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  • Daniel Seidel added an answer in Splenocytes:
    DO11.10 x Rag1 KO mice have very low CD4+ T cell number in spleen. Is this normal?


    I have generated DO11.10 / Rag1 KO mice with deletion of gene of my interest. So it is double gene KO and TCR transgenic.

    I tried to isolate naive T cells from the mouse using FACS with control as heterozygote of my gene of interest, and found out that CD4+CD62L+DO11.10+ population is only ~1% of total splenocyte in both KO and heterozygote groups.

    In absolute cell number, there were less than 10^6 naive T cells per single spleen of 6wk old mouse.

    I have no experience in TCR transgenic + Rag deficient mice so I wonder if the low cell number is normal or there is something wrong with my mice.

    If you have done experiments with such mice, please share your idea with me.

    Thank you.

  • Sjoerd Nienhuys added an answer in Biogas:
    When do biogas digesters start to produce biogas?

    i made an experiment in 4 l digester with inoculum 10% V/V, the digester produced biogas in the first week but other researchers say its not possible to produce before about 21 day, any one have an explanation? 

    Sjoerd Nienhuys

    The reactor will start producing biogas almost instantly, but before you can use it you need to empty the first batch of gas completely (from fixed containers or domes), otherwise the gas contains oxigen from the air; this is an explosive mix.

  • Kazuhiro Horihata asked a question in Space:
    Does anyone know \epsilon \int \vert \frac {\partial u}{\partial t } \vert^2 dx (Space integrals) < \infty for the solution of Allen-Cahn eqaution?

    Allen-Cahn equation means \frac {\partial u}{\partial t} - \triange u + \frac 1 {\epsilon^2} ( u^2 -1 ) u = 0

  • John Schloendorn added an answer in Cardiomyocytes:
    How to isolate one cDNA from a mixture of cDNAs?

    I have a mixture of mouse cardiomyocyte cDNAs and want to isolate one cDNA. What is the simplest and most effective way to do so? Would PCR amplification optimized for small-fragments work?

    John Schloendorn

    Yeah definitely.  PCR is the standard way to do this. 

  • Nestor Velasco added an answer in Hemodialysis:
    Should medical directors reconsider how hemodialysis facilities categorize, capture, escalate and analyze HD related hypotensive episodes?

    Would standardizing coding utilizing accessory modifiers that better describe and discriminate dialysis-related hypotensive episodes improve risk prediction models, result in effective escalation and mitigation strategies, strengthen problem-solving approaches, enhance comparative research, and reduce repeat preventable harm to patients?

    Validated research over time may prove that a more stratified hemodialysis hypotension classification will reliably predict impending doom, and effectively crack the code to prevent failure mode.

    Nestor Velasco

    Very good point. Quality of HD treatment should be measured by outcomes as well as the minimization of serious side-effects like hypotension episodes. In this day and age dialysis centres should be easily equipped with automated blood pressure devices that record all measurements throughout the dialysis session and that data could be analysed to compare blood pressure control of this population as well to serve as point of comparison with other centres. Very important and not "rocket-science".

  • Lutz von Wangenheim added an answer in Oscillators:
    How can we classify or group oscillators ?

    So far I have found that the number of amplifiers may be used as follows:

    Oscillators type A:

    1 amplifier and a feedback circuit.  

    This is the Barkhausen topology

    Oscillators type B:

    2 or more amplifiers and a connection circuit.  

    This is the Non Barkhausen topology

    Oscillators type C:

    No amplifiers !

    These oscillators are based on a dynamic negative resistance e.g. a tunnel diode

    In short

    Oscillators are nonlinear electronic circuits

    which are searching for a bias-point

    Lutz von Wangenheim

    Barrie, thank you for pointing my attention to "Oscar", to "Dr. Leif" as well as to the discussion with Bob Pease. However - as a reader of the "Analog Dialogue" - I know these valuable contributions already for some time.

