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  • Trevor J. Tebbs added an answer in Emotional State:
    Has anyone new information on dysgraphia in young children?

    I am working with a young, highly able child K/1st grader who is struggling in a regular classroom setting with writing. His emotional state is a definite impediment to learning as he is presenting patterns of very poor behavior which exacerbate the situation.  

    Trevor J. Tebbs · Castleton State College

    Thank you for your response Gordon ... I have looked at this source and, as you say, it is comprehensive and informative.  I have also shared it with his parents. Although there is a great deal of information about this condition,  I am always interested in learning more that may be helpful. When faced sometimes with disbelieving and untrained/prepared school faculty - especially when it concerns an otherwise highly able individual - I have found that the more perspectives I can offer the better. I tend to view situations from a holistic point of view (See: chandelierassessments.com).  An example - not with regard dysgraphia, but an issue supposedly associated with ASD.  

    I had a young, highly able client (kindergartner reading at 3rd grade level, 140+ IQ) whose behavior and social interaction everyone in his school regarded as clearly indicative of some level of autism.  They were pushing for implementation of an individual educational plan for him based on their perceptions.  After some observations and research, I found he was hyperopic and this condition had only been detected during the later stages of development in the visual cortex - around three months. Although he received glasses at that time, it meant he was extremely far-sighted, had seen only very blurred images close-up and had not properly experienced his mother's facial expressions and body language. In other words the normal development of pragmatics  was compromised. Given other tests and measures used at the time of my evaluation suggested very high levels of ability, the alternative view led to the implementation of strategies based on his being a highly able, visually impaired individual and not autistic. (See for example:http://www.autisticvision.com/doctors.html)

  • What is the best mathematical model to solve this problem?

    A tank has i fishes, of size n1, n2, ni.  A person puts an infected fish of size 'x' into the tank. This infected fish can eat a smaller size fish (say, size 's') and grow to x=x+s size. This way it can keep eating any smaller fish and grow in size, but it cannot eat a bigger one.

    At any point, if the tank has fishes where all the remaining of ni  fishes are larger than x, then the scientist can make a move to either add a small fish to make x grow larger than the smallest of ni or remove a larger fish so that the smallest of remaining fishes are smaller than x. 

    What is the MINIMUM number of moves the person needs to make, so that at the end of all iterations only one fish - the infected one - remains?

    Peter T Breuer · Birmingham City University

    Well, whatever. But try a concrete example with

    ni+1 = 2ni-1

    If x starts at x=n0, then no eatee. So one might as well give it a start by throwing in a new fish with n-1=x-1=n0-1. Now that tiddler gets eaten, pusing up to x+n-1=n0+n0-1=2n0-1=n1 in size.

    We are back in the original situation, and this is the very best one can do as throwing in a smaller fish can advance x no faster (somebody better prove that, hic) and the tiddler that x has been given is the largest fish that x can still eat. So x will need as many fish thrown to it to help it out as there are fish in the tank that are too big for it to eat.

  • Antonia Challis added an answer in Steroids:
    How can we overcome the side effects of steroids in ulcerative colitis?

    A man was diagnosed as UC patients after colonoscopy about a month and half ago. After that he is taking the medicine sulfasalazine and steroid to overcome the symptoms of UC. The dose of steroid has been reduced to 1/3rd that of initial dose at the moment, however he is feeling some adverse effect of the medicine at the moment such as myopathy and joint stiffness. He wish to have massage time and again to relief his myopathy. I suspect it is due to steroid consumption. How can he overcome to this side effects. No vitamins are prescribed to him and I wonder whether he should be supplemented with folic acid or not.

    Antonia Challis · Glyndwr University


  • Dr. Sunil C M added an answer in Chlorophyll:
    Can I use dried moss material to measure chlorophyll content?

    I have been thinking about measuring the chlorophyll content in moss shoots that were collected last summer. These measurements are not necessary to my work, but I thought they could make a nice addition to an existing project.

