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  • Amelia Delgado added an answer in Aspartame:
    Is Aspartame safe?

    Hello everyone, 

    I am hoping to have qualified researchers help settle the debate regarding the safety of aspartame and to help separate fact from fiction.

    Typically, the only people you can find warning against the use of aspartame are individuals who have little to no grasp of biology, medicine or science, and are spreading the same recycled information on blogs and such across the internet.

    The doctors that warn against aspartame are usually type of doctor you would see endorsing an infomercial product (Mercola) or are selling some type of "aspartame detox" kit themselves! I know many doctors may advise against it's use due to the hysteria and rumors/claims that the media and said bloggers have made, with sort of a "just in case" mindset.

    There are however, some studies that come from credible authors that make me question Aspartame's safety. The main one I will link you to connects Aspartame to brain damage and compromises learing/intelligence. This was rather recent (I believe 2007) and a study done in 1995 says that there is no connection between aspartame and brain damage. 

    I would like someone to please help me get to the bottom of this as best we can with the information and knowledge we have. 

    Is there a good chance that aspartame can cause harm, in pertanance to brain damage or it's other alleged effects? 

    Thank you very much

    The article linking aspartame to brain damage:


    It's anithesis:


    Mercola (please read through this and give me your opinion!):


    As Gerd Kloeck says, aspartame is considered safe by EFSA, meaning consumers may trust their risk assessment that relies on the principle of precaution, hence fixating tight limits. However, aspartame intake (even in small amounts) may not be the wiser option to someone who is concerned about its longevity and welness. There are studies associating aspartame and other artificial sweeteners to deleterious effects on gut microbiome, which in turn impacts our health in many ways (although some types of microbiome are more sensitive to long term alterations than others).

    such as:

    Artificial sweetener consumption differentially affects the gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions;   Theresa E Cowan, Marie Palmnas, Raylene Reimer, Kendra Ardell, Jaeun Jane Yang, Hans Vogel, and Jane Shearer; FASEB J,  Apr 2013; 27: 224.7.

    In short, sooner or later some harmful effect ends up to be associated to extensively processed foods; In my opinion its wiser to avoid both sweetners and sugars and to get used to food's different aroma instead.

  • Nicholas Chancellor added an answer in Decoherence:
    Questions on decoherence.1: Is the explanation of unique outcome in measurement by decoherence consistent with the conservation laws in physics?

    Take the example of spin measurement on entangled pair of particles particle1 and particle2. The correlation between the spin of particle1 (spin1) and the spin of particle 2 (spin2) is the result of angular momentum conservation. If the decoherence interpretation is correct then the angular momentum is conserved within each of infinite number of decohering branches separately. However the conservation laws in quantum mechanics, (formulated  in Heisenberg Picture) only demand that the commutator of the operator representing the conserved observable with the total hamiltonian  of the whole system is zero. There seems to be no reason why it should be conserved within each decohering branch separately.

    Nicholas Chancellor · University College London

    The many worlds interpretation is more a philosophical interpretation than an actual testable theory. There is never an experiment you could do to disprove it without disproving quantum mechanics itself, however on the other hand there is no experiment which could show that it is the 'correct' interpretation of QM.

    The operator algebras which give the classical commutation relations imply restrictions which prevent mixing of angular momentum sectors ( as long as whatever external interaction which is causing decoherence actually conserves angular momentum). The simplest way to see this is to imagine that you start with a singlet (of 2 spin 1/2) and show that no matter what you do to the off diagonal density matrix elements, you will never have a finite amplitude to have both spins pointing up.  In the many worlds interpretation, these would correspond to a 'world'  which has a different angular momentum than you started with, and indeed there is no way to get there without interacting with something external which exchanges angular momentum with the system.

  • What are some of the factors that affect the adoption of risk management by smallholder farmers?

    In smallholder agriculture, risk management is desirable, just like in any other business venture. Despite efforts to design schemes like agricultural insurance and other micro-insurance schemes, uptake is still low. This begs the questions:

    1. What makes smallholder farmers resist formal risk management approaches- insurance, capital markets?

    2. Are there cases in any country where formal risk management approaches have managed to achieve even limited success among-st smallholder farmers?