    On the other hand, I cannot see why we should be "poles apart" - because I, of course, can fully agree that our "intuition tells us that if the oscillator supports the necessary conditions for oscillation (the "loop gain of one" - and mos real oscillators provide a pre-oscillation gain of much more than this".

    Yes - it is our "intuition" which tells us that this, indeed, is the necessary oscillation condition (and for the first time written down by Barkhausen). That is the reason I do not want to "throw him into the ocean". That`s all. Where is the conflict?


  • Cesare Gargioli added an answer in Muscle Biopsy:
    Does anyone have a protocol for the isolation of muscle derived stem cells from primary human muscle biopsies?

    I am trying to culture the MDSCs from human skeletal muscle and the protocol I'm following is the one published by Eberli et al. in 2009 (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1046202308002016).

    I'm using the same collagenase and dispase digestion, and ending up with a mass of hypercontracted fibres and mostly fibroblasts. Does anyone have any advice with respect to the handling and digestion of the muscle during the isolation so as to ensure myofibre viability? I'd be very grateful for your input!

    Cesare Gargioli

    Hi Sujata,

     every lab utilizes its own protocol to isolate myogenic precursor, we use collagenase typeII (Gibco) 100U/ml 45 min a 37°C. The human muscle biopsy is kept in Hank's solution at 4°C not more than 48hours. The muscle is finely minced before digestion ( 45min at 37°C) centrifugation, pellet resuspension in aMEM 20%FBS filtered in cell strainer (100, 70 and 40um) and then plating on plastic at low confluence (1000cells/mm2).

    I hope this will help you, good luck.

  • John Schloendorn added an answer in Competent Cells:
    There any relationship between plasmid transformation and gene length size for protein expression.my gene length size 400 bp?

    I am in desperate need of advice.
    I did transformation of BL21 (DE3) pLySs, Rosetta 2, and T7 Express with my genes of interest cloned in pET30 a vector. I have a recombinant e coli protein in pET30a which showed a no protein expression level. I cannot see the band on SDS gel. I tried different competent cells like BL21-CP and BL21-DE3 and got same results. I tried different temperature for bacterial culture and got the same results, I changed the IPTG concentration 1mM and 0.5mM, no change. Original sequence is confirmed by sequencing. If you have any idea this would be great .

    John Schloendorn

    Yes there is such a relationship -- under normal (non-extreme) conditions, the limiting factor is the translation initiation rate.  So on average, other things being equal (which btw they're not), you'd get a fixed number of molecules.  That means, shorter proteins make less mass, and less band intensity.  That said, you can certainly express many small proteins to detectable levels.  That's not by itself the problem. 

    More likely, your problem is that E. coli simply doesn't like your particular protein.  For proteins from different kingdoms, this is common.  There isn't usually a reliable cure for that within the confines of the native sequence.  You'll need to use an N-terminal fusion tag, which initiates frequently in E. coli.  Such as GST, MBP, HQ, GFP.  You can use that to transfer the tag's high initiation frequency on your protein. 

    Potentially, you'll need to cleave the tag off later, with a protease such as TEV. This is cumbersome and annoying.  But it's the only reliable way to do it, if E. coli doesn't like your sequence.

  • Paulo Pereira added an answer in ISO 17025:
    Can any body help me to make validation of qualitative biological method to agree with ISO 17025 requirements?

    The method concerning with detect the presence or absence of organisms

    Paulo Pereira

    You have free guidelines for the determination of  measurement uncertainty in microbiology methods. For example, https://eurachem.org/images/stories/Guides/pdf/Eurachem_Guide_AML_2013.P2.pdf (this one is also focused in other accreditation requirements) and http://www.a2la.org/guidance/mu_for_micro_labs.pdf.

  • David Berre added an answer in Bioeconomic Modeling:
    What are the classic control variables in farm bioeconomic models based on optimization?

    What are the classic control variables in farm bioeconomic models based on optimization? Have you some examples?

    David Berre

    Dear Veronique,

    I'm not an expert of bio-economic model, but I recently worked on GAMEDE, a model developed in La Reunion you might certainly know, and did a bit of optimization based on Linear Programming.

