Q&A

ResearchGate Q&A lets scientists and researchers exchange questions and answers relating to their research expertise, including areas such as techniques and methodologies.

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  • Does the capital structure of a listed company affect its market value?

    If yes, How? If no, Why?

    Cameron Elliott Gordon · University of Canberra

    Modigliani-Miller would say, in theory, no, assuming no transactions costs, taxes, etc. Reason being that shareholders could structure their own portfolios to get their desired personal return and will adjust their holdings of any given firm (with a given capital structure) accordingly. Of course that's strictly theoretical. Real-world tax and institutions do make capital structure relevant. Also very high leverage levels or high cash holdings can obviously drive a firm's share price down if the market perceives capital structure policy as misguided. 

  • Marko Ropret added an answer in Innovation:
    Is there a connection between disruptive innovation or incremental innovation and product life cycle?

    Hello, I was wondering if someone has written or made some researches about this topic?

    Thank you very much

    Marko Ropret · STATIS, Statistical research and consulting

    James, W. M. 2002. Best HR practices for todayʼs innovation management. Research Technology Management 4 (1): 57–60.

  • How salinity affects the fish composition?

    Till date there are no literature available on the impact of climate change induced temperature, salinity and pH alteration on fin-fish diversity in the lower Gangetic delta although it is the breeding and spawning ground of a large variety of fin-fish and shell-fish (Cahudhuri and Choudhury, 1994; Mitra and Banerjee, 2005; Mitra, 2013).Very little is known on the sensitivities of fin-fishes to environmental factors although Fare clough et al. (2000a) observed that sexual maturation and spawning are significantly regulated by environmental cue(s).

  • Eric Baird added an answer in Special Relativity:
    Who rewrote General Relativity?

    Einstein's General Theory of Relativity seems to have “crashed” as a scientific theory in about ~1960, and to have been "rebooted" some time in the early 1960s as "modern GR" with a different set of definitions and rules that differ from those laid out by Einstein.

    I'd like to know who originally made those "redesign" decisions, how the community consensus was reached, and where the changes (and their justifications) are documented.

    Background: Einstein had based his theory on the General Principle of Relativity: the idea that all motion was relative, and that even “absolute” motions such as rotations and accelerations could successfully be “relativised” if bodies showing those relative motions could be associated with suitable gravitational/distortional effects. This was an idea previously proposed by Ernst Mach, and Einstein described his general theory as being the theoretical embodiment of Mach's principle.

    For derivational convenience, Einstein also initially assumed that the theory should reduce to the physics of special relativity over small regions.

    However, the publication of the Harwell group's 1960 paper on centrifuge redshifts (Phys. Rev. Lett. 4, 165 (1960) ) apparently triggered a controversy within the community, and an appreciation that a literal application of the GPoR seemed to lead to results that were geometrically incompatible with special relativity – the consequence of the GPoR being treated as a “law” then seemed to be not only the loss of Einstein's 1905 "Special" theory, but also the loss of the 1916 "General" theory that had been partly built upon it (Schild, Am. J. Phys. 28, 778 (1960) ).

    We were facing the unpalatable prospect of a major rewrite of theoretical physics, and although a rederivation of GR to avoid its dependency on SR had already been suggested by Einstein back in 1950 (SciAm 182, 4, 13-17), we found it easier to modify the rules of general relativity to allow the GPoR to be suspended in cases where it seemed to clash with other parts of the 1916 theory. In effect, we accepted that the original “SR+GPoR” structure was logically inconsistent, but maintained order by redefining SR's position in GR's definitional hierarchy to one in which GR could not disagree with SR “by definition”, and establishing a "failure etiquette" ("If the GPoR conflicts with SR, keep SR and suspend the GPoR").

    This change seems to have happened with minimal recorded public comment or discussion. Although Schild's paper mentions discussions and "a certain lack of unanimity" in the community as to how to proceed (before he presents the "modern GR" position as unavoidable) Schild doesn't indicate who participated in those discussions.

