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  • How can I create a Graphical User Interface for FORTRAN code?

    Hi all,

    I have developed a code using Fortan included in the Microsoft Visual Studio 2010. I would like to create a graphical user interface GUI for this code but I don`t know how to do that in easier manner.

    Could anyone please share his experience on such coding development ? is the Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 can do that or should I use other programming languages such Visual Basic, or Delphi or ... to do that ? I`m really confusing on how to start doing this and I would appreciate any suggestion and help.



    Abdelkader Filali · Petroleum Institute (UAE)

    Thank you Bekk for sharing the link

  • Arash Zibaee added an answer in Neocuproine:
    Where to find a protocol to determine how much iron is present in each molecule of haemoglobin?

    Ferrozine (disodium 3-(2-pyridyl)-5,6-bis(4-phenyl sulphonate)-1,2,4-triazine) is a water-soluble Fe(II) chelator. When chelated to iron, the complex absorbs light at 562 nm (molar absorption coefficient = 27,900). Copper can also be bound by ferrozine, however copper binds more strongly to another chelating agent, neocuproine.

              Iron can be released from protein through oxidation with acid-permanganate (1 hours at 60oC). Excess permanganate and released iron can then be reduced with ascorbate (RT for 30 min). Released iron must be kept at a pH of 4.5 – 5.0 for it to remain soluble. Acid-permanganate is an equal mixture of 1.2 M HCl and 0.285 M KMnO4

           Given that the Mr of haemoglobin is 68000 and that for serum albumin is 66000, calculate the number of molecules of iron per molecule of protein.  Use the known textbook value for the amount of iron in haemoglobin to calculate the purity of your sample.

    Hint: a sensible strategy might be to start by constructing a calibration curve for the reaction of ferrozine with iron. Assays will need to use a control protein (non-Fe containing) for reference.

    Another hint: A ratio of 1:5:10 would be appropriate for reagent B: acid-permanganate: sample.

    Materials provided:

    Haemoglobin (1.5 mg/ml)

    Bovine serum albumin (5 mg/ml)

    Ferrous ammonium sulphate (anhydrous?)

    1.2 M HCl

    4.5 % (w/v) (0.285 M) KMnO4

    Reagent B containing:            6.5 mM Ferrozine

                                                    13.1 mM neocuproine

                                                    2 M ascorbic acid

                                                                5 M ammonium acetate.

    Arash Zibaee · University of Guilan

    Hi, I suppose your protocol will lead to reliable results but you can try some biochemical kits which may be presence in your location.  

    Cheers, A.

  • Hasan Aldewachi asked a question in Gold Nanoparticles:
    How can we measure the concentration of peptide required to cover gold nanoparticle surface ?

    when preparing peptide functionalized gold nanoparticles ,I add a peptide in exccess but i would like to know how much of that is peptide is already reacting with gold nanoparticle surface ?

  • Amit Aherwar added an answer in Tungsten:
    Does anyone know the effect of tungsten on the mechanical and sliding wear properties of Co-Cr alloy?

    I just want to know the changes occurs on mechanical properties and sliding wear behavior if we add tungsten as a filler in Co-Cr alloy. 

    Amit Aherwar · Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur

    what happened the compressive strength of the Co-Cr alloy if we add tungsten in the alloy. Is it increase or decrease.........??

  • Redox reaction titration KMNO4 ?

    When titrating potassium permanganate with a reducing agent why is it not favorable to add a lot of the volume of the titrant (from the burette), in a short amount of time. eg. 10 ml in 2 seconds. Other than the results are skewed but why?

    Hasan Aldewachi · Sheffield Hallam University

    Dear Saif

    one of the characterstics of KMNO4 is being described as self indicator as it changes color from violet (or purple) to colorless when reduced , so quick addition of titrant will cause instanteous color change and as a consequence not being able to determine the concentration of reducing agent if that what you are looking for


  • Marc Tessera added an answer in Cognitive Systems:
    Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.


    Do you mean I should be wary of Dorian as well as Varus should have mistrusted the Germanic prince Arminius?   

  • How can I apply Technology Acceptance Model with credit card?

    Infact, the study is all about a criticle evaluation of customer satisfaction using credit card as a means of payment

    Chaminda Chiran Jayasundara · Fiji National University

    I agree with Micheal. TAM is not an appropriate model for evaluating customer satisfaction.  

  • Sudeep Limaye added an answer in Spirituality:
    If a crystal ball could tell you the truth about yourself, your life, the future or anything else, what would you want to know?

    Knowing ourselves is one of the major goals of our lives. Ancient Greek  considered it the utmost, ultimate target. Different branches of Sciences tried and partially succeeded to give certain answers. Spirituality offers also a lot, probably quite more than science. Our aspirations, prospects, perceptions, deepest hopes and accomplishments are mixed together in an ineffable blend, we use to call life.

    Sharing your thoughts on this quest would be an honest travel into ourselves, without indiscretion, but with the aim of giving each to another the very essence of our being.

    Sudeep Limaye · Symbiosis Centre for Distance Learning

    I would have a question.

    Peace and as we Indian believe in Karma my question would be on good karma. 

