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  • Muhammad Masrur Islami asked a question in Clams:
    What is the local name of Venus Clam Gafrarium spp. in your country?

    In Eastern Indonesia especially Maluku, it is known as "bia manis"

  • Chengpu Liu added an answer in Plasmonics:
    How should I calculate drude plasmon for graphene?


    I want to calculate optical properties of doped graphene using Yambo code. However, it mentioned that due to metallic structure the code need drude plasmon, how can i calculate it?


    Chengpu Liu

    please refer to the drude model, where you just provide the necessary parameters for specific graphene is enough. This formula is easy to use.  Or you can look the newest version software: FDTD solutions, where the graphene is used for an example.

  • Rafik Karaman added an answer in Carica:
    Role of Carica papaya leaf extract in Megakaryopoiesis of Mice

    I am working on the role of Carica papaya leaf fractions (Methanol, Chloroform and Ethyl acetate) to evaluate its effects on Megakaryopoiesis of Mice model by analyzing Bone marrow cells using FACS study.

    Rafik Karaman

    Dear Ankit,

    Please read the following:

    Paper number 1 is a review article that descrives Carcica papaya leaf as treatment of viral infections that result in Megakaryopoiesis.

    1-Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2014 May-Jun; 4(3): 320–324.
    doi:  10.4103/2141-9248.133452
    PMCID: PMC4071726
    Papaya Extract to Treat Dengue: A Novel Therapeutic Option?
    N Sarala and SS Paknikar1
    Author information ► Copyright and License information ►

    Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papayaplant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The search was done independently by the two authors using PubMed, Google and the library database and included relevant articles of the last 10 years. A total of 7 studies were included in this review, which were one animal study, one case report, three case series and two randomized controlled trials. Although many of the studies and case reports published in literature lack adequate information, some of the studies do raise the possibility that this treatment could be an important option in the future. Further large-scale studies could establish the usefulness or ineffectiveness of this natural product in the treatment of dengue.
    Keywords: Carica papaya leaves, Dengue, Dengue treatment

    2-A Pilot Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Carica Papaya
    Leaf Extract in Increasing the Platelet Count in Cases of
    Dengue with Thrombocytopenia

    Indian Medical Gazette — MARCH 2015 109


    The pilot study was conducted to investigate the platelet
    increasing property of Carica papaya leaf extract (CPLE)
    in patients with dengue fever (DF). An open labeled
    randomized controlled trial was carried out at two centres
    of Bangalore metropolis on 30 subjects in patients with
    thrombocytopenia associated with dengue.
    The subjects were randomized into two groups, as
    control and intervention group. Both the groups were
    managed by the standard management guidelines for dengue
    except steroid administration. In addition to this, the
    intervention group received CPLE tablet three times daily
    for five days. All of them were followed daily with platelet
    monitoring. The results showed that CPLE had significant
    increase in the platelet count (p<0.003) over the therapy
    duration, in dengue fever patients, reiterating that it
    accelerates the increase in platelet count compared to the
    control group. There were few adverse events related to
    GI disturbance like nausea and vomiting which were similar
    in both groups. Thus this study concluded that Carica
    papaya leaf extract (CPLE) does significantly increase the
    platelet count in patients with thrombocytopenia associated

    with dengue with fewer side effects and good tolerability.
    carica papaya leaf extract, thrombocytopenia, increased
    platelets, dengue

    3- Research ArticleBMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    December 2015, 15:215


    Open Access
    Carica papaya induces in vitrothrombopoietic cytokines secretion by mesenchymal stem cells and haematopoietic cells
    Jazli Aziz
    , Noor Lide Abu Kassim
    , Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim 
    , Nazmul Haque
    ,Mohammad Tariqur Rahman

    Use of Carica papaya leaf extracts, reported to improve thrombocyte counts in dengue patients, demands further analysis on the underlying mechanism of its thrombopoietic cytokines induction
    In vitro cultures of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) were treated with unripe papaya pulp juice (UPJ) to evaluate its potential to induce thrombopoietic cytokines (IL-6 and SCF)
    In vitro scratch gap closure was significantly faster (p < .05) in SHED culture treated with UPJ. IL-6 concentration was significantly increased (p < .05) in SHED and PBL culture supernatant when treated with UPJ. SCF synthesis in SHED culture was also significantly increased (p < .05) when treated with UPJ
    In vitro upregulated synthesis of IL −6 and SCF both in PBL and SHED reveals the potential mechanism of unripe papaya to induce thrombopoietic cytokines synthesis in cells of hematopoietic and mesenchymal origin.

