: even at the microscopic level physical reality continues to be deterministic, only that we can not know the exact values of the state variables and so we are forced to an indeterministic description. To explain this failure many proponents of determinism (starting from Einstein himself) introduced the so-called "hidden variables". At the microscopic level, there would be some factor that is not yet known which would prevent us from a deterministic description. The moment we knew, we could provide a description of these factors completely deterministic

    For many years the debate between the advocates of the hidden variables and the promoters of intrinsic indeterminism remained on a purely metaphysical level. In 1964, however, the physicist J.S. Bell derived a famous inequality (Bell's theorem) that allowed to transfer experimentally what until then had been a metaphysical discussion. Such inequality, in practice, led us to expect different experimental results depending on whether had been true the hypothesis of hidden variables (at least limited to the so-called "local theories") or not.

    Now, the Heisenberg principle would not only establish our inability to learn at the same time the values ​​of the position and momentum of a particle. These values are established, before a measurement be made, they are absolutely and inherently indeterminate.

    Einstein's objections to quantum mechanics made sense because he was perfectly aware that quantum mechanics is incompatible with determinism. However, his views obstinately deterministic and his attempts to defend them (hidden variables) have not stood the test of facts.

    The microscopic reality is inherently indeterminate. However, what is surprising is that the macroscopic reality is instead largely deterministic. To explain this apparent contradiction is a fascinating challenge in theoretical physics. An interesting attempt at a solution appears that provided by three Italian physicists G. Ghirardi, A. Rimini and. T. Weber (in Physical Review D 34, 470, 1986).

    So, in this context it became obvious that the description of the states of a physical system offered by quantum mechanics was incomplete and that such an incompleteness was responsible for the indeterministic character of the theory. In other words, it has been assumed that quantum mechanics is indeterministic only because our level of knowledge does not put us in a position to "see" some additional variable, able to "complete" the description of the physical system provided by quantum mechanics. According to this conjecture, if we were able to identify these new variables, currently "hidden", we would recuperate a level of description deeper than the quantum level and at that level determinism could be recovered. "

    In fact, the enigma of the "hidden variables" was not solved by a logical-deductive approach, as Popper might have wished, or was it only partially.

    As already said, “in 1964 the issue was a crucial turning point: J. Bell showed that for a large family of theories and hidden variables, the so-called local theories, it is impossible to reproduce with media operations on hidden variables all the predictions of quantum mechanics. "" the result of Bell had the great merit of showing on the experimental ground the theme of possible deterministic completions of quantum mechanics, and a great interest aroused for the realization of experiments sensitive to discrepancies between the predictions of quantum mechanics and that of the local theories of hidden variables . "(Enrico Beltrametti)

    In 1981, Alain Aspect was able to realize the first of a series of experiments of high quality. In practice, the experiment showed that Einstein had been wrong in suggesting the idea of hidden variables.

    As for Popper, we could say that he lost a game: the one with LQ,

    Criticism of Popper was wrong from a logical point of view, but in many ways it had some basis. Popper did not want to admit a weakness of logic explicit in theory LQ. For Popper's logic was to remain an ‘a priori’ science, having as main feature the absolute independence from any content. Therefore, he refused to consider the possibility of choosing logics different from the logic, most suitable than this to the empirical character of particular situations.

    Already in the Logic of Scientific Discovery, which was finished in 1934, then prior to the writing of Birkhoff and von Neumann, Popper anticipated: "... replacing the word" true with "the word" likely "and the word" false  with "the word" unlikely ", nothing is gained.

    However Popper earned another no less important point. The revolutionary discovery of Bell and Aspect was not from a pure inductivism, but from experiments carried out in the light of a theory already formulated ‘a priori’, then from a hypothesis to be subjected to strict scrutiny, identifying the elements and data that could refute it. At least on this ground, Popper took an important rematch.