  • Sudev Naduvath added an answer in Peer Review:
    Do you know a website which allow to share peer reviews?

    I found once on the web a website which allow scientists to share the review they made from scientific articles, but cannot remember the address.

    Sudev Naduvath · Vidya Academy of Science & Technology

     Thanks a lot Prof. Ljubomir Jacić. That is a wonderful information.

  • Abhijit Mitra added an answer in T-Test:
    Statistically, can T test be used to examine a study hypothesis?

    any answers are highly appreciated

    Abhijit Mitra · University of Calcutta

    Yes, but ANOVA and DUNCAN can also be used.

  • Guoyu Ren added an answer in Temperature:
    Can I use the same baseline value for the first 20 yrs for my temperature data?

    I have temperature data for 29 yrs, using first 20 yrs as baseline period I have calculated anomaly for the rest 9 years, can I use the same baseline value for the first 20 yrs?

    Guoyu Ren · China Meteorological Administration

    It depends on what you are to examine. If you are to analyze the climatology, you’d better use the current reference period as recommended by the WMO, 1981-2010, or all the years available; If you are to analyze climatic change and variability, you can use the first 20 years, or all the years available, as base period for calculating anomalies. Data in base period should be relatively complete in any circumstances.

  • Roman Kubrin added an answer in Colloids:
    How do I separate nanoparticles in size range 3 nm from those in 10-30 nm ranges?

    From Colloidal solution how do I separate 3 nm nanoparticles.

    Roman Kubrin · Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology

    You better try not to produce too large nanoparticles next time. Below are some papers on how you could proceed, but if you can do a couple of new synthesis runs by improved methods, it maybe simpler than to improve the size distribution of already "spoiled" colloids.




  • Geocrhonology assistance using 10Be radiometric dating?

    I've had 3 "sub-samples" of a sediment core analyzed to ascertain the 10Be concentration levels. The sediment was taken from a closed basin - centripetal drainage pattern. The results indicate that I have a trend from top to bottom, but no age range was offered to me from the lab who ran the analysis. I've been looking for papers regarding this dating method, but I'm hoping that someone on this website maybe able to narrow down my search scope. If you need further information from me - please let me know.

    A. R. Karbassi · University of Tehran

    You may see the attached file. Also the following paper might be useful to your work.

    A review of burial dating methods using 26Al and 10Be
    Darryl E. Granger



  • Marković G. Đoko added an answer in Reward:
    How can we motivate our students effectively?

    Research refer to the potential effect of praise and rewards on students’ intrinsic motivation, especially on the long term. So, what techniques do the latest research propose in order to keep our students motivated?

    Marković G. Đoko · University of Montenegro

    The best teacher is the one who manages to become independent of their students. Motivate them so they constantly explain why it is important to know the different independent phenomens that will study.

  • Narasim Ramesh added an answer in Scilab:
    Can someone suggest a reference or post a simple numerical problem which compares Riemann and Lebesgue integration of ODE's?

    Sometimes it is stated that Lebesgue integration is better , but there seem

    to be no algorithms which can be incorporated in Scilab etc ..it would be useful

    to have such algorithms.

    Narasim Ramesh · Sri Jagadguru Chandrasekaranathaswamiji Institute of Technology

    Peter T Breuer   Thank you once again .. it was indeed very illuminating..especially

    "It is not computationally advantageous. You can't "do" Lebesgue integration computationally."... perhaps this is the reason there are no special Lebesgue packages in scilab or matlab etc. nice..rests my quest...


  • Hatem Yazidi added an answer in Nonlinear Fitting:
    Is it accurate determining the degradation rate by nonlinear fitting?

    Dear all,

    Is it accurate determining the degradation rate (anaerobic co-digestion of vegetables, fruits and cooked oil) by nonlinear fitting? If Yes, which model has a good reputation: first order, Contois, exponential, Cone …? Is the model parameters identification can be done with random initial values? I am using k=0.05 as a magic start up?

    Hatem Yazidi · Caledonian College of Engineering, Oman

    ok thanks

  • Mihai Prunescu added an answer in Fractals:
    Is there a way back from a fractal rendered image to its formula?

    First by fractals i mean fractals which will produce by iterating a formula on polar coordinate, like where we'll make Mandelbrot fractal.

    I was always wondered how to guess what a formula is going to look like as it calculate, or how can we know what is the fractal formula of an image.
    Its unlikely for me to find a way, but how can we get nearer to guess them?

    Mihai Prunescu · Institute of Mathematics of the Romanian Academy

    I speak about fractals one can meat in infinite double (or many dimensional sequences) over finite sets (alphabets), without bounding the number of letters of the alphabet. They are just functions f : An --> A and they start with initial conditions, like first infinite column and first infinite row given. The recurrence looks like a(m,n) = f(a(m-1,n),a(m,n-1)) for the easiest example. Those sequences sometimes produce fractals, sometimes don't (like also by S. Wolfram). However, these sequences (already the form given here) interprets all Turing Machines. Well, by the Theorem of Rice, it is already undecidable if such an arbitrary sequence produces some fractal or (contrary) kind of chaos. It is also undecidable if it produces one particular fractal, we already know that one of them has produced, or also if it produces a set that can be projected on a particular  (feasible) fractal by reducing the colors. Maybe this is not an answer to exactly the question you have put, but I think that it gives a hint about what can happen there. 

