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  • Sayed Badawy added an answer in Band Gap:
    What is the relationship between the energy band gap and conductivity?

    How  can we  calculate the conductivity from energy band gap?

    Sayed Badawy · Al-Jouf University

    thank you very much for your answer

  • Raja Success added an answer in MATLAB Simulation:
    Seeking help for Matlab Simulation for PSO in Travelling salesman Problem?

    I have working for last one month on PSO for TSP. But still i didn't get the clear code on PSO for TSP. I have tried with various papers regarding PSO for TSP. But i facing the difficulties in changing the individuals after applying velocity to each position. Please anybody help me with proving Matlab code on PSO for TSP 

    Raja Success · Pondicherry University

    Hi sir, (Mahboobeh Parsapoor) Thanks for your valuable comments.  I already have this pdf, they have given code for the simulation of PSO for benchmark problems. But i need code for PSO_TSP

  • Jolly Soparia added an answer in Matrix:
    I need to combine more than one confusion matrix. Could you please help me to or suggest me any techniques to combine the confusion matrix?

    I need to combine more than one confusion matrix. Could anyone please help me to or suggest me any techniques or different ways to combine the confusion matrix that I got the ouput from Sentiment Aanalysis in data mining

    Please reply me.

    Jolly Soparia · Charotar University of Science and Technology

    @Ronaldo Cristiano Prati 

    Thank You for your reply. And yes it was helpful.

  • Ning Ma added an answer in Water Balance:
    How to solve the Energy balance closure problem with EC (eddy covariance) measurements ?
    Currently, EC is a important technique to observe the heat fluxes directly. However, the sum of the observed latent heat flux and sensible heat flux are less than the available energy (AE). More importantly, EC measurements offered as a validation for RS based models. I read most of the EC papers. I wondered how to solve this problem. I wondered advection may be one of the reason for this disparity.
    Ning Ma · Insitute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese of Academy of Sciences

    This is a very old question I guess. See what your intention. If you do not plant to work on solve this , you can choose any avenues to force it close (e.g. one of widely cited papaer of Twine et al., 2000, AFM), then use the data to do other tasks (eg. upsacleing spatially or temporally). But if you want to slove this un-imbalance, you may need to do the experiment by yourself (e.g. comparing different soil heat flux estimation methods or vertical air heat storgae,etc). There are a few paper which are vert helpful, e.g. Foken et al., 2008, Ecological Applications,18: 1351-1367. Hope it is helpful.

  • Singh Shivakumar added an answer in Impact factors of Indian Journals:
    What are the probable factors which account for the staggering low impact factors of Indian Journals? This is a very common scenario across the entire scientific field in general, baring few journals, Why?
    Singh Shivakumar · Stanley Medical College

    The main reason is that top researchers in India prefer to publish their original work in International journals with high impact factor . Unless researchers in India publish their work in Indian journals , it is not possible to improve the impact factor . The important factor is the number of citations which the article generates that determines the impact factor & the credit goes to the journal . I have published most of my articles in Indian journals , which are easily accessible & also available online & some of them have no impact factor . Some of these articles are well cited & I believe that the problems , unique to the country can be highlighted in the national journals as they may not be the priority of International journals .

  • Dante Salatino added an answer in Attachment:
    What lessons do we need to learn so that we can reduce our ignorance?

    Each of us have unique lessons to learn. What I may need to learn, you may have already learned and vice-versa. We all have attachments and aversions to different things, and our lives revolves around them, bringing up situations where we can learn. And all the people around us, including our little ones are our teachers. The people around us hold a mirror so that through them we see ourselves better. Your inputs will be appreciated.

    Dante Salatino · National University of Cuyo

    Dear Sribas,
    Our ancestral ignorance lies in two things only: where we come from, and why we die. To alleviate this profound ignorance that torments us, arose, over time, religion, philosophy and science. Therefore, estimated Sribas, we still have everything to learn.


  • Punit R Bhatt added an answer in Pharmacognosy:
    Can anyone provide ICMR (Quality standard of Indian Medicinal Plants) monographs of the following drugs?
    If possible please send the maximum possible drugs

    If you have soft copy of this book then please send me.