    At the time of the article in Einstein's death, the controversy was still strong and "philosophical" issues had a great weight, so much so that an American physicist was the victim of McCarthyism and lost his job for supporting a deterministic model with hidden variables. Today we tend to minimize the importance of our imperfect knowledge on the subject; theories are used as they are reaping the fruits without worrying about a coherent understanding of the underlying laws. Most physicists do not interpret more the principle of indeterminism  in a metaphysical way. It is considered as a simple impossibility of knowing at the same time position and momentum of the particles in a system still felt completely deterministic. After all, beyond the supposed wave-particle duality, also in the macroscopic world there is a kind of uncertainty: for example, I can not measure my speed with accuracy higher than my reaction time to press the button on the timer.

    Charles Francis · Jesus College, Cambridge

    The basic idea is actually very simple. Confusion in quantum mechanics arises from thinking that the wave function means that the particle is somehow spread over all space. But in logic and probability theory plus corresponds to OR, not to AND. The wave function means that the particle could be found anywhere, not that it is somehow everywhere where the wave function is non-zero. 

    Similarly the field operators mean that a particle could be created or annilated anywhere, contingent upon the distribution of matter. They are not to be conflated with the classical notion of a field, as currently happens in approaches to qft based on second quantisation.

  • Harry ten Brink added an answer in Climate Change:
    Is it time we shift emphasis from technological solutions to climate change & focus on the 'Human Dimension'?

    Isn't the obvious solution and elephant-in-the-room 'BETTER HUMAN BEINGS'? Shouldn't the focus be on better human beings rather than better technology? Is it not obvious that nature can heal itself, if only left alone, and it is we humans who need regulation? Many natural parks managers do just that; seal off the area from human interference to let nature heal and recover. It is classified as 'Strict Nature Reserve"by IUCN. Complacency and inaction are not advocated here, as many have misunderstood, but the shifting of focus from technology to the human being. As technology is no match for human greed, isn't introspection & restraining ourselves more relevant than developing more technology, which caused the mess in the first place, by making it easy for a few to consume more? Since technology is only a short term quick fix which fails after a short time, isn't the real problem our addiction to material consumption & our lack of understanding about human nature? Isn't developing more technology sustaining the addiction instead of correcting it, leading to more complex problems later on, needing more complex technological quick fixes like higher drug dosages, more ground troops & equipment, (along with their debilitating side effects) in the future? Isn't this the vicious addiction circle we are trapped in? As researchers, do we merely buy more time with technology OR go to the very root of the problem, the human being?

    A lot of hue and cry is made about climate change and the environment in general. Public and private money is poured into research to study its effects on the environment, sustainability etc. Should we study nature or ourselves?

    " Our studies must begin with our selves and not with the heavens. "-Ouspensky

    Human activities have been found to have a direct correlation to climate change and its impact on the environment(I=P x A x T, the Ehrlich and Holdren equation), in spite of what some complacent sections say to protect their own self interests.

    We hardly know about Human nature. We can scarcely predict human behavior. We need to find out why we think like we do and why we do what we do and why, in spite of all knowledge and wisdom, consume more than what we need, in the form of addictions to consumption and imbalance not only ourselves but also the family, society and environment around us..
    Humanity is directly responsible for all the unnatural imbalances occurring on the planet. Yet we refuse to take responsibility and instead focus on climate change, or fool the public exchequer with a 'breakthrough in renewable energy just around the corner'. We scarcely know what drives human beings. If we had known, all the imbalances around us would have had solutions by now, given the amount of money plowed into finding such solutions. Are we blindly groping in the dark of climate change because we don't know the answers to our own nature?
    Is it not high time we focus on what makes us human, correct our consumptive behavior and leave nature to take care of climate change? Why focus effort on 'externals' when the problem is 'internal'- 'me'?
    Aren't we addicts denying our addiction and blaming everything else but ourselves?

    " We are what we Think.

    All that we are arises with our thoughts.

    With our thoughts, we make the world." - Buddha 

    IMHO, We don't need to save the World. It is enough if we save ourselves from ourselves. The need of the hour is not vain glorious interventions, but self-restraint and self-correction!

    The Mind is the Final frontier.

