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- 18What conditions were required for Stellar formation pre inflation epoch (as w/ the Pearlman Spiral cosmological redshift hypothesis) ?
Assume stars formed prior to the inflation epoch as hypothesized in the Pearlman Spiral cosmological redshift hypothesis for various reasons. The stars would have been much more condense (as the universe was moving from the initial singularity) prior to the universe expanding 13B light years +- during the inflation epoch.
Under what conditions could stars have formed during that span prior to cosmic inflation?
these are the givens:
- The actuality is the same as it is today, so directly observed facts are as they are, though our interpretation of them may differ than the current conventional explanations.
- The universe had a beginning, with all matter/energy and the start of time coming into existence as an initial singularity.
- The Earth/Sun Ecliptic is the approximate center of not just the 'observable universe.'
- but the entire universe is 'observable', therefore we are by the center of the entire universe. As explained and illustrated in The Pearlman SPIRALL.
- Cosmic Inflation was on day four where the universe expanded up to about 13 Billion light years in each direction within one day 5,776 years ago.
- The cosmological redshift is not due to an expanding universe but explained by The Pearlman SPIRALL so we are in a loitering (somewhat static universe).
- So what are the best ways to get from the initial singularity early day one, to proto star formation prior to cosmic inflation sometime on day four?
- assume the stars were much more dense by the start of inflation.
Keep in mind heat, time and pressure are three variables in stellar formation just as they are in rock formation so increase the heat and or pressure to reduce the time required.
All the energy/matter is close at hand.
It is OK to manipulate the laws of nature as necessary to get the job done.
Of special interest is the source of CMB and how it relates to Stellar formation and Inflation.
Thank you in advance for your various solutions..
RMP: so the CMB is from a gas that was ionized by starlight.
Yes and no:
A) The CMB came from hot plasma, just like that at the visible surface of the Sun.
B) That plasma cooled and became cold gas which no longer glowed but was transparent below the Lyman Alpha line (UV) so the light from the earlier hot phase can still be seen.
C) The cold gas could start to form stars.
D) The first stars ionised the gas but it was much less dense than earlier due to the expansion of the universe in the intervening time so it remained transparent
E) The Lyman Alpha line is due to cold atoms, the ionised hydrogen no longer absorbed it so ionisation meant the universe became transparent to UV as well.
RMP: CMB is redshifted (as are distant stars starting 5k to 6k LY distance from the Earth orbital).
The CMB is redshifted by a factor of 1090. Stars within our galaxy are not subject to cosmological redshift because they are bound to the galaxy. The Andromeda galaxy is 3 million light years away and is sufficiently close that it and the Milky Way will merge in a few billion years so it has a blueshift due to Doppler. We only see cosmological redshift becoming dominant over much larger distances.
RMP: this CMB redshift could be for the same reason that The Pearlman Spiral cosmological redshift (CR) hypothesis gives for CR.
The redshift of the CMB is certainly CR. I have no idea what explanation you give for it.
RMP: forget about the disputed time scales and order of formation for this exercise.
I'm not going to waste my time forgetting reality and discussing some nonsensical fantasy. I'll happily tell you what is observed and what it means so that you can develop your understanding of reality.
RMP: assume the CR is due to stars preceded inflation
That is impossible, the matter from which the stars are made did not exist prior to inflation. Subsequent to that, a quark-gluon plasma existed for a short time similar to what is generated and examined in the LHC, then a dynamic mix of hadrons that we see produced from those experiments, then a plasma of nuclei and electrons formed giving us the observed hydrogen/helium mix, then the CMB was released as the plasma combined into atomic gas, then the gas could form denser clouds (aided by concentrations of dark matter) and only then could the colld gas start to form the first stars. That is the sequence of events, inflation cannot have happened any later and the stars couldn't form any earlier.
RMP: The gas which everyone agrees (who holds by an initial singularity (as does the current standard model) was in one form or another in the initial singularity. (as was everything else).
Nobody imagines that Roger. What most people think is that energy that subsequently formed the matter was created by the energy released when the period of inflation stopped and that would have been a quark-gluon plasma.
RMP: .. think black hole hypothesis where light can not escape ..
Black holes are dense objects in near-vacuum surroundings. The early universe was uniformly dense everywhere so the black hole model is not applicable.
Roger, you are just repeating statements that blatently contradict what is seen through telescopes not just in timescales but in the simple logical sequence. The Gunn-Peterson Trough is a well known observational feature which guarantees that there must have been a long period with no stars whatsoever after the CMB was released. I don't see what you hope to achieve by endlessly going over the same ground without adapting your ideas to fit those facts.Following
- 11How to assemble the matrix of Finite Element Method automatically with a program, when we know the coordinates of all the nodes of the mesh?Do we have to use Finite Element Method, and search for a programme to assemble the stiffness matrix?