    I'd like to know who was on the committee, who voted for or against the change, and whether any of those concerned published anything on the nature of the 1960 crisis and the chosen response. Does anyone here remember it or have direct personal experience of what happened? Is there any historical record of the episode other than the rather skimpy Schild paper? Did anyone else publish the arguments for modifying Einstein's theory, or the contemporary arguments why GR1916 couldn't continue to be used in its pre-1960 form?

    Any references to additional contemporary material would be very, very welcome.

    Eric Lord, p26: " Does the gravitational field (in an empty, curved region of space) have energy and momentum? "

    I personally tend to veer towards the idea that a moving gravitational body has energy and momentum, and its field also has energy and momentum, but that these are probably the same energy and momentum, expressed in two different ways: the exterior field is an expression of the body's energy and momentum and can be regarded as an extension of the body. IMO.

    I once tried doing it the other way and got a bad case of double-accounting.

    We know that the exterior field can transmit momentum, because if a tiny black hole skimmed your position, you could be buffetted and knocked off your feet by the impact with its moving gravitational "bump", even if the object itself didn't make direct contact. And the slingshot effect is another example of momentum exchange via a gravitational field interaction.

  • Fadi M. Albatsh added an answer in PSCAD:
    How can I generate a SPWM signal for a 3 phase inverter in PSCAD?

    How can I generate a SPWM signal for a 3 phase inverter in PSCAD?

    Fadi M. Albatsh · University of Malaya

    Please refer to Fig. 3(b) in my paper titled "Fuzzy based controller for dynamic Unified Power Flow Controller to enhance power transfer capability". Just use any reference signal and compared with carrier signal, then you can generate the PWM signals for IGBTs.

  • What is your opinion about the FT-IR spectrum of graphene oxide?

    when I measured FT-IR of graphene oxide I get this spectrum 

    can you help me to known it is OK or NO ?

    F. Caballero-Briones · National Polytechnic Institute-CICATA Altamira

    Graphite oxide spectrum looks familiar to me bands related with carboxyl and C=C bonds.... graphene spectrum has strong bands related with OH around 3500 that are not explainable in graphene (where OH would come from?) as well as strong  CH bands that I am not sure they have to be present in that extent in a graphene sample... in our work we havent noticed these bands in reduced graphene oxide...but,  it would be useful to know what are people reporting and how are you fabricating your graphene oxide...

  • Stefan Wenzel added an answer in Cemeteries:
    Does anybody know red ocher beads from neolithic or other prehistoric periods?

    In the summer of 2014, we discovered a new Eneolithic cemetery at Sultana (Romania), and near one of the skeletons we identified a fragment of red ocher bead.

    Does anybody know other similar artefacts from prehistory or other time periods?

    Thanks in advance.

    Stefan Wenzel · Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum - Archaeological research institute

    Hi,

    from Durankulak (northeastern Bulgaria) is known a necklace of beads made from ocre and resin from a grave of the Copper Age:

    Henrieta Todorova & Ivan Vajsov, Der kupferzeitliche Schmuck Bulgariens. Prähistorische Bronzefunde XX, 6 (Stuttgart 2001).

    http://books.google.de/books?id=KU15Pj5uvRwC&lpg=PA1&ots=pjVAjwr6mq&dq=Ocker%20Perle&lr&hl=de&pg=PA56#v=onepage&q=Ocker%20&f=false

    Best regards,

    Stefan

  • Marko Ropret added an answer in Polishing:
    How to measure an innovation index?

    Dear all, I'm thinking about building an innovation ranking of Polish companies. Something what would show how companies build their innovation value in different sectors, circumstances etc. I have quite a huge sample of different companies available and IDI/ CATI/ CAWI methodology. I' would be very grateful for any recommendations/ suggestions/ links to available resources.

    Marko Ropret · STATIS, Statistical research and consulting

    A methodology to identify Innovation Leaders, successfully tested in various sectors:

    FATUR, Peter, LIKAR, Borut, ROPRET, Marko. Going open while innovating: does it pay?. International journal of industrial engineering and management, ISSN 2217-2661, 2010, vol. 1, no. 3, str. 77-83, ilustr., tabele.

    http://www.iim.ftn.uns.ac.rs/casopis/volume1/ijiem_vol1_no3_1.pdf

  • Hi, I am trying to implement light speed labeling for connected component labeling. can any one tell me how to build equivalence table for labels?