    Harry ten Brink · Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands


    I was saved by penicillin back then. I like to ask you what you would do in case of an acute lethal emergency: go to an ayurveda kurort?

  • Gaber M Abogadallah asked a question in Glyphosate:
    Glyphosate or glufosinate?

    We are screening Arabidopsis seeds transformed with bar gene as a selectable marker. Can we use glyphosate instead of glufosinate for selection? Can the bar gene mediate the degradation of both compounds or it is specific to glufosinate?

    Your help is appreciated.

  • Atefe Ameri added an answer in Somatic Embryogenesis:
    What is the reason of growth stopping of germinated somatic embryo? What is its troubleshooting?

    I am studying on somatic embryogenesis in Pyrus communis. After germination of somatic embryo, their growths were stopped.

    Atefe Ameri · Ferdowsi University Of Mashhad

    Hi Dr. Jane WANJIKU Kahia 

    Thanks for your comment

    The leaves related to plant turn white after the time. I am using jar for culture and sealing with foil. embryos after the passing the maturation term, they germinate.

  • Christopher Taylor added an answer in Biodiversity Research:
    Can anyone recommend a good review for biodiversity indicators of vegetation (herbaceous, shrub and trees)?

    I would like to compare the effect of grazing in different woodlands stands.

  • Raeesh Muhammad added an answer in EDX:
    Can anybody give the details that why hydrogen is not present in EDX SPECTRUM

    I am doing research in the field of crystal growth. For any organic or semi crystals hydrogen is not present in the EDX spectrum. What is the reason behind it?. If u have any idea please send me.  

    Raeesh Muhammad · Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

    Hello Dr. Gyorgy Banhegyi and Dr. Yang Gan,

    What could be the reason for not getting reliable data for Boron detection in EDAX, despite the fact that its K shell electron are not valence electron.

  • I Putu Tedy Indrayana added an answer in Magnetic Nanoparticles:
    Why do magnetic nanoparticles have band gap energy?

    In analyzing the optical properties of nanoparticles should investigate the band gap energy of nanoparticles. Where the band gap come from? I still dont understand yet the reason. 

    I Putu Tedy Indrayana · Gadjah Mada University

    Well, thank for all answers. Those were really help me.

  • Mounir Louhaichi added an answer in Opuntia ficus-indica:
    What is the carbon sequestration potential of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica)?

    FYI, Cactus has greater water-use efficiency due to the crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthetic pathway that is several times more efficient in converting water and CO2 to dry matter plants than either C4 or C3 plants

    Preferably under semi-arid condition

    Mounir Louhaichi · International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA)

    Dear Kanneth Towe,

    I understand the extend of surface area occupied by CAM species. However, I am not convinced that they have limitation when it comes to carbon sequestration. Cacti are ever green species and should not easily lose carbon sequestered. If you have any publication supporting your claim I appreciate if you share them with me. 

  • Le Phuc Nguyen added an answer in Transfer:
    Why do we passivate catalyst after reduction?

    Why do we need to passivate catalyst after reduction? Can I just transfer my catalyst to the reaction ( transfer is done in O2-free atmosphere)?  

    Thank you.

    Le Phuc Nguyen · Vietnam Petroleum Institute

    For example, when people want to take the catalyst out of the reactor but the catalyst could react with oxygen in air and cause some bad effect due to the exothermic reaction, they have to passivate the catalyst before open the reactor.

    For the hydrogenation, you can reduce your catalyst in-situ and perform your reaction without the passivation step.


  • Patrick Druggan added an answer in Bacterial Cell Culture:
    For conducting antibiotic sensitivity assay by disc diffusion method what should be the OD (at 590nm or 600nm or 620nm) of inoculum used for swabbing?

    In literature it is said that inoculum of bacterial culture  used for swab inoculation of test plate should have concentration adjusted to 0.5 McFarland turbidity standard, which is roughly equivalent to 150 million cells per mL. Visual matching is subjective while CFU count is cumbersome then why not to use OD measured with spectro-photometer? If we have to use Spectro-photometer than what should be OD and at what wavelength it should optimally be read?