The element connectivity is a set of data associated to an element that determines which nodes (or vertexes) form the element. This is frequently formed by moving about the element counter-clockwise and registering the node numbers as they are met.
- 2Logistic Regression classifier works well during cross validation but fails on production data. Any suggestions why?
I generated a Logistic Regression classifier and tested it using k (10) fold cross validation.
The Accuracy was about 81.8 and confusion matrix showed acceptable results on both classes (A& B):
a: 0.4157303370786517 0.578125
b: 0.9215876089060987 0.8592057761732852
Before deploying the model to production I generated an overall version (based on the whole training set without cross validation) and tested it on the production data gap (from the time we took the training data until now). The thing is results now were horrible - accuracy of about 79.6 and classification that was almost totally biased to one side, see the confusion matrix -
a: 0.013245033112582781 0.4444444444444444
b: 0.995777027027027 0.7982396750169262
Any suggestions why it can happen?
logistic model may show chaotic manner and this may cause the faultFollowing
- 1Should I use TLR4 agonists or antagonists to induce IL10 secretion?
I am new to this field and so it is a bit confusing to see both TLR4 agonsits and antagonists induce IL10 expression. Studies clearly say that TLR4 activation(by LPS) results in upregulation of IL10(IL10 would in turn result in M2c polarization). isn't TLR4 supposed to be an immune alerting receptor? then what is the point in activation of immunoregulatory IL10 expression on the binding of LPS?
secondly, TLR4 agonist(IRF4) also upregulates IL10 secretion. TLR4 antogonists also polarize monocytes/macrophages towards M2c macrophages which express great deal of IL10.
So I am wondering whether I should use TLR4 antagonists or agonists to express more of IL10 to resolve inflammation or to polarize more of M2c macrophages. Thank you.
You can use LPS for achieving fairly good IL10 response which based on sequentional effects of INF1 AND IL27 secretions.Following
- 8What experiential exercises can be used for teaching strategic management?
I would like to know what experiential team-based exercises are recommended for teaching strategic management in Msc classes. For example, to introduce vision, mission, strategy, values, policies, etc.
3M is literally an entrepreneurial universityFollowing
- 2Déjà vu: is there any scientific basis or is it an anomaly of memory?
or, is it simply a recall of memory? has anyone experienced this peculiar phenomenon?
Interesting question I would say. I have experienced it. But when it comes to psychology, a lot of observations which seem bizarre have rather simple explanations. I don't think there is a complete scientific explanation for Déjà vu, its cause and characteristics. I just found few articles which may interest you.
- 1Which avalanche photodiode is suitable for capturing THz light signals?
Is it possible to detect or capture THz light signals by using any appropriate APD?
I hope this will be useful to you
- 6When can you use the Boltzmann plotting technique for a non-equilibrium plasma?
We are trying to use optical emission spectroscopy to determine our ne, Te, and gas temperatures. There has been some evidence that you can use Boltzmann statistics and analyses on non-thermal equilibrium plasmas BUT the arguments are not clear and there are no references to back their claim. Any thoughts?
You are posing many problems, all related to the non-LTE, but discussing different aspects. The theoretical approach related to Boltzmann plot technique is the collisional-radiative model, you find an example in the paper I have attached in my first answer.
Doing research, both theoretical and experimental people have to make approximations. In most of the cases these approximations are not the same. This is the case Boltzmann plot technique and collisional radiative models. In the first one, the LTE is considered when conditions allow it, in particular when the density is large enough.
In collisional radiative models, the internal transitions are leaded by electron collisions and radiative decays (also recombination should be included). Therefore the level population is related to Te and not to Tgas. To match these two points of view, a further assumption is made i.e. Te=Tgas, because, transitions induced by atom-atom interactions have smaller rate with respect to the corresponding transition induced by electron collisions. People making experiments observe a Boltzmann distribution using the Boltzmann plot technique. From this conditions they consider LTE. But there are levels that are not observed such as the ground state and metastable states. As I have shown in my paper, this extension is not possible. What can you deduce from this? LTE is not a valid assumption. Moreover in the paper I have shown you, we have seen that assuming Te=Tgas, does not lead to the right ionization degree. Now, there are many possible reason, not only the one I was suggesting that Te<Tgas, but also that the ionization cross sections are wrong. In synthesis the conclusion of the paper is that a possible reason is the non-equilibrium between electrons and heavy particles. To verify which assumption is valid, an alternative method to measure the gas temperature is necessary, not based on spectroscopic emission, and as far as I know, no one did this kind of experiment.
