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  • Shafagat Mahmudova asked a question in Waves:
    What is the role of the seas in human life?

    Dear collegues. Thank you very much in advance.

    With kind regards, Shafagat

    Sea-sea world of bottomless,
    Foamy waves rustle coastal ...

  • Anvesh Kumar Nella added an answer in Optical wireless communications:
    Are there any potential limitations of the newly inverted LI-FI?

    Li-Fi (Light Fidelity) is a bidirectional, high speed and fully networked wireless communication technology similar to Wi-Fi. Coined by Prof. Harald Haas,Li-Fi is a subset of optical wireless communications (OWC) and can be a complement to RF communication (Wi-Fi orCellular network), or a replacement in contexts of data broadcasting.

    It is wireless and uses visible light communication or infra-red and near ultraviolet (instead of radio frequency waves) spectrum, part of optical wireless communications technology, which carries much more information, and has been proposed as a solution to the RF-bandwidth limitations. A complete solution includes an industry led standardization process. And it is possible it has some hiding limitation in transmission and in communication

    Anvesh Kumar Nella

    other than it's advantages, it is having some drawbacks:

    1). it can not penetrate through walls, which is main drawback.

    2). Whenever you want to transmit for longer distances then it's power has to be increased, which will enhance the light source intensity. it may harm human eyes, skin, etc...

    3). Interference with the other lights in the environment.

    4).Additional hardware requirement

    5). It is not like broadcasting when the light source is laser.

    6).At very high frequencies, it is difficult to get APDs. 

  • Upendra Patel added an answer in Acetic Acid:
    Why do I not get floating pelicle on top of my G. xylinum culture?

    I am growing G. xylinum, in coconut water (4% sugar  and 0.1% protein ) in glass bottle, with lid 100ml. After 24h I observe some white deposit on the bottom of the bottle but the colour of the coconut water is transparent with no increase in opacity.

    As I am not seeing Nata type consistency after 6 days. What is the best possible way to harvest deposits settling on the bottom (cellulose). I came across some papers suggesting washing with 2% NaOH while others washing with acetic acid and so on.

    I thought I could receive some useful insights.

    I would love to get some idea from people who have worked with glucose, fructose, lactose and sucrose. How does the addition effect production and does different carbon source alter the cellulose crystallinity.

    Upendra Patel


    I have used a very simple method of forming BC layers (~5-6 mm) on the surface of standing liquid medium and on rotating discs. This paper titled "Complete dechlorination of pentachlorophenol using palladized bacterial
    cellulose in a rotating catalyst contact reactor" is available on Research gate. You may download it. It does not require any specific growth cultures. BC is produced in many southeast Asian countries by the method that I have used. I also tried some of the standard cultures available with IMTECH but could not grow anything. 

  • Pankaj Dubey asked a question in Profilins:
    Does Formin Inhibitor (SMIFH2) work on Drosophila tissue?

    Small Molecule inhibitor of Formin- SMIFH2 is  very potent inhibitor of Profilin mediated Actin polymerization by FH2 domain of the Formins. This has been shown to work on yeast and mammalian cell lines. 

    I was wondering if the inhibitor also on Drosophila tissue. I could not find any report of this in any paper. 

    Let me know if someone has worked with the chemical. Thanks a lot!

  • Charles Berg added an answer in New Technology:
    In your opinion, which variables influence students' writing competence?

    And are the new technologies a threat or an ally to writing?

    Charles Berg

    Basically I see three clusters of factors: personal ones, those linked to the educational experiences, the social background. It is always an interaction of different factors playing the essential role.

  • Pawan Rathore added an answer in PVDF Membrane:
    What pore size PVDF membrane should I use for 10-100kD range of proteins including Cyt C (12kD)?

    For my western blot, all my target proteins are within 10-100kD observed masses. I'm concerned that the lowest is Cyt C at 12kD will transfer through and not stick to membranes with standard 0.45um pore size. I'm planning to use a TGX gel from BioRad as shown by the ladder for SDS PAGE. 