    3. What informal risk management mechanisms do smallholder farmers adopt?

    4. Are there better ways to design risk management mechanisms to attract smallholder farmers?

    Responses are welcome

    John King'athia Karuitha · Karatina University College

    Thanks alll for the useful response

  • Saleh Etaig added an answer in FLUENT:
    Which model should be used for nano particle in FLUENT?

      I am working on nano particle in Ansys Fluent. I want to know which models can be used in simulation.  Is DPM okay?

    Saleh Etaig · Northumbria University

    if the fluid is homogeneous and there is no slip velocity between the nanoparticle and the fluid then you can model it with single phase model( valid for laminar and turbulent) and model the nanoparticle as temperature dependent in a UDF 

  • What is your favorite freeware project manager tool for R&D projects and why?

    I am looking for a good tool that helps me in organising my project (tasks, timeline, gantt, documentation, etc.).

    Ms Project is the most reputed tool, but it's expensive and with a plenty of features that I probably will not use.

    So I am wondering if there is a good tool, open source (freeware) that I can try.


    J. C. Suárez · Instituto De Astrofisica De Andalucia


  • Daniele Sasso added an answer in Gravitation:
    Would you define an orbiting laboratory as inertial, regardless of where it is orbiting?

    An orbiting laboratory is considered in GRT as a free falling laboratory and free falling systems are locally inertial.

    The orbiting stability according to the least action principle seems to deny such a possibility. A force acts against any attempt to fetch objects away from the center of mass of the orbiting laboratory, regardless of small distances considered.

    But it seems Einstein was right.

    Daniele Sasso · Progetto Indipendente ARS

    A reference frame in free falling isn't inertial for two reasons: firstly because it doesn't respect the Generalized Principle of Inertia and secondly because it doesn't respect the Principle of Relativity. What Fock says on isolated systems in case regards another question and precisely the difference between Galilean reference frames and Einsteinian reference frames that is largely examined in TR.

  • Jinbao Yang asked a question in Mesozoic:
    Can the Philippine Sea be called as a big back-arc basin ?

    The West Paleao-Pacific slab subduction was different from the East one in the Mesozoic Era.

  • Ramon Camano-Puig added an answer in Health Science:
    Does anyone know of studies that used the delphi process for the development of guidelines? Preferably in the health sector or health sciences?

    I am currently working on a study that aims to develop guidelines and will be using the Delphi process as a method. I just need an example of studies that will assist me and guide me through this process.

    Ramon Camano-Puig · University of Valencia

    Recently we published the next article:  Instrument for Assistance to Patients with Heart Failure in Use Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation(ecmo)/Regimar Carla Machado, Maria Purificacion Girones Guillem, Maria Teresa Cicero Lagana, Ana Lucia Gargione Sant'anna, Ramon Camano Puig and Joao Nelson Rodrigues Branco/Exp Clin Cardiol Vol 20 Issue8 pages 3237-3250 / 2014. We developed the research using delphi.

  • Is there any molecular dynamic simulation study done on cell wall of bacteria?

    cell wall of bacteria alone or including plasma membrane

    Karl N Kirschner · Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg

    hello Mahender,

      My colleagues and I have published one on gram-negative bacteria, which should contains some additional references for you to follow:


      A quick search also shows:

    1. Roberta P. Dias, Gabriel C. A. da Hora, Madeleine Ramstedt, and Thereza A. Soares Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 2014, 10 (6), 2488-2497

    2. Emilia L. Wu, Olof Engström, Sunhwan Jo, Danielle Stuhlsatz, Min Sun Yeom, Jeffery B. Klauda, Göran WidmalmWonpil Im Biophysical Journal 2013, 105, 1444-1455

    Best regards,

  • Sofiane Saouane added an answer in Atoms:
    How can I understand the atoms placement in a layered structure?

    I would like to understand the structure of my sample. I know my sample,  however I am not sure about where atoms take place. They could be separated layer by layer or they can be sited on the same layer all together.  I searched,  asked and tried some methods.  The last one that I learnt and haven't tried yet is that using EXPO which is followed by SIRPOW. And I've tried EXPO only during 2 days seminar and never used SIRPOW.  In the second way GSASII has ability to do it,  am I right? Is there anyone who have tried before and can advice me?  Thank you! 