    Stanley Melvyn Selkow

    Lionel Lacassagne

    Waldemar W Koczkodaj · Laurentian University

    it looks complicated :(

    No clue...

  • What are the mathematical tools used for modelling/simulation of micro air vehicles?

    I wish to study the mathematics used in micro air vehicles. Please send me links of papers, books etc.

    Waldemar W Koczkodaj · Laurentian University

    Frankly, no idea :)

  • Waldemar W Koczkodaj added an answer in Scoring:
    In a Pricipal Component Analysis, what does it mean for items to have high loadings but smaller means with larger SD scores?

    Would appreciate your help. Thanks

    Waldemar W Koczkodaj · Laurentian University

    PCA is very tricky to interpret.

    We wrote something on it (see two papers below) but I programed it and the coauthor was interpreting it :)

    You may ask him...


    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271705962_The_highest_recognition_download_by_the_Nobel_laureate

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/272565437_Mathematical_foundations_of_inconsistency_analysis_in_pairwise_comparisons

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/268686430_On_the_quality_evaluation_of_scientific_entities_in_Poland_supported_by_consistency-driven_pairwise_comparisons_method

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/220245233_On_distance-based_inconsistency_reduction_algorithms_for_pairwise_comparisons

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225524247_A_Different_Perspective_on_a_Scale_for_Pairwise_Comparisons

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/226087048_On_some_convexity_properties_of_the_Least_Squares_Method_for_pairwise_comparisons_matrices_without_the_reciprocity_condition

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/220095727_An_LP-based_inconsistency_monitoring_of_pairwise_comparison_matrices

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/251187032_A_simplified_implementation_of_the_least_squares_solution_for_pairwise_comparisons_matrices

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/220112969_Convergence_of_Inconsistency_Algorithms_for_the_Pairwise_Comparisons
    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/256623542_The_theoretical_model_for_the_abandoned_mines_budget_allocation

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/256623542_The_theoretical_model_for_the_abandoned_mines_budget_allocation


    Applications:

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/220948076_Assessing_the_properties_of_the_World_Health_Organization%27s_Quality_of_Life_Index

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/38013467_No_sex_difference_in_area_estimation

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269997255_Towards_better_abandoned_mine_hazard_prioritizing-An_expert_system_approach

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/270905238_Consistency_Driven_Knowledge_Acquisition_for_an_Expert_System

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269997255_Towards_better_abandoned_mine_hazard_prioritizing-An_expert_system_approach

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269997317_Mineral-potential_assessment_by_consistency-driven_pairwise_comparisons

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269997260_Medical_Knowledge_Mining_from_Image_Data--Synthesis_of_Medical_Image_Assessments_for_Early_Stroke_Detection

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/270592120_Monte_Carlo_Study_of_the_Random_Image_Area_Estimation_by_Pairwise_Comparisons

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/222008848_A_weak_order_solution_to_a_group_ranking_and_consistency-driven_pairwise_comparisons

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/220114860_Generalization_of_a_New_Definition_of_Consistency_for_Pairwise_Comparisons

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/245079236_A_spreadsheet_approach_to_principal_components_analysis

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/221464467_Principal_Components_and_the_Accuracy_of_Machine_Learning

  • Is there any data on repertory grid analysis and concrete concept formation?

    By 'concrete concept', I mean everyday concepts such as book, chair, cat, dog _ which overlap with natural kinds.

    Yehudit Dr. Carmon · Read and Play

    May be the book 'The Symbolic Species` The co-evolution of Language and the Brain" by Terrence W.Deacon.  Published first by Norton Paperback 1998, USA, might give you the basic of your answer. It's a heavy question and the book is heavy in accordance.

  • Ariel Linden added an answer in Websites:
    How to use Secondary data analysis in my dissertation, if my advisorwants but my ideas do not fit?