    From my experience, bio-economic models are most of the time constrained on an activity-based (time for milking, harvesting, etc...), and to see if the model is correct, it is useful to reach the whole-farm scale to see if the aggregation of this constraints allows you to define properly the farming system activity.

    For instance, controlling the total labor, or the global gross margin, or the milk productivity (at herd scale) will help you to see respectively if constraint on labor, price/cost, and zootechnical data, are well constrained in your optimization model. 

    If inconsistency are detected, then you have to track-back into the constraints of the model to understand where the model has found an "open window" to "go crazy" .

    Naively, I would also recommend to have a specfic look at socio-economic constraints, cause most of the time bio-physical constraints are well-known and very accurately mathematically defined, while time allocation, cost management, are still uncertain...

    Not sure i'm helping here, but for sure the topic of knowing if aggregating constraints at activity scale defines properly the constraints of your farming system is an interesting topic!

    Good luck with your on-going research.


  • Friedrich Menges added an answer in Photochromism:
    Is there any photochromic material available in the market which will readily turn from color to colorless upon exposure to light?

    Name of the pigment?

    Availability of the same.

    Friedrich Menges

    wouldn't say  "pigment" for a material that loses its color on first exposure to light. Actually, color is the most characteristic property of  "pigments"

  • Solomon O Nwhator added an answer in Movement Analysis:
    How can I make an interdisciplinary theme understood?

    I am working on an important theme that has aspects of dentistry, neurology and movement analysis. The dentists do not read the neurological and movement aspects and the neurologists do not read the dentistry part –so since years, nobody gets the important point and it is not possible to make a study. My theme is that spatial orientation is subordinate to spatial synchronization – the synchronization, however, determines body posture, movement and may be responsible for severe pain. Synchronization is determined by the position of maxilla and its teeth. It is necessary to get all of the aspects to understand the connection. Benefit: to be able to cure therapy-resistant back pain in craniomandibular patients. What can I do to make the aspects understandable for the involved disciplines?

    + 1 more attachment

    Solomon O Nwhator

    Use the common risk factor approach. I'm speaking on it this morning!

  • Pradip G. Vanparia asked a question in SCTP:
    How SCTP is better then TCP (in traffic scenario) ?

    SCTP send single file using multiple stream and TCP send single file using single stream.

    now question is

    how SCTP is better then TCP ? (in traffic scenario)

  • Wolf-Julian Neumann added an answer in EEG Analysis:
    Can we measure the low frequencies (e.g. Alpha), if we have a high sampling rate (e.g. 2000 samples)?


    I recorded the EEG raw data for 5 minutes. It has 2000 samples and I need all of them to know how the frequencies change during these 5 minutes. So, I converted these raw EEG values to voltage (Micro Volt) and then I got FFT of all these samples. But something abnormal happened. After getting the Fourier Transform of these data samples, it shows me just the frequencies between 4-8 HZ !. It means it just shows the Theta Frequency Band (4-8 HZ)

    Now, I have a serious doubt about sampling rate.

    First : Why I can't get the other frequencies like Alpha (8-12 HZ) or Beta (12-25 HZ)?

    Second : I havea lot about sampling rate but it still seems unclear for me. So, what is the exact meaning of sampling rate? In my data, I have 2000 raw EEG points and I used all these 2000 points to get FFT. So, does it mean that my sampling rate is 2000

    Third: It has always been said that if we want a specific frequency bands, based on Nyquist theorem we need at least 3 times sampling rate of the frequency that we want to observe. So, this is the question : If we want Alpha (8-12), we need 36 (12*3) samples. But what if we have 100 sampling rate? Based on this theorem this sampling rate is sufficient for getting frequency with 30 HZ. So, what about the frequencies less than 30 HZ? By having 100 sample rate, can we observe the lower frequencies like Alpha or Beta?

    Wolf-Julian Neumann

    As Mark suggested using a low pass or high cut filter in your hardware at half the rate or below the nyquist frequency decrease aliasing. 