    Sofiane Saouane · Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

    For the powder pattern, you need a simple txt file in which you the 2-theta angle, the intensity and the sigma. You have to add all other parameters by hand (e.g. wavelength). If you don't know the parameter, you might leave the default. There are interesting tutorials in the Wiki of fox (same link). I believe that you can build your chemical model too, the last time I used it was in 2009 for my MS internship that is why it is a bit hard to explain in detail how to proceed: Choose a tutorial and try to follow the same steps, and if you are stuck somewhere we can always help.

  • Radha Kishan asked a question in SDS-PAGE:
    I want to purify alkaline phosphatase but when i am running SDS PAGE for it my enzyme doesn't move beyound 3-4mm in the stacking gel. Why is it so?

    What might be the reason and how it can be solved?

  • Alexandra Castle Ph.D. added an answer in Civil Law:
    What does the word replacement convey in transferring liability and responsibility to a third person?

    In an addendum to a charter party contract the charterer was replaced with a third person. In the first clause parties agreed on this  "replacement". In the second and third clauses they agreed on transferring " liabilities" and " responsibilities" but there is no agreement on " rights" in the document. Does the word replacement convey the meaning of transferring rights as well? 

    Thank you. 

    Alexandra Castle Ph.D. · Bellingrath Family Law

    I am working with a client right now who owns 4 McDonalds Franchises.  That is he has purchased the right to operate, manage and collect the money from each store for certain fees.  That contract does not allow him to transfer his "rights and obligations" to just anyone.  McDonalds retains the right to vet the new owner and the new owner has to prove they have the capacity to secure the Business.  This operates pretty much like your Chartering situation.  Even with the transfer and release of obligation on the transferor, lawsuits are settled every day holding both the original and the successor liable for any issue that comes up.   It is a very complex area of US law

  • How can I calculate the contribution of the spatial distance and environmental factors to the variation of the bacterial community?

    Now, I got the bacterial community disimilarity matrix, environmental disimilarity matrix and spatial distance matrix. How can I calculate the contribution of the spatial distance and environmental factors to the variation of the bacterial community!

    Pedro Avelino Maia Andrade · Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"

    Iam in agreement with the second answer....

  • Ikram Ullah added an answer in Gibson Assembly:
    How do I set up Gibson assembly reaction mix?

    Dear All

    I am going to set up Gibson Assembly reactions. The reaction takes place in isothermal buffer which requires 100mM NAD and I have not been able to find this concentration of NAD. I would appreciate if those of you who are already doing this experiment, would let me know where to get it from. NEB sells NAD but it is a 200uL vial with just 50mM concentration.

    I would appreciate your help.

    Thank you


    Ikram Ullah · Philipps University of Marburg

    Dear Benoit
    Thank you for your comment. However, I am trying the home made reaction, Thanks anyways!

  • Jun Park asked a question in Agilent:
    Capacitance increasing with frequency. why?

    When I measured capacitance (agilent analyzer), capacitance increased over 5 MHz. What does it mean? plz help.

  • Beatriz Tovar added an answer in CAA:
    Can we calculate the Input on the bases of Output for DEA Methods?

    I am student of MS Finance in COMSATS Sahiwal, and I am working on airport efficiency in Pakistan. Pakistan has 42 airport total and the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) of Pakistan is the regulator of this industry. CAA has been making only one annual report for all these airports, and combining all the revenue and expense of all airports. Not a single airport is maintaining his own annual report separately. I have to implement DEA method to calculate the overall efficiency of airport of Pakistan and I have 2 inputs, runways and operating expenses and five outputs, total operating income, total air passenger movements, aircraft traffic movements and air cargo transferred. It’s very hard to get data from CAA in Pakistan because this Authority is run by Pakistan Air Force and they think that this confidential data and no one has the right to have research on it. My question is that I can allocate the operating income and operating expense to all airports in Pakistan with the ratio of Passengers Data? For example Jinnah Intr'l Airport Karachi handles 35% of total passengers in Pakistan then I have to allocate 35% of operating income from total income from annual report of CAA; do some action for operating expense. Can I use this method to allocate operating income and operating expense to all airports, because I have a single annual report for all airports?

    Beatriz Tovar · Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria

    I am afraid the answer is no. 

  • Problem in multiblock in openFOAM!

    I have made my wind tunnel domain as attached: But when I ran simpleFOAM solver, Ux and U values are peculiar. What's the problem??? Why block interface creates problem for flow domain?