    Hi

    This is my first participation in this website. I am a PhD student, my advisor really wants me to  use her data set as a secondary data analysis in my dissertation since I started the program. I spent long time in trying to figure out how to make my ideas of research fit with her research. All my dependent and independent variables were all outcomes in this offered data set. I am hesitate to say no or to discuss the weak points  that I figured out in my advisor study that she wants me to use. She also teaching me one class currently. I want to keep good relationship  between us. Can you please help me how to move further in this  situation. I am in my third semester (first year PhD student).

    Thank you

    Ariel Linden · University of Michigan

    I tend to agree with Ufuk on this situation. However I will suggest that you consider discussing this with another faculty member who you trust before hand (or perhaps the academic dean of the department). The simple reason is that you don't know what your advisor's response will be. She may be reasonable and respond to your concerns in the appropriate manner. However, there is no guarantee of that, and her response may not be a positive one. In such a situation, you want to have "on record" that you discussed this with other senior faculty beforehand and elicited their advice. Thus, you are somewhat protected from the possibility of retaliation.

    I am sorry to hear about your situation. I wish it were unusual, but unfortunately there are many such cases in the annals of doctoral work...

    Good luck!

    Ariel

  • Waldemar W Koczkodaj added an answer in Algorithms:
    Is the surrogate based optimization algoritm an evolutive algoritm? Where is it classified?

    I'm starting to investigate SBO algoritms. I would like to know if it is a part of Evolutive Algorithms. Where can I find basic information about that? Thanks.

    Waldemar W Koczkodaj · Laurentian University

    Surrogate-Based Methods - School of Earth Sciences
    pangea.stanford.edu/~echeverr/sfcpapers/chapter01.pdf

    Kiziel is very good!

    I would love to use for some of my problems:


    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271705962_The_highest_recognition_download_by_the_Nobel_laureate

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/272565437_Mathematical_foundations_of_inconsistency_analysis_in_pairwise_comparisons

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/268686430_On_the_quality_evaluation_of_scientific_entities_in_Poland_supported_by_consistency-driven_pairwise_comparisons_method

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/220245233_On_distance-based_inconsistency_reduction_algorithms_for_pairwise_comparisons

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225524247_A_Different_Perspective_on_a_Scale_for_Pairwise_Comparisons

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/226087048_On_some_convexity_properties_of_the_Least_Squares_Method_for_pairwise_comparisons_matrices_without_the_reciprocity_condition

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/220095727_An_LP-based_inconsistency_monitoring_of_pairwise_comparison_matrices

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/251187032_A_simplified_implementation_of_the_least_squares_solution_for_pairwise_comparisons_matrices

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/220112969_Convergence_of_Inconsistency_Algorithms_for_the_Pairwise_Comparisons
    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/256623542_The_theoretical_model_for_the_abandoned_mines_budget_allocation

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/256623542_The_theoretical_model_for_the_abandoned_mines_budget_allocation


    Applications:

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/220948076_Assessing_the_properties_of_the_World_Health_Organization%27s_Quality_of_Life_Index

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/38013467_No_sex_difference_in_area_estimation

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269997255_Towards_better_abandoned_mine_hazard_prioritizing-An_expert_system_approach

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/270905238_Consistency_Driven_Knowledge_Acquisition_for_an_Expert_System

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269997255_Towards_better_abandoned_mine_hazard_prioritizing-An_expert_system_approach

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269997317_Mineral-potential_assessment_by_consistency-driven_pairwise_comparisons

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269997260_Medical_Knowledge_Mining_from_Image_Data--Synthesis_of_Medical_Image_Assessments_for_Early_Stroke_Detection

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/270592120_Monte_Carlo_Study_of_the_Random_Image_Area_Estimation_by_Pairwise_Comparisons

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/222008848_A_weak_order_solution_to_a_group_ranking_and_consistency-driven_pairwise_comparisons

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/220114860_Generalization_of_a_New_Definition_of_Consistency_for_Pairwise_Comparisons

    :)

    \W

  • Jose Canas added an answer in Reference Values:
    Someone will have some reference (article, book) with the recommended daily intake of antioxidants (polyphenols) ?