The second point is about the use of a Boltzmann solver (as BOLSIG+) to determine some plasma properties, such as mobility and so on. Usually, mobility is strongly related to electron mean energy, i.e. to Te. The problem is that these quantities depend on what you are putting inside your code. Mobility is not a constant, but is a function of the electric field. But not only. Also excited state population can have effect on the eedf. Using a Boltzmann solver alone you are uncoupling electron and level kinetics. Missing this link you are missing some important effects, as the role of superelastic collisions, which are those processes where electrons gain energy from excited states.
Now we can merge the two conclusions. The relative importance of excitation and de-excitation by electron impact strongly depends on the ratio between ground state (determining excitation) and excited states (determining de-excitation), therefore if you cannot measure the population of the ground state you cannot estimate this ratio.Following
- 16Does anyone know any research papers on the low representation of women in educational leadership and the barriers they face?
I am looking for the factors that prevent qualified women from seeking leadership positions.
Cyril, thank you for your valuable input.Following
- 3How can I detect level of phosphorylated PRDX3 in protein samples?
I wanna check the PRDX3 (Peroxiredoxin) and Phosphorylated PRDX3 level in my protein samples, so for that purpose I require antibodies for performing Western blot.
The antibody for PRDX3 is available but I cant find the antibody for phosphorylated Prdx3 (At threonine 146 position).
Is there any other way out besides Western?
Thank u so much Holger ans Sandra.Following
- 22Does the uncertainty principle violate the conservation of energy law?
Aephraim Steinberg of the University of Toronto in Canada and his team of researchers have performed measurements of photons and showed that the act of measuring can introduce less uncertainty that is required by Heisenberg’s principle. Violation of Heisenberg’s Measurement-Disturbance Relationship by Weak Measurements
Is reduced the amount of uncertainty by the development of precision our tools? Does Heisenberg's Energy-Time uncertainty inequality imply non-conservation of energy?
Is the uncertainty principle a property of nature or a result of observer tools?
Does the uncertainty principle prevents our better understanding of the universe?
Seems physics has stopped at the border of the uncertainty principle and the speed of light.
Is there nothing beyond what appears in the universe?
You have noted to an important matter, "Energy and time are NOT conjugate" that I never heard it brfore, thank you. I will let you know that I am neutral relative the results of this issue, I will know what uncertainty principle meand and where is its influence domain.
So, I interest on Canadian experiment, I want know what it is really.
But abou energy-time uncertainty, there is ambiguity and important discuss on it.
An uncertainty relation for energy and time of the usual ‘‘canonical’’ type does not exist and some of the reasons why people have wanted to see such a relation were shown to be unfounded.
In this paper we have tried to perform a comprehensive summery of Energy-Time uncertainty principle.
- 4Is it possible to include green (premature) fruits in the total yield of tomato?
I conducted a variety trial of tomato. However, due to early frost period, I decided to harvest all mature fruits and cut the plants to determine plant biomass while there was some premature fruits (green fruits) which was also weighted separately from plant biomass. I am wondering if it makes sense to include these premature fruits as yield? The proportion of the remaining fruits was about from 10-20% comparing to the harvested mature fruits.
Dear Leangsrun Chea,
I think it depends on the purpose of your research. In general, you can include the green fruits, because it has the potential to become large and matureFollowing
- 3Simulating chiral media?
I am trying to simulate chiral media as explained in "alphard.ethz.ch/hafner/Workshop/Comsol2009.pdf". My understanding of adding the chiral expression for the electric displacement is that I add a wave equation to the EM physics and then select my domain (in the middle of the structure) and then change the equations for that domain. I found the electric displacement equation and changed it accordingly for all three E components, unlike what is shown in the presentation here (only one equation). First of all is this correct?
Secondly once I simulate it for linearly polarized light, what I find odd is that the E field before reaching the chiral domain has also been affected. What could I be doing wrong? I found the equation for the B field it was curl of E, and hence I assumed no change was required to it as it would be calculated in accordance to the changes made to D. Could this be the problem?
Well we went on a different approach which was to define the material as anisotropic and implement customized permittivity tensors. We basically define the values for epsilon xy and epsilon yx as a complex variable. If you look up permittivity in wikipedia, then under the heading Tensorial permittivity, you will see a matrix. Here e2 are the off diagnol components mentioned above. Based on the ratios of the real and imaginary part you can control ellipticity, and the resultant value will control the ORD. I hope this help.sFollowing
- NewHow far germplasm diversity could address different soil fertility constraints and ensure optimum plant nutrition?