    1. Galo- tinospora cordifolia

    2. Dhamaso- fagonia cretica or f. Arabica

    3. Dhatakipushpa- woodfordia fructicosa

    4. Chitrak- plumbago zeylanica

    5. Fenugreek- methi- trigonella foenum

    6. Arjuna bark- terminalia arjuna

    7. Kaalijiri- centratherum anthelminticum

    8. Malkangni- celastrus paniculata

    9. Chakramadu- cassia tora

    10. Apamarg- achyranthus aspera

    11. Eclipta- bhangaro- eclipta alba

    12. Karen- nerium indicum

    13. Amla- Phyllanthus emblica
    Punit R Bhatt · Junagadh Agricultural University

    Thanking you very much Sir

  • Yuri Rylov asked a question in Particle:
    Why does the Schroedinger equation for a free particle contain the particle mass?

    Classical dynamic equations for free motion of a body do not contain the mass of the body. What is a reason, why the Schroedinger equation contain the particle mass?

  • In mathematics, there is no absolute truth. What kind of truths are we striving for in Physics?

    In pure mathematics there is no absolute truth [Stabler]; we invent rules then see what they prove or see what is consistent with them.  So in physics, what kind of truths are we looking for? Are we looking for absolute truths in physics?

    (Note that the premise of my question immediately contradicts itself -- saying there is not absolute truth is an absolute statement. Maybe it is not a mathematical statement, I'm not sure.  Apologies for this mess.)

    Ref:  Edward Russell Stabler, An introduction to mathematical thought, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Inc., Reading Massachusetts USA, 1948.

    Akira Kanda · University of Toronto

    Many proposals were made and we did not get any conclusion. Not even the discussion among different views. Disappointing. This is what happens when armature philosophers discuss philosophy. True "philosophers" call this "Philosophy".

  • Wangang Zhang added an answer in Seedling:
    Chromosomal abberation in Rice seedlings?

    Can any body let me know the procedure for studying the chromosomal abberation in the seedlings, is it possible to observe microscopically?

    Wangang Zhang · Nanjing Agricultural University

    Dear Ashish,

    Try this paper.

  • Shaina Alysa Kelly added an answer in Glass:
    Where can I find Vycor (porous glass) microscope slides?

    I am looking for a vendor that sells porous glass microscope slides (or glass sheets/substrates of a similar size). The pore size in the glass should be several nanometers in diameter such as that of Vycor (Corning) or Coralpor (Schott). Thank you!

    Shaina Alysa Kelly · University of Texas at Austin

    Thank you! I will follow up with these contacts/vendors.

    ~ Shaina

  • Corey Mcgee added an answer in Shoulder Pain:
    Is there any research that describes the prevention and management of hemiplegic shoulder pain in stroke patient?

    best modality, technique and approach

    Corey Mcgee · University of Minnesota Twin Cities

    Consider the protocol offered by Kondo et al (2001). This focuses on prevention of the the development of hand-shoulder syndrome.

  • Tejal Joshi added an answer in Micro Air Vehicle:
    What are the mathematical tools used for modelling/simulation of micro air vehicles?

    I wish to study the mathematics used in micro air vehicles. Please send me links of papers, books etc.

    Tejal Joshi · Mylan Laboratories Limited

    Dear Mr Koczkodaj, 

    first of all humble request you to respect the question of researcher Dr Vrajesh, and reply only relevant ans.

    2 nd, if you have any query you can ask me personally, if u have doubt about my designation in pharmaceutical industry, tell me how may I help to solve it..

    god bless you.

  • Can someone recommend a binding agent or chemical for Bond between Stearic acid and the TiO2 or Paint material?

    i need to make permanent coating into Stearic acid on the cement or paint coated wall. So i need to know the proper binder for making the bond in between stearic acid and TiO2 on the paint

    Behzad Vaziri Hassas · University of Utah

    you need to use derivatives of polyacrylic acid. Try Styrene Acrylic copolymer. it is very common and well known. Styrene Acrylic copolymer is known as binder in paint industry. it is anionic copolymer and has very good and proven interaction with TiO2. If you could not find it, try "acrylic wood glues". these are the same....

