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  • Jousheed Pk added an answer in Organic Compounds:
    How I can remove the metals (Fe, Na, K, Ca etc) from my organic compound (readily soluble in methanol)?

    My organic molecules is highly polar and soluble readily in methanol. When I checked in AAS (and chemical method also) I have found some ppm level (2-10 ppm) of different metals (Fe, Ca, Na, K, etc.) I want to use this compound for some electronic application. How I can remove this metals from my sample at least to reduce the concentration of metals to ppb level? Can any one provide a better and easy way for this? Thanks

    Jousheed Pk

    Thanks for your valuable suggestions and guidance...

  • Rajesh Sanghvi added an answer in Intelligent Systems:
    Do you need always a knowledge in order to achieve a task?


    I am wondering if it is always necessary for an intelligent system to have knowledge in order to achieve a task automatically? 

    Hope that my question is clear!

    Thank you

    Rajesh Sanghvi

    We may compare the situation with that of human being. If I do not know anything about Mechanical Engineering, then it would be impossible for me to think about a particular topic in Mech.Engg. So, information is not intelligence, but it is essential to perform some activity which may be called intelligence. Philosophically, there are four words, namely, information, knowledge, intelligence and wisdom.

  • Kosar Barati asked a question in Intermittency:
    Does intermittency just happen in chaotic system?

    In a signal from a difference system that shows chaotic behavior , for example logestic, we see intermittency in some values of parameters, between choatic and quasi-periodic behavior. Now i want know that intermittency accur in non-choatic system ?

    for example between constant behavior and periodic or two kind of perodic.

  • Nikhilesh Dholakia added an answer in Hype processes:
    Would you please suggest top references, especially multidisciplinary ones (that go beyond economics), on bubble phenomena and bubble processes?
    Bubbles have a very tightly circumscribed economic meaning, but they have also been studied by scholars (and methods) from humanities and social sciences other than economics. I am seeking your expert help in identifying the very best multidisciplinary writings on bubbles.
    Nikhilesh Dholakia

    Of course, Shiller's work is well known... but he is an economist and, according to Philip Mirowski's (also an economist) book "Never Let a Serious Crisis go to Waste" (a critical review of the role of neoliberal economics in causing the crisis; and then the surprising strengthening of neoliberalism post-crisis), Robert Shiller has very simplistic SOCIAL explanation of bubbles... Mirowski argues that Shiller is essentially a fringe-neoliberal. So, Professor Hawkins, thanks for the suggestion... but economics has failed in providing the answers.

  • Yuenwah Chan asked a question in Images:
    How can I plugin cell counter image J into image J?

    Can someone provide the link that explaining plugin step by step?

  • Nitin Gupta added an answer in Ayurvedic Medicine:
    Do we need Ethics committee approval and CTRI registration for Observational studies (Simplified PMS study) for Ayurvedic medicines.?

    Do we need Ethics committee approval and CTRI registration for Observational studies (Simplified PMS study) for Ayurvedic medicines.?

    Nitin Gupta

    An ethics commitee approval is required for any research which has to be conducted. CTRI registration should be done if a trial has to be undertaken. Can you please elaborate on the  Observational studies (Simplified PMS study)  you are planning?

  • Pooja Ghoora added an answer in Post Harvest Technology:
    What are the reasons for softening in greens during refrigerated storage and what is the chemistry behind it?

    Some packaged fresh-cut greens exhibit softening when stored under refrigerated conditions. What can be the scientific reasons behind such phenomenon? 

    Pooja Ghoora

    Thank you for all your valuable inputs and clarifications.

  • Aparna Roy added an answer in India:
    How dietary pattern of farmers/fish farmers of coastal area can be enriched so that nutritional security can be achieved?

    Farming communities in coastal areas of India are in a vulnerable condition and nutritional security in India is a issue. So enrichment of the dietary pattern of the people with low-cost available protein or micronutrients can help in gaining nutritional security. I want to intervene a suitable design for nutria-smart village in coastal India.

    Aparna Roy

    Dear Dr. Shaoo,

    U r always welcome sir.

    Thanks and regards,


  • Anshul Faye added an answer in Structural Engineering:
    How can we analyze a semi rigid connection manually?

    We have done an experiment to find deflection on a steel frame as shown in image attached .the frame consist of two i-section columns and one i-section beam. Load is applied at mid point of the beam and deflection is measured. This deflection is found to be between the deflection due to simply supported ends and fixed ends.

    This may be due the flexibility between beam and column connection. I want to determine the stiffness of this semi rigid connection.

    IS-800-2007 clause 10.6.1 Annex F 4.3 gives a procedure to find the stiffness but I am not able to apply either of the cases given in figure 32 page 132 to my case. The connection details of our frame are in the image attached. We had already solved it as per IS 800 2007 but results are not satisfactory.

    Any solved example/other guiding material regarding the same would be appreciated.

    Anshul Faye

    Just a hint, solve it assuming rigid beam. Find the reaction force at the ends of beam. They will be same as the force in the joint (Axial and shear force in the bolt). Find the deformation in bolts due to these forces and add it to the beam deflection.
    I am not sure whether this will give you exact answer, but it can be a factor which add to extra deflection in rigid beams.

