ResearchGate Q&A lets scientists and researchers exchange questions and answers relating to their research expertise, including areas such as techniques and methodologies.

Browse by research topic to find out what others in your field are discussing.

Browse Topics

  • Patrick Navatte added an answer in Acquisitions:
    Do foreign acquisitions lead to higher CEO compensation than domestic acquisitions?

    Have Ceos some incentives to undertake foreign acquisitions rather than domestic ones, regardless of the target firm performance?

    Patrick Navatte · Université de Rennes 1

    Thanks you all!

    I am wondering if these foreign acquisitions can add to the global complexity of the firm and of the Ceo's job. This may provide an opportunity for the Ceo to argue for higher pay even though shareholders do not receive any financial benefit from the increase in in global complexity. This may be an opportunistic behavior?

  • Shafagat Mahmudova added an answer in GATE:
    (Research Gate) how to increase the efficiency of Members?

    How to solve our scientific problems?

    Shafagat Mahmudova · Institute of Information Technology

    Dear Mohamad Hoseiny ,

    Look the link, may be useful.


    Regards, Shafagat

  • Nidal F Eshah added an answer in Lifestyle:
    Does anybody know a scale to measure lifestyles?

    I am searching for a (fairly short) methodology to collect lifestyle information that can be used as the basis for aggregating consumers in cluster-based typologies.

    It must fit to european lifestyles.

    I know there is e.g. the LOV and VALS, but as lifestyles are not the main topic of my questionnaire they have to much items. 

    Is there an alternative?

    Nidal F Eshah · Zarqa University

    Dear Verena,

    Try to look at the Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile "HPLP-II"

    It is a commonly used instrument that has a well established psychometric properties, and measure six dimensions of lifestyle:

    • Health responsibility
    • Physical activity
    • Nutrition
    • Spiritual growth
    • Interpersonal relationships
    • Stress management

    Good luck,,

  • Sunny Zafar asked a question in Dielectrics:
    Dielectric loss factor of tungsten carbide(WC)?

    Please let me know the dielectric loss factor, relative permittivity (real and imaginary) and relative permeability of WC. 

  • Sarwan Kumar Dubey added an answer in Desert:
    What strategies should be adopted for survival of human and animals if rains fail in Thar desert area?

    Since last few years rains are very erratic and poor in distribution. Many a times delayed monsoon and even long dry spells make it difficult to get production in the rain fed areas of Thar desert. Your valuable suggestions to make a viable strategy are awaited. Thanks

    Sarwan Kumar Dubey · Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Dehradun, India

    Respected Dr DK Pal Sahab, Yes at present no well defined strategy available is known  tome for such an complex situation with so many uncertainties. But we have to have prepare a plan and test it in harsh conditions for better production and development. We need suggestions for initiating it Sir. Regards.

  • Tomasz Waclawczyk asked a question in Solidification:
    Do you know works, where a binary fluid solidification (the mushy zone is created) is coupled with the model accounting for deformable interface?

    Let us imagine, we have solidification from below of salt water (or any other binary fluid), and waves at the binary fluid/air interface. The velocity field generated by the waves adds with effects of thermosolutal buoyancy  and redistributes solute (water with higher concentration of salt) influencing the macrosegregation pattern and, thus, local solidification rates (positions of the solidus and liquidus fronts).

    Are there any papers dealing with similar problems?

  • Daniele Sasso added an answer in Special Relativity:
    Is the neutrino rest-mass a reality, or is an illusion?

    I am no specialist in the topic of neutrino flavor oscillations, but I examined a lot of articles, theoretical and experimental, on this topic. And the result is that I remained with doubts on whether the neutrinos really have a rest-mass.

    Here are some of my doubts.

    1. The velocity of the neutrino is extremely close to that of the light. The theory of the flavor oscillation requires, in order to be able to see such oscillations, to have  r = ct, where r is the distance travelled by the neutrino and t the travel time.

    2. The extremely low values found for the presumed rest-masses ~ 10-3eV (i.e. 1.7x10-35gr.)

    2. In a correct quantum treatment of the neutrino, i.e. as a wave-packet of limited dimensions, the neutrino is never considered at rest. A particle at rest has linear momentum ZERO and can be anywhere in the space. But, until now, nobody produced a neutrino at rest, while an electron, a proton, a muon, and others, can be set at rest.