  • Bhushan Bhoja Poojary asked a question in Wavefunction:
    How does gravity effects wavefunction?

    How does gravity effects wavefunction?

  • How could i make a Raster of Erosivity with precipitation data?

    I am from South Peru (Arequipa), i need to make a Raster of Erosivity but i only have climate data like precipitation, some ideas? somebody know the procedure. Is for work with InVEST models (Sediment Retention)

    Jorge Cuadros Adriazola · National University of St Agustin

    I am using USLE for predict the soil loss in a area, but in my country (Peru)  no data of erosivity (R) of precipitation is available. I want to estimate the R factor from data available like, climate data (Precipitation). I know that some equations can use for that propose. I want the more accuracy equation for my area. Or a method for make a equation for my area. Thank you Very Much

  • Ashley W. Poust added an answer in Hagfishes:
    What is known about the gallbladder of the hagfish?

    The hagfish (Mixinidae) are seemingly the descendents of the most ancient animals on the planet developed the gallbladder. It would be interesting to learn more of the oldest gallbladder anatomy, function, and histological traits. This may shed also some light both to its normal function and the spectrum of its congenital disorders. The sketch drawn (after Gorham & Ivy, 1938, with changes) and provided below is my attempt to show the putative evolutionary tree of the gallbladder having about 500 million years.

    Comments to the picture:

    • a horizontal bar - for the orders lack the organ completely
    • a single GB shape - for the orders having the organ in some species and lacking in others (partly devoided the gallbladder)
    • a double GB shape - for the orders possess the organ obligately
    • a dotted GB shape - for the extint orders (putatively possessed the organ)
    • a red GB colour - for the completely carnivorous orders
    • a green GB colour - for the completely herbivorous orders
    • a brown GB colour - for the omnivorous orders
    • a patched GB - if the order included both carnivorous and herbivorous species
    Ashley W. Poust · University of California, Berkeley

    Andrey - the figures are great. Thanks for sharing. Next time I get the chance to teach comparative anatomy, I'll make it a priority to look for the gall bladder structure. I understand the figure better now - thanks for explaining. Fascinating topic, let me know if I can help in any way.



  • Tong Woei Yenn added an answer in MIC:
    Is MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) dependent by final volume?

    We usually estimate the MIC in 96-well microplate with the final volume of 100 uL (95 uL of appropriate diluted antibacterial compound and 5 uL of 0.5 McFarland cultured cells). We also tried with 190 uL of diluted antibacterial compound and 10 uL of 0.5 McFarland cultured cells.
    Our results were slightly different.
    Can someone explain me why it happened?

    Tong Woei Yenn · University of Science Malaysia

    The final volume in each well affects the diffusion of oxygen to the media. 

  • Banudevi Sivanantham asked a question in Native PAGE:
    How to run protein complex(Protein nanocarrier complexed protein) in Native PAGE?

    How to run protein complex(Protein nanocarrier complexed protein) in Native PAGE?

  • Yuri Rylov added an answer in Geometry:
    Can we present the proper Euclidean geometry in a coordinateless monistic form?

    Yet Euclid had presented a geometry in a coordinateless form, because he did not know coordinates. But his presentation was pluralistic, i.e. it contained many fundamental concepts and quantities. A monistic conception contains only one fundamental quantity (in a geometry it is a metric). All other quantities are derivative. They are expressed in terms of the fundamental quantity. Monistic conception of the Euclidean geometry is important, because all other (generalized) geometries can be obtained by a simple replacement of the fundamental quantity.