    So in your case with 2000 Hz sampling rate you can choose a lowpass filter at 1000 Hz or if you are only interested in frequencies until 500 Hz you can choose that too.



  • Gyorgy Banhegyi added an answer in Gold Nanorods:
    Why do some long chain molecules (in this case MPEG-SH) prefer to attach itself to the end of a nanoparticle (nano-rod) where the curvature is higher?


    I am following the method published in this paper (link: http://pubs.acs.org.libproxy1.nus.edu.sg/doi/suppl/10.1021/cm101155v).

    Why do some long chain molecules (in this case MPEG-SH) prefer to attach itself to the end of a nanoparticle (nano-rod) where the curvature is higher, while the shorter chain molecules (CTAB) prefers to attach to the side where it is more flat. 

    Gyorgy Banhegyi

    Edges and corners usually hive a higher energy (they dissolve faster and melt earlier), therefore it is not unexpected that they exhibit higher interaction energy.

  • Juliana Ester Martín López added an answer in Systematic Reviews:
    How can I define quality in systematic review and meta analysis?

    Can someone suggest me what is the best tool to use in a systematic review to determine the quality of each clinical trial included in the review itself? I'd like to use a tool that provide a quality score for each included paper. Thanks!

    Juliana Ester Martín López

    Dear Irene,

    I recommend you AMSTAR tool, available on: http://amstar.ca/Amstar_Checklist.php. The opportunities being that it creates an environment where researchers can base decisions on accurate, succinct, credible, comprehensive and comprehensible summaries of the best available evidence on a topic thereby minimising error and bias. The risks include variation in quality and empirical validation. You can use AMSTAR for:

    1.    To develop and evaluate reviews

    2.    As a guide to conduct of reviews

    3.    As an aid to teaching about systematic reviews.

    I hope this tool will be useful for you!

    Best regards!

  • Tony Peter Craig added an answer in Applied Psychology:
    Should I correct for response tendencies when considering values (Biospheric, Altruistic, Egoistic and Hedonic)?

    When considering values some researchers such as Schwartz, Schultz and MIlfont suggest correcting for differences in response tendency (to get a relative importance for that individual - a value priority) however other researchers appear to not do this and instead just use the mean score.

    Has anyone got any opinons/experience with either technique, especially when dealing with values that influence pro-environmental concern/action/behaviour (Particularly: Biospheric, Altruistic, Egoistic and Hedonic)?

    Tony Peter Craig

    One thing you might consider is something a bit more unconventional but theoretically reasonable in my opinion - that is to treat the values as being represented as vectors arranged round a circle structure, and to take the correlation as being fixed by the theoretical structure as opposed to the data. This is certainly justifiable on theoretical grounds.  The degree of correction would then depend o  the angle between points on the circle structure, so values at 90 degrees would be assumed as being independent, etc...

  • Nate Cheeseman added an answer in Wikipedia:
    I'm looking for more information on the Rien [rie] language of Laos. Can anyone help me?

    The Ethnologue and Wikipedia give very little details about this language.

    + 1 more attachment

    Nate Cheeseman

    Thanks Taher, it doesn't specifically list Rien [rie], but you were on the right track.

  • Friedrich Menges added an answer in Images:
    How can I plugin cell counter image J into image J?

    Can someone provide the link that explaining plugin step by step?

    Friedrich Menges

    There are several ways to do this, all with explanations for use:







    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Cell counting is an important routine procedure. However, to date there is no comprehensive, easy to use, and inexpensive solution for routine cell counting, and this procedure usually has to be performed manually. Here, we report a complete solution for automatic cell counting in which a conventional light microscope is equipped with a web camera to obtain images of a suspension of mammalian cells in a hemocytometer assembly. Based on the ImageJ toolbox, we devised two algorithms to automatically count these cells. This approach is about 10 times faster and yields more reliable and consistent results compared to manual counting. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
      Analytical Biochemistry 12/2014; 473. DOI:10.1016/j.ab.2014.12.007
  • Irena White added an answer in Artificial Intelligence:
    How are faculty planning to use or using Web 4.0 Tools in education?