  • Bekk Okk added an answer in Imagery:
    What are the recent trends in mixed pixel characterization and classification?

    Want to know recent trends in mixed pixel problem characterization and classification methods in remote sensed imagery.

    Bekk Okk · Abou Bakr Belkaid University of Tlemcen

    I agree with mr  hayder dibs. You could also combine the classification process with some normalized indexes as NDVI for example. 

    you could also use HMM (hidden markov model)  to smooth your classification results.

    try to use  svm-hmm pack of the joackim pack at:

  • Any idea about using micro-probe data for sphalerite in quartz veins as thermometer??

    I have combination of sulfide minerals without arsenopyrite ... commonly pyrite, Chlpyrite, sphalerite, galena .... etc. with some ganugues calcite, Pj, Muscovite and fluorite. .. can i use one or some of them  for temperature determination??

    Mohamed Abd El Monsef · Tanta University


  • When it comes to simultaneity is Einstein correct or is Dingle correct?

    Albert Einstein claimed in 1905 that a single event can occur simultaneously at different times within two inertial reference frames moving relative to one another. In 1950 Herbert Dingle argued that different times cannot be simultaneous. I have analysed this conflict by deriving the Lorentz equations using both points of view. According to this analysis Dingle must be correct. See youtube presentation of this analysis at  https://youtu.be/4XLYzhHQ64Y

    Erkki J. Brändas · Uppsala University


    I think there were many problems with your theory that caused the rejections by various editors.

    From a quick glance on your work I can see an immediate problem, e.g. the way you turn the Minkowski space, with an indefinite metric, into an Euclidian one, with a positive definite metric; which is not an allowed trick.

    In fact your Euclidian relativity is not correct and moreover since the rest of your theorizing depends on this deception I agree with editor's rejection decisions.

    I have, and do serve as Wiley, Elsevier and Springer Editor, so I have seen the waves of many rivers.

  • What are the possibilities of joining ceramic to metal by Friction stir brazing?

    Ceramic: SiC, metal : Ti64 (Ti6%Al 4%V) brazing using Cusil foil

    Saurabh Kumar · Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

    The technique and set up will be expensive...

  • Muhammad Talha asked a question in Token Economy:
    Is there a Scale for measuring "Attitude Towards Substance Use" ?

    I'm working on project of Token Economy as part of drug rehabilitation. In assessment of behavior modification i need attitudinal measurement also. If any one has or know about this, kindly give it to me.

  • Bekk Okk added an answer in GRASS GIS:
    What kind of techniques can be used to simulate a very large-scale scene of earth surface, including all the trees with leaves?

    In remote sensing, we use satellite to monitoring earth surface, could we develop a software to simulate this process, what technique can be used to represent the earth surface with explicitly described trees and grasses

    Bekk Okk · Abou Bakr Belkaid University of Tlemcen

    mr jianbo qi  

    i think that your favourite way is to use SAR data. (especialy 3d SAR data).

  • Mustafa Çiçekler added an answer in Enzymes:
    Which enzyme gives the best result in deinking?

    My work is about deinking and I will use enzyme before deinking process. Which enzyme does give the best result in deinking? I am waiting for your suggestion.

    Mustafa Çiçekler · Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University

    Dear Mohammad, it is written also another amount like U/g. in some papers. Which One is better for use, percentage or U/g? 

  • Low Resolution Images For Actinobacteria using microscopy - Suggestions ?

    Hey fellow researchers,

    We seem to be obtaining low resolution images under all magnifications for actinobacteria on transient slides prepared from liquid and solid cultures. Can you suggest any ways to improve the quality of the images, especially in the preparation of slides and toying with the settings of the optical microscope ?

    Your inputs would be greatly appreciated. 

    Best Wishes


    Dilantha Gunawardana · University of Sri Jayewardenepura


    It is digital and I checked for the image quality by looking at some Nostoc and the resolution of the cyanobacterium was good - there was clear cell types and I played around with the enhancements and the color tools and I was able to get a clear image

    As for the actinobacteria hyphae, there were a lot of filaments but the resolution was low and since there were many planes I suppose, part of the viewing area was clear and others were not.

    I'm not very experienced with microscopy since I'm a molecular biologist/biochemist but I'm trying to get some clear images to contrast some related actinobacteria. 

    The microscope model is Optika B-350. 

    The stains used were lactophenol cotton blue, safranine, and crystal violet. 

    Thank you for your inputs so far .......

    Best Wishes


  • Kahraman Kalyoncu asked a question in DOT:
    If human (H) and physical capital (K) are complemantary, and if we show the rate as K/H, then how we should aproach the convergence issue?

    Since is not going to be easy to measure the rate of K/H to distunguish between poor and rich, then including the human and phyical capital how is going to help estimating the convergence among the countries. if we show the (Y=F(K/H,AL) and (K/H)dot=s(K/H)-depriciation rate*(K/H))