    Hoping this will be helpful,


  • Ahmed Sallam asked a question in Fatty Acid Composition:
    What is the relationship between fatty acid composition and cupin family protein?

    Hi All

    What is the relationship between fatty acid composition and cupin family protein?

  • Annangi Subba Rao added an answer in Vegetables:
    Can someone provide me experimental procedure for finding the C/N ratio of leaves, vegetable waste?

    i am confused whether procedure for finding C/N ratio for soil and vegetable waste are same.please some one provide me exact procedure to find C/N ratio of vegetable waste.

    Annangi Subba Rao

    Drs Milham and Hepperly, good suggestions. The organic material should not be wet especially for fresh materials of banana, vegetable waste from market or flowers waste. Ideal moisture content in the material may be around 60%.The depth of material for Composting and vermicomposting may differ as highlighted by Dr.Hepperly. In normal Composting we insist on heat generation to a temperature of 60 degree C or more.But in vermicomposting such high temperature is not  needed as  clearly explained by Dr.Hepperly. Pre or partial Composting upto first thermophic stage is preferred. Again it it depends on materials being composted. Mr.Kotreshi ,the type of material mentioned by you may not need precomposting if they the depth is  around 10 cm.The depth may be 50 cm as suggested by Dr.Hepperly. If the earthworms are not introduced upto first thermophilic and slow phase ,more depth is no problem. Under aerobic conditions the period of precomposting may be around 3-4 weeks.Under aerobic conditions with good aeration,adequate temperature and moisture regimes and turnings, even Composting can be completed in a month(rapid Composting).

  • Neil Law added an answer in Protein Denaturation:
    Could tertiary structure of protein be maintained after mixing with a metal?

    I'm going to make a complex (protein-metal). Is it possible to maintain the tertiary structure of my protein after mixing with metal?

    Does anyone have any recommendations like ebook, journal, or review about protein-metal complex?

    Thanks anyway

    Neil Law

    There are many metalloproteins that incorporate metal ions for structural or functionality at active sites (e.g. redox).  Many books exist, and I would direct you to SciFinder Scholar, if available, as a very good starting point for the primary literature.  Without knowing anything about the protein, I believe that your answer is both "yes" and "no", because it will depend upon the circumstances, e.g. the protein and the role of the metal.

  • Rizki Hanintyo asked a question in Water Sampling:
    Is it possible to measure reflectance of chlorophyll concentration on Ocean?

    dear all.

    i need to know, is it possible to measure reflectance of chlorophyll on ocean using spectrophotometer (using ASD Handheld spectrometer or JAZ Spectrometer)

    for example, 

    i will take some water sample on ocean and in the same time i will measure the reflectance pattern on the same site of water sample. is it possible to understand the reflectance pattern on different ocean chlorophyll concentration?

    thank you

  • Xiong Yanshi added an answer in Genome Size:
    Which genome size data( 2C content ) of maize( Zea mayz 'B73') should I use in my flow cytometry experiment?

    Hello, everyone! I am recently working on nuclear DNA content,or genome size estimation by flow cytometry, using whole genome sequenced Zea mayz "B73" as internal reference standard. But, I get confused about the real genome size of this genome sequenced species. Because more than ONE genome size data was used in different paper, such as:

    1): 1C = 2067.62 Mbp, the latest whole genome sequence data in NCBI website.

    2): 1C = 2.365 Gbp, the size used by the whole genome sequence project when building BAC library;

    3): 2C = 4.85 GBP, used as the genome size of internal standard species (Zea mayz "B73") in FCM;

    4): maybe more I didn't know.

