Q&A

ResearchGate Q&A lets scientists and researchers exchange questions and answers relating to their research expertise, including areas such as techniques and methodologies.

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  • Estevan Gomez added an answer in Raspberry Pi:
    What does an IoT shield look like?

    The Sensorian Shield is an add-on sensor board that transforms all Raspberry Pi models into an Internet of Things (IoT) platform for tinkering. It provides an extensive set of Python and C libraries. Learn more at Kickstarter.

    Estevan Gomez · Universidad Tecnológica Equinoccial (UTE)

    Congratulations, this is a very good Project, I am doing a research about IoT , and I think I will be contact to you for getting the product

  • Abdulaziz M. Ghaleb asked a question in Self-Organizing Networks:
    Is JAVA sufficient for LTE simulation and Self-Organizing Networks?

    Is there any Java-based LTE Simulator and Self-Organizing Networks? 

    If yes, does anybody have a sample project?

  • Miranda Yeoh added an answer in Cultural Politics:
    Which structures of the human society are more fault tolerant ?

    Fault Tolerance – Measure of Strength and Stability

    In any structure that is natural or designed or abstractly constructed, its capacity to continue or not to continue to function with a glitch is called fault tolerance capacity. Structures that are well designed and built with high degrees of complexities of orders have a very high fault tolerance capacity while those which are or weak made naively and with no complexities have less or no fault tolerance capacity and a simple glitch in a single part will completely stop the system to function and therefore are more sensitive to new things and hence require constant presence of force or any other agent that blocks and keeps anything new at bay.      

    These properties are also known in sciences and mathematics in which a very highly structured system has more capabilities and resources to describe and represent properties or behaviors, create more relations within and solve problems that arise in the structure, keeping the structure or system more stable and to some extent open to any type of perturbations that may occur or introduction of a new thing into the system.            

    The same principles hold in socio-economic, cultural and political structures of societies. These structures or systems in which societies manage their daily lives are based on relations they make among citizenry and between citizens and governments who make decisions on their behalf. As rich people and governments control resources, set policies and make decisions, their actions directly or indirectly affect the livelihood of citizens for good or for bad, for now and for the future to come.

    Which structures of the human society are more fault tolerant and which ones are not? What do you think are the reasons of the strength and the reasons of weaknesses to be less fault tolerant?  

    Miranda Yeoh · Selangor Matriculation College, Malaysia (Kolej Matrikulasi Selangor)

    Dear friends, being someone who grew up in an Asian society, I see that our society seem to choose whose faults they would tolerate, and not just the type of fault that they would tolerate.  in a typical Chinese home the boys seem to get away with many faults, but girls do not have such a privilege.

    In the larger community, the rich seem to be able to get away with faults or sins.  But there is no such leniency for the poor.  Perhaps this is quite prevalent in many societies.  (My bible teaches me a better way.)

  • Aljoriz Dublin added an answer in Qualitative:
    Is it possible to set hypothesis for qualitative data?

    in the process of analysing data collected, it was discovered that all are qualitative and contemplation is on to state and possibly test hypothesis

    Aljoriz Dublin · University of the Visayas

    It maybe possible under Grounded theory but research tradition in Qualitative approaches prohibits the usage of hypothesis.  This is due to the fact that qualitative approaches does not perform seek causal relationships.

  • Marković G. Đoko added an answer in Art:
    Does anyone know how to explain how it is that after the pos-modern style of art, again coming moderm art?

    Modern, has always meant something never seen until the moment of occurrence. Modern, involves looking through "different glasses". Seeing the same phenomenon as no one has seen before. It is modern contemporaries always been a bit "silly".

    Marković G. Đoko · University of Montenegro

    Dear Mohemid Al-Jebouri,

    Thank you, but all of my paintings are only one point of poliforms style.

    Đ.

  • Rabindra Parajuli asked a question in Guidelines:
    Can anyone help me or provide with a simplified guidelines to perform NMDS to compare the plant species composition between two different habitats?

    I want to perform NMDS -

    • to compare the species composition between shrubland and grassland
    • I did pair-wise sampling and collected presence-absence (i.e. incidence based) data of plant species
    • I am thinking of using R for the analysis, but open to use other free software as well if there are any

    Or if you think that there is more convenient/easier and widely accepted way of comparing species composition between habitats/groups, that will also be highly helpful.

    So, if you have any idea or guidelines for this, please let me know. I would be greatly obliged for your kind help. Thanks!

  • Govindaraj .R added an answer in Features:
    How to build model from different types of features?

