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  • Does anyone have access to Laboratory courses in chemistry curriculum in United State colleges/Universities. I needed some reference?

    In my recent communication to journal of chemical education from ACS the reviewer has raised a concern of student audience for one of my articles describing a laboratory exercise. please provide some details about the laboratory course structure in chemistry curriculum of United states. 

  • R. M. Mehra added an answer in Heusler Alloys:
    Is dielectric property measurements possible in case of Heusler alloys?

    I have synthesized the heusler alloy. Now, I am interested in its dielectric properties.

    R. M. Mehra · Sharda University

    Perhaps dielectric resonance properties can be measured by microwave cavity technique.

  • What are Best ways to writing introduction of scientific paper academic writing for non-native speakers?

    I need step by step to writing introduction 

  • Why is the colour of CdSe thin film is white in color?

    I have coated it at 300 and 350C and used Cadmium chloride and selenium dioxide as a source material. Normally the colour of the CdSe thin film will be red or reddish brown in colour. but what i got is white in colour i dont know why.

    Mathuri Selvarajan · Bharathidasan University

    Hello sir  thanks for your immediate clarification. I have coated it on glass substrate by spray pyrolysis method and regarding roughness i didnt measured it yet. when i increase the concentration of the source material  then iam getting milky white other wise its shinny white colour sometimes its look  colourless.

  • Won Bae Han added an answer in Centrifugation:
    Does anybody know how to remove lipid molecules from the chloroform solution containinig lipid-encapsulated nanoparticles(~15nm) and free lipids?

    I've tried to use a centrifuge to separate lipid-encapsulated nanoparticles(~15nm) from excess lipids by aspirating supernatant after the centrifugation at 3000 x g for 30min.
    But since both of lipid-encapsulated nanoparticles and lipids are well-soluble in chloroform, it's not easy to remove free lipid molecules properly.
    Is there anybody who can give me some advice about the centrifugation or other methods to remove free lipids???
    I want to get lipid-encapsulated nanoparticles only............

    Won Bae Han · Hanyang University

    Thank you. Dr. Abdur Mirajkar.

    But I think using non-polar solvents as you said would not be useful to separate lipids from the nanoparticles.

    Because the nanoparticles are covered(encapsulated) with lipid molecules so that they tend to be like a lipid molecule and dissolved in iso-octane(polar index: 0.1) as well.

    Any comments on that?


  • How do you motivate a negative-minded person?
    We tend to bump with people who give up quickly or do things half way, regardless of age. It can be tiring to push them to move further. Right now, I am facing one. After spending money, time, effort and thinking, on a work related matter, that person is thinking of walking away. If you were in my shoes, what would you do?

    Cultures place a high value on revenge and offer more social support to avengers

  • How to analyse people at a work environment with games?

    Question: What object would you like to be? Why?
    Answer: Computer, because I can get knowledge, share my opinions and write about whatever I want (my view of things), or theories.

    So, with this answer, I can predict that this person is the computer, and by asking this simple question, I can learn how he/she is, this person doesn't know that he/she is talking talking about him/her self, but that is how analyse people at the work environment.
    How to create this "games" and how you analyse them?

    M. Laura Angelini · Catholic University of Valencia "San Vicente Martir"

    Hi Marcelo,

    I strongly recommend to see Thiagi' site full of ideas on how to use games. 

    Let me know your views. I'm sure you'll find material and plenty of ideas.



  • Prakash Naga Pillai added an answer in Hydrogel:
    Will hydrogel can be prepared with out cross linking agent?

    i want to prepare hydogel with out cross linking agent is it possible to prepare in that way?

    Prakash Naga Pillai · Thangavelu Group of Colleges

    Dear sir, 

    It is possible to using without cross linking agent, but the blend is not stable in the gel formation. You check the your gel compound which group majority functional group, after choose correct cross linking agent. For example more amine having your compound pls choose glutaraldehyde.

  • Mohamed Parvees asked a question in Image Processing:
    Can anyone say what is the meaning of "short range couplings" in between image pixels?

    Image processing and chaotic experts

  • Trung Pham asked a question in Homer:
    Does anyone has a link to download Homer trial version ?

    I've tryed searching the Internet so far, and i just got Pro version but no the licence, so i cannot use the Tool.

    So just please give me....

  • Danilo Peixoto asked a question in Iguanas:
    Does anyone know papers about the ecology or behavior of the green iguana (Iguana iguana) ?

    I'm studying about the respiratory physiology of this species and I need some articles about the ecology and behavior in order to establish links between the type of respiratory structure, metabolic requirements and ecology or behavior.

    Could anyone help me ? I'm would be very grateful.

  • Siva Mani asked a question in Scoring:
    Is there any difference between X-Pert High Score and X-Pert High Score Plus ?