    Patrick Druggan


    The oxygen tension will effect total energy output, and therefore growth rate. The inhibition zone area is proportional to the diffusion rate and the rate of growth. Depending on the buffering capacity of the medium - and this can vary - the carbon dioxide may drive the pH down to the pKa1 for CO2 - around 6.0 to 6.1. This you affect both diffusion rate due to changes in ionisation of the antibioitc, and growth rate as the medium me be displace from optimum pH.

  • Ashang Luwang Laiva asked a question in MCF-7 Cells:
    Which caspase activation pathway is involved in the apoptosis of MCF-7 cells by doxorubicin?

    Majority of the studies have shown that MCF-7 cells do not express caspase-3, which is however the major apoptotic pathway for a wide range of cancer cells. And if different drugs activate different caspase pathways, which caspase activity should I look for in caspase-3 deficient MCF-7 cells?

  • Ariel Linden added an answer in SPSS:
    How to Analyze the trend of the time series for variable some its volums were negative by spss?

    How to Analyze the trend of the time series variable some its volums were negative by spss program? example balance of trade between any two countries.

    Ariel Linden · University of Michigan

    Hi Sarhan,

    You still have not clarified for me what exactly is this variable you are calling "balance between Egypt and Arab countries"? What do you refer to as "volume"? Also is this your dependent variable? What specific model are you using? I cannot provide you with any information unless you explain what you are analyzing and how.

    I am providing a link to a recent paper I wrote on interrupted time series analysis (and the software package I wrote for Stata that performs these analyses). Even though you may not have an intervention in your analysis, the general concepts remain the same. I suggest that you give this a cursory read to see if it can help you with your particular analytic problem.

    I hope this helps


  • Sansrity Sinha added an answer in Rhesus Macaque:
    How do I get a greater yield in a RNA isolation of the Hypothalamus?

    I am having trouble getting a better yield for my RNA extraction. I use the Trizol reagent protocol for isolation of RNA in my Rhesus Macaque brains. Some issues I have include not getting a pellet after removal of the aqueous phase, and having to re-centrifuge the supernatant of my sample. I originally practiced the protocol using Cerebellum and would receive an initial yield of about 100 ng/ul, and following the re-centrifugation of the supernatant would usually get a yield anywhere between 750-1000 ng/ul. Now I have moved on to harvesting the Hypothalamus but have received substantially lower yields and I have had to re-centrifuge the supernatant multiple times.

    Does anyone know what a typical yield for RNA in the Hypothalamus should be? Also, any suggestions on how to get a pellet would be greatly appreciated. I have increased the time and RPM's at which I centrifuge and am still not able to get pellet formation.

    Sansrity Sinha · Indian Institute of Technology Madras

    u can also try using glycogen with isopropanol during isopropanol precipitation step.

  • Christopher Taylor added an answer in Conservation Biology:
    How do I combine density data to quantified disturbance in order to map risk for a given species?

    I would like to know which formula would be correct to calculate a value of risk for marine mammals knowing the noise generated by human activities and the density of animals. Data are provided in 0.05° grid and I would like to obtain a map of predicted risk of disturbance for mammals.

    Following Garthe and Hüppop 2004 (wind farm sensivity index calculation), I was thinking to do this :

    Risk = (ln (density + 1) X noise)

    Do you think it is correct ?

    Thank you!

  • Mohammed Ali Hussaini Syed added an answer in Methylation:
    What is the mechanism for the synthesis of acetyl methyl urea?

    I need to understand the step by step mechanism involved in the preparation of Acetyl methyl urea from Acetamide using Bromine and NaOH.

    Mohammed Ali Hussaini Syed · Indian Institute of Chemical Technology

    I agree with Dr. Pach

  • Hammad Cheema added an answer in HOMO-LUMO:
    How do I calculate electro chemicallly HOMO, LUMO and band gap of a organic material by using cyclic voltammetry?

