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  • Abel Alva added an answer in ETABS:
    How can I model a building with beams in one direction in ETABS?

    The building have beam in one direction and only hollow core in other direction. The question is if the hollow core is a frame o a shell

    Abel Alva

    Thank you Alaa

  • Arpana Mishra added an answer in Earth:
    Does earths magnetism responsible for movements of plates of earth?

    i think that as every particle wants to decrease its potential energy  , so plates may wants to decrease its magnetic energy in the sense by moving 

    Arpana Mishra

    Answer given by Mr. J D is to the point.LiquidLiquid outer corecore is responsible for most of the Earths magnetic field.

  • Durga Prasad Dhulipudi added an answer in ArcGIS:
    How can we split a polyline into multiple segments (say each with 10% of the total length) using Python scripts?

    I'm using ArcGIS 10.0.

    Durga Prasad Dhulipudi

    You can split it into two tasks based on Python interfaces available.

    1)The below snippet creates a points at a specified interval based on an input line feature layer.


    import arcpy

    line_lyr = 'my_line'
    pt_lyr = "my_point"
    interval = 200

    insertCursor = arcpy.da.InsertCursor(pt_lyr, ["SHAPE@XY"]) # this is the pre-existing pt feature class

    with arcpy.da.SearchCursor(line_lyr, ['OID@','SHAPE@','NAME']) as searchCursor: # this is the line feature on which the points will be based
    for row in searchCursor:
    lengthLine = round(row[1].length) # grab the length of the line feature, i'm using round() here to avoid weird rounding errors that prevent the numberOfPositions from being determined
    if int(lengthLine % interval) == 0:
    numberOfPositions = int(lengthLine // interval) - 1
    numberOfPositions = int(lengthLine // interval)

    print "lengthLine", lengthLine
    print "numberOfPositions", numberOfPositions
    if numberOfPositions > 0: # > 0 b/c we don't want to add a point to a line feature that is less than our interval
    for i in range(numberOfPositions): # using range, allows us to not have to worry about
    distance = (i + 1) * interval
    xPoint = row[1].positionAlongLine(distance).firstPoint.X
    yPoint = row[1].positionAlongLine(distance).firstPoint.Y
    xy = (xPoint, yPoint)

    2)Use above result point feature class you can split the line feature class

    #Name: SplitLineAtPoint_Example.py
    # Description: split line features based upon near point features; Search Distance is in linear
    # unit meters
    # Requirements:
    # Author: ESRI

    import arcpy
    from arcpy import env

    searchRadius= "20 Meters"
    arcpy.SplitLineAtPoint_management(inFeatures, pointFeatures, outFeatureclass, searchRadius)
    except Exception, e:
    # If an error occurred, print line number and error message
    import traceback, sys
    tb = sys.exc_info()[2]
    print "Line %i" % tb.tb_lineno
    print e.message

  • Muhammad Hasibur Rashid Chayon added an answer in LTE:
    Can you help me to evaluate LTE downlink scheduling?

    Dear all,

    I am doing research for LTE radio resource scheduling downlink. Now I get simulation results with assumed parameters (such as number of users, cell radius). I would like to get standardized parameters specified for LTE scheduling or data set which tested on real network. Therefore, if anyone has, please share or give me. Else, give me guidelines.

    thanks a lot

    Muhammad Hasibur Rashid Chayon

    Dear Zin Mar,

    the parameters I used before was for smart grid with various applications. therefore you can use your own parameters(i.e. cell radius, UE number, noise and interference, UE speed, frequency band, data type ) depends on your own network application design.

    Thank you.

  • Alex Russell added an answer in Data Aggregation:
    SPSS cannot compute Spearman's Rank because one of the variables is constant. How do I proceed?

    Hello all,

    I want to use Spearman's Rank Correlation to to measure association between two constructs - Culture and Ethics. I have coded  the Likert Scale data and aggregated the responses from the several questions in the questionnaires into two sets (Culture and Ethics) using the median values of responses from each question. However, in one of the Construct of 7 questions the median values are the same number (2). Now SPSS will not perform Spearman's Rank Correlation for the two Construct because 'one of the variable is constant'. Am I right to have used median values? What did I do wrong? How do I remedy this?

    Many thanks! 

  • Ruchik Raval asked a question in Organic Rankine Cycle:
    How to design a radial inflow turbine for higher molecular weight working fluid and calculations required for the same?

    I am working on improving the performance of  Organic Rankine Cycle by altering working fluid, so i require the CAD design of radial inflow turbine for doing CFD. I am searching  it's calculations too.

  • Oliver Manuel added an answer in Stellar Astrophysics:
    Do you know what could be the best to date paper giving stellar radii statistics?