    The issue I have is that those samples are obviously not fresh, and have been oven dried at 30C. I believe that dried vascular plant material is not good for measurements of chlorophyll as it gets degraded quite quickly. Since mosses are poikilohydric and can dry and recover their photosynthesis capacity quickly in the field, I was wondering if their chlorophyll would degrade as quickly and if dried material could be used (I am aware it is likely not as good as fresh material). Any help would be appreciated.

    Dr. Sunil C M · University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore

    Dear Melanie

    No you should take fresh material and analyse otherwise you won't get accurate value.

  • Tapas Chatterjee added an answer in PRIME:
    Given a prime p, is there any explicite formula to find a generator of cyclic group Zp*?

    Zp* = { 1, 2, ...... ..... ... p-1}, multiplication modulo p

    Tapas Chatterjee · Indian Institute of Technology Ropar

    @Wiwat, that is true, but how do you find at least one generator. He is asking given any prime p, find a primitive root modulo p. 

  • How to calculate the area under load-deflextion curve to find concrete flextural toughness?

    as far as i know for finding the area there is 2 method one integration after regression and trapezoidal method, whereas the curves obtained from tests are complicated obtaining the best cure fitting is almost impossible and also trapezoidal method gives some negative result in some parts, so i want to know if there is the other method with more accuracy or not?

    Mohammad Ali Mosaberpanah · Eastern Mediterranean University

    Dr. Ralph

     appreciated because of nice leading and following my question, i attached  one of many curves, regarding the curve. is your method useful or not?

  • Alaa Fadhel added an answer in HPLC Analysis:
    How do you analyze BPDE-adducts by HPLC to receive good separation?

    Hi there ...

    I 'm trying to incubate BPDE with DNA to form adducts, but I have problem with that. Can you tell me exactly what solvent you used for HPLC analysis to get nice separation..



    Alaa Fadhel · University of Central Florida

    thank you 

  • Dr. Sunil C M added an answer in Water Stress:
    If there is any relationship between disease incidence and stress and early post emergent herbicide?

    I am working with ragi (Eleusine coracana) and its associated weed species with three herbicides. among that Nomine gold (early post emergent herbicide) treated plots at 15 days after transplanting showing severe blast symptoms, susceptible to water stress. So if any body have related field please provide me the reason.

    Dr. Sunil C M · University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore

    Sure sir,

    20, 25 and 30 g a.i. per hectare

  • Hammad Gilani asked a question in ArcMap:
    Above Ground Biomass - Rattle Random Forest


    I have run RF in Rattle using my AGB data (300 sample plots) as target and 15 variable (SAVI, NDVI, RDVI, NIR etc.). So I have two basic questions;

    1. How I can know which tree, rule and node should I take for the spatial biomass estimation?

    2. How I can apply selected rule on my spatial variables in ARCMAP (GIS software)?

  • How many wavelengths a Quantum cascade laser can generate?

    How many wavelengths a Quantum cascade laser can generate?

  • George Buadi added an answer in United Nations:
    What criteria are used to elect member states of the United Nations Human Rights Council ?

    Nigeria and Ghana are two countries which have been re-elected to the UN Human Rights Council this week. See http://j.mp/ZNaYNa .

    However Nigeria ranks 28th out of 52 African Union states in the Human Rights indicator of  the 2014 Ibrahim Index of African Governance. This reflects a negative change in the country's score over the past five years, despite an improvement in its overall performance.

    George Buadi · Fordham University

    'Incentivising' could be the key, else how does one explain Africa Region with 13 members! Possibly, as indication of the Region's poor human rights image.

  • Antibiotic susceptibility pattern for Lactobacillus?

    I am working with Lactobacillus species, want to do antibiotic susceptibility testing of isolated strains.But in CLSI guidelines there are no cut off values for this species, where to get the values or with which bacteria to compare?

    Shadab Ahmed · University of Pune

    What you said is correct I want to know about values for antibiotic disc diffusion susceptibility testing.

  • Arnold Trehub added an answer in Cognitive Systems:
    Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.

    Arnold Trehub · University of Massachusetts Amherst


    The value of this forum is in the opportunity to get knowledgeable feedback in response to one's questions or scientific proposals. The questions raised about your holographic proposal should be welcomed and answered if you can, but they should not be dismissed.