    So, the question is: which one should I use?

    Thank you all guys, any suggestions will be appreciated!

    + 3 more attachments

    Xiong Yanshi

    Thank you very much, Naveen Kumar K.L. The paper you send is quite useful, I am reading it now.

    thank you, have a nice day.

  • Juan Manuel Trujillo-Gonzalez added an answer in Agricultural Mechanization:
    Waht happens when the detergent enters into freshwater ecosystem?

    I am very ​much interested ​in water, water ​pollution and ​its purification ​etc. My forte ​is farming and ​agriculture ​mechanization. ​I want to know ​as we use so ​much of ​detergent for ​domestic and ​industrial ​purpose, what ​happens when it ​enters in ​freshwater ​ecosystem? ​

     thanks in advance.

    Juan Manuel Trujillo-Gonzalez

     Detergents containing phosphorus and nitrogen that can cause eutrophication process in aquatic ecosystems.

  • Ather Abbas asked a question in Infinity:
    How can we write code for double series when one variable goes to infinity in MATLAB?

    I want to write a code for an equation (given in link) but I don't know how can I write double summation sign in MATLAB when one variable goes to infinity and other not.  The equation was put forward by Pinder et al 1969 (the paper is attached)

    + 1 more attachment

  • Jorge Almagro added an answer in Rattus norvegicus:
    What organ can I use as a positive control of ubiquitin IHC in Rattus norvegicus?

    I want to do immunohistochemistry for ubiquitin in liver and brain. I would like to know if there is a particular organ that expresses more ubiquitin that can be used as a positive control for this experiment.

    Jorge Almagro

    Thank you very much for your answer, Dr Kanjhan

  • Justin Gaetano added an answer in Multiple Testing:
    How do I calculate the bonferroni correction?

    I have 3 clinical test scores for father, mother and their children. My objective was to find difference in
    mothers:fathers, children:mothers, Children:fathers and then mothers:sons, mother:daughters, fathers:sons and father:daughter for these three clinical test, C1, C2 and C3.
    For these I used mann whitnay test and calculated p values. and it look like that
    Clinical_Test         Group                            P value
    C1                         mothere:fathers             0.002
    C2                         mothere:fathers             0.003
    C3                         mothere:fathers             0.233

    C1                         children:mothers            0.012
    C2                         children:mothers            0.05
    C3                         children:mothers            0.009

    And so on for other five groups as well.
    Now, I want to adjust p values by using bonferroni correction.

    Should I correct p value for mother:father group by 0.002*3 or by 0.002*21 (all number of tests)?


    Justin Gaetano

    Dear Muhammad,

    I have attached a link to an update of my previous Holm-Bonferroni p-value calculator (see also in my ResearchGate publications). This version allows you to calculate up to 10,000 corrected p-values at one time.

    Please cite this calculator as Gaetano (2013) if you use it for data to be published. All criticism welcome:


    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Update of my previous Holm-Bonferroni p-value calculator (see in my ResearchGate publications), this version allows you to calculate up to 10,000 corrected p-values at one time. All criticism welcome: justin.gaetano@scu.edu.au. Please cite this calculator as: Gaetano J. (2013). Holm-Bonferroni sequential correction: An EXCEL calculator (1.2) [Microsoft Excel workbook]. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/242331583_Holm-Bonferroni_Sequential_Correction_An_EXCEL_Calculator_-_Ver._1.2 . doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.3920.0481
  • Rafik Karaman added an answer in Lip:
    What is spindle cell tumor?

    We found spindle cell tumor at the lower lip and excised the tumor surgically.

    If you know about this tumor or some publications about this tumor, please tell us.

    Rafik Karaman

    Dear Makoto,

    Please read the following:


    Spindle cells are of mesenchymal origin, and form the body's connective tissue, fat, muscle, bone, cartilage and blood vessels.

    The name 'spindle cell' refers to the shape of the cell on cytology and histology.

    Spindle cell tumours can be benign (suffix -oma) or malignant (suffix -sarcoma), and will arise from these different cell lines.