    Hope this helps. 

  • Cynthia Silvia added an answer in Leadership:
    Is there any questionnaire about women leadership?

    other than LBDQ

    Cynthia Silvia

    Hi Nathan,

    I would suggest that you check out the following research studies located at the following links. The researchers include some excellent surveys on research of women in leadership roles.






    Dr. Cynthia Silvia

  • Annie Stephen asked a question in NGOs:
    Can anyone recommend papers on NGOs?

    financial management in NGOs

  • Debahuti Mukherjee added an answer in Brachiopoda:
    Can anyone name the specimen of this brachiopods found in the Albian- Cenomanian in yasuj, Iran?

    This specimen found in the west of yasuj (For first time).

    Debahuti Mukherjee

    It would be interesting to see the dorsal view (brachial view) so that the umbonal region can be observed.  What is the size of the views without scale? From the anterior and lateral views it has a similarity with Carneithyris or Chatwinothyris, but both have very small foramen, which cannot be observed over here.

  • Rajesh Sanghvi added an answer in Discrete Wavelet Transform:
    Can anyone tell me how to detect the first most significant peak using daubechies wavlet??

    Daubechies wavlet transform

    Rajesh Sanghvi

    I am not an expert in the field. But I would suggest you to visit the following site. It may solve your problem.


    A link is also given on the page to a software downloadable for the purpose.

  • Syatir Tahar added an answer in Cryptosporidium:
    Any easy and effective method for extraction of Cryptosporidium ?

    Any easy and effective method for extraction of Cryptosporidium ?

    Syatir Tahar

    Will K Reevers, is the DNA extraction kits for stool applicable to be used for vegetables, water & soil sample for Cryptosporidium?

  • Marie Krush asked a question in Numeracy:
    Has anyone come across current research on using mathematical literature to enhance numeracy in primary?

    specifically k-2

  • Annie Stephen asked a question in Tax:
    Can anyone help me with research topics on tax?

    tax literacy?

    tax complexities in India

    tax evasion and tax avoidance

  • Abdul Ghafoor added an answer in Soil Classification:
    What is Inceptisols according to WRB classification?

    In my study site soil classification according to Soil Taxonomy is Inceptisols.

    Soil type is clay-loam.

    Horizon A: Depth= 0-15 cm; Sand= 33%; Silt= 41%; Clay=26%.

    Horizon B: Depth= 15-55 cm; Sand= 29%; Silt= 43%; Clay=28%.

    Horizon C: Depth= 55-85 cm; Sand= 26%; Silt= 42%; Clay=32%.

    The study site have Marl and Limey sand-stone.

    The parent material is calcareous and soil is leached brown forest soil.

    Abdul Ghafoor

    As per USDA soil taxonomy, Inceptisols form quickly through alteration of parent material and are more developed than Entisols, have no accumulation of clays, Fe-oxide, Al-oxide or organic matter, but do have an ochric or umbric horizon and a cambic subsurface horizon.

    In Table 19.6 of the following link:

    1.      Anthrosols and Gleysols  in WRB are included in Inceptisols (Plaggepts, Aquepts) and Entisols (Aquents) ,

    2.      Umbisols and Cambisols in WRS are also included in Inceptisols.


    I will suggest to describe a profile in a standard way to classify the soil in WRB or even in USDA Soil Taxonomy.

  • Marie Krush asked a question in Children’s Literature:
    Does Mathematics learning Through Children’s literature enhance Math Achievement?

    math literature

  • Julia Hazel added an answer in Bird Conservation:
    Novel nesting aggregation by a native bird species - what could explain this?

    We are studying a novel nesting aggregation in an urban environment that developed suddenly and does not fit the idea of natural increase from a few founding individuals. In one season >400 nests implies ~1000 adult birds abruptly chose a new breeding location. The bird is an Australian native species (Ducula bicolor/spilorrhoa). It nests almost exclusively on some of the isolated uninhabited islands along our tropical coast (very low predation). These birds are commonly seen foraging on the mainland. They are strong fliers and commute easily (daily) over long distances between islands and mainland. But nests on the mainland are few and isolated (likely high predation), except for this novel aggregation at only one location (evident moderate predation).

    Has anyone researched similar abrupt changes in breeding habits by birds or other taxa? Any theories to explain *sudden change* in breeding location?

    Julia Hazel

    Apologies for my slow response (diverted by urgent projects) and thank you Susan for information about your study of northern goshawks, very interesting.

  • Irena White added an answer in Artificial Intelligence:
    How are faculty planning to use or using Web 4.0 Tools in education?

    The possibilities of using Web 4.0 tools are currently being discussed by IT experts and other interested stakeholders at conferences. Artificial intelligence is seen as one of the key characteristics of these tools and their ability to solve problems for humankind. How do you anticipate using Web 4.0 tools in education or is it tool early to begin thinking of these possibilities? Your views are much appreciated.