    3. The values of the elements of the Pontecorvo–Maki–Nakagawa–Sakata matrix which connect the flavor states of the neutrino with the mass states, are not precise, and experimenters rely on some elements measured in some experiment, for measuring other elements in other (different) experiments.

    Does somebody know whether there are alternative explanations of the neutrino flavor oscillations, without assuming rest-masses for neutrino?

    Daniele Sasso · Progetto Indipendente ARS

    It is common characteristic of dogmatic and ignorant  postmodern physicists to fall into insult when they don't have valid argumentations.

  • Geoff Kirwood added an answer in Patient Rights:
    Is nipple pinching the gold standard to arouse "LOC" patients?

    I have noticed nipple pinching being conducted on women "LOC" patients in my local hospital for no apparent reason after giving tramadol and metroclopramide.

    1) It is not done by the locals but (without prejudice) Indian national Staff Nurse. In fact, she teaches the other two China national and Pinoy nurses the "gold standard" way to arouse such patients.

    2) The "standards" were mere teaching sessions because she has no known agenda to actually arouse the "LOC" patients.

    3) I questioned her action, whether

    a) was it ethical to do so considering both drugs have just been administered?

    b) what happen if her nails are infected as she did not used gloves during the pinching?

    c) what if the patients are lactating, considering, the nurse did not check the patients background?

    d) worst still, what if the patients have unknown cancer?

    e) also, the nipples come out and beyond fixing as the patients are older and gravely fragile and ill patients?

    f) alas, the motive of using such primitive and barbaric "gold standards" never existed, as confirmed - it was just a night duty "killing the boredom of seeing too many sick patients sleeping so soundly" because they have to work late at night.

    I am now trying to check with the local relevant authority for the need to adopt such "gold standard" even to a real LOC patients

    - Can anyone in any country advise if this "gold standard" is normal in your own country?

    - I am trying to enumerate and record such pathetic accident at ED and ward level for research purposes.

    - Thank you - Mariam

    Geoff Kirwood · Monash University (Australia)

    Pain as determinant of consciousness is fraught with issues. Paramedics determined no GCS through sternal rub/earlobe pinch on patients that I'd just communicated with by gentleness (response to eyelash brush). Think about the effect of the meds!

  • Lokesh Ravi asked a question in Autodock:
    Is it recommended to do Docking for NanoParticles ? If so, can it be done in AutoDock ?

    Since most nanoparticles work based on charge and disruption of bond, I dont know if nanoparticles or inorganic molecules would inhibit any particular protein, like organic molecules and natural compounds.

    If this is possible, that inorganic molecules or nanoparticles can be docked with proteins, can this be done in AutoDock?

    Thanks in Advance


  • Duyi Samyor added an answer in Pulp:
    Can I keep my fruit pulpy sample at -20 degree for 1 year?

    Drying of pulp.

    Duyi Samyor · Tezpur University

    It is just a normal freezer.(-20).

  • Dhiren Nehra added an answer in Hemangioma:
    What is the optimum treatment for a large hemangioma(13 x 10 cms) of left lobe of liver?

    68 years old hypertensive for 2 years presented with a increasing mass in the epigastric region for over one and half years. CT is showing large hemangioma in left lobe of the liver. Is embolisation having any role or straight away resection? 

    Dhiren Nehra · Epsom and St Helier University Hospitals NHS Trust

    Resection if pt symptomatic, however a period of observation and monitoring size may be a safer option

  • Forough Khoshkerdar asked a question in Civil Engineering:
    I'm interested in doing a research about metal fabrication.I'm not sure that is it related to mechanical engineering or civil engineering?

    I need to find a supervisor in this area. But I'm not sure that who is specialist in this area and can help me.

  • Florent Lheureux added an answer in Work Identity:
    Can you suggest a literature review on work identity in workplaces?

    Hey.  I am writing a research paper, investigating work identity and its antecedent and consequences. Also, its relationship with work engagement and turnover intentions. I'm starting my literature review in earnest, and would be tremendously grateful for any leads or suggestions.

    Thank you.