    It can be difficult to differentiate between the different forms of spindle cell tumours, and also to distinguish between spindle cell neoplasia and a fibroplastic spindle cell proliferative response.

    Connective tissue tumours

    Fibroma and Fibrosarcoma
    Myxoma and myxosarcoma
    Tumours of fat

    Lipoma and liposarcoma
    Tumours of muscle

    Leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma
    Tumours of the blood vessel endothelium

    Haemangioma and Haemangiosarcoma
    Tumours of the lymphatics

    Lymphangioma and lymphangiosarcoma
    Other tumours

    Haemangiopericytoma and Schwannoma
    Generally spindle cell tumours do not exfoliate well, although exceptions exist.

    On cytological examination: cells are individual rather than adherent, fusiform, and with indistinct cell borders. Nuclei are often fusiform as well and cytoplasmic tails may fade into the background. It may be possible to determine the tissue of origin if there is evidence of collagen, cartilage, bone, fat or myxomatous material formation by the tumour cells.

    Often, a diagnosis of spindle cell tumour is as specific a diagnosis as can be made.

    Common cytological findings for benign spindle cell tumours include: small spindle-shaped cells, small nuclei, minimal anisocytosis.

    Cyological findings for sarcomas include:

    large, plump spindle cells
    large nuclei and prominent nucleoli
    prominent nuclear variability
    multinucleated giant cells
    pink extracellular stroma
    Spindle cell proliferation occurs as a fibroplastic response in granulomatous inflammation, and this may be impossible to differentiate from benign or malignant neoplasms.

    A biopsy and histopathology are usually necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

    Treatment and Prognosis
    Benign forms are usually well circumscribed and can be surgically removed with an excellent prognosis.

    Sarcomas are often highly infiltrative and locally aggressive, with a high likelihood of recurrence. Wide surgical excision is the treatment of choice.

    They metastasise rarely (apart from haemangiosarcomas).

    In all cases, a rapid and accurate diagnosis is important for treatment and prognosis.

    2-Am J Surg Pathol. 1988 Oct;12(10):747-53.
    Three types of spindle cell tumors of the pleura. Fibroma, sarcoma, and sarcomatoid mesothelioma.
    Carter D1, Otis CN.

    The clinicopathologic features of 17 fibrous tumors of the pleura are presented. Eight were benign localized fibrous tumors; all of these were negative when stained with antibodies to keratin. Eight were diffuse malignant tumors that demonstrated intense immunohistochemical staining of the spindle cells with antibodies to keratin. One case presented as a histologically malignant spindle cell tumor that was initially localized but recurred subpleurally three times in 12 years. This spindle cell tumor was consistently negative when stained for keratin. We conclude that there are three types of fibrous tumors of the pleura: (a) a localized, histologically benign, keratin-negative spindle cell tumor that might be termed "fibroma," (b) a diffuse, histologically malignant, keratin-positive neoplasm that might appropriately be termed a "sarcomatoid mesothelioma," and (c) a histologically malignant, keratin-negative, spindle cell tumor with the potential to spread under the pleura that might appropriately be termed a "sarcoma." Immunohistochemistry proved to be useful in distinguishing the sarcomatoid mesothelioma from the sarcoma.


    Spindle cell sarcoma is a type of connective tissue cancer in which the cells are spindle-shaped when examined under a microscope. The tumors generally begin in layers of connective tissue such as that under the skin, between muscles, and surrounding organs, and will generally start as a small lump with inflammation that grows. At first the lump will be self-contained as the tumor exists in its stage 1 state, and will not necessarily expand beyond its encapsulated form. However, it may develop cancerous processes that can only be detected through microscopic examination. As such, at this level the tumor is usually treated by excision that includes wide margins of healthy-looking tissue, followed by thorough biopsy and additional excision if necessary. The prognosis for a stage 1 tumor excision is usually fairly positive, but if the tumors progress to levels 2 and 3, prognosis is worse because tumor cells have likely spread to other locations. These locations can either be nearby tissues or system-wide locations that include the lungs, kidneys, and liver. In these cases prognosis is grim and chemotherapy and radiation are the only methods of controlling the cancer.