    For example

    i want to determine HOMO LUMO and band gap of Schiff base compound by using cyclic voltammetry... How? 

    Hammad Cheema · North Carolina State University

    In three electrode system, Glassy carbon (working electrode), Pt wire as (Counter electrode) and Ag/Ag+ (reference electrode) with ferrocene as internal reference, first get the CV graph for ferrocene and then for your compound, HOMO or ground state oxidation potential will be the onset of oxidation of your compound in CV graph (add 0.63V to convert against NHE from Ferrocene, E0-0 can be conveniently taken from UV-Vis abs. onset and then Excited state oxidation potential tentatively also known as LUMO is as follows ESOP = [(GSOP (V) +4.7) - E0-0] eV. 

    Good luck.

  • Debasish Paul asked a question in Fellowship:
    Query regarding INDO-US short term visiting fellowship?

    Can any one inform me about short term (3-9 months) of INDO-USA visiting fellowship for phD student from India?

  • András Bozsik added an answer in Religion:
    Can we correlate science with religion?

    Science and religion...

    András Bozsik · University of Debrecen

    Dear Sufia,

    Your question has got at least two or three meanings. Please, specify it.

    By the way, I agree with Miranda. Religion does deal with the spirituality of humans and normally it is separated from the political power.

  • Margaret Ward added an answer in Roman Archaeology:
    Does anyone know nailed horseshoes from a well documented Roman context?


    I'm interested in literature about nailed horse shoes (not hipposandals) from well documented Roman contexts.

    The existence of nailed horseshoes has been denied recently by

    Simone Martini, Mittelalterliche und neuzeitliche Hufeisen im Rheinischen Landesmuseum Trier. Funde und Ausgrabungen im Bezirk Trier 42, 2010, 70-90.

    According to

    Insa Lingens, Die Entwicklung der Hufpflege und des Hufbeschlags von der Antike bis zur Neuzeit unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Hufbeschlags bei der Hufrehe (PhD thesis, Berlin 2008).



    there is no clear evidence for nailed horseshoes from Roman times.

    Currently I'm working on artefacts excavated the 60ies near Obermendig (Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany) in a late Roman granary (horreum) presumably fortified as a burgus. 99% of these finds date to the 4th and 5th centuries AD, but there are some few late medieval objects from the site. There are two horseshoes among the finds. May they be Roman? Any advice would be welcome.

    Best regards,

    Stefan Wenzel

    PS: Please find drawings of the horseshoes attached.

    Margaret Ward · University of Cambridge

    On p 232 Dixon/Southern argue that only one hoof is shown shod and they say 'The evidence is thus inconclusive ' They do, however, imply that the other three feet may have had details painted on. On p 233 they add, 'the possibility cannot be discounted that this is an ordinary soleae ferrae tied on by cords which were painted on the monument.....' [NB 'an ordinary soleae ferrae' sic - sloppy use of English from English-speakers again, as the Latin is in the plural, but does that odd adjective 'ferrae' suggest sloppy use of Latin?]. Either way, concerning 'Roman horseshoes', everyone seems to be 'having their cake and eating it',  to mix metaphors - and use a lovely anglicism. 

  • Rachel Collin added an answer in Introduced Species:
    Is there a Barnacle Taxonomist?

    Looking for someone with expertise in barnacle taxonomy to help identify a potential newly introduced species in the southeastern U.S.

    Rachel Collin · Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

    You could also try John Wares.  He has large molecular datasets on barnacles from the US.   University of Georgia.  http://www.ecology.uga.edu/facultyMember.php?Wares-103/

  • Mohammed Ali Hussaini Syed added an answer in Synthetic Organic Chemistry:
    Compound Purification: Looking For a Better Workup Procedure in Organic Synthesis?