    Florent Lheureux · University of Franche-Comté

    Here some suggestions regarding the role self-categorization and social identity in organizations. I think you might find some of these articles useful.

    Ahsforth & Mael (1989). Social Identity Theory and the Organization
    Cornelissen et al. (2007). Social Identity, Organizational Identity and Corporate Identity: Towards an Integrated Understanding of Processes, Patternings and Products
    Haslam et al. (2003). More than a Metaphor: Organizational Identity Makes Organizational Life Possible
    Hogg & Terry (2000). Social Identity and Self-Categorization Processes in Organizational Contexts
    van Dick et al. (2005). To Be(long) or Not to Be(long): Social Identification in Organizational Contexts
    Abrams et al. (1998). Psychological Attachement to the Group: Cross-Cultural Differences in Organizational Identification and Subjective Norms as Predictors of Workers' Turnover Intentions
    Abrams et al. (2002). Anti-Norm and Pro-Norm Deviance in the Bank and on the Campus: Two Experiments on Subjective Group Dynamics
    Davila & Garcia (2012). Organizational Identification and Commitment: Correlates of Sense of Belonging and Affective Commitment
    Harris & Cameron (2005). Dimensions of Organizational Identification and Commitment as Predictors of Turnover Intentions and Psychological Well-Being
    de Moura et al. (2009). Identification as an organizational anchor: How identification and job satisfaction combine to predict turnover intention
    Falomir-Pichastor et al. (2009). Determinants of Flu Vaccination among Nurses: The Effects of Group Identification and Professional Responsibility
    Haslam et al. (2000). Social Identity, Self-categorization, and Work Motivation: Rethinking the Contribution of the Group to Positive and Sustainable Organisational Outcomes
    Haslam et al. (2003). The ASPIRe model: Actualizing Social and Personal Identity Resources to enhance organizational outcomes
    van Knippenberg et al. (2002). Organizational identification after a merger: A social identity perspective
    Venstra et al. (2004). The psychology of casualization: Evidence for the mediating roles of security, status and social identification
    Wellen & Neale (2006). Deviance, Self-Typicality, and Group Cohesion
    Bizumic et al. (2009). The Role of the Group in Individual Functioning: School Identification and the Psychological Well-Being of Staff and Students
    Haslam & Reicher (2006). Stressing the Group: Social Identity and the Unfolding Dynamics of Responses to Stress
    Haslam et al. (2004). Social identity, social influence and reactions to potentially stressfultasks: support for the selfcategorization model of stress
    Haslam et al. (2005). Taking the strain: Social identity, social support, and the experience of stress
    Haslam et al. (2009). Social identification, stress and citizenship in teams: a five-phase longitudinal study
    Knight & Haslam (2010). Your Place or Mine? Organizational Identification and Comfort as Mediators of Relationships Between the Managerial Control of Workspace and Employees’ Satisfaction and Well-being
    Haslam & Ryan (2008). The road to the glass cliff
    Ryan & Haslam (2005). Evidence that Women Are Over-Represented in Precarious Leadership Positions

  • Ashkan Seddigh asked a question in Sleep Deprivation:
    Any device regarding to sleep deprivations for rats ?

    I searched for the device and finally came up with two models :
    " disk-on-water" and the one from "pinnacle Technology Inc" .
    I wanted to know that what would be the differences.

  • Akira Kanda added an answer in Physics:
    Can somebody solve the next problem by using only general relativity?
    We have two absolutely equal masses m1=m2=m that are in a distance r12=r21=r away each other. The masses are in rest in the laboratory frame. According to General Relativity (GR) each mass leads to a space time curvature and creates a kind of 'dent' in spacetime, see for example next Figure: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/22/Spacetime_curvature.png Since both masses are equal and there exist not any other reason which can distinguish one from the other, then the 'dent' of each mass is absolutely the same as the 'dent' of the other mass. So, according to GR, no motion will be produced, because otherwise we have to suppose that the two masses are not identical or our laboratory is not unbiased for one of them. But, due to Cavedish experiment: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cavendish_experiment we know that a force between m1 and m2 is certainly being developed. So, can somebody solve the problem of attracting m1 <-> m2 (Cavendish) inside the frame of GR? ============= Technical details ============= m1=m2=1 Kg, r12=r21=r=1 m Suggested structure of the solution process: --------------------------------------------------------- 1)Solve for each mass m1,m2 the next sub-problem: -->Solve Gmn=[(8 pi G)/(c^2)]*Tmn where T^{00}=rho/(c^2)=1 kg/m^3 / (c^2) and other T^{ij}=0, with the mass distribution arbitrarily chosen and not having any kind of known symmetry (: no spherical or other common geometrical symmetry, just arbitrary - the only assumption is that the two bodies are identical - 'twins' ). 2)Find the geodesic that object#2 has to follow due to the space time curvature produced by object#1. 3)Find the geodesic that object#1 has to follow due to the space time curvature produced by object#2. 4)Give the results and tell us what will finally be done. 5)Evaluate the theory, the effort and the results.
    Akira Kanda · University of Toronto