    Yuri Rylov · Russian Academy of Sciences

    Dear Marcel,
    Constructing a new space-time geometry, we modify the proper Euclidean geometry GE. This modification is very simple, if we use a monistic representation of GE. This representation admits one to start the modification of GE from the already constructed GE (but not from axiomatics of GE). In practice, using the Riemannian space-time geometries, we consider different versions of the metric tensor gik, but we do not interesting in axiomatics of Riemannian geometry. Essentially we use infinitesimal world function 1/2ds2=1/2gikdxidxk. Unfortunately, infinitesimal version of world function does not realize monistic representation of GE. I am happy, that you have understood my idea. I think, that you are the first person, who did this.

  • Which is the most efficient algorithm/package to solve delay differential equations?

    I wish to know the methods of solving a system of equations that require, and those which don't require computer algebra. Is there a method, which is both theoretically and computationally efficient?

    Waldemar W Koczkodaj · Laurentian University

    How can I help you for it?

    I know someone in Australia working on genes...

    He is on Research Gate.

  • Akira Kanda added an answer in Quantum Entanglement:
    Can quantum entanglement be explained in terms of Einstein-Rosen bridge?

    What do you think on quantum entanglement? 

    Akira Kanda · University of Toronto


    Thanks for quick reply. I do not understand why one is mathematical and the other is physical. Please define the difference categorically rather than using some rather irrelevant examples. It is not science to discern each examples categorically.

    As you know, there is no classical limit in QM. So, there is no ontological connection between what the theory predicts and what our macro measuring devices score.

    This is the first difficulty in justifying the "measurement" you guys make. The Projection Postulate which apparently calculate the probabilistic distribution of "measured" values was never ever verified experimentally. If you know probability theory you will know the Large Number Theorem which tells you that no one can verify the mathematical prediction using experiment. This issue was incisively discussed by Kuhn who pointed out that when it comes to QM, even experimental refutation of a theory is impossible. So, the only way left for us to verify or refute the theory is by logical consistency. As Popper said, if a theory is inconsistent, it is meaningless and must be thrown out. QM is inconsistent.

    Moreover, as a consequence of combining STR and Hamiltonian, QM ended up with being logically inconsistent. For example, it proves that any particle can move faster than c from the assumption of STR.

    Also asserts that there must be no trajectory of particles. Yet you guys cheat and use trajectories to "experimentally" verify QM.

    As Psychiatrists  tells you, insane man can not realize he is insane. The logical inconsistency is insanity in reasoning. Of course you guys can not understand the consequence of it. Once you accept logically inconsistent theory like QM, you start to live in the world of insanity.

    As you know well Wheeler in defense of QM, the "final theory", said QM is not to understand. Feynmann when he was young believed in QM and proclaimed that the inconsitency is not the problem but the logic is the problem. He proposed to purge logic in Physics. Way before that time of course Einstein, Schrodinger, de Broglie etc were excommunicated and this science of insanity took over the Physics.

    Historically, QM as we know of, product of insanity was created by the German Scientists who had to defend their position after the catastrophic German defeat in the WWI. Prof. late Cushin said the last thing German Physicists wanted to defened was rationalism. Of course this German irrationalism as Prof. Cushin incisively said became the back bone of two noticeable phenomena in the mid 20th century Germany. First the Nazism. Then the development of QM as we know of.

    David Bohm as a prominent Jewish Physicists tried to separate QM from this irrational Nazi science.  He firmly believed in realistic  QM which has ontology. He succeeded in presenting a theory which is ontological and completely deterministic. He managed to reduce the problem of probabilistic experimental indeterminacy as a result of extreme sensitivity of deterministic system to the initial value setting which we can not control because of the limitation on our precision of setting initial values.

    Of course Bohm's theory also is inconsistent as he started with Schrodinger equation. But now contemporary Bohmians do not use Schrodinger wave equation. They start with defining particle equation and the equation for quantum potential independent of Schrodinger equation. So his theory now is freed from the deadly inconsistency problem which the main stream QM has.

    Physics is not calculation. it is understanding. mathematics is used to deepen our understanding. Inconsistent understanding will not give us any understanding of anything.

    BTW, Feynmann  came to the realization that the whole theoretical physics of his time was  anti-rational. He abandoned physics and became a logician.