    I have a crude reaction mixture, consisting of Potassium Carbonate, organic polar compound (the required one) and some polar but possibly organic impurities. I have possible two options to workup. Is it better to first perform aqueous washing to remove potassium carbonate and then run column chromatography to purify my required compound from impurities. Alternatively, i should better run column chromatography directly instead of aqueous washing because potassium carbonate is ionic salt and may stick on flash silica which could possibly give me my required compound as fully pured. What type of workup should i go with? I am interested to seek answers from respective expertise in the field of Synthetic Organic Chemistry or as relevant.

    Mohammed Ali Hussaini Syed · Indian Institute of Chemical Technology

    I would suggest you to confirm the solubility of your product (aqueous or organic). If your compound is significantly soluble in organic solvent then you can use either of the options you mentioned. If you feel your compound has more affinity towards water then its better to proceed with the second method. In addition, you can also filter the potassium carbonate and purify the organic layer using column chromatography. This method may furnish your compound in lesser time compared to the second option you have discussed.

    Best wishes,

  • Patrick Druggan added an answer in Antibiotic Production:
    What method should I use in order to extract antibiotic compounds from bacteria?

    My undergraduate thesis is about bacteria that were isolated from Sago Palm (Metroxylon sagu); it has been established that these isolated bacteria have antibiotic priorities. Thus, I am trying to isolate and purify these antibiotic compounds for further research. Yet, I am quite confused on how I can extract these antibiotic compounds. What media should I use for antibiotic productivity? Any help?

    Patrick Druggan

     This is too vague. What genus of bacteria are you writing about?

  • I Putu Tedy Indrayana added an answer in Band Gap:
    Could anyone tell me how to plot Tauch plot base on UV-Vis data?

    Gap energy is fundamental quantity to investigate the optical properties of material. Gap energy can be obtained from Tauch plot base on UV-Vis data (transmittance v.s. wavelength). Somehow, the researchers use Tauch equation:

    (alpha)*(h)*(nu) =  A*(h*nu - Egap)^n


    alpha = linear absorption coefficient; h = Planck's constant; nu = frequency of light; A = the proportionality constant; Egap = gap energy; n = 1/2 for direct band gap material.

    According to the equation, it is very hard for me to determine the value of A, and how to provide the plot of (alpha*h*nu) v.s. (h*nu). 

    I Putu Tedy Indrayana · Gadjah Mada University

    Thank for all answers. I am very delighted of you.

  • Masoud Darbasi asked a question in alpha-Tocopherol:
    How will the mixed film of chitosan–nanocellulose impermeable to alpha tocopherol?


    I want to make this film impermeable to alpha tocopherol, but I don't know adding witch material or witch treatment will do this for me. This is very important for me. If you know the answer please help me.


  • Barrie Gilbert added an answer in Information Analysis:
    Is 'information' definable as a scientifically valid and unified term?

    In our Age of Information the physical Theory of Information by SHANNON is to narrow - he excluded "psychological considerations". But today the importance of this term is too great - we need a unified definition for  a l l  sciences !

    My results see at http://www.plbg.at, but they are only my ideas. They try to find a valid and acceptable  abstraction over all sciences. 

    Barrie Gilbert · Analog Devices, Inc.



    I am "attentive enough" to realize that yours is indeed an extreme position

    one which, by seeking to define information in a very limited way, will gain

    no momentum nor a significant following.


    Still with respect

  • Louis Brassard added an answer in Foundations of Physics:
    Do the effects of mind on matter as demonstrated in the experiments of Radin et al (Physics essays 2012 & 2013) herald a new scientific paradigm ?

    This refers to the recent experiments of Radin et al :

    1) D. Radin, L. Michel, K. Galdamez, P. Wendland, R Rickenbach and A. Delorme
    Physics Essays, 25, 2, 157 (2012).
    2)  D. Radin, L. Michel, J. Johnston and A. Delorme, Physics Essays, 26, 4, 553 (2013).

    These experiments show that observers can affect the outcome of a double slit experiments as evidenced by a definite change in the interference pattern.

    It requires urgent attention from the scientific community, especially Physicists.

    If these observed effects are real, then we must have a scientific theory that can account for them.