    As I showed the equivalence principle which claims that an accelerating frame is an inertial frame with induced gravitational field is flawed. It is false.

    Then think about the double bend argument of Einstein which was empirically "verified" by the fraud of Eddington who falsified his data under the instruction of The London Times. This result is false as kit used this "induced gravitational field.

    There was an undergraduate physics student who showed in the class room at Harvard a proof for the double bent result classically with pout using any of the GTR nonsense. He was told by his Prof to find some other major. This kind of activity is completely consistent with how this personal cult members behave in RG too.

  • Shalini Gupta added an answer in Wastewater:
    What it does really mean the COD to TOC ratio in waste water?

    Greetings...All waste water treatment methods mainly aims to eliminate the organics present in the waste water.The COD as well  as TOC are the indirect  expressions of the organic matter.When we start the treatment of any particular waste water whether it will be the Biological/Chemical AOP's, How we correlate the COD:TOC before and after the treatment ?

  • Mushtaq Ahmad added an answer in Ranking:
    What is the principle for ranking universities in the world?

    There are major differences in the ranking of the universities, but what criteria and indicators used to measure quality? and which ranking is official or the best?

    Mushtaq Ahmad · Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission

    Details of each component is given in attached document.

  • Asaph Zylbertal asked a question in Patch Clamp:
    How to get whole cell patch clamp in cells deep within the slice?

    A small, scattered sub-population of cells in the slice are labeled, and I'm trying to record from them using WC patch clamp. The problem is most of them are deep within the slice, and while I can identify them by DIC, I can hardly see their exact outline or the pipette tip (when going this deep). I think that's why so far I didn't manage to get any stable WC configuration from these cells. I have no problem with patching random superficial cells. Does anybody know any tricks for recording from visually identified cells deep within a slice?


  • Kevin Fortune added an answer in PLGA:
    How do we synthesize methacrylate-based PLGA macro-monomer?

    Hi all :)

    I want to synthesize PLGA macro-monomer using methacryloyl chloride or 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate. I need help with designing the reaction. The starting material is PLGA itself. Would be very glad if you can help.


    Kevin Fortune · University of Wales

    Do you have a catalyst in mind? I did some work on catalysing PMMA under mild conditions (low pressure, no boiling nitric acid required). Not sure how relevant this is, so contact me if you want more information.

  • Amit Mehta asked a question in E.G:
    For working in punjab , india which projected system will be good for calculations of area and slope?

    e.g phagwara in punjab

  • Sanaz Hassanzadeh added an answer in Asbestos:
    How swift and dangerous are the effects of asbestos in living beings?

    Asbestos is still being manufactured and used in some parts of the world,mostly as roofing sheets and ceiling boards. If asbestos is so dangerous, why do some advanced countries manufacture asbestos materials for sale and use in developing countries?

    Sanaz Hassanzadeh · Isfahan University of Technology

    Dear Napoleon Ono Imaah;

    As you know, all raw materials (either natural or synthetic) have both positive and negative effects. the asbestos because its unique chemical composition and physical properties are likely to be used in industries. They are insoluble in water and organic solvents and are nonflammable. but it's important to use these fibers in the correct way.

    please consider the attached links in which the asbestos fibers are introduced.

  • Noman Mohammad asked a question in Homeschooling:
    Will an ethnography, conducted by both the parents on their chid be considered 'autoethnography'?