  • Raymond Rumpf added an answer in MATLAB Simulation:
    Can anyone help me in getting MATLAB programs for simulating wave propagation in Photonic Crystal Fiber?

    I want to do MATLAB simulation programs and theoretical work for wave propagation IN photonic crystal fiber. Any link would be greatly appreciated.

    Raymond Rumpf · University of Texas at El Paso

    Here is a series of lectures on simulation algorithms.  The specific method you choose depends on what physics you want to account for.  Anyway, this should get you started:


  • Frederic Mercier added an answer in Trypan Blue:
    Is it necessary to dilute Accutase to dissociate cryo preserved mouse neurospheres ?

    I am trying to dissociate primary neurospheres (mouse), which are cryopreserved in Liq.N2. I followed the standard procedure given by the supplier and the same procedure was followed in many publications. to my wonder i observed that all the neurospheres are getting clumped and Trypan Blue shows all the cells were dead. In continuation, i have diluted the accutase 10 times and i could see improvement in cell viability..my question is why every one else are able to dissociate cells in direct accutase and why i am not able to do it..I wonder why? as per my knowledge no publication mentioned about diluting the accuatse..please clarify my doubt..thanks      

    Frederic Mercier · University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa

    I dont know what is accutase. I use trypsine/EDTA and mechanical agitation and there is no problem to dissociate primary neurospheres originating from the SVZ of the lateral ventricle (mouse). Maybe, I am old fashioned. Good luck with your neurospheres.

  • What protocols for P0 mouse pup fixation work best to resolve CNS immunohistochemistry?

    I'm currently attempting immunohistochemistry on 18um cryosections of the spinal cord and brain of P0 mouse pups, but there is very sparse immunolabeling of proper structures. I am worried that my tissue is not properly fixed.

    My protocol is currently an overnight fix in 4% PFA made in 1xPBS, where the skin on the head is removed, and the thoracic and peritoneal cavities are opened via large incisions to allow fluid circulation. The skin is left on the torso.

    Does anyone have suggestions to improve this protocol or can suggest an alternate protocol which will result in good CNS immunolabeling? As I am primarily interested in spinal cord immunolabeling, it is possible for me to dissect the entire spinal column prior to fixation if anyone finds that doing so helps their fixation.

    Justin P Rodriguez · Stony Brook University

    My best staining in late-embryonic (>E19.5) to P2 pups has been with transcardial perfusion as Carla suggested. These animals are small so practice makes perfect. I just used Ice for anesthesia, insert a sharp 28G needle into the apex of the heart (left ventricle), nick the right atrium, and use a 10cc syringe to perfuse with cold PBS followed by 10cc 100mM phosphate buffer + 4% formaldehyde. Remove tissue of interest and post fix for a 3-4hrs then into cryoprotectant for 24hrs. I think your second best bet would be to flash freeze the fresh tissue, then fix after cryosectioning. My other word of caution is to learn how antibody you use likes your tissue fixed, some antibodies will only work on formaldehyde fixed tissue and other antibodies will loose sensitivity or require antigen retrieval if your tissue is left too long in fixative.