    What is the distribution of stellar radii? Are there multiple modes?

    Oliver Manuel

    I am not an astronomer, but the heterogeneous distribution of elements and isotopes in the solar system suggest that the star that birthed the solar system had likely expanded as far as the current orbit of Jupiter before exploding. 

    See the attached paper on "Solar energy."

    With kind regards,

    Oliver K. Manuel

  • Tony Maine added an answer in Electrical Engineering:
    How to integrate ethical questions into an engineering lecture?

    I would like to integrate ethical questions into a lecture "Transmission Technology" for a Bachelor Course in Electrical Engineering. This part of the lecture should not be a separate session but integrated into the normal curriculum. Are there any experiences with similar approaches?

    Tony Maine

    Perhaps you could examine the balance struck between concentrated power generation (as in a power station) with wide area distribution versus local generation with interconnected minigrids, and ways of choosing which is the best for any particular community. Have the students widen their vision to encompass the societal and long term effects of each approach, and how to strike the right combination in some particular scenario.

  • Vimal Kumar M added an answer in ZnO:
    Can any one help me to coat ZnO using spray technique?

    i  have coated ZnO using spray technique @400 to 500 degree celsius  at 15 psi pressure air as an carrier but not able to attain the uniform coating as well the conductivity.any one clarify me why i cant able to attain the thin film

    Vimal Kumar M

    thank you for your valuable reply sir

  • Michael Issigonis added an answer in Instinct:
    Why do we fear Death ?

    Our rational intellectual side tells us to accept what we cannot change...

    Even as we may consider our Human species as the only rational species, our instictive animal side moves us to fear our own death, more than any other danger...

    What moves our survival instinct to prevail among any other human more rational capacity?

    "Why do we fear something about which we don't know anything?"" (((Roland Moraru))

    Michael Issigonis

    I gather most people above fear the potential suffering before death -if there is any - rather than death itself. I guess we prefer to live as long with the known life rather than the after life, that is where the fear rises.

    In her 101 year, my mother keeps asking us why is she still alive when she is not useful to society - of course she is with her unique style and her followers. But she has been telling us similar things for a very long time. My sister keeps "seeing" our father who died 35 years ago in her sleep telling her that he has met his brothers in the afterlife and has given advice to us during periods of stress as if he has been watching us literally from above. so, maybe there is nothing to fear after all!

  • Sreekumar Parameswaran Pillai added an answer in Network Science:
    Have you come across any papers or material on identifying the path complexity in an ER diagram?

    I am trying to understand how a complexity (quantified) can be attributed to any virtual path from an attribute to another attribute of a different entity.

    Sreekumar Parameswaran Pillai

    Appreciate your thoughts on the topic.  To be more specific, the attempt is to measure the size of the software or the effort that is required to build it rather than data movement per se.  Would there be any relation between development effort and the database size as depicted in the ER diagram.  Your point is quite valid that an ER diagram is essentially static and need not necessarily give any clue on the actual movement of data.

    Since estimation needs to be predictive, something that can be produced at the conceptualization phase of a project (say, with a conceptual diagram, or logical diagram) will have obvious value.  Frequency of use of particular tables or fields  would be available from Use cases / requirement documents; they only come slightly later in the game.

    I had come across a couple of papers in this line.  Let me try to retrieve them.

    Once again, thank you so much for a very thought provoking discussion.

  • Shujun Zhang asked a question in LPS:
    How to induce polarization (M1 and M2) of THP1 macrophage and which marker I should test?

    I treat THP1 with PMA (100ng/ml) for 24h and then use IFNr(50g/ml for 24h) for M1polarization and IL4 (40g/ml for 24h) for M2. Because I want to use LPS to stimulate it to induce apoptosis later, so I don't want to use IFNr+LPS for M1 polarization.

    But when I test some markers (real time PCR) to confirm its polarization, there are no significant differences between M1 and M2 in IL-10, IL-1beta and TGFbeta. Only TNFa was higher in M1 than M2.

    Interesting, iNOS was higher in M2 and SOCS1 was higher in M1 group.

    I don't know the problem and anybody can help me.

  • Anuj Mittal added an answer in ISI Web of Knowledge:
    How can I get ISI Web of Knowledge Journal Citation Report (JCR) for Chemistry and Physical Chemistry Journals?

    How can I get ISI Web of Knowledge Journal Citation Report (JCR) for Chemistry and Physical Chemistry Journals?

    Anuj Mittal

    Dear mam

    can you find The Pharma Research or Pharma Research 09758216 in JCR.

    is it included or not.