  • Daniel Lee Adams added an answer in Biomarkers:
    Which biomarkers could need a better assay?

    Hi everyone!

    We have found that a mass spectrometry based technology we are working on can do really fast measurements of targeted proteins.

    We would like to demonstrate the technology with established biomarkers that have known troubles with conventional assays (e.g. poor selectivity with exiting ELISA approaches etc).

    But being the dumb chromatography person that I am, I am not too familiar with which markers that are notoriously in need of better assays.

    Therefore: Do you have any suggestions for cool biomarkers to test a proof of concept for a novel MS tech?

    I wish you all a great weekend!

    Daniel Lee Adams · Creatv MicroTech, Inc

    It depends on what you mean by fast and sensitive. I know in most fields Elisas can take days depending on the analyze preparation or as quick as 1 hour. If you're both quick <1 hour and sensitive pg/ml there are endless options. Here is a quick list that I have looked into that have a need for speed of assay, though there are many more I'm sure others will have ideas: sepsis detection, food pathogen detection, water/food contamination, anthrax, Ebola, Mersa detection, circulating DNA/rna, virus presence, etc.

  • What does α-,β‐, γ- and δ‐ mean in the different phases of iron oxides or other materials?

    For example, α-FeOOH, β‐FeOOH, γ-FeOOH and δ‐FeOOH. What is the significance of α-,β‐, γ- and δ‐?

    In fact, there is no single rule. The most typical convention is ordering of letters according to the temperature intervals of stability. Sometimes α-phase is the one stable at the lowest temperature (like Fe, Sn or quartz), sometimes it is the one stable at high temperature (like WO3). Sn and WO3 are examples of the substances for which α-phase is not the first one chronologically (β‐Sn and γ-WO3 are stable at the room temperature).

    When high pressure or metastable phases are included in such list, they usually go after phases that are stable at the ambient pressure. In this case chronological order is usual.

    Sometimes even more complicated cases exist. For example, stable phases of Bi2O3 are α- (low temperature) and δ‐ (high temperature), while β‐ and γ-Bi2O3 are metastable. And for Al2O3 β‐phase does not exist at all (the material called initially β‐Al2O3 appeared to be NaAl11O17.

  • Are You interested in Modeling Problem Process?

    I am trying to derive a formula to express logic or verbal problem solving as a function of relevant knowledge plus experience with the kind of problem plus metacognitive factors in an inverse relationship with "difficult" of the problem. I have a flow diagram about the process and I am interested in formalize it. I think the Rasch Model may be an important inspiration source.

    Neveen Mohamed Hafez · Helwan University

    I think that Carlos means the Gestalt approach when he mentioned; the holistic view??

  • What is the crucial difference between establishment and caste?

    De Tocqueville's theory of the social-political establishment follows his analysis of the Old Regime and the French Revolution; and he argued that violent revolution came to France because the nobility degenerated into a caste and refused to absorb new people of power, affluence and influence--the rising middle class. The British upper class, led by the Whig establishment, in contrast, absorbed the new middle class, avoided revolution and remained a ruling establishment. (The Whigs were later displaced by the British Liberal party.) The French nobility retained their privileges at the expense of power and authority, while the British Whig establishment shared their privileges precisely in order to rule. The argument is, then, that one better maintains a free and stable society by maintaining a balance between the liberal democratic and the authoritative, established aspects of society. Extending De Tocqueville's ideas a bit, it seems clear that the danger of caste is especially prominent whenever the boundaries of the establishment are drawn on ethnic lines in a multi-ethnic society. 

    Kazaros S. Kazarian · Universidad Autónoma de Madrid

    It's a pleasure to follow this thread.

  • David C. Cairns added an answer in Central Banks:
    How can Greece repel austerity without abandoning the Euro and the Eurozone?

    Without forming a national central bank of its own, and thus reestablishing its own currency, how can Greece escape neo-liberal structural adjustment?