    Autoethnography describes and analyzes (graphy) personal experience (auto) to makes sense of a larger cultural experiences (ethno) (Ellis, 2004; Holman Jones, 2005). I wonder whether an ethnography conducted by parents on their child's performance during homeschooling, where both parents (father and mother) describe and analyze events as a single entity, be considered as an autoethnography?

  • Amit Mehta asked a question in Runoff:
    Explain the procedure of getting accumulated volume from runoff rate ?

    i have attached excel file example ,you can answer on the basis of this data.

  • Sami Mahmood added an answer in Materials Physics:
    Why does the XRD show a single phase after sintering, while the SEM clearly showing the second phase CeO2?

    XRD of calcined samples of Ce-doped SrTiO3 is showing the peak of secondary phase, but after sintering the sample at 1300C the XRD  not showing the peaks of secondary phase. But, the SEM images of the same samples clearly showing secondary phase. what is the reason behind it? 

    Sami Mahmood · University of Jordan

    1. How could you tell that SEM images revealed the presence of a secondary phase? Was your conclusion based on imaging, or on EDX spot measurements of different grains? In both cases, is the set of data collected representative of the whole sample, or it represents a very small part of the sample that is below the detectability limit of XRD, which provides information averaged over the macroscopic illuminated volume of the sample?

    2. How could you draw a conclusion that XRD measurements revealed the presence of a single phase in the sample? Did you do Rietveld analysis of your XRD patterns and arrived at this conclusion?

    I would like to point out that we should always keep an eye on what we are measuring, and the limitations of our measuring techniques. When talking about minor secondary phases in the sample, the detectability limit of the technique is of concern. Also, when we compare the results of two techniques, sample representation should, in principle, be similar for both techniques. 

  • Adam Lesner added an answer in Software Tools:
    Looking for software tool that will create a mass spectra of the theoretical library of peptides/peptidomemtic?

    Morning everyone

    l am looking for software tool that will create a mass spectra of the theoretical library of peptides/peptidomemtic. Any suggestions advice. We need to verify the experimental data that we have. Thank you in advance

    Adam Lesner · University of Gdansk

    Hi Eef

    The issue is that we have synthesized a combinatorial peptide like library (over 6000 compunds)  and in order to prove the quality of this mixture we would like to compare theoretical MS spectrum with data that we have already. I found this method will be effective but so far I have no software to create such library spectrum using any software. The software should show m/z versus distribution.


  • Patrick Navatte added an answer in Corporate Finance:
    Is there a difference in tools to motivate business owners to make internal and external reinvestments?
    Reinvestments can be considered as investing gained profit in the given enterprise in order to develop them (internal) as well as investing in other enterprises for different goals (external).
    Patrick Navatte · Université de Rennes 1


    Perhaps diversification is a strong motivation to invest in others businesses. reinvesting in your own business means you want to benefit of economies of scale, and to increase your market power. Here you are focusing on your industry, trying to become the best and to maximize profit. A lenient anti-trust law may allow you to reach this goal. But if it not the case, diversification (different products, or different countries) may be a solution to circumvent this problem.

  • Fawad Ahmad asked a question in Nanoparticle Synthesis:
    Respected members, which is the best way to add reducing agent to the solution for nanoparticle synthesis at high temperature ?

    i am using three neck round bottom flask on the heating mental at 250oC, usually i add precursor, oleylamine, surfactant and reducing agent at the same time and then i rise the temperature to 250oC but i can not get any product.

  • Jyoti Prasad Deka added an answer in Nonlinear Dynamics:
    What methods can we use to study the stability analysis of non hyperbolic fixed points?

    I found very few articles on exploring stability analysis of Non-Hyperbolic fixed points of systems of nonlinear ODE. It would be very helpful if you can provide me with some directions.

    Jyoti Prasad Deka · Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

    I want to study stability of non hyperbolic fixed points, I will go through the Centre Manifold Theory

  • Hasan Mohsin asked a question in Oil and Gas:
    How the Down Stream Industry as a whole in measured in National Income Accounts?What are the major components?

    My aim is to measure Down Stream Oil and Gas as a ratio of Up Stream, first. Then to observe ratio of down stream to GDP, Exports and its share in overall employment.