  • Zainal Kifli asked a question in Glycerides:
    How can I separate glycerides (mono, di and tri) from free fatty acids using solvent extraction?

    I want to determine the fatty acid profile of an oil after being hydrolyzed by an enzyme. I'm using a GC. So, to do this I have to methylate the oil (convert to FAME). But before the methylation I have to separate the FFA and the oil which supposed to contain mono, di and triglycerides. I want to discard the FFA. So how could I separate them? (using solvent extraction)

  • Ashlee Barrowcliff added an answer in Stable Isotope Analysis:
    Does anyone know a facility in Australia which does compound specific stable isotope analysis of amino acids?

    Hi all, 

    I am looking to have compound specific stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of feather amino acids carried out. I tried UC Davis but ran into terminal permitting issues. Now I would like to find a facility in NZ or Oz to avoid such problems. 

    If anyone out there knows of a NZ/AUS lab carrying out CSIA I would be very grateful if you could post their name here for me so I can start enquiries. 


    Ashlee Barrowcliff

    Hi Amanda,

    Did you manage to find somewhere capable of AA-CSIA in australia?
    I am also searching for my research. 


  • Paula Herke asked a question in ICS:
    Why and what is the different between the effect of ICS and system. CS on the exacerbation of COPD?

    What is the really target of the corticosteroids in exacerbation of COPD? If the airways: why isn't enough the large dose-nebulised CS? Only the sputum is the cause? All of sever exacerbation need systemat.CS? The high dose ICS absorb from lung, and a few amount can the receptors saturate.

  • Meetu Wadhwa added an answer in Uterus:
    Can double-distilled water affect Immunohistochemistry results?

    I'm helping my sister with Immunohistochemistry (she has experience, I don't). She is doing it in order to determine progresterone receptors in mare uterus sections.
    In the original protocol (adjusted two weeks ago) they were told to used distilled water in some phases. This week we used double distilled water (bought for this purpose) and both times the results were negative. 
    Despite there is a doubt about the state of Xylene in the first attempt (and we changed it for the second day), my sister and her advisor doubt about the double-distilled water being adequate for the IHC, since the water is the only thing that was changed.
    Anyone can say me if there is any differences and if double-distilled water could affect the results?


    Meetu Wadhwa

    Hii..why don't you go for milli q water?? There is no specific protocol of double distilled water. Maintain proper pH, temp like storage temp as well as incubation temp., concentration, incubation time and use miili q water, you will get the results surely.


  • Santosh K. Tiwari added an answer in Metal Oxides:
    How to obtain an oxide materials digested in HNO3 solution ?

    Hi everyone,

    In one of my reactions I have added a metal + oxidant + HNO3 solution to obtain a metal oxide after the reaction product is completely digested in HNO3. Please provide a method to obtain prepared oxide materials. 

    Santosh K. Tiwari

    Thanks for  your kind response 

  • Daniel Speidel added an answer in Collagenases:
    Does anyone have a good protocol to digest solid tumor (other than using collagenase D) and get individualized tumor cells to read in flow cytometry?

    I plan to evaluate cell death and ROS generation.

  • Andrew John Murray added an answer in Rabies Virus:
    How can I prepare a recombinant rabies virus to trace its transport in live neuronal cells using confocal microscopy?

    The recombinant rabies virus is used in transport mechanics within neuronal cells. I need to know the procedure to prepare the fluorescence tagged virus?

    Andrew John Murray

    Have a look at this paper, they label the rabies glycoprotein with dsRed and image transport of the virus in neuroblastoma cells


  • Mudassar Nazir asked a question in Piezoelectric Constants:
    I want to know,How we can measure piezoelectric constant?

    I want to grow piezoelectric thin film which is sandwiched between two electrode so how we can measure piezoelectric constant for that.

  • Louis Brassard added an answer in Cognitive Systems:
    Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.

    Louis Brassard


    ''All conscious experiences are based on the experience of something somewhere in relation to one's locus of perspectival origin in a volumetric surround.''

    I do not think it applies to musical experience for example.

    When I listen to music and get totally into the music, my locus of origin in a volumetric surround do not play much of a role.  It is more the direct kynesthetic experience of my body.

  • Tarun Agarwal asked a question in Serum:
    What is a difference between normal serum and mesenchymal stem cell qualified serum: based on variation in components and origin???

    What differs between the serum used for routine cell culture and mesenchymal stem cell grade serum ???

    How does it affects the stemness of the stem cells/?

  • P. Pardha-Saradhi added an answer in Nicotinamide:
    Can I use Nicotinamide instead of NADPH for Glutathione reductase?