    Pawan Rathore

    Either the low molecular weight (12kD) or its relative low quantity may be the reason. You should try with the PVDF membrane with pore size 0.2um. 

  • Dhanabal Dhanabal asked a question in Photocatalysts:
    How will be electron transfer from visible active to inactive materials in photocatalyst?

    Please explain me, i have prepared composite materials in which one material is visible active and another one is inactive. so in this condition how will be the electron transfer between these materials?

  • Amanda Dawson asked a question in Chitinase:
    Does anyone have a good protocol for proteinase K and chitinase digestion?

    I am currently digesting crustaceans with pro k and wanted to add a chitinase to the mix to remove all traces of the carapace. I'm not actually doing DNA work but i need to completely digest the samples 

  • Mercy Macharia added an answer in VIGS:
    RNAi in Nicotiana tabacum?

    I would like to silence a gene in tabacum, is VIGS an effective method?

    Mercy Macharia

    thank you so much....

  • Mihir Belani asked a question in TPO:
    TPD,TPR and TPO

    What is difference between these three terms and in contexts with zeolites how one can learn ?

  • Mahesh De Silva added an answer in PSCAD:
    Is there a 3 phase tyristor rectifier model in PSCAD/EMTDC?

    I'm doing a project on DC Microgrid. I want a model of 3 phase thyristor converter model.

    Mahesh De Silva

    Hi Mr. Ezomar.

    Thank you very much. Your information very helpful.

  • Nagshetty Shetkar asked a question in Money:
    Does wealth/money/richness effects the thinkabilty?

    As the saying "money makes many things" often we fall in confusion that money is most powerful. it effects the human lives. so I expect the views

  • Shriram Patel asked a question in Milk:
    I want to isolate whole milk DNA from milk samples. I have mentioned the procedure, adopted in some research paper. Which is reliable?

    Milk contains bacteria (Prokaryotic cells), Somatic Cells (Eukaryotic cells) and fats. I want to extract whole bacterial DNA from it. 

    I have adopted following procedure:

    Milk samples were centrifuged at 5000*g for 10 mins to pellet out somatic cells. Supernatent was transferred into new tube and centrifuged at 15000*g for 15 mins to pellet out bacterial cells. Then pellets were resuspended in TE buffer or Phosphate Buffer Saline and furthered followed the same step as that for genomic DNA extraction.

    Is this reliable method? I want to confirmed it because these will be used for metagenomic sequencing.  

    Some researchers also filtered somatic cells by using Cellulose Nitrate Membrane and then centrifuged filtrate and resuspended it in TE buffer. 

    Which one is better? Need your valuable suggestions on it.

    Thank you in advance,


  • Mohammad Aminul Islam asked a question in Solar Modulation:
    What type of research can possible or remaining in the field of Potential induced degradation of solar module?

    Degradation of solar module due to self induced high voltage

  • Pawan Rathore asked a question in Lysis Buffer:
    What is the role of adding sodium fluoride in RIPA lysis buffer ?

    protein precipitation 

  • Jactone Oluoch added an answer in Biopesticides:
    What are the effects of water pH(used for mixing/application in the field) on efficacy of Biopesticides?

    Different places/location have differing water pH. Do they have a direct effect on the efficacy of the biopecticide? 

    Jactone Oluoch

    Thank you for the answer.

    Allow me to ask Luis and Jay.

    If that be the case, Should that translate to advising the customer/farmer to be adjusting there water pH to the favorable condition?

  • Mohamed Aymen El Cafsi asked a question in Control:
    Control Elevation beamwidth with a azimuth beamwidth constant?

    I ask if it is possible to keep azimuth beamwidth constant and change it in elevation plane.

    I know that the change of one is related to the other.

    for example, the increase beamwitdh in azimuth plane provide the decrease in the other plane.