    The possibilities of using Web 4.0 tools are currently being discussed by IT experts and other interested stakeholders at conferences. Artificial intelligence is seen as one of the key characteristics of these tools and their ability to solve problems for humankind. How do you anticipate using Web 4.0 tools in education or is it tool early to begin thinking of these possibilities? Your views are much appreciated.

    Many thanks,


    Irena White

    Education is still grappling with Web 1.0 so I don't see any possibility of an "exact definition about Web 4.0" that applies directly to education. Abdelrahman Ahmed, I agree with your definition except that there is evidence already that we are moving towards Web 5.0. The best definitions I can find is that Web 4.0 "connects all devices in the real and virtual world in real-time" compared to Web 5.0 which will be "about the (emotional) interaction between humans and computers. The interaction will become a daily habit for a lot of people based on neurotechnology. For the moment web is “emotionally” neutral, which means web does not perceive the users feel and emotions. This will change with web 5.0 – emotional web. One example of this is www.wefeelfine.org, which maps emotions of people. With headphones on, users will interact with content that interacts with their emotions or changes in facial recognition." These are quotes from https://flatworldbusiness.wordpress.com/flat-education/previously/web-1-0-vs-web-2-0-vs-web-3-0-a-bird-eye-on-the-definition/.

  • Ruchir Bavadia asked a question in Malonates:
    I want to do di-alkylation on Active methylene (-CH2-) of diethyl malonate using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) only,Does any one have lite. or procedure?

    Di - Alkylation on diethyl malonate using NaOH only

  • Peter Molek added an answer in Phage:
    How much of IPTG concentration is used for induction selected phage clones to produce soluble scfv fragment antibody?

    I want to know if I first grow the phage clone without infected the E.coli to reach log phase and then add IPTG or add it from the beginning with the phage ?Also , I want to know which is the best OD for induction?

    Peter Molek

    Hi Khawlah,

    like Gertrudis suggested, we usually use glucose (2%) before changing the media with medium for induction of scFv expression - in my case the latter acually contains 0.1% glucose (shaking overnight at 30°C) but no IPTG. However, the utilization of IPTG depends on several factors - usually scFvs are translocated to periplasm, therefore host translocation machinery should not be overloaded due to possible cytoplasmic aggregation. Moreover, in our vector scFv is encoded downstream tac-promoter, which is relatively strong promoter requireing no or low concentration of IPTG for efficient expression.

    I hope my answer could help you.

    Good luck,


  • Getachew Agegnehu added an answer in Soil Science:
    Anyone familiar with measuring nitrate directly in soil?

    Hello I am looking for a system to measure nitrate directly in soil. I found ISE but these also look like to need some kind of extraction. Are there any electrodes to put in the soil and immediately determine the nitrate concentration? Thanks

    Getachew Agegnehu

    I know Nitrate Meter (B-743, HORIBA Ltd., Kyoto, Japan), which is used to measure nitrateconcentration of leachate. Any reagent or extractant is not necessary. It can directly determine the amount of NO3 in a leachate.  I am not sure whether this apparatus can be used for measuring NO3 directly in soils. You can communicate this company if you need further information.

  • Mohamed Talaat Harb added an answer in Intelligent Systems:
    Do you need always a knowledge in order to achieve a task?


    I am wondering if it is always necessary for an intelligent system to have knowledge in order to achieve a task automatically? 

    Hope that my question is clear!

    Thank you

    Mohamed Talaat Harb

    The need for knowledge to achieve a task is part of what differentiates supervised learning from unsupervised learning.

    In the case of supervised learning you need training data to reach a valid hypothesis that can then be used to achieve tasks like classification, regression, etc...

    In the case of unsupervised learning, the task is usually to find a structure in the system without prior knowledge of categories or classification, as example the task of clustering data is achieved without prior knowledge of the data or its structure.

    In general not every task require knowledge to be achieved but most tasks are.

  • Atif Baig added an answer in Cryptosporidium:
    Any easy and effective method for extraction of Cryptosporidium ?