    I am using 3 types of feature classes (Point,Line and Poly). Now I want to give some common field and name those features. How might I build a model using ArcMap10.1?

    I am looking for your guidance. Thanks in advance.

    Govindaraj .R · Bharathidasan University

    Thank u Mr. Gabriel. Anyway I got answer my question. 

  • Manuel Morales added an answer in Sociology of Religion:
    Was twentieth century science atheistic?
    As from 1967, at the time when I was being taught Special Relativity, I got the impression, indicated by my physic's professor, that I should accept atheism as a pillar of modern science. Was that impression correct? Cantor's Universe, that I teach, allows in principle a theistic view. Now, I wonder: What is the contemporary opinion on this subject? I am interested to hear some opinions. What is yours? Do you practice science from an atheistic point of view?
    Manuel Morales · TemptDestiny.com - Prephysics Research

    If cause is so complicated it is because you do not understand what cause is. Your assumption that states of existence (a God or God particle) causes other states of existence (the universe) places causality second to its effects which is a violation of temporal precedence.

    So if the existence of something is causal then please answer me this:

    How much does a selection weigh, what is its scale, and where was the selection you used to read these words located?

  • Kiran Maroti Pandav added an answer in Power Electronics Applications:
    How can I increase the gain of a DC-DC Converter?

    I have designed a Boost Converter, now I want to increase the converter gain without changing the converter parameters. Is it possible any way?

    Kiran Maroti Pandav · Marathwada Institute of Technology

    Increase gain by adding voltage multiplier at load side or use switch inductor at inductor place or use both so gain will be more than normal boost converter.

  • Aljoriz Dublin added an answer in Code Development:
    Would you use Cohen's Kappa to eliminate qualitative codes?

    I have been coding the likes and dislikes of playing videogames in different modes of play. After merging categories, ditching some that had too few cases, coding and recoding, and finally generating Kappas between two raters I have some codes that have have non-significant Kappas, some that are significant but low (under .4) and some that are significant and high (over .8).

    Two questions:

    1. I would assume that the non-significant Kappas indicate that those codes need to be looked at again and possibly eliminated or merged where possible, however would the same hold true for codes that generated low Kappas?

    2. How would you treat the difference in agreement between these codes in terms of their interpretation and application? 

    Thanks!

    Aljoriz Dublin · University of the Visayas

    I am confused? But I will try to help. 

    Coding is typically used to QUALITATIVE Methodology.  Your research on video games likes and dislikes will be best suited for Qualitative study.  The application of Cohen's Kappa may not be suitable with the Qualitative Methodology. 

    For your 2nd question in coding. The research presents the data as is.  If both data are in disagreement it is better to call back the informants to clarify their intentions. Again this answer assumes that you are following the Qualitative Methodology.

  • Surendra Kumar added an answer in QSAR:
    Is this an acceptable Field-Based QSAR model?

    It's my first time to use Schrodinger Suite.Field-based QSAR module was employed to generate a QSAR model. A good model has the highest R2cv, highest stability, highest Pearson-R values and lowest RMSE and SD values. Is it accepted to have RMSE and SD value of 0.61 and 0.68?

     
    Thank you very much.

    Surendra Kumar · Shri Govindram Seksaria Institute of Technology and Science

    Yes, u can accept it.
    Did u divided ur data into training and test set. Which methods you have chosen for dataset division. Did u tried to reshuffle the training and test set data. what are the residual values between experimental and predicted activity.

    In field-based QSAR u can create the CoMFA and CoMSIA models as Sybyl program do.

    In CoMFA u can select the steric and electrostatic field values, where in CoMSIA, there are steric, electrostatic, Hydrophobic, HBA and HBD field values. So those stats are for CoMFA models or CoMSIA models. In CoMSIA models, did u considers all the five field values together. 

  • Sadeem Fadhil asked a question in Citations:
    What are your suggestions to enhance the impact of the present citation evaluation system? Is it really express the real impact of the cited papers?

    I want to know what are the suggestions to make the citation system more reliable and express the real impact of the cited papers and for their authors

    Do you think the present system is enough to express the impact of the cited papers?

    Take this short article as an example

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/277569576_The_impact_of_citation_impact

  • Cynthia Mahl asked a question in Beta Amyloid:
    Does someone know about the ionization, ionic strength and calculation of dissociation constants of amyloid-beta?

    Hi, I'm working with amyloid-beta and copper ions in solution. So, it is important to me know informations about ionization, ionic strength and dissociation constants of beta amyloid, could help me? Or indicate some literature?

  • Abdulazim S Salhab added an answer in CNS Pharmacology:
    Does the exposure (EC50 brain or plasma) level of a drug at 50% of response (efficacy) vary with route of drug administration in pre-clinical animals?