    I know it's complicated topic, and there are many contradictions about it, but some reference value should exist...

    would appreciate your help.

    Jose Canas · Nemours

    Difficult question to answer for carotenoids at least due to wide variability in absorption. Many factors involved including genetic variability.  Seehttp://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201100322

    and 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.01.001

  • Giuma Fellah added an answer in Trigeneration:
    Can I use the cost function for a HRSG to apply it for determining the purchase equipment costs of evaporator, absorber etc., of an absorption cycle?

    To determine equipment cost of VA components at varying operating conditions of a trigeneration plant.

    Giuma Fellah · University of Tripoli

    If you work on a real station, then you should use the real prices for all equipments under consideration

  • Francisco Olivos added an answer in Youth:
    Does anyone ice-breaking question to be included in surveys?

    I'm designing a F2F questionnaire to youth (12-25) and I need some good examples the questions included like ice-breaking. 

    Francisco Olivos · Pontifical Catholic University of Chile

    Thank you for the answer. I am consciousof the crucial importance of the entire approach. However, in the step of this project I need a specific question to start the questionnary that is quasi designed already. In this case, The California Health Interview Survey is an useful example.

  • Alireza Omidi added an answer in Nonlinear Optics:
    Is Kleinman symmetry meaningful in crystals?

    Kleinman symmetry (for nonlinear susceptibilities) is meaningful in crystals or not?

    Alireza Omidi · Lorestan University

    Dear tapan

    thanks for your answer.

  • Paul C. Lyons added an answer in Physical Chemistry:
    Does anyone know how Pele's hairs--hair-size volcanic glass--are formed?

    Do Pele's hairs form only in some types of volcanoes and how do they reflect the conditions of formation (physics, chemistry)?

    Paul C. Lyons · United States Geological Survey

    Thank you Tim, Martin, Bob, and Marina for the references and discussion, which handled the physical factors  quite nicely. Mourne et. (2009, J. of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 164: 284-259) show that Pele's hairs and tears are microchemically zoned with high-silica compositions (rhyolitic) near the outside and low-silica compositions (basaltic) nearer the inside. Thus, Pele's hairs and tears can tell you the basaltic lava's history (J. Cave, 2015). They can be blown high up in the air and several tenns of kilometers from the vent (Big Island fact sheet).

  • What happens when gibb's free energy value is positive in adsorption thermodynamic stadiues?

    I done solid liquid adsorption studies and I done thermodynamic parametric studies. When I'm doing thermodynamic calculations I got negative enthalpy and entropy values, and I got positive gibb's free energy values? As per literature's if gibb's free energy values are negative the adsorption process is spontaneous and if it is positive process is non-spontaneous. I would like to know if the process is non-spontaneous, desorption will occur or not. Anyone please help me how I can explain this study with the above mentioned values and help me to get some idea about the thermodynamic studies.
    Thank you in advance.

    Srinu Nagireddi · Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

     I got this explanation from one literature, please check it once and let me know me whether that statement is true or not. 

    positive ΔG° values indicates the non-spontaneous nature of the adsorption process. The positive value of ΔG° also shows that there is an energy barrier. When the ions enter from the solution into the particle surface, some of the water molecules forming hydration shell of ions are stripped off and simultaneously the degree of freedom of ions declines.

  • Ariel Linden added an answer in Healthcare:
    Why is communication important in healthcare organizations?

    Why is communication important in healthcare organizations?

    Ariel Linden · University of Michigan

    Is this as detailed as you can get with this question?

    There must be over a million reasons why communication is important. What aspect of communication are you referring to? Between whom? What do you classify as a health care organization, or are you using a shotgun approach to describing health care in general?

    Spend a little time formulating your question so that you can get a targeted and meaningful response.

  • Leticia Vivani asked a question in White Blood Cells:
    How do I calculate the fold difference in gene expression using the 2-deltadelta method when I have not normalized the data from qPCR?