    Any easy and effective method for extraction of Cryptosporidium ?

    Atif Baig

    see attached file and follow the references of your choice as per experimental protocols and subjects. 

  • Prasad Bhukebag added an answer in Acute Cholecystitis:
    Is diagnostic laparoscopy justified in acute cholecystitis in order to determine operability (lap/open)?

    Timing of cholecystectomy is controversial. Sometimes the inflammation is too advanced for patient's history of pain.

    Prasad Bhukebag

    In my opinion with good imaging facilities of USG and MRCP, decision can be made about the operability in Acute/Chronic Cholecystitis. In diagnostic laparoscopy, patient is anyway anaesthetised and can undergo Cholecystectomy in the same sitting. Also with the option of converting to Open procedure in the event of difficulty during Lap Cholecystectomy, Diagnostic laparoscopy does not appear to have any role in Acute Cholecystitis. 

  • Sainitin Donakonda asked a question in FC:
    Fold changes for different microarray datasets?


    I have 3 microarray datasets with different conditions. I would like to know is there any rule that we should apply same fold change for all 3 conditions. For example: Now I used 2 Fold change (FC) for the first dataset, for other datasets I used 1.5 FC. Because when I applied FC 2 for these datasets I got very less number of genes. So I decided to apply FC 1.5. Now my question should I also apply 1.5 for the first dataset? or can I leave it as it is. Can anybody give some suggestions on this?.



  • Gottfried Endel added an answer in Health Planning:
    Can anyone direct me to peer-reviewed articles that provide good case study examples of national health planning processes?

    Ideally written from the point of view of participants, e.g., ministry of health officials, civil society actors, research programs, medical societies. Such as: http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1001319.
    Suggestions from any fields of health would be helpful though HIV or hepatitis would be best.

    Gottfried Endel

    search pubmed with "Obama care" and you get publications in peer reviewed journals.

    A lot of publications are not in peer reviewed journals as they are too long for publication.

    National academic press has papers on different issues in the health care system as has IOM _ to err is human as example

    Journals - see links

    + 2 more attachments

  • Leonidas A. Papakonstantinidis added an answer in Process and Product Innovation:
    Any suggestions on a measurement scale for different kinds of innovations?

    I am  investigating the business innovation approaches adopted by the entrepreneurial in the retail sector of Malaysia. Kindly guide me or help me with some relevant articles on measurement scale for different types of innovation such as business innovation, marketing innovation, product and process innovation etc.

    Leonidas A. Papakonstantinidis

    tried to identify the "win-win-win" as a key tool for the approach to social welfare by clicking on the incompatibility of five basic theorems that define it - each one of its own side-either positive (justice theorem ) or negative (the impossibility theorem)

    The suggested "win-win-win papakonstantinidis model”[1],[2] is built up on these incompatibilities, in particular as regards the pairs" Pareto efficiency – Impossibility Theorem” "paradox liberty (Amartya Sen) - Pareto Efficiency” , “Theorem of  Justice –Pareto Efficiency” and (the most important) “the Theorem of incompleteness-the Impossibility Theorem”

    The win-win-win papakonstantinidis model is a methodological tool for conflict resolution, especially in the case of decision making, or in forming "instant reflection winning strategies" in  the BARGAIN (which is the frame) The  “win-win-win papakonstantinidis model” concerns the strategic decision making in a number of fields and domains (biology, psychology, management, marketing, history- especially in interpretation of historic events-laography, ethnology, anthropogeography, philosophy, economy, sociology, pure math, communication, public speech, diplomacy,  and go on    The reason so many regards thinking and research fields lies in the very nature of the model, especially in its triple pole perception, which leads us to see things from another, alternative approach, the triple view, whether in psychology or interpretation of historical events or diplomacy, or communication, or MANAGEMENT
    Special regard is given to regional and local development field both as a regional and social sciences. It proves that building social capital at local level mainly depends on social trust links among local people: Social cohesion based on social capital may be measured by the diversification Rate (R *) from strict globalization rules: From this point of view, local people’s intervention should be useful, so as to diversify these "rules" at local level adjusting them to local identity, including communication code, customs, ethics, culture. The Win-win-win methodology [Papakonstantinidis Model] should facilitate local people to "readjust" bargaining globalization rules locally, through a sensitization process: Community is defined as a discrete spatial / cultural entity at its sensitization process' limit
    The “win-win-win papakonstantinidis model” (2002, August, SW) may, thus, transform individual winning –instant reflection –strategies (the win-win Nash Theory) in a NEW –three poles-equilibrium point, including the COMMUNITY (Environmental Protection, Value Systems, Ethic etc), which is the “absolute cooperation” limit point in the bargain between TWO