    David C. Cairns · ISCTE-Instituto Universitário de Lisboa

    This is a question of economic policy and more a issue of geo-political ethics. Germany has simply over-played the austerity card, resulting a loss of goodwill within the EU. It is Germany which is going to pay the price for not accounting the social impact of its economic brutalism, not Greece. Only a total socio-path would now endorse a continuance of corrupted austerity polices due to the damage being suffered by the European demos..

    In other words, there is no choice but to move on from austerity. As for Greece's creditors...losing your shirt the price of an education in economic realism.

  • Shape feature extraction ?

    Hello everybody,
    can you help me in finding a simple and easy to understand illustration for shape feature extraction ,as i am a pre-master student and i got confused of all the high-level papers and surveys which include not explained functions and terms.
    Much thanks for you

    Esra'a Alkafaween · Mu’tah University

    Chapter(referred to) by Dr. Ahmed useful, simple and easy to understand.
    In addition to these sources:

  • Saima Eman added an answer in Sadism:
    How can everyday sadism be treated?

    For instance sadistic children enjoy bullying others considering it a game. How can such unconscious sadism be treated?

    Saima Eman · The University of Sheffield

    There you get my point! Now the question is how can they be educated in the presence of such genetic tendencies? Is there any research evidence? Can they substitute one habit for another; for instance another positive way to get the peak of adrenaline which would be a replacement for the current bear-like behaviour? What is the role of teachers and parents? How can such children be prevented from engaging in teasing behaviours with their siblings? What kind of intervention would be useful during the occurrence of such behaviours other than punishment and time out?

  • lalitha bhavani Konkyana asked a question in GPU:
    How to compress the image by using DCT with GPU?

    sir i developed jpeg image compression using DCT with parallel using
    MATLAB.In this code i am calculating the RMSE,PSNR,CR and COMPRESSION TIME
    .Now i would like to run the same program using GPU(graphics processing
    Unit) which is for fast execution when compare with the CPU.Hear program is
    executed but compression time is not reduced.

  • Sanda Kaufman added an answer in Atlas.ti:
    Qualitative research tools like ATLAS.ti, Nvivo etc. have appeared and more are likely to appear. How good are these tools?

    Despite its popularity increasing, the analysis of qualitative data is cumbersome. Coding, theme development etc. manually consumes lot of time though quite a number of researchers are still using manual methods.  New tools are being developed and the existing ones are getting updated but its diffusion among the researchers are low. Lot of training and practicing is needed before researchers become conversant with these.

    Sanda Kaufman · Cleveland State University

    I have also used NVIVO (and concur with the the ton of work ;-) ). I find it humorous that  (at leas tin my project) NVIVO helped us quantify qualitative data (in other words, we were still seeking numbers). Again in the context of the project in which I took part, it required counting how many times certain words occurred in interviews, after having decided (with a coding scheme, which can itself be rather problematic and limited to our imagination) that those words represent certain views we were analyzing. I find this very flawed because different interviewees tend to use different amounts of words (some are more chatty than others) and use words differently to express the same ideas. I hope that in other instances NVIVO and other such software can be more usefully applied.

  • Kohbalan Moorthy added an answer in Automatism:
    Does anyone know why my MATLABcode for multiclass SVM doesn't work?

    hello everyone, 

    I am trying to automatically classify different heartbeat classes using SVM. I have used many programs available on internet, but non of them works for me. I attached the training and test data and the program I used. could any one please tell me what is wrong with that? thank you in advance,

    Any help is highly appreciated.  

    Kohbalan Moorthy · Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

    You are welcome. Glad i could help you out.

  • Asutosh Kar added an answer in Image Processing:
    What are the methods for vehicle tracking?

    We would like methods that performed with using image processing.

    Please if you know special reference, introduce to us.

    Asutosh Kar · International Institute of Information Technology, Bhubaneswar


       kindly go through these references to get detailed answer of your concern.






  • Sinna Sri asked a question in SEM Analysis:
    How do you incorporate Likert Scale responses of 2 (in certain cases 4) questions to analyse one “Observed Variable”?