    Spindle cell sarcoma can develop for a variety of reasons, including genetic predisposition but it also may be caused by a combination of other factors including injury and inflammation in patients that are already thought to be predisposed to such tumors. Spindle cells are a naturally occurring part of the body's response to injury. In response to an injury, infection, or other immune response the connective tissues will begin dividing to heal the affected area, and if the tissue is predisposed to spindle cell cancer the high cellular turnover may result in a few becoming cancerous and forming a tumor.

    Hoping this will be helpful,


  • Albert Manfredi added an answer in LTE:
    Maximum SINR for LTE?

    Dear all,

    I working on enhancing the SINR value for LTE, I know there is a minimum requirement for SINR on LTE based on MCS (QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM).

    my question is there is any range for maximum SINR value? 

    Albert Manfredi

    I don't think there's a maximum SNR or SINR per se. SNR could be infinite, in principle, and the receiver should work great. The problem will be saturation of the receiver, with more than so much signal level. Or another way to say it is, if the receiver becomes overwhelmed with input signal, it creates intermodulation distortion products, and therefore the very high input power actually reduces SINR, inside the receiver.

    Here's an interesting presentation. The receiver design they show becomes saturated at a power level of -10 dBm, at the receiver input.


  • Artur Burzynski added an answer in Molecular Biological Techniques:
    Is there a problem with the Green and Sambrook recipe for a 10M Ammonium Acetate solution?

    A copy of what is printed in the fourth edition of "Molecular Cloning" by Green and Sambrook can be found here: http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2006/1/pdb.rec8067.full?text_only=true.

    I tried this protocol and had trouble. First, I tried adding 77g NH4AcO to 70mL H20 and ended up with ~135mL of solution (so it was already over 100mL). Second, it took ~10minutes to stir in the last bit of salt...adding more seems like it might take awhile to get into solution, if it will even go. Has anybody successfully made a 10M ammonium acetate solution using this protocol?

  • Arnold Trehub added an answer in Cognitive Systems:
    Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.

    Arnold Trehub


    I have a problem about the material/immaterial distinction. For example, is electromagnetism a material phenomenon? As for intentionality, I would argue that it is a concept that is realized by a particular kind of biophysical mechanism. So it is manifested by a particular organization of material stuff with activated properties like patterns of field potentials that are clearly physical, but not clearly material ; e.g., retinoid space.

  • Han Sern Cheah added an answer in Palm Oil:
    Does anybody know how to distinguish palm oil from other vegetable oils?

    Does palm oil have any property that allows it to be easily recognised?

    Han Sern Cheah

    Check the fatty acids composition by using GC, each oils/fats have their unique fatty acids composition.

  • Adham Sabri added an answer in RNA Extraction:
    Anyone familiar with RNA extraction from fish?

    hello i did extraction of RNA from fish using geneall kit and i used the TAE gel for rapid confirmation of RNA integrity.

    as I can see in the picture, i have the two bands of 26S and 18S but there is other bands in upper part.

    what is the possible cause of that? what is the nature of these bands?

    Adham Sabri

    thanks a lot, i did a DNAse treatment of sample and i checked the RNA integrity but the upper bands still persist. so it is for sure not gDNA.

    what do you think about using denaturing gel instead of non-denaturing gel?

  • Hayk L. Khachatryan added an answer in ALD:
    If the crystal growing succeeded in O2 plasma-enhanced ALD system, this growth, is also succeeds in thermal ALD system?

    When a crystal growing, is there a specific reason that using O2 plasma as reactants? If I using same precursor, can I achieve the same crystal growing in thermal ALD (using O2 or O3 as a reactant) ?

    Hayk L. Khachatryan

    What kind of material is depositing?