    Foe the time am using X-Pert High Score plus in that I could not get proper results and reference. Same results if I do with X-Pert High Score I can get better results with more references. Just I want to know which is better in case both are not same.  

  • Zhaowen Hou asked a question in Signal Analysis:
    Which fault diagnosis method(s) is(are) used in commercial systems?

    In the paper, the authors said that "Advanced signal analysis techniques seem to be good candidates for improving the diagnostic systems in the wind power generation industry. However, they have been rarely incorporated in commercial systems." (in Page 1748). Then my question is which fault diagnosis method(s) is(are) used in commercial systems?

    Thanks very much.

  • Anyone who can share a rapid method of virus purification without involving hi tech equipments like ultra-centrifugation?

    I have a virus isolated in cell culture. I am going to extract virus RNA and want to get rid of cellular RNA before sharing sample to NGS facility. Anyone who can respond or guide, please?

    Muhammad Zubair Shabbir · University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences


    Many thanks for your valuable comments. I believe i can do something to get rid of cellular RNA

  • Looking for Research Question (miRNA related study for GAS7 and Cancer, Cell culture study)?

    I am doing a 2 months summer internship and my mentor told me to identify research question related to miRNA. My lab is famous for GAS7/8, RNAi study and they usually do Neuro-2A cell culture study and retrovirus transfection. I want to study any particular miRNA study that might have impact for GAS7 or Cancer. I am still searching literature. If you can advice me some short project that could finish within 2 months and might be able to generate some impactful data, please let me know. Any particular miRNA expressing up-regulation or down-regulation in Neuro-2A cell line that affect GAS7 or Lung Cancer/MLL?

    I am still beginner level in this field.   

  • H.H. Mohammad asked a question in Model Theory:
    Gibbs adsorption and cross-sectional area?

    I am referring to the paper entitled "New Adsorption Model -Theory, Phenomena and New Concept - " which is published in J. Oleo Sci.  I have question on the paper on paragraph 3 page 2 stating "The important finding is that the molecular surface area is less than the cross-sectional area of the alkyl chain for C16E8 and C18E8. Such small molecular surface areas strongly suggest that Gibbs adsorption just at air/water interface is anadequate. This is one of contradictions fir the Gibbs adsorption." Actually how you measure the cross-sectional area of the alkyl chain? I really appreciate that you can give some literatures on this. I have tried to find in the web but unsuccessfully not found it.

    Why, when the molecular surface area is less than the cross-sectional area of alkyl chain is said to be contradict from the Gibbs adsorption area?

  • Meh Rdad asked a question in Tyrosine:
    Whats the concentration of free Tyrosine in live cells ?

    Hi would please tell me whats the concentration of Tyrosine in living cells in general and in Cancer cells?

  • Eric Wilson added an answer in Saints:
    Why Religion is a constitutive element of the human being?

    It's widely said that the human being is a religious being, using religion to explain at the beginning the world around him, and lately using it to explain it's own existence?

    Does anyone have a reference about religión as an evolutionary phenomena? It's for a psychoanalytic article about narcissism as an element in the life of saints, but i need historical and if possible reference about prehistory.


    Eric Wilson · Monash University (Australia)


    In my introductory lectures on Law and Religion, I tend to conflate the two separate meanings into a generic transcendental-thing-that-is-force-for-social-unity. But after this extremely useful and interesting discussion I will be more nuanced in my approach to religare//relegere.

  • Manas Sarkar added an answer in Technical Textiles:
    Can I get some information about Kapok Fiber structure?

    I want to know more what causes the fibers are water repellent?

    Manas Sarkar · EPRO Development Limited

    Nurfitri, This property is available for raw cotton only. Once you treat with NaOH at boil (used for most of the applications) will be hydrophilic.

  • Sandip Rath added an answer in mRNA Expression:
    Why does mRNA expression remain low while protein expression increases?

    In one of my experiments I observed a decrease in mRNA expression of gene but however protein expression of the same gene is relatively higher. How this fact can be explained? Please give me help in understanding the situation of the matter .Thank you in advance to all for help 

    Sandip Rath · NIT

    Thank you very much to all for the kind information. These discussions have thoroughly improved my basics on the regulation of mRNA expression.  

  • In organic coating, what are the previous surface treatments that need to be applied on the substrate ?

    To improve the adhesion between the organic coatings and the substrate, the substrates need to be treated. Is this common in the industrial applications?,if so what are the techniques used?

    Priyavrat Thareja · Rayat Institute of Engineering & Information Technology

    Besides  'Cleansing' and Activation of substrate, by concept ----

    Andrzej informed of the adhesion coating on inorganic (metal surface). - by chemical glue. to bond the organic (parylene coating) .....Good research.