    I need someone’s advice here.
    I need to do a SEM analysis in AMOS.
    The situation is this:

    • I Collected data from a 5-point Likert Scale from 15 “Questions” (denoted by ‘Q’ below)
    • I need to incorporate Likert Scale responses of 2 (in certain cases 4) questions to analyse one “Observed Variable” (denoted by ‘OV’ below).
    • That said, the SEM model I am working on has 4 different “Observed Variables”. Therefore, I need to combine these 15 responses from the survey in different sets. The sets are given below:
    1. Set 1: Q1 & Q2 - OV1, 
    2. Set 2: Q3 & Q4 - OV2, 
    3. Set 3: Q5 - OV3
    4. Set 4: Q6-Q9 - OV4
    5. Set 5: Q10-Q13 - OV4
    6. Set 4: Q14 & Q15 - OV4

    Could someone please tell me how to do this in AMOS?
    Thanks a lot.

  • Adam B Shapiro added an answer in EGTA:
    What could be the reason for very low protein yield in fungal protein extraction?

    As per principle of protocol:

    Fungal mycelium is mechanically lysed by grinding in liquid N2 in pestle and mortar. Extraction buffer is added to further lyse fungal cells and solubilize the fungal proteins:

    Extraction buffer contains ascorbic acid which acts as an antioxidant.

    Beta mercaptoethanol, a detergent in less concentration, is also added to further solubilize the protein.

    PMSF acts as a protease inhibitor.

    PVP binds to the plenolic compounds.

    EDTA and EGTA act as chelating agents.

    I am using the extraction buffer with following composition (pH 7.5)

    Tris-base 50mM

    EDTA (Na2) 50mM

    EGTA 10mM

    TntonX-100 0.5%

    BME 0.3%

    Ascorbic acid 0.39%

    PMSF 2mM

    PVP 0.4%

    I am extracting the protein as per the following steps:

    1. Cell disruption is done by pestle and mortar in the presence of liq. N. Also extraction buffer is added during grinding (200 mg dry mycelia/ ml buffer) (1gm wet mycelia/1 ml buffer).

    2. Lysate was centrifuged at 12000 .rpm for 30 min at 4 degree

    3. Supernatant was collected in aliquots and store at -20 Degree

    4. For protein purification I am using acetone precipitation method

    I am getting very low yield.

    Can anyone suggest what could be the problem, or some other method?

    Adam B Shapiro · AstraZeneca

    If the grinding and extraction steps are releasing proteins into the supernatant, then you should be able to measure the protein concentration in the supernatant using a protein assay or running the supernatant on SDS-PAGE. (Note: because of the high concentration of detergent, the Bradford assay should not be used directly. I recommend TCA precipitation of samples for protein assay). Then you will know whether the problem is with the acetone precipitation or with the extraction.

    Also, why bother with acetone precipitation at all? Why not do the purification with the supernatant?

  • Wilson Barón Cortés asked a question in Xcalibur:
    How can I open RAW files (Xcalibur) in MassHunter (Agilent)?

    Hello, I would like to analize my data files in MassHunter  but I can't find how to convert my *.raw files (Xcalibur -Thermo). Thanks

  • Marcel M. Lambrechts added an answer in Academic:
    Could you please name necessary steps for developing a more innovative organization?

    Academic knowledge and managerial experience is first built on what others have said, done or written. What are the capabilities organizations must develop
    if they want to grow and compete in innovation-intensive environments. 

    Marcel M. Lambrechts · Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, Montpellier, France

    Don't ignore long-term visions in 'innovation' that exceeds the physical borders of the organization. You might invent the most magnificent engine in the world, but at the end it will be the natural resources that will impact engine performance/efficiency.

    How often do organizations in country A use resources from country B?

  • How should I report the results of control variables in a Hierarchical Multiple Regression(HMR) analysis(when the control variables are demographics)?

    In step 1, I put some demographics, but the table that I want to prepare doesn't look good. Considering the fact that demographics are control variables. Is it possible to write one Beta for all demographics in summary of HMR?

    Ariel Linden · University of Michigan

    Reza, I just had a thought. Perhaps that single demographic variable was used as the random variable component, and what you saw was the estimate for that?