     But, may be there is a method to keep one cosntant and change the other ?

  • Rangarajan M added an answer in Bariatrics:
    Which Bariatric procedure is recommended in the following scenario?

    25 year young man with a BMI of 41 consulted for Bariatric surgery.But for the snoring and fatty liver,He has no comorbidities.He tried diet and exercise but was not successful .He travels widely because of business commitments.Father and mother are diabetics.Bl sugar,HbA1c,Thyroid functions,cortisol,andSerum insulin are normal.

    Rangarajan M

    I have to agree with Dr.Keren, LSG would be my choice

  • Leroy Jia added an answer in Turbidity:
    MBR Effluent with no color ! Possible ?

    I need some ​suggestion on ​MBR effluent ​for reuse ​potential. The ​effluent water ​meets the EPA ​reuse Standards ​with turbidity.

    Leroy Jia

    yes, it is possible, also need apply MF/UF process.

  • Charles Berg added an answer in Peer Review:
    Why the peer reviewed articles (the accepted ones) didn't mention the reviewer names?

    To be honest, the peer review process is usually hard and time-consuming. The reviewer(s) exerted big effort in reviewing the manuscript(s) for free of charge. They usually contribute to improve our articles as best as possible. Therefore, journals should consider the reviewer(s) effort by at least mentioning the name(s) and affiliation of the reviewer within the published articles. What your opinions about this matter ? and how author(s) can assess the grateful work done by the reviewers ?          

    Charles Berg

    There are two sides of the problem. The one is transparency, this corresponds to your point. The other is confidentiality, anonymity protects the reviewer, and is a warrant for objectivity. Pragmatically, an inbetween solution should be found. Sometimes authors are very thankful to reviewers, who made helpful and sensible comments to their first draft.

  • Massih Afghah added an answer in Carbonates:
    What is the boron content in carbonate rocks, especially in continental carbonates?

    In carbonate rocks, the general range of the boron content seems sparsely. Perhaps I found the wrong way to get the data. Is there any data available about boron content of carbonates in sedimentary rocks, especially carbonates in continents? Or rough range, or related papers would be very helpful.

    Massih Afghah

    Dear Hairuo

    I propose you consider the link below:

    link 1: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF03182099#page-1

    link 2: https://books.google.de/books?id=hFz-CAAAQBAJ&pg=PA92&lpg=PA92&dq=boron+content+in+carbonate+rocks&source=bl&ots=4YfmwLBuZl&sig=TR0mVUSqUtHg2Cdcy020EvQeXKQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi5P6IvrfJAhXJRiYKHbWBCsEQ6AEILDAC#v=onepage&q=boron%20content%20in%20carbonate%20rocks&f=false

    link 3: https://books.google.de/booksid=X_7uCAAAQBAJ&pg=PA619&lpg=PA619&dq=boron+content+in+carbonate+rocks&source=bl&ots=bbfCaXFgCZ&sig=UMQzRed5n9Bj8zA20uqStCvcmg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi5P6IvrfJAhXJRiYKHbWBCsEQ6AEIRDAJ#v=onepage&q=boron%20content%20in%20carbonate%20rocks&f=false



  • Sharanya Ravi asked a question in Gradient PCR:
    Smear on gel ?

    I am trying to amplify a novel gene of size of 600 bp . I got a smear on gel for the pcr product after gradient pcr. what can I infer from that. also it would be great if someone can suggest a positive control .

  • Rafik Karaman added an answer in MestReNova:
    Is this peak area or proton integral in NMR spectra?

    I would like to know what proton integral they have given in the paper I have enclosed below. Its above 500. Is it peak area or something else? (I have highlighted the text in yellow).

    If it is peak area, how can I find it using Mestrenova?

    Rafik Karaman

    Dear Aarthy,

    Yes. These values are for the area under the peak. In the past scientists used low resolution NMR and the calculated the number of hydrogens according to the area under each peak.