    I am with a view that plasma or brain exposure of a CNS drug remain same at ED50 when it was dosed orally or subcutaneously... But I am not with such result, plz justify the reason for variability..

    Abdulazim S Salhab · Faculty of Medicine, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan; Retired on Sep. 2009

    Generally that  the concentration of any drug after one dose at the 1/2 time of the drug will reach 50% of the level . Most drugs will follow first order kinetic in its accumulation After the second dosing Css of the the drug will be about 75%. After the third dosing of the the drug at  its T1/2 time , the Css  will reach  87.5%and so on.  Therefore, Css  depends mainly on two factors  T1/2 and dosing.  So it is easy to estimate the level of the drug at any time after taking in consideration drug binding, metabolism and clearance, so accumulation of  drug is not easy . and yoy have to often moniter it  

  • Suboohi Shervani added an answer in Surface Plasmon Resonance:
    Will Ni nanoparticles gives surface plasmon resonance at 785 nm laser?

    Thanks in advance for your replies.

    Suboohi Shervani · Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur

    Thank you very much for your presious suggestions..........

  • Naibin Duan added an answer in Mouse Brain:
    What is the best way to save mouse brains?

    We are a kidney lab but are interested in the brain. However, we don't know much about it. We ideally want to get RNA and protein. I have been told to flash freeze in isopentane as opposed to liquid nitrogen. Does it matter? We also do a lot of midnight sacs so is there any good way to just save the brain removal/dissection for the next day? I also know there are discreet sections of the brain but again don't really know what I want to look at yet so is there a way to do a crude dissection that we could refine later once we have a better idea of which areas we want to focus on? Thanks!

    Naibin Duan · Cornell University

    Hi Kristen ,

    Actually I don't know too much about medical research.

    Anyway I remember  once a group in UK found xenon is good to protect the brain.In their studies using rats, researchers from Duke University Medical Center (USA) and Imperial College London, found evidence that the chemically inert gas xenon can protect the brain from the neurological damage often associated with the use of the heart-lung machine during coronary artery bypass surgery.

    I hope this will give you useful  information .

    Best,

    Naibin

  • John Schloendorn added an answer in Gibson Assembly:
    Why doesn't my gibson assembly work?

    I am using the NEB HiFi DNA Assembly Master Mix to assemble 4 fragments (about 1000bp for each) to pUC19(2700bp). The total length is about 7500bp. But I tried several times, I didn't get any colonies. My ratio is 1:1:1:1:1. I have checked my overlaps and the length of overlap is 35-65bp and Tm is about 70 degree and GC content is 40-60%. Can anyone give me some advice about my questions. Thank you.

    John Schloendorn · Gene And Cell Technologies

    No colonies doesn't mean the assembly failed.  It means your transformation procedure isn't good enough to see it.  

    If your transformation was up to snuff, you would be seeing false assemblies and vector background colonies (even when, and especially when the assembly fails!).  If the assembly works, then you get additional colonies containing the correct product on top of that.  It's virtually impossible to get zero colonies with a commercial, well-characterized cell that's certified for large plasmids. 

    Your correct product might well be there.  If you can fix your transformation, you can find out. 

  • Claudia Trave added an answer in Tagging:
    Is there a non-invasive external tagging technique that can be performed on fish?

    Hello Everyone,

    I am looking for a way to externally attach long term (6-12months) acoustic tags on fish of medium size (35-80cm) withouth performing surgery or piercing their skin/muscle.

    Does anyone know if such a technique exists?

    Thank you very much in advance for any suggestions.

    Kind regards,

    Claudia

    Claudia Trave · James Cook University

    Hello David,

    Thank you for your reply. I will visit the Hallprint website and call you for any further enquiries.

    Kind regards,

    Claudia

  • Ruchi Tewari added an answer in Corporate Sustainability:
    Can anyone provide suggestion about the role of HR function in implementing Corporate Sustainable Development?

    Dear colleagues,

    I am doing my thesis in the areas of sustainable development. I am focusing on in what ways the HR can motivate the employees to engage in the corporate sustainability mission. Is there any advices or article that mentioned about this.

    Thank you very much

    Ruchi Tewari · Ahmedabad University

    Nhat Kha,

    The simplest answer to your question is that any attempt of an organization requiring sustainable development means constant and perserving action towards conceptualising the act, implementing the act, measuring the impact and making the relevant changes after measuring and monitoring. All these require HR intervention. 