    I am working on plant enzyme i.e., Glutathione reductase.

    So is there any protocol where instead of NADPH i use Nicotinamide

    P. Pardha-Saradhi

    No, NAD(P)H can not be replaced by nicotinamide  to determine the activity of glutathione reductase. You can replace NADPH by NADH if you have glutathione reductase from any site other than chloroplast/plastid. NAD(P)H donates electrons to (i.e. reduces) GS-SG to 2GSH [while one H+ might be from NAD(P)H, other would be taken from the environment around the reaction]. In other words, NAD(P)H is the sole reducing agent for reduction of GS-SG under the guidance of glutathione reductase. To the best of my knowledge nicotinamide cannot act as such a reducing agent.

  • George Stoica added an answer in Sexuality:
    What are your experiences as teachers respect sexual diversity in school?

    In the diferents levels of education. 

    George Stoica

    I consider everybody sexually normal, nobody is better or worse than the others. I have never had requests from my students for discussions, clarifications and interpretations about such items. Private lives concern nobody but the person in question.  

  • Chris Hsiung asked a question in PacBio:
    PacBio Sequencing vs. Illumina Sequencing?

    Has anyone had experience using PacBio sequencing? How does it compare with Illumina sequencing? What are some practical considerations? I'm asking because I'm interested in an application that requires long reads (>500bp~1kb?).

  • A. Subba Rao added an answer in Soil Fertility:
    How can we proceed for decision on soil resource-based cropping sequence?

    Development of soil resource inventory of a given area , is considered highly imperative to take decisions on the options about the suitability of different crops in a farming system mode. At the same time, the information on edaphological requirements of different crops , is equally paramount , so that both are super-imposed in such a way, to delineate soil-crop analogues. This will pave the way for better land utilization efficiency. My further querries in this regard are as follows:

    * How should we develop a soil resource inventory ?. Shall we go for master soil pfofile stdies  or follow the grid- based soil sampling  coupled soil profiles to be later used for developing soil fertility variograms?. 

    * How shall we identify the soil fertility constraints of multiple nature from such soil resource inventory?.

    * What methodology , shall we adopt to identify   optimum soil requirement for different crops ?.

    * How should we identify the cropping sequence based on such soil resource inventory?.

    * Whether cropping sequence and land utilization efficiency are inter-related ?.If so , in what way?.

    I request my esteemed colleagues to share their experiences on these issues. Regards

    A. Subba Rao

    Dear colleagues ,after all the discussion, are we not missing the major concerns emerged from the discussion?We have in India the soil  suitability criteria for major crops including horticulture and plantation crops.Also the suitability assessments for  dominant crops in selected districts  are available.From this where to go?Based on the scientific information will the state governments implement the changes in crop/ cropping system?By seeking government support and using the techniques of remote sensing and GIS can one  advice for covering as many important districts as possible?Based on the information can scientists  develop maps for  dominant cropping systems in different agroclimatic/ecozones to guide the governments in state and centre to plan for sustainable agriculture and soil health.

  • Malachi Noked added an answer in Electrochemical Techniques:
    Is it possible to deposit separately two metals from one common electrolyte by changing the depositing voltage?

    So a layered structure may be formed by alternating two potentials..

    Malachi Noked

    You can deposit one metal ion at certain potential without depositing the metal ion that requires more negative voltage, however when you will use more negative potential you will have co-deposition of the two metal ions

  • Atiqa Khan added an answer in ENVI:
    Any advice on TCT in Confusion Matrix in ENVI 5.2?

    Im working on ENVI 5.2, with Tasseled cap (TCT). The resulted output from this process is in ENVI Standard format, which shows error when used as an input in Confusion Matrix... For this i want its output in ENVI Classification format. I also tried this by using "Edit ENVI Header" tool... This requires Classes for classification... I dont know how to add/select classes from TCT image. Kindly Suggest...

    Atiqa Khan

    Im trying on both of these methods... I have to classify T-cap greenness in some classes so to compare with NDVI classes (performed through Raster Color Slice in ENVI)... 
    Any suggestion regarding classes range for T-cap.

  • George Stoica added an answer in Histogram:
    How do I estimate the real world color of an homogeneous object from an image?

    Hello, I'm trying to estimate the real world color of an homogeneous color object (e.g. a wall, a paper sheet) from an image, maybe trying to locate it in some color library. I'm trying to work with a printed marker in order to correct the image histogram and compensate for changes due illumination. Can anyone suggest a method or paper addressing this or a similar problem? Thanks in advance.

    George Stoica

    Unfortunately, this is an ill-posed question. Images of reality can be faked very cleverly, nobody and nothing will ever guess the reality.