  • GESITI Education Project invitation
    Dears Colleagues, This is an invitation for your participation in the GESITI/Education Project. Please, consider the following content for the GESITI/Education Project: The GESITI Education Project aims a multi-focal prospective study of the Management and Information Technologies in public or private schools. The GESITI/Education project is similar to the multi-focal GESITI/Health project - since it makes use from the same methodology already used in that Health projects. Please, see here a brief presentation of the mains results of this pilot GESITI/Health project: http://www.slideshare.net/ballonia/presentations .- click in the GESITI Hospitalar Presentation. The basic instrument utilized as part of the methodology is the adaptation of the Prospective Questionnaire (PQ) which has been utilized - tested - in the GESITI/Health project. So, the PQ will be same for the GESITI Education project but, adapted - which is easily done - . See here information - in Portuguese - from the original and unique PQ: http://www.cti.gov.br/questionário-prospectivo.html . It is important to let you know the GESITI/Health has more than 30 universities in cooperation and a book, Pilot Project, is in its final edition form and will be published by the Ministry of Health (+3000 hard copies). See here what the press has informed - in Portuguese - Brazilian Journal of Science or FIOCRUZ So, based on the same model of the GESITI/Health project - already tested and approved by more than 30 universities and with increasing numbers of interested universities - the GESITI/Education project aims to create a strategic multi-focal data base in the sector. So, we are looking for a General Coordinator for this research win-win endeavor. We are very sure this win-win project may, easily, generated remarkable results... For a better understanding - extrapolation - about what will be the GESITI/Education Project, see the pages 6 to 10 from the GESITI/Health Project - link: http://repositorio.cti.gov.br/repositorio/bitstream/10691/246/3/GESITI_Project_INGL_22.pdf - which, by induction and comparative analyses we may drawn what will be the GESITI/Education Project with its similar results ( http://www.slideshare.net/ballonia/presentations click in the GESITI Hospitalar Presentation). Besides the importance of this multi-focal theme - long term Education is far more important than Health-, is also possible generate several scientific publications. Therefore, I am inviting you to be in touch, advance and lead this win-win proposal. Waiting for your interest and attention to this invitation, I am ready and available in this telephone number - 0xx-19-37466206 or, Skype GESITI.Project or personally to make a presentation about the proposal. Thank you very much by your attention. Best Regards, Antonio Balloni Balloni Ou: gesiti@cti.gov.br
    Antonio José Balloni · University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

    Research Communication --- Invitation

    Project Presentation: Management of Systems and Information Technology in Institutions of Higher Education - GESITI / IHE.

    AUTOR: Marcus Vinicius Souza (marcus.souza01@fatec.sp.gov.br>), Antonio José Balloni (gesiti@cti.gov.br)

    GESITI/EDUCAÇÃO - FATEC --- Façam parte desse novo desafio!. Divulguem entre seus pares da academia. Obrigado.

    ABSTRACT: In a scenario where the Institutions of Higher Education –IHE- are facing issues such as: 1. - How to keep and maintain the interest of students in the classroom? and 2. - How the traditional patterns of teaching and learning interact with the exponential growth of available information? and other topics; we propose the presentation of the project: " Management Systems and Information Technology in Higher Education Institutions (GESITI/IHE) ", a research proposal which seeks to answer the above -and others- concerns. Therefore, based on a prospective tool –the Questionnaire Prospective, (QP)-, which has specially been developed to answer the above concerns regarding education, the application of this QP aims to perform a survey on the management of information systems and technologies in IHE. Due to the multifocal characteristic of the QP, and from the results obtained by the application of this QP in IHE, will be possible to make available information for decision-making support regarding managerial concerns -as well others concerns –the GESITI/IHE is multifocal-. The participation in the project GESITI/IHE is open to all interested parties, which should apply the proposed methodology in IHE localized in their region or city. The involvement in this research project should be formalized via a win – win cooperation term (research level agreement).

    Keywords: Research, Higher Education, Information Systems Management, Information Technology, Prospective Questionnaire Multifocal
    Apresentação do Projeto: Gestão dos Sistemas e Tecnologias da Informação em Instituições de Ensino Superior – GESITI/IES.

  • Yao-Tien Chen added an answer in MATLAB:
    How can I use brainweb images in matlab with mnc or raws format?

    I want to evaluate a segmentation method for MRI images of Ms lesion. To do it I use brain web site images but I don't know how to use them in matlab.

    Yao-Tien Chen · Yuanpei University

    Hi Maryam, Can you direct me how to convert BrainWeb images in matlab. There are no "spm_vol" and "spm_read_vols" functions in matlab Toolbox. Thank you.

  • Banudevi Sivanantham added an answer in Native PAGE:
    How to obtain band for protein complexes in Native PAGE?

    I was trying to run native PAGE for protein-enzyme complexes. it couldn't able to visualize the band for the same. Can anyone help me to solve out this problem.

    Banudevi Sivanantham · SASTRA University

    Does cross linking affect the native form of complex?