    I think in the case of the study described in the attached paper the NMR was done at 4 C which results in broad peaks for the protons of the compound. This obliged the authors to calculate the area under each peak to estimate the number of protons.

    Using Mestrenova you can get the integration for each peak of the compound's proton. However, the NMR will be a high resolution NMR. You are not going to see broad peaks as the ones obtained in the paper's study.

    Hoping this will be helpful,


  • Issam Sinjab added an answer in Universe:
    Why is there something instead of nothing ?

     LET US START BY WHAT  Robert Adler  WROTE   ON 6 NOVEMBER 2014--:
    People have wrestled with the mystery of why the universe exists for thousands of years. Pretty much every ancient culture came up with its own creation story - most of them leaving the matter in the hands of the gods - and philosophers have written reams on the subject. But science has had little to say about this ultimate question.

    Issam Sinjab

    @Roland Iosif Moraru

    Of course God is someone, but I have answered referring to God as 'something' because I wanted to stay within the context of the question.

  • Azazahemad Kureshi added an answer in Plant Extracts:
    Does anyone have another method for antioxidant activity for plant extracts other than DPPH, FRAP and ABTS?

    I want literature on antioxidant assays for plant extracts in detail along with mechanism.

    Azazahemad Kureshi

    @ Naim Sir... I downloaded ur thesis....I will go through it

  • Mehrdad Gholami added an answer in Patient Safety:
    How do i can measure the critical organ dose in PCNL?

    Resently patient dose measurement in urology methods is considered as a favorite field for Medical Physicists and other specialists, since in these procedures the patients experince the high radiation doses, thus consider this condition can reduces the patient and specialists dose.

    Mehrdad Gholami

    Thanks Dr mohamad A Elkoushy

    How do i can calculate the" organ dose conversion algorithm?

  • Gibji Nimasow asked a question in DIVA GIS:
    How effective is MaxEnt species distribution modeling than other such models like GARP, DIVA-GIS, SMCE, etc?

    There are many models for species distribution of plants and animals is use recently. Researchers prefer particular model as per suitability and utility. However, it seems that MaxEnt (Maximum Entropy) is used more frequently and provides better results of species distribution predictions when compared to other models. 

  • Ali Ghosn asked a question in Edge Detection:
    Where can I find a Known Data set Reference images (ground Truth) for the edge detection application?

    I found a data set one, but it' s not applicable with the edge detection

  • Ines Bayoudh Saâdi added an answer in Actor Network Theory:
    Are you with or against proposing a new learning theory?

    Several years ago, I ran a debate with one of my professors at Education Department about human working memory. He insisted that technology has ruined human memory; many people rely more and more on their mobiles and laptops instead of their own memories. He also presented some research evidence showing that.
    At that time, it was hard for me to accept this idea. I argued that human is a clever being. If tools or technologies would help us to save our memories, then is it logical to kick these technologies out or even reduce our usage of them because they harm our memories? However, my opinion was not supported by a solid theory. Cognitivism and Constructivism clearly state that our inner memories are important in a learning process.

    This debate has carved in my mind and the case was not closed, at least for me. Recently, we have investigated some of new learning theories. Among a long list, we visited Actor-Network Theory, Community of Practice, and Connectivism. And to be honest, I found Connectivism wide enough to answer my question and to build upon. Knowledge is a network and learning is a process of finding patterns reside in this network. Inside or outside human skull, it does not matter.

    This is not to end the discussion; actually, it is to open it. Are you with or against of proposing new learning theory? Our understanding of knowledge network, learning and Connectivism presented in this paper.

    Ines Bayoudh Saâdi

    of course I'm with proposing a new theory

  • Sergei A. Ostroumov added an answer in Freshwater:
    How much do you pay for 1 cubic m of water (please specify your location)?

    I want to compare prices for freshwater...

    Sergei A. Ostroumov

    Hein, Kristina, Thank you. My pleasure to vote you up.