  • Wang Lei added an answer in Pedogenesis:
    How can I realize a 3D representation of soil nutrient distribution by using both ArcInfo and ArcGIS software?

    According to the article of "3D representation of soil distribution: An approach for understanding pedogenesis", I have tried my best to make a figure like Fig.3 under the help of Fig.2 (schematic representation of the 3D approach). But I failed. So more detailed steps are needed for helping me to make a figure (like Fig.3 ) about 3D representation of soil nutrient distribution.

    Available data: (1) topographic map (1:2000); (2) DEM; X, Y and Z of sampling points; (3) horizon thickness (H); (4) the characteristics of each horizon (gravel content, porosity, …).
    For example:
    Sample point        X                  Y               Z         H1   H2 …  G1     G2 …
                1         35623078    3340041   291.53    20   15 … 1.34    0.61…
                2         35623309    3340165   284.88    25   18 … 0.25   0.13…
                3         35623423    3340807   280.13    22   10 … 0.57   0.49…
    Note: H1,H2,…: the thickness of each horizon (A, B,…), cm; G1,G2,…: gravel content of each horizon, %.

    (PS: The more details the better. ……

            Great thanks to everyone who share their answers! )

    Wang Lei · Northwest University

    you can use ArcScene to achieve the effects you want

  • Eric Lord added an answer in Theoretical Physics:
    Could time or radial dilation prevent the formation of black holes?

    As we get close in time to the formation of an event horizon, then in the vicinity of the location where that event horizon will form in the future, time dilation becomes very large. The formation of the event horizon must depend on continued entry of material from beyond the radius where the event horizon will form, otherwise it would have already formed. A tiny differential instant before it forms time dilation approaches infinity.

    Of course in the proper time of an observer at that location, there is no time dilation and the black hole forms. But has anyone considered that in the reference frame of a more distant observer in the normal universe there may be no event horizon ever really existing in that observer's reference frame?

    9/26/2014 I extended this question to include radial effects.  For example, if one plots the radius in Schwarzschild coordinates, which I call Rs, vs the radius in distant observer coordinates (plain R) using units where c=G=1 and assuming M=1, the Schwarzschild coordinate radius declines less slowly than the distant observer coordinate radius, and past a value of three rises.  At 2 it rises to infinity.  In other words, not only is time slowed down, but the in falling object has further to to, and eventually infinitely further.

    The above is all within standard GR.  One contributor suggested arbitrarily setting R=0 at the event horizon and that nothing was within.  That has an interesting relation to the (1+φ/c2) potential which can be derived using equivalence and the Newtonian φ=GM/r.  When this is converted into Schwarzschild-like coordinates (defining Rs=C/2π) we get 1/(1-φ/c2) and further Rs = R ( 1 + GM/rc2 ) indicating that the zero origin of the observer coordinate R is in fact at the event horizon (for this non-standard case) and so there is no "real" space past the event horizon.  It appears in observer coordinate space as a point.

    Eric Lord · Indian Institute of Science

    I think our difference of opinion comes from the meaning of the word "reality". The Interior Schwrtzschild geometry is a mathematical reality. But if there are physical principles that forbid it as a possibility in the real physical world, it cannot represent a physical reality. I have offered my reasons for supposing that this is the case, though I admit that I cannot conclusively prove it.

    In that case, there would still be the possible of deducing, from the mathematical model, what would happen if such a thing were possible in the real world. And indeed it can be done, and has been done. My opinion is that this represents the physics of an imaginary world, not the actual world, That's the basis of my claim that it is not "real" physics; that it is "science-fiction".

  • Robert Haberkorn added an answer in XRD Analysis:
    Why is a sample contained Calcite identified as Nitratine by XRD analysis?

    I analyzed a sample contained calcite using XRD. The pattern attached. It was identified as nitratine by the related software searching the database of XRD patterns. As nitratine is isostructural with calcite, how can this identification be interpreted? Is it misidentification? If so, when such a misidentification may happen?

    Robert Haberkorn · Universität des Saarlandes

    Searching a database for matches of database entries with your scan the program will compare peak positions and intensities of reflections. Nitratine has  peak positions similar to those of calcite. If your sample shows broad peaks, additional doping elements or peak shifts due to misalignment of the specimen or of the goniometer the wrong peak positions may be estimated to provide a better match. The peak intensities are different, as Mo Af showed, but the difference is not as severe as to reject the match.