    Since the game theory (exactly: the “non cooperative game theory”) saved the New-classical School of Thought in Economics letting   it to make a restart, focusing on the “bargaining equilibrium” (Nash Equilibrium) and the equimarginal principle (consumer choice) it seems that the bargaining behavior is in the centre of our research

    Starting from the “zero sum two players game” (John von Neumann- Oscar Morgenstern 1944)[1] in the form of “win- lose” at any bargain, then was the John Forbs Nash who made the difference, letting in both bargainers to win (win-win) But, for another time this bargain was rather to the side of the winners (due to their bargaining force) than eliminating social inequalities (the winner takes it all)

    With this aim an hypothetical dipole bargain between 2 bargainers (*A,B) converted into 3-pole by introducing the "Community" (the village, the town, the inhabitants of a country, a continent, planet, after all) as a third pole in any bargain (win-win-win)

    So the concept is to construct a theoretical-original-model so that it should respond better to the conditions of "social welfare"

    With this aim an hypothetical triple-pole bargain between 2 (A and B and the "Community"  included as the third pole) is a basis for scientific dialogue By the tem “Community” we can imagine any common structure, i.e the village, the town, the inhabitants of a country, a continent, planet, after all-

    The point is that the third pole (the Community) will claim  its own profits, in a future negotiation It is about a "win-win-win" concept which is now the global requirement For example, the first concrete example has to do with environmental protection Climate change leaves no room to 2 competitors without considering the entire rest of the world Each negotiation between 2 concerns the entire planet The how achieved in practice I think it can be done with Laws, as long as there is the political will of Another Dimension It has to do with the war see the two superpowers to compete by focusing on the war in the Middle East (Syria and Iraq) But the agreement or disagreement affects millions of people in the two countries who come as refugees to Europe

    The recognition of the third pole in our daily life is connected with its social necessity

    Without any imposition by dictatorial regimes, the 3-pole approach to bargaining, is necessary and unavoidable if and only if humankind seeks survival solutions

    In a “win-win-win” negotiation there is more possibility of achieving social welfare: This can be proved by the math example below

    On the other side we have 5 basic foundational and global known Theorems which are incompatible So the concept here was to put them one against the other and seek "material" to build the new

    For example, the Incompleteness Theorem (Gödel) fades the Impossibility Theorem (K. Arrow) and the Pareto Efficiency is basic for the Impossibility Theorem, but not for the “Justice theorem (Rawls) But from these incompatibilities arises a necessity of completeness, effectiveness, universal justice, a necessity  of "umbilical points" freedom , economic equilibrium The synthesis of all these lead to a situation utopia (romantic, idealistic) will certainly not get, but  from the other shows us a path of self-preservation and survival if the goal is not suicidal

    [1] John von Neumann- Oscar Morgenstern (1944) “theory of games and economic behavior” –PRINCETON University Press Edition

    [1] Papakonstantinidis L.A(2002-August 14)   “The win-win-win model” Euracademy Guide The Visby University –Gotland Sweden
    [2] G Spais-Papakonstantinidis L.A (2014)The value of the ‘triple pole’ approach in bargaining for vertical cooperative advertising and the research challenges for the evolution of this topic in the cooperative advertising literature- World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sust. Development, Vol. 10, Nos. 2/3, 2014