    One of the popular mechanisms of ALD is surface reaction between precursor and surface –OH groups. For instance alumina is deposited from Al(CH3)3 (TMA) which reacts with surface –OH groups forming strong covalent bonds. The O2 plasma treatment usually increases concentration of –OH groups on surface and such a way enhance ALD deposition. Contrarily, usually thermal treatment has revers effect and decrease amount of -OH groups. It can be inferred that thermal treatment may have negative effect in general. In addition heating process enhances desorption process as well which in his turn may negatively influence on surface reactions.

    However deposition process may depend on depositing material and need to be optimized for getting optimal temperature range.

  • Jagabar Sathik Mohamed Ali added an answer in Multilevel Inverters:
    In the case of SHEPWM, at which angle must the step to higher voltage happen?

    Consider 2 cascaded H-Bridge inverters, if I'm trying to eliminate 5,7,11,13 harmonics, using SHE equation 5 angles are generated, but the output waveform has only 2 steps i.e., from 0-V and V-2V. so at which of these 5 angles must the step occur.

    Jagabar Sathik Mohamed Ali

    Dear Shrinivas,

    Post your output waveform image

  • Bruce Fortado added an answer in Ethnocentrism:
    How do anthropologists describe xenocentrism and its relevance as a counter proposition to ethnocentrism and cultural relativism?

    Xenocentrism is not a well read cultural counter proposition to ethnocentrism in anthropology. If I am not wrong many believe it is cultural relativism which is a more suitable reply to  ethnocentrism. But why does every individual want to follow the west, its lifestyle or culture of consumption, broadly the whole system..........................

    Bruce Fortado

    Hari: I do not understand what you mean by a counter proposition.  Ethnocentrism refers to members of a culture judging the culture of another group as less adequate than their own culture.  Cultural relativism deals with there being differences between what is judged right and wrong across cultures.  By xenocentrism, which sounds like a derivative of xenophobia, are you talking about the fear of outsiders and ways that are different from the culture in question?  If these are what you mean by these terms, what do you mean by a counter proposition?  I also did not follow how you jumped to assuming every individual wants to follow "the west." You must be thinking of a specific population, but you did not specify what population you have been observing. By the west, do you mean Europe, the US, Canada, or some other groups?  Are you thinking about wealth versus poverty?  Are you thinking about technologies?  Are you thinking about music, movies or television shows?  Are you thinking about cuisine? Are you thinking about democracy?   When you say the whole system, does this ignore the fact many western countries have ethnic enclaves that are preserving aspects of their former cultures?  Has the introduction of democracy worked better in some places than others?  I have met people visiting my country who given a chance cooked dishes from their original culture, rather than enjoying purely food from my culture on their visit.  At least in my experience, the west is hardly uniform. Since terrorists sometimes attack western targets, evidently everyone does not want to universally adopt western values.  Best of luck with exploring these subjects further in your subsequent travels and in reviewing the news, Bruce

  • Huda Almaarofi added an answer in Water Quality Management:
    What is the suitable method to evaluate "multiple management options" against multiple criteria/sub-criteria?

    I am working on a framework to optimize surface water quality management strategies in catchments. I am looking for a suitable (simple as possible) method to evaluate the management options and rank them against fix cost/budget.

    Huda Almaarofi

    Dear José G. Hernández R. Would you please advise what is MMwMf acronym for? Thank you so much.

  • Matthew Yu added an answer in Applied Linguistics:
    How should I determine the underlying forms of these noun stems?

    Hello everyone, I have some data from Ganda (Luganda), which is a language in the Bantu language family. I can not determine which are the underlying forms for their noun stems. I give the data as in the follows. 

    singular                     plural                    My assumption

    lulagala                     ndagala                    dagala

    lwatika                       ɲjatika                       jatika

    lweyo                         ɲjeyo                        jeyo

    luuyi                          ɲjuyi                          juyi

    lugambo                    ŋŋambo                    ŋambo

    lulimi                          nnimi                         nimi

    luyombo                    ɲɲombo                    ɲombo

    lwendo                       ɲɲendo                    ɲendo

    lunaku                       nnaku                       naku

    luyola                        ɲjola                          jola

    lupapula                    mpapula                   papula

    This question has been bothering me for a very long time. If I assume the above stems, it would be easy to explain the plural alternations, it is to add the plural prefix n- to the stems, but it would be hard to explain how the singular forms are formed, the singular prefix is lu- or lw- (before vowels). Your ideas and suggestions are highly appreciated!