    Many thanks,


    Irena White

    Dear Debra, I believe the answer to your question needs to be informed by an understanding of new theories of teaching and learning with digital technologies (please note the use of 'with' rather than the more common 'using' digital technologies to reflect educational transformation rather than transmission). One such theory is described in George Siemen's  "Principles of connectivism:
    * Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions.
    * Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources.
    * Learning may reside in non-human appliances.
    * Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known
    * Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning.
    * Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill.
    * Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all connectivist learning activities.
    * Decision-making is itself a learning process. Choosing what to learn and the meaning of incoming information is seen through the lens of a shifting reality. While there is a right answer now, it may be wrong tomorrow due to alterations in the information climate affecting the decision." Retrieved from http://www.itdl.org/journal/jan_05/article01.htm

    These principles, developed over 10 years ago during the transition from a read/write Web 1.0 to an interactive Web 2.0, are embodied today in the emergence of the connected and mobile era of Web 4.0 which is allowing the further personalisation of learning aided by data analytics as represented in the semantic executing Web 3.0 (see https://flatworldbusiness.wordpress.com/flat-education/previously/web-1-0-vs-web-2-0-vs-web-3-0-a-bird-eye-on-the-definition/).

    Sadly, most educators appear to be still grappling with Web 1.0, busily converting their Word documents and PowerPoint slides to PDFs, finding YouTube videos and using the online marking tools provided by their Learning Management Systems (LMS). Research is showing us that this use of LMS, as merely a new medium for content sharing, is in fact stifling creative opportunities for teaching and learning with digital technologies. 

    In answer to your question, I believe that rather than being "too early to begin thinking of these possibilities" it is perhaps already too late to bring many Web 1.0 educators into a Web 4.0 world. As we all, teachers and students alike, embrace living in a connected mobile world, the old theories that underpin traditional content focussed methods of teaching are proving to be inadequate and outdated. Content, even if it is "open", is not 'King' anymore - it is everywhere and in everything. I think the question should be: Is it too late for our educators to think about the teaching and learning possibilities presented through a connected mobile world?

  • Kala Gopi added an answer in In Vitro Culture:
    Ontogenic age of clones reduces in vitro culture response.-Opinions ?

    Clonal recalcitrance in  plant tissue culture.Tree seedlings perform better in vitro. Juvenility induction in clones. 

    Kala Gopi

    I feel there is a positive  correlation between ontogenic age of the clone and culture response even though it can be reduced by vegetative methods.

  • SureshKumar M asked a question in Soil Pollution:
    Can any one suggest me the list of soil test conducted nearby to solid waste dump yard to identify the pollution level?

    I plan to test soil pollution near by to the dump yard. For that what are all the list of tests essential to conduct for identifying the pollution level. Any standards are there for collecting and testing procedure. Like buffer distance how many samples have to be collected. Kindly answer if you know about this. 

  • Mr. Mass added an answer in Buckling Analysis:
    Which element types are used for the buckling analysis of truss elements in APDL and which results can be obtained ?

    i want to do buckling analysis of truss but LINK did not give buckling .

    So need urz guidline 


    Mr. Mass

    Thank u so much sir 

  • Kamal Ahmed added an answer in R:
    Can anyone help me to regrid CMIP5 data?

    I am trying to regrid NCEP data to CMIP5 data. Is there any code that can be easily implemented in R or Matlab.Thanks

    Kamal Ahmed

    Thanks for your reply. I never use CDO before,i will try to use CDO.


  • Mudhir Sabir Shekha added an answer in Thoracic Aorta:
    Is this Compositions of Krebs Henseleit Solution Correct or not?

    Krebs Henseleit Solution
    For 1 Liter
    118mM      NaCl                    6.90 grams
    4.7mM       KCL                     0.35 grams
    1.2mM       KH2PO4              0.16 grams
    1.2mM       MgSO4                0.14 grams
    25mM        NaHCO3              2.10 grams
    11mM        Glucose               1.98 grams

    2.5mM      CaCl2                    0.28 grams   (I forget to write here now its OK)

    0.003mM  EDTA.Na2.2H2O  0.0011grams

    Please can any one tell me step by step to prepare Krebs Henseleit Solution because sometimes our krebs solution make problem for our experiment

    Best reagard 

    Mudhir Sabir Shekha

    Thanks for all answer

  • Simontini Sensarma added an answer in Deep-Sea:
    What are these black, fibrous objects found in a deep-sea sediment core?

    These black objects were found throughout the core length (5m long) from a siliceous-red clay zone transition sediment and could be seen in naked eyes even. The picture given here is under microscope with average dimension of 0.05-0.1mm.

    + 1 more attachment

    Simontini Sensarma

    Thank you everyone for your valuable suggestion, it was of great help.

  • Jagalingam P added an answer in Algorithms:
    To Process the quality metrics of RMSE and CC, we need a reference image and processed image?

    I used a satellite image, and applied  enhancement algorithm, In-order to see the performance of algorithm, i like to use quality metrics such as RMSE and CC. To process this algorithm need two input image, one processed image, and reference image. How can i get reference image. 

    Jagalingam P

    Can i up-sample my original image resolution to the processed image resolution for evaluating the algorithm.