    This interface is the development of a newer world between the two non-gelling matrices.

    the modus operandi is the use of medium / media which are in harmony with the one (say, inorganic (metal surface)), and can be transformed/  (mixed with another which serves for the other side, and transmit harmony).

    Abraham said this in plain words :"think about the interface structure you really want to have and try to create it."

  • Bonnie tay yen ping added an answer in Chlorpyrifos:
    Can headspace gc-msd be used for two compounds with similar molecular weight?

    I need to extract chlorpyrifos (Mw 282.46 g/mol) from oleic acid (Mw 350/5 g/mol). Both are volatile. what setting should i use?

    Bonnie tay yen ping · Malaysian Palm Oil Board

    Dear Dr Daniela,

    i am doing method development of chlorpyrifos in fatty acids, i have the GC-MSD condition using SIM mode to detect chlorpyrifos, but when i do direct injection of spiked oleic acid with chlorpyrifos, the oleic acid peak interfere with my chlorpyrifos peak. During my method validation , i need to spiking/ recovery of chlorpyrifos from fatty acids and i had tried solvent-solvent extraction but could not remove oleic acid from chlorpyrifos. Now i am contemplating using headspace GC-MSD and wanted to know whether this is feasible.

  • Can we use some other solvent for DPPH assay instead of methanol?

    I am working with some oils which are not soluble in methanol, but soluble in IPA, etc. Can anyone help me the complete procedure regarding the use of IPA for DPPh assay to be done in microplate reader? also please help me with the complete protocol to be followed.

    Thanks in advance.

    Luis Díaz-Batalla · Universidad Politécnica de Francisco I. Madero

    if the sample you want to test is nonpolar the resoluts in DPPH will be wrong because DPPH ASAY  is for polar molecules 

  • Can anybody identify the plant ?
    Name of the plant
    Michael Ade · University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa

    Possibly Chenopodium album. Lambsquarters could grow just about anywhere. Where is this plant being photographed at?

  • Candra Putra asked a question in Rice:
    Does etiolated plant containt different nutrition with the normal one?

    I grow rice plants in laboratory condition with "cool white" bulb as light source. It shows etiolation symptom in almost all plants, the stems become longer than the normal one. Does the etiolated plant have different content (nutrition concentration) with the normal one, espesially on the stem part?

  • Gordon Couger added an answer in Rice:
    Can anybody let me know if there is any published data for the estimation of leaf protein( lowrey) and carbohydrate( anthrone) in rice?

    Please let me know if there is any data for the total protein content in rice leaf by Lowery's method and total carbohydrate content in rice grain by anthrone method.

    Gordon Couger · Oklahoma State University - Stillwater

    Searching Google Scholar for:

    NDVI Nitrogen rice

    Turns up a large number of results. NDVI is the ratio of the refection of two wavelengths of red and infrared light off the leaves of rice. Some of those papers and their Bibliographies will lead on a long journey of remote sensing Nitrogen and other properties in rice and other crops.  

    I believe most of the Nitrogen  will be in proteins in the rice.


  • Louis Brassard added an answer in Consciousness:
    Can consciousness be defined?
    Dan Dennett tries to shake our confidence that we ever can know what consciousness is. Would you agree with him?


    ''A blind locked-in patient, utterly unable to move in space, is conscious.'' Yes?

    ''Your car which is "about moving in space" is not conscious. '' Yes?

    ''A living body with arms and legs moving while deeply asleep is not conscious.'' Yes?

    I do not see any of these as arguments about what I was saying.  I objected the idea that the brain need to construct the outside wold inside.  It is not the way the body proceeds.  

  • Amipara Manilal D added an answer in Impedance:
    Why we use dominant mode (TE10) in microwave test bench?

    in labrotary  we use dominat mode for measuiring unknown impedence, reflection coeffecient  ,VSWR .i want to know that why we prefer dominant mode operation

    Amipara Manilal D · Balaji Institute of Engineering & technology, Junagadh

    The frequency of 10GHz (and around) generation part is simple in a sense canbe handled at laboratory level easily as well as economical.

    The dominant frequency related various parts used in Microwave bench (Wave guide and other) are economic to manufacture and convenient to handle Neither too big nor too small) and store.

    Looking to above aspects it is desirable (not necessary) to have the same 

  • Sharbadeb Kundu added an answer in Primer:
    What percent of template can be synthesized during PCR?

    For example, the parameters for PCR are denaturing at 95, annealing at 58 and elongation at 72, while the melting temperatures of primers are around 60.

    Sharbadeb Kundu · Assam University

    Yes. You are right. It was my mistake. It should nave been the efficiency instead of accuracy. Thanks for correcting me.