    My Ct values are for example sperm: 30.70, testis: 22.43, white blood cells: 31.18

  • Ariel Linden added an answer in Expression:
    Can stupidity be measured?

    If you think so, what units would you use to express the degree of stupidity?

    Ariel Linden · University of Michigan

    I never gave this idea much thought, but apparently there is such a scale:

    http://www.opscentre.com.au/blog/a-new-metric-for-business-continuity-the-stupidity-index/

    http://bizshifts-trends.com/tag/stupidity-index/

    I haven't checked on the scientific underpinnings of this scale, but I'll leave that to others who may be interested

    Ariel

  • Deepak Sridhar asked a question in Axis:
    RAMAN spectra normalization using origin?

    I usually used to take he area under the curve and then divide all the points (y axis/intensity) and normalize Raman curves. But, origin has a direct normalization option, which has 10 different variation like normalize [1,0], by mean, by median, etc. However, which is the best way among this to normalize?

    regards

  • Atilio Sersun Calefi added an answer in PeakFit:
    Does anyone know of a suitable program to fit multiple lognormal and other non-Gaussian curves onto flow cytometry histograms?

    I have used Peakfit in the past, which will fit normal curves. Weasel flow cytometry software can fit non-normal curves on its own histograms, but doesn't seem very accurate/flexible, particularly where multiple peaks are involved.

    Any suggestions would be very much appreciated.

    Atilio Sersun Calefi · University of São Paulo

    You can try use R (http://www.r-project.org/) and bioconductor packages (http://bioconductor.org/). Its possible fit curves and transform data. Search for FlowCore, FlowStats and the associated packages. 

    Can be hard work if you are not familiar with the program.

    When you have many peaks and try to fit the curve with algorithms the results may be biased. This variations may depend on the quality and characteristic of the material during the acquisition process. Thus, some programs can have low accuracy.

  • How can one use GEANT4 simulations in dairy industry / cattle science?

    A Geant4 application developed for the simulation of the 6-MV-photon mode of a Siemens Primus linac, and bench-marked with results obtained with EGSnrc/BEAMnrc code (a standard, well-validated code in radiotherapy), was adapted to study the performance of a single side silicon strip detector (SSSSD) for dosimetric measurements in radiotherapy based on Intensity Modulated Radiation Treatment (IMRT).

    Vesna Karapetkovska Hristova · St. Clement of Ohrid University of Bitola

    Geant4 event-level parallelism is based on a master-worker model in which a set of threads (the workers) are spawned and are responsible for the simulation of events, while the steering and control of the simulation is given to an additional entity (the master).

  • Adam B Shapiro added an answer in Protein Elution:
    Can someone suggest a way to elute biotinylated proteins from avidin agarose beads?

    Generally in all the elution protocols, the proteins are eluted in very harsh conditions. E.g Boiling in SDS sample buffer, elution by using Guanidine HCl. This creates a lot of avidin background when run on a gel. I have to submit my sample for LC MS. In order to do that I need to reduce the noise. Can anyone suggest me any method that can reduce the background noise?

    Adam B Shapiro · AstraZeneca

    Have a look at this web page:

    http://www.lifetechnologies.com/us/en/home/brands/product-brand/dynal/streptavidin-coupled-dynabeads/elution-of-the-streptavidin.html

    I'm not sure what the purpose of the EDTA is in the elution conditions, but I think the formamide is there to interfere with hydrogen bonding, since I know it is also used to denature DNA.

    Low pH would be unsuitable for use with EDTA, which would be insoluble.

  • Syed Raza asked a question in Transduction:
    How to trace transplanted Stem Cells in vivo, which are not labelled for any color?

    Hi All, 

    A friend of mine from India has raised a concern since they don't have the transduction facility, what are the other ways to trace the transplanted Stem Cells in vivo in rodents if they are not virally transduce for any color e.g. GFP/mCherry etc. Their lab is planing to transplant the mouse NSCs in mouse only. 

    Kindly please suggest.

    Many thanks,

    Syed