Over the years, germplasm have been extensively used in addressing various biotic and abiotic stresses through a series of in-vitro and in-vivo studies. Ironically , there have been very limited studies to look into the nutritional behaviour of different germplasm , especially accumulation pattern of nutrients like Fe, Mn, Zn , P , S etc which are so commonly observed globally . There is hardly any systematic studies to utilize the germplasm diversity with regard to nutrient accumulating pattern or abundance of certain phytonutrients having neutraceutical value. My further set of questions is addressed to these issues:
* Why germplasm diversity is not gainfully exploited for addressing the globally crunch nutrients as soil fertility constraints ?
* How can we overtake the poor plant sink capacity to accumulate micronutrients in edible plant parts?
* Is there any effort to look afresh about the widespread soil fertility constraints through germplasm interventions?
* How are different land races/wild types useful in overcoming soil fertility constraints in different crops?
* Is there any information about the ability of some plant species being better natural nutrient chelators , while others not ?
Thanks for your responses. Regards as wellFollowing
- 9Any advice on the Engle-Granger cointegration ECM with exogenous variables?
Hi! When I use the Engle-Granger cointegration approach to get an error term for a ECM, can I include exogenous variables in the ECM?
In Stata? I get an error message trying to use "si(variable variable)" in VEC in Stata. For E-G test I don't even find a command.Following
- 4Is there a way to test 1-ethyl-3-(-3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)?
We store our EDC in the freezer and access this chemical fairly frequently. Is there a way to easily determine whether or not it is still going to efficiently crosslink carboxyl groups to amines when paired with NHS? Any guidance would be great.
A short remark to Deon's suggestion: I fully agree - aliquotation into small, usable amounts will be the best for your application. You should keep in mind, that polypropylene minicentrifuge tubes are not 100% gas tight, so that with time, some water will still acess your samples. I suggest to discard the aliquots after 3 months the latest (so do a brief calculation, how much is needed in that time scale). Always wait for at least 20 min at room temperature (in dessicator) before opening the vials to prevent moist condensation on the EDC. However, the safest storage for greater time scale is in a glass bottle.
Especially if it is not your own bottle, you should introduce rules to everyone who has acess to the EDC, so that a proper handling is ensured.Following
- 3What are the measurable indicators of food security?
How to measure food security condition of household level in the context of developing country? what are the appropriate indicators in terms of farming system and climate change conditions? Is there any guide or methodology to measure food security at farm or household level which is widely used for scientific purposes.
I'm using the Coping Strategies Index to measure food security and also adding in components from a vulnerability index to climate change. There is an online manual on the coping strategies index produced by CARE. It might give you some ideas.
The World Food Summit of 1996 defined food security as existing “when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life”. It is built on three pillars; availability, accessibility and utilisation.Following
- NewWhat suggest how unique solutions to subtle forms of racism in higher educational establishments around the world?
Formas sutis de racismo em estabelecimentos de ensino superior de todo o mundo estão se tornando mais diversificada em termos de alunos e professores.Following
- 1What are existing cloud computing security policies ?
What are existing cloud computing security policies ?
Not sure what you are looking for , check this link you might get some thing usefulFollowing
- 3Can someone point me towards the Perceived Socio-cultural Pressures Scale (Stice et al 1996) that has been modified for use with adult males?
Does anyone have a copy of the items in the Perceived Socio-cultural Pressures Scale(originally constructed by Stice et al. 1996) that would be suitable for use with adult males.Tylka et al (2005) used a modified version for assessing drive for muscularity but I cannot find the items anywhere. Can anyone help?
If you're looking for a measure of sociocultural influences, I'd strongly recommend the Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire-4 (Schaefer et al., 2014, Personality Assessment). The measure has gone through several revisions, but the latest form measures pressure to conform to beauty standards and ideals from multiple sources. (Also, the EDI-3 includes a subscale that measures drive for thinness, and there are several widely-used measures of drive for muscularity; I tend to use McCreary's Drive for Muscularity Scale).Following
- NewHow can I evaluate both and up regulated genes in a microarray data?
I'm studying about detection of differential expressed genes (DEGs) by using disease vs healthy samples microarray data. I use Limma in Bioconductor for analyze the DEGs. I realize that some of DEGs are both up and down regulated. For example, while ARAP2 gene was upregulated in 2 probe set, this gene down regulated in 3 probe set at one dataset. How is this situation occur in transcriptome level. Is this gene up or else down regulated in real? How are we explain both up and down regulated genes in same dataset?Following
- Amaya Blanco-Rivero added an answer in Arthrospira:2Does anyone know how I can avoid gliding of Arthrospira in plates?