    To minimize mismatch also knowledge about the composition of the sample should be given to the program. As nitratine has quite different elements compared with calcite a filter for elements would have avoided the mismatch.

    An the other hand, if your filter is too restrictive this may prevent from accepting the correct match. If you "know" Ca, C and O "must" be present, but the sample consists of MgCO3 your search probably will fail.

  • How far are scientists willing to go to publish their rejected articles or scientific reviews?
    I am wondering how many papers are sleeping in a computer file because they were rejected or not completed.
    One would say very few, since a paper "has to be published".
    Asking 9 university-based physicians, 5/9 reported to have 1 to 3 papers into their personal files...that will never be re-submitted!

    Would be glad to hear from a "larger size", do you have unpublished papers?
    Irene Kamberidou · National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

    Dear colleagues,BE CAREFUL,  I just recieved the email below. I need ask, how can you publishe something that has already been published (ex. copyrights...)??? Have you ever heard of this academic publishing house? 

    Dear Irene Kamberidou,

    I am Megan Moore from the editorial team of Lambert Academic Publishing.

    I’m getting in touch with you today concerning an interesting work from 2013 which I found at the University of Athens.

    Is it correct that you authored the work entitled “Women entrepreneurs: ‘we cannot have change unless we have men in the room’”?

     A short confirmation would be greatly appreciated. I believe this particular topic could be of interest to a wider audience and we would be glad to consider publishing it. We would be especially interested in publishing a complete academic work of yours (a thesis, a dissertation or a monograph) as a printed book.

     Should the commercialisation of your work as printed book meet your interest, I will be glad to provide you with further details in an electronic brochure.

     I am looking forward to hearing from you.

     Thank you in advance.

     Best regards,

    Megan Moore

    Acquisition Editor

    LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing is a trademark of OmniScriptum GmbH & Co. KG

    Heinrich-Böcking-Str. 6-8, 66121, Saarbrücken, Germany

    m.moore (at) lap-publishing . com

    www . lap-publishing . com

    Handelsregister Amtsgericht Saarbrücken HRA 10356 Identification Number (Verkehrsnummer): 13955 Partner with unlimited liability: OmniScriptum Management GmbH Handelsregister Amtsgericht Saarbrücken HRB 18918 Managing Director: Marta Lusena (CEO)

  • Zahir Shah asked a question in iPS:
    Does anyone has a reproducible protocol for Hematopoietic stem cells pruduction along with lineage from iPS cells?

    I am looking for the protocol which could be used for the iPS generation and its conversion to HSC and its lineage. I already searched some of the protocols but need a more reproducible one if anybody could have in experience.

  • Is a rigid rod moving perpendicularly to x axis (in the standard Special Relativity axes convention) parallel to the moving system x’ axis?

    I had a few discussions of this problem and most people maintain the moving rigid rod always parallel to x is not parallel to x’ even though it is said x' axis is co-linear with x axis which is counterintuitive.

    I maintain that parallelism is preserved by the assertion of possible coincidence and co-linearity of the rod with x axis which is co-linear with x' while the STR formulae after Lorentz transformation seem to indicate otherwise.

    Any thoughts/comments/discussion in that matter will be highly appreciated as they are vital to my research.

    Johan Frans Prins · Sage Wise 66 (Pty) Ltd

    Yes. Dingle's story is a replica of that of Galileo's. One would have thought that this would not have again happened after the 17th century. But alas, once a human instituition is under the control of pompous bigots, history repeats itself over and over and over again!

  • Qingqing Zhao added an answer in Abaqus:
    How do you solve the system error code 1073741819 in Abaqus 6.13?

    Dear all,

    I got the following error in Abaqus, when I use a UMAT:

    The executable standard.exe aborted with system error code 1073741819. Please check the .dat, .msg, and .sta files for error messages if the files exist. If there are no error messages and you cannot resolve the problem, please run the command "abaqus job=support information=support" to report and save your system information. Use the same command to run Abaqus that you used when the problem occurred. Please contact your local Abaqus support office and send them the input file, the file support.log which you just created, the executable name, and the error code.

    Can somebody help me?