    Matthew Yu

    @Martha O'kennon This is an assignment, but since I have submitted it long time ago, I think no harm is done to ask for help in here. The professor only gave us limited data as you have already seen above, so that might be the source of so much trouble and guess-work. I find phonology more and more interesting for me, especially when I can work out a feasible explanation for some language that you have never heard before. 

  • Paulo Magno Martins Dourado added an answer in Urtica dioica:
    Can flavonoids be effective in the treatment of diabetes?


    I am working on extraction of urtica dioica L. I want to know what the biological composition in that is useful in the treatment of diabetes?

    Paulo Magno Martins Dourado

    I really believe that this substances play a role in the diabetes control and your study can bring new lights in the mechanism that is still unknown, but certainly acts in the production and secretion of insulin in the liver, pancreas and intestine. Perhaps the assessment of expression of some enzyme or receptor to act in these organs is an initial way to explain the mechanistic action of these phenol derivatives.

  • Xuemin Chen added an answer in Protein Formulation:
    Will the mixture of my protein and formulation form crystal without the reservoir?

    Hi guys, I was wondering will my protein form crystal if I just mix it with the formulation in a tube (without the reservoir)? I understand that the most common technique for crystallization, hanging drop and sitting drop both contain reservoir and they are based on the supersaturation to form crystal. If there is no reservoir and just mix them in a tube, containing 1:1 ratio, will crystal form? Anyone tried this before? What is the principle behind this actually or actually it doesn't work? Thanks!

    Xuemin Chen

    4 celsius degree

  • Nahian Rahman added an answer in Sliding Mode Control:
    How the actuator saturation can be addressed in higher order sliding mode control design?

    In a higher-order sliding mode control design for a system with relative  degree two, how the system stability can be proved in the presence of actuator saturation?

    Nahian Rahman

    You may have a look in that paper:


  • Sandipan Samaddar added an answer in DNA Amplification:
    Why am I not getting AOB amoA gene amplification in soil sample? Note: Positive control showing proper amplification.

    I did PCR for amoA gene of AOB (ammonia oxidising bacteria) using amoA-1F/amoA-2R primers. I used a positive control in order to check my PCR conditions. Positive control showing proper amplification but in my soil DNA no amplification was observed. The same soil I checked for Archaeal amoA which showed proper amplification.

    It is strange to believe that AOB population doesn't exist. So I would like to get comments on what can be the problem for not getting amplification and how to solve.


    Sandipan Samaddar

    Hello Paul,

    Thanks for the suggestion.Will try as you advised.Hope to get amplification.

  • Annangi Subba Rao added an answer in Soil Organic Carbon:
    How do I convert organic carbon (%) of soil for value & interpretation into available nitrogen (Kg/Ha) & rating?

    Say in my area soil organic carbon measured is 0.28, 0.30, 0.18 %

    as per soil fertility rating it is low in organic carbon or low in nitrogen (Kg/Ha)

    now for all my data like above I want to convert into available nitrogen (Kg/Ha)

    so what will be any formulae ?

    Annangi Subba Rao

    Dr.Milham and Dr.Hepperly, good discussion on important topic.As I understand two levels of carbon in soil are very crucial from agriculture and ecosystem functioning. A lower limit of carbon below which soil  can not perform basic functions or important processes. The second limit or upper limit or saturation level. Above this level, the proportion of carbon entering into passive pool will be negligible and the  amount remaining in labile or active pool will  be more.If the active pool of carbon is more it performs greater role in nutrients release. Also one can add certain minimum level of organic matter to Soil to maintain the passive pool and to avoid(?) possible loss of labile carbon through tmineralization/oxidation process.

  • Buket uçar asked a question in Trauma:
    How can I induce a mild traumatic injury in a organotypic brains slice?

    I found some articles about severe trauma, but I would like to induce only mild trauma.