Thank you so much
Thank you so muchFollowing
- 6Can anyone describe what is descriptive cohort study?
Anyone in epidemiological field
Descriptive cohort studies have no a priori hypotheses and are often used to describe the incidence of one or more outcome of interest. They may be a hypotheses for further study .Following
- 8Can we determine network path taken by packets at destination node ?
Can the destination node determine which path the packet took in the network by looking at some field ? Trivial solution is to insert all the intermediate nodes while the packet is traversing the network but that is linear in size as the network grows large. Is there any prior research done in this space ?
@Chawanat, this is very good answer and observationsFollowing
- NewIs there anyone working on Forensic Nanotechnology?
I am working on Forensic Nanotechnology specifically developing the nano sensors. Secondly working of fingerprint development using nanoparticles. Is anyone doing any project or plan for Nanomaterials based forensically important project??
If anyone is there I want to work with or under him as postdoctoral scholar...
I have also my own projects which i planed to do but need lab and funds...
is there anyone?Following
- 1Hello, how many days do T-cells need to be incubated with Ags before a flouresence assay could be carried out to quantify the level of stimulation ?
Just wondering on the optimum number of days advised to incubate T cells with Ags to test for their stimulating potentials before conducting a fluoresence assay to quantify T cell proliferation ?
this depends a Little bit on the activation state of the T cells. For naive T cells, I would recommend 72 h (3 days). For pre-activated T cells, may be 48 h is already enough to see something. It also depends on your aim, whether you want to catch the very beginning of proliferation (and comparing different mice), or want to see maximal Proliferation. In the latter case I would recommend to wait a Little bit longer.
Be aware that CFSE (or equivalents) are toxic, thus dont overload the cells to get maximal yield on living cells in the end.
Wish you success with your expeiments,
- 3How does organizational strategic flexibility affect the performance of Project Portfolio? Please share some reference articles as well.
I want to investigate the strategic flexibility effects on the performance of project portfolio? How does organizational strategic flexibility affect the performance of Project Portfolio?
Maybe the work of Kester et al. could help you further (agility is used).
Kester, Linda, et al. "Exploring Portfolio Decision‐Making Processes*." Journal of Product Innovation Management 28.5 (2011): 641-661.Following
- NewDoes anyone know the applications of fractal in logistic supply chain managment?
or in logistics area?Following
- 99+Are there authentic published work confidently pinpointing the sole anthropogenic factors contributing to Climate Change?
Combined natural and anthropogenic factors (geologically recent phenomenon) govern Climate Change. It is, therefore, of paramount importance to discretely recognize the role of humans in Climate Change and to plan efficient strategy to mitigate it.
The world leaders currently deliberate in Paris and trillions of Dollars are at stake in bringing about radical change in the lives of marginalized section of human Society. How far its outcome would be effective, depends entirely on sound scientific logic of the problems relating to "Climate Change". Anyway this is a misnomer, as it should be clearly registered that Nature would have its way and humankind has no power to control it. The entire focus should be to reduce POPULATION (Food security, education and other welfare measures) and POLLUTION (Space debris, Atmosphere, River, Lakes, Glaciers and waste disposal etc.) for Green initiative as suggested by other colleagues as well.
It must be understood that Climate Science is not only complex but highly unpredictable and should not be messed about. Climate would change and have its way either for good or bad of human kind. It has been amply demonstrated that there is absolutely no link between Carbon emissions and Global warming. Variations in Solar activity coupled with Hydrological cycle appears to cause Climate Change on Planet Earth. It seems that the Climate Science experts fail to produce any evidence of sole Anthropogenic factors which contribute to Global Warming as per basic principle of Greenhouse model. Unless we quantify this, what are we going to fight against or mitigate? The scenario is not clear and full of uncertainties. Let us hope that wisdom prevails and no heed be paid to the numerical adherents of Global Warming and Cimate Change.
"When in doubt, be ridiculous" - Sherwood Smith
- 6Can anyone suggest which diagnostic tests would be better for the diagnosis of cardiac patients? 1. BNP or 2. NT-ProBN?
Currently we are doing NT-ProBNP ( N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide) test for the diagnosis of cardiac patients but some of the consultants are suggesting us to start BNP (b-type natriuretic peptide) test. As far I know the half life of BNP is lower than NT-ProBNP. So NT-ProBNP is better to perform this test in our laboratory. Even we can easily collect the blood sample from surrounding the areas.
Mr. Slaveyko, we are maintaining all of the preservation methods of this test (NT-ProBNP), but doctors want us to start BNP test. We are trying to start this test.Following