    I recommend that you refer to the basic functions of HR and match them against the sustainable development efforts made an organization. You will be answering all your questions.

    best

    rt

  • Manuel Morales added an answer in Neutrino Physics:
    Has cosmology diminished neutrino masses?

    When we compare various cosmological determinations of neutrinos masses, Primack et al, 4.8 eV (1994); Allen et al, 0.6±0.3 eV (2003); Battye et al, 0.3±0.1 eV (2014) and finally Palanque-Delbrouille et al, 0.02±0.06 eV (2015), we see that the results have kept changing in the course of the time; moreover, they contradict each other.

    However, the most recent one, appeared after Planck data, is quite impressive and agrees with the conventional picture of the neutrino mass spectrum, expected to obey a hierarchical pattern, and that implies the lower bound of 0.05 eV.

    Evidently, this result is of great importance for the search of neutrino mass in laboratory. Do you consider the new result from cosmology reliable? Which systematic effects could threaten it? And, assuming it is correct, how could we test it in laboratories?

    Reference to the new work:

    Manuel Morales · TemptDestiny.com - Prephysics Research

    Francesco are you familiar with Dragan Slavkov Hajdukovic's paper (see link)?

    He too has not mentioned which selection mechanism would cause the effect of an upper bond.

  • vijai shankar Balachandran added an answer in Resins:
    Can we use Leica Historesin to embed samples for SEM?

    Or any suggestions for a good SEM compatible resin on non-biological subjects? I tried cold cure dental resin (methacrylate) but it cracks in SEM.

    vijai shankar Balachandran · Reliance Industries Limited

    Thanks Vladimir....i too tried the cold cure dental resin(powder+liquid). But it is cracking in the SEM at higher mag.

  • Hiroyuki Wakiguchi added an answer in Immunosuppression:
    What is the appropriate immunosuppressive therapy for MCTD children?

    I would like to know what is the appropriate immunosuppressive drug for treatment of pediatric mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD).


    I already know the following articles.
    1. Tiddens HA, et al. J Pediatr 1993.
    2. Nakata S, et al. Nihon Rinsho Meneki Gakkai Kaishi 1997.
    3. Mier RJ, et al. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2005.


    By the way, our patient with pediatric MCTD has arthritis, and myositis-like symptoms are main.
    I believe that administration of methotrexate may be the appropriate treatment for our case.

    Any suggestions will be greatly appreciated.

    Hiroyuki Wakiguchi · Yamaguchi University

    Dear Majda,

    This is splendid.
    Your flowchart is very reasonable and useful.

    Actually, in our case, 2 courses of methylprednisolone pulse therapy (1 course = 30 mg/kg/day × 3 days/week) were administered. The effectiveness was good. The arthritis and myositis-like symptoms were improved, and creatine kinase levels were normalized. We added MTX (10mg/m2/week) as well as oral prednisolone (1mg/kg/day) after methylprednisolone pulse therapy, and now prednisolone is tapering without flares.

    Thank you so much.

  • Akira Kanda added an answer in Population Ageing:
    Is large scale immigration a solution to ageing and declining populations?
    Discussions about how to deal with demographic ageing and shrinking are taking place in increasing numbers of countries, especially in East Asia and Europe. Japan is my focus. So, is large scale immigration a solution to the perceived problems of ageing and depopulation in developed countries, but particularly in Japan and East Asia?
    Akira Kanda · University of Toronto

    As nobody seems to be capable of communicating beyond the level of "I read this, why don't you read it.", I will continue to present some stimulating postings which Peter called "direct" approach. As a mathematician, I think that the only way to communicate is  be direct. We need not to be vulgar, insulting etc. But we must be direct sincere go straight into the issue without any frills. This is why I have been posting like this because I think the question asked is very important and is much further reaching than it appears. As I said, the whole history of the area current situation and future perspective must be considered.

    As I keep saying the roots of the whole issue is the colonization of this area by Western imperial power. This added a new chapter to Ainu's struggle in Japan. As an ancestor of the race who founded Japan 15,000 years ago, I think I have right to say this. Ainu originated from very remote area of Siberia. We had no contact with the West  until 500 years ago when the Western Imperialists came to Asia and colonized our neighbors. By the time when the Pacific war started there were only two countries left still independent in Asia. It was Japan and Thailand. The rest were taken by the Western Imperial Colonialists. Inside Japan, Ainu's identity was almost destroyed by the internal colonization policy which was carried out by the Japanese government under the instruction of Anglo-America under the Anglo-Japanese Alliance to prevent Russia taking Hokkaido. Before this, Tokugawa considered Ainu's land and community off limit. Ainu and Japanese (Wagin) were independent entities and traded in Hokkaido.