    Louis Brassard ·


    The limitation of science I was talking about is not related to the state of advancement of knowledge but intrinsic to what is a scientific explanation and it cannot change.  After more than 150 years of psychological and physiological sciences there is absolutly zero notion of: What is experience, awareness, consciousness, Mind.  I am not saying that we have learned nothing about physiological mechanisms.  We have learned a lot.  We have learned a huge amount of information between the causal chains related to all our perceptions but absolutly none of that explain why there is awareness.  This is a complete mystery.  Chalmer called it: the hard problem of consciousness.  It is in my opinion a mystake to call it a hard problem because there is no scientific problem there for the reason that it is totally outside the limit of science to deal with experience.  Science is about the conceptual and it does not include experience, it excludes it by definition of what a concept/mechanist.  We cannot understand what has nothing to do with understanding.  I am not alone to think this.  Erwin Schrodinger ¨ in his books What is Life? (free download), and Mind and Matter (free download). Or Ian Koenderink in : Visual Awareness (free download).  Even if Radin et al. would finally manage to design an experiments where the results are clearly above noise about the effect of the intention of a group of people intending by their thoughts to influence the results of the experiment then it would provide absolutly no proof that their Mind influence the experiments because we have no clue what their Mind is scientifically and we will never have.  In the ordinary language , Mind, consciousness and awareness are very clear expressions but they have absolutly no scientific meaning because science use a precise language which exclude all that is not relation between measurements.  It is an intrinsic limitation and we will never scientifically understand everything that is not of this nature.  

  • Hossein Salmani added an answer in Land Use Change:
    What is the best model for study effects of Land use change and climate change on Water Resources During the Future Period Except from SWAT model?

    What is the best method or model for study effects of Land use change and climate change on Water Resources during the Future Period Except from SWAT model??

    Hossein Salmani · Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources

    thank you very much Henning Sten Hansen, Pétala Bianchi Augusto-Silva, Vitalii Mokin and Mostafa Rashidpour.

  • Gila Behzadi added an answer in Xylenes:
    Does incubation of my IHC stained slides in Xylene for 3 days at 37 C impact the staining ?

    After preparation and staining of my IHC slides, I found some air bubbles under the cover slip and I want to get rid of that so I decided to incubate my slides in Xylene for 3 days, I am afraid that I have to run samples again through Alcohol to DW for re-hydration the matter that may impact my staining, what do you recommend me to do ? stain my slides again or condones the consequent hydration procedure ?

    Gila Behzadi · Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences

    Add to Hasiena Ali suggestion, just remind not good 37c, keep your slides in xylen at lab temp (~25c) for 2-3 days, the coverslips will get off easily.

  • Melissa Walt added an answer in Health-Related Quality Of Life:
    I desperately need help recruiting adult cancer survivors for my doctoral dissertation. Does anyone have ideas?

    Hello! I am currently working on my dissertation and am having a really hard time finding participants to complete my survey.   I am conducting research on health-related quality of life among cancer survivors, specifically adult survivors, aged 18 years and older.   All cancer diagnoses will be considered and there is no limit to how long individuals must have been in remission.  My questionnaire is posted in many Cancer Support Centers in the Chicago area, as well as in Ohio. Additionally, the link to my research can be found on the National Cancer Institute Facebook page. My survey is accessible online via SurveyMonkey and takes about 20 minutes to complete a short demographic tool and a 41-item self report measure.  Currently, I am well below the sample size I need to obtain significant results, so I am reaching out to all the avenues I am aware of.  Please let me know if you have any connections to this specific population (any cancer type) or recommendations of organizations that would be open to disseminating my information to their participants. I am looking forward to any feedback and appreciate your consideration! Thank you in advance!!

    Melissa Walt · Adler School of Professional Psychology

    Thank you for the suggestions!  I have my flyer posted at many cancer support centers and on the National Cancer Institute Facebook page, as well as my own.  If you know of any large cancer charities, with larger catchment size, and who have been willing to disseminate this type of information to their participants in the past, let me know who they are so I can contact them.  I appreciate all the help I can get!