    Thanks in advance.

    Qingqing Zhao · University of Nottingham

    Hi Behrooz,

    I've come up with the same error message. I've checked my subroutine with the Write(*,*) command,and it turns out to be three typical value being NaN and then infinity (some error with the subroutines not the main UMAT).  Why the initial value just being zero not the value as defined in the main UMAT? How can I define a initial value for the first increment? Thank you.



  • How can we get an absorption spectrum of a bulk crystal using normal UV-Vis spectrometer?

    I wanted to check the absorption of some laser crystals of different shape and dimensions (approximate dimensions 2mmx2mmx2mm). What we have is a normal Perkin elmer UV-Vis spectrometer. Since scattering from the crystal is high , we are not able to get a decent spectrum. I tried a pinhole to reduce the size of the beam hence to avoid a bit of scattering, but still the spectrum is not that clear. Can any one suggest some method to resolve the situation ? How are the absorption spectrum of bulk crystals usually taken ?

  • M. O. Vasil’ev added an answer in PAML:
    How can parallel running can be performed in LINUX cmd for several folders of the same directory?

    I want to perform parallel runs of the same program in LINUX command line. I heard that is possible (and really simple) to perform and I am wondering if one you can help me with that.
    For run the program I need some initial files that are distributed in several pastes in one directory. I want to assess that directory, list all the folders, then use each folder path and run the program. I am running a package of PAML called codeml.
    Possible pseudo-code I believe:
    1. Determine the main directory
    2. List all the folders
    3. Run the the codeml package for all the folders (8 at time, preferentially )

    Do you think is possible to do this?
    Do I have to have great programming skills to perform it?

    M. O. Vasil’ev · Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology

    Looks like here it is - http://www.gnu.org/software/parallel/

  • Isaiah Omolo Ndiege added an answer in Chromophores:
    HRMS speculated molecular formula did not match with the NMR spectral data. What is the reason behind?

    I have recently isolated an unknown compound with molecular weight of 522 (m/z value = 523). The UV absorption was observed at 263 nm. I have accessed the database to search for any known compound, but i could not identify any. I am speculating the possibility of flavonoids with such UV chromophore. I am hoping to get some suggestion about the possible identity of my compound to figure out its novelty.

    The NMR showed 16 carbon atoms from 13C NMR data, but the molecular formula obtained from HRMS suggested the presence of 30 carbons due to the compound is symmetrical. I would like to know if the problem exist during my NMR measurement or any error which led to the mismatch between NMR and MS spectral data?

    Any suggestion or advice from RG professionals and members would be greatly appreciated. Thank you in advance!

    Isaiah Omolo Ndiege · Kenyatta University

    Are you observing the 5-OH signal above 12 ppm which is common in most flavones unless alkylated or arylated?

  • Michalina Marzec asked a question in Titanium:
    How does carbon influence the mechanical and biological properties of titanium?

    I found information about enhancing mechanical propeties of titanium by increasing carbon content. But all medical titanium  do not have more than 0,1% of carbon. I was wondering why? Does carbon influence biological responce or increase corrosion?

  • Gittan Gröndahl asked a question in Plasmapheresis:
    Please direct me to useful sources of practical information regarding the use of plasmapheresis or IVIG in horses?

    I have not encountered so much practical information about how to set up plasmapheresis or use Intravenous Immunoglobulin in horses. Please share if you have additional information or experience. Is there a product anywhere registered for IVIG in horses?

    I found only two references on automated plasmapheresis by Sara M. Ziska, DVM, PhD; John Schumacher, DVM, MS; Sue H. Duran, PhD; Kenny V. Brock, DVM, PhD (in AJVR, Vol 73, No. 6, June 2012) .

  • Rajakumar gr added an answer in Global Warming:
    Will recent warming hiatus with respect to mean temperature continue or not?

    2014 became the warmest year on record, without a strong El Niño. The so-called global warming hiatus (1998-2012) are widely concerned. In the following decade, global mean temperature warming will continue to slow down, or will rise much more rapidly than in the "slowdown" period? What are main physical causes responsible for inter-decadal changes of mean temperature?

    Rajakumar gr · University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad

    Yes it will go on raising temp by 0.7 degree every year. Upto 2050 I think there wiil be no major damages to earth due to raise in temp.