    I hope that those who discuss Japan's immigration problem will study these historic background, including my people's concern,   to have fruitful communication. Japan's identity crisis as I discussed above has a lot to do with the interference from Anglo-America and this certainly impacts a lot on Ainu's identity problem.

    I believe that Japan has obligation to improve her internal racial issues before considering immigration which will make the situation much more complex to be handled.

  • Sayan Bhattacharyya added an answer in Marine Bacteria:
    How do I calculate the bacterial cell concentration if I cannot plate them directly on the solid media?

    Recently I've started working with new for me culture of marine bacteria Alcanivorax borkumensis. It is a hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. As a carbon source I use C16 (hexadecane) and it forms oil droplets on the surface of the media. It complicates CFU enumeration because I believe that  cells get pulled together by oil on the surface after spreading them on the plate. Do you have any suggestions how to overcome this problem?  

    Sayan Bhattacharyya · AIIMS Patna

    You can use a digital colony counter..or calculate the cell number using Mac Farland standard turbidity...

  • Shigeo Kubota added an answer in Refractive Index:
    How can I compute front focal length of cemented doublet lens from BFL?

    I can understand the Front focal length of Cemented Doublet lens will be the same with BFL if each parts of lenses were consist with same material(e.g. SF10).(lenses are surrounded with air)

    But I think that if each part of doublet lens had different material,(e.g. Lak21 and SF10) then the BFL and FFL will become different. 

    Then how can I calculate the FFL from BFL, EFL and refractive index? (Without Raytracing)

    Shigeo Kubota · Oxide Corporation

    Dear all,   I agree that FFL, BFL and EFL are defined with regard to the principal planes of the optical system.   But I recommend you to define the principal planes for each lens element of the doublet lens rather than the principal planes for the doublet lens.   Using  the two set of principal planes and the lens formula, you can calculate FFL and BFL for the doublet lens.   Attached please find Excel sheet for the calcuation.  Lens data is taken from an EFL=75mm achromatic lens consisting N-BK7 positive lens element and N-SF5 negative lens element.   Notations and formulae are consistent with Kingslake's Lens Design Fundamentals.

  • Santosh K. Tiwari added an answer in Thermal Stability:
    Why on blending(melt compounding) of two polymers thermal stability increase ?

       Melt Blending of different polymers (melt compounding) using  screw extruder 

    Santosh K. Tiwari · Indian Institute of Technology, Dhanbad

     Oh ...Thanks dear for your nice suggestion.

     Thanks again ... Have good day.

  • Stewart Ferrell added an answer in Nanophotonics:
    What is the difference between the physics of nanoparticles over and under 20 nm?

    Once I have tried to investigate the optical nonlinear characteristics of nanoparticles, I have noticed that I should have a different view for that of under 20 nm? Why? and which boundary 20 nm stands for? Maybe someone states that in this case the balance between the order of optical wavelength and nanoparticles size is changed. If so, which kind of physics is applicable for?   

    Stewart Ferrell · Carl Sandburg College

    There really is no particular size for all nanomaterials. The paper that you are reviewing is most likely specific for that NP. When looking at noble metal NPs (i.e. Ag and Au), the size is not as important as shape, relatively, compared to those of semiconducting and insulator NPs.  It has been shown that Ag and Au NPs behave classically until the size is > 5nm.  However, these metal NPs also have strong dependence on the environment. Semiconducting NPs are mostly size dependent versus shape dependent, yet there is no particular size that is a magic number for all NPs.  A good book to review all of these ideas is "Optical Properties and Spectroscopy of Nanomaterials" by Jin Zhong Zhang.

    If you need a more specific answer, more information is needed, such as NP material, shape, capping agent, local environment (what is it in? a solution, sol-gel, layered medium, glass matrix, etc.). This information can change all of the optical properties of NPs and their interactions.

  • Ankur Shah added an answer in Fibre:
    Is stress distribution uniform in a two-dimensional isotropic fibre-reinforced plastic subjected to tensile loading?

    Tensile Strength, Two-dimensional Isotropy, Critical Fibre Length, Discontinuous Random Fibre Orientation  

    Ankur Shah · Nanyang Technological University

    If the isotropic fibers are 100% uniformly dispersed with no aggregates and equal spacing between them with uniform geometry then it would have uniform 2D stress gradient.

  • Kimberly Jasmer asked a question in Antibody Specificity:
    Is there an Anti-N-RasQ61K specific antibody?

    Has anyone come across an anti-N-Ras antibody specific for the activating mutation Q61K?