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- Are there infinitely many possible sentences in a natural language? Most authors seem to think so. Frege, one of the few mathematicians who worked on that problem spoke of “unpredictably many” (or uncalculably many; “unabsehbar viele”) - not an infinite number of them. (Frege, Logische Untersuchungen, 3. Teil Gedankengefüge, 1993, p.72 ff (German) /see also Fodor/Lepore „Holism“ 1992,p 242). N.B. „uncalulably many“ is not an NP-Problem in this context.
I could not find a proof that there are infinitely many sentences with e.g. 30 words, no matter in what natural language. The arguments of Chomsky and Pinker are about the understanding of understandable sentences, not about sentences containing, say, 100,000 words.
Here is a reformulation of the question: how can we get infinitely many combinations out of a finite number of elements (e.g. English with approximately 5 mil words) containing up to 30 elements, including ungrammatical combinations? We can’t. In order to get more combinations we would have to extend the chains. But even with sentences of 100,000 words there would not be infinitely many of them.
One simple solution is: “Of course there are infinitely many sentences of the form “This and that is that”, we just have to insert numbers!” But that is not what I mean and it is not what anyone means who is concerned with that problem. Moreover: 1st we would then get an infinite vocabulary – 2nd all these sentences would be comprehensible by the application of one single rule. (Pace Kripke’s Wittgenstein).
How about propositions instead of sentences? E.g. we might utter “This is not the same as that” pointing to different objects while repeating the sentence. The first problem is that we get many propositions but we still have only one sentence. The second problem is that the propositions are not countable. Third problem: there must be a difference that makes a difference. The objects we want to point to must be discernible. And with a countable number of discernible objects we will only get a finite number of utterances.
So even for 7 billion people the pointing to discernible objects will lead to a still finite number of possible utterances.
Some authors compare the number of possible sentences with the number of possible chess games or possible molecules. I don’t know much about these items but it seems to me that for chess and molecules there will be problems comparable to those I mentioned above. Games that get longer and longer, molecules with more and more atoms. Does anyone have another idea?
Marvin, reacting on your next-to-last post, I am not sure that I got everything right, but I find it inspiring. Let us try to examine some arguments against it. Please, don’t take this too seriously:
Problem: “and” as a concept on a par with the other words:
Mom and Dad are two.
On a par with “and”:
Mom; and; Dad; - are THREE.
More words on a par:
Mom; and; Dad; are; - FOUR.
All on a par:
Mom; and; Dad; are; FIVE;
We will need a junction between “and” and the other concepts of a sentence, when “and” is supposed to be a concept itself.
Mom is female and adult.
Her attributes are therefore “feminality”, “andness”, “adulthood”.
Now let’s add the junctions:
Mom is female; her feminality has a junction to “andness” which in turn has a junction to adulthood.
Mom is female AND and AND adult.
But we can’t stop here: we will need more junctions like “a-n-d”:
Mom is female a-n-d AND a-n-d and a-n-d AND a-n-d adult.
We will have to go on adding junctions ad infinitum.
This is a tentative description of the structure, of course, not the spoken sentence.Following
- How can I best train medical students & trainees to critically appraise the medical research studies they read?
Like many, I find students & trainees commonly take as gospel the conclusions/ messages of published research studies - especially those appearing in the high impact journals - I'd love to know what methods others find help them stand back and appraise the work critically.
I agree with the suggestions regarding regular journal club meetings. These have to be handled differently between undergraduate and postgraduate levels. At undergraduate level the emphasis should be more on the "anatomy" of a paper. Examples need not be current, but should be chosen to exemplify different types of study, their advantages and disadvantages, and should include sources of error and cases of scientific fraud.
At postgraduate level, the trainees tend to be less tolerant of a historical approach and are more interested in developing knowledge currency with the literature. Nevertheless they still need to be exposed to different types of study. And yes, an evidence based approach is valuable to their practice but they also need to know the limitations of a reductive approach and be aware of the mythical nature of pure objectivity. A useful exercise for discussion in a general session is to get the trainees to "create" (they've been exposed to it so much it tends to be regurgitated) the pyramid of "evidence value" and then get them to create a pyramid of "research value" in terms of creation of new knowledge, and discuss why the two are different.
At both levels there needs to be exposure to qualitative designs.Following
- What is the difference between fixing the covariance matrix element, and leaving the bayesian find them?
May I know your idea about difference between these two situation in Bayesian parameter estimation?
1-we repeat the test N times and calculate variance (and perhaps co- variance of the data) and then use it as the fix value in likelihood calculations.
2-we leave the elements of the variance (co variance) flexible and let the bayesian determine them after sampling. In the other word, we estimate them along with the other parameters.
which one is more reasonable?Following
- Are there new prognostic biomarkers in triple negative breast cancer recently described in the literature?
Are there new prognostic biomarkers in triple negative breast cancer recently described in the literature?
Thank you =DFollowing
- What solutions do you propose for the reception of emigration to current Europe ?
Due to the wave of emigration to Europe that has become more pronounced in recent times, what solutions do you propose for the reception of emigration to Europe ?
Your answer will be greatly appreciated.
The root cause is the so-called “color revolution" , another term is "Arab Spring" for Arabic countries, if you are not familiar with these terms, please google. People should know that, for most of them, survival and safety is more important than many other things, which are void and meaningless at least for the time being. You can not establish the so-called human rights and democracy on the basis of death, starvation, insecurity, homelessness. Only when people can feed themselves, get education, feel free and safe to voice their own opinions, cast their votes without being intimidated, can true democracy be fulfilled, and human rights be realized.Following
- Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and Islamic finance. what's next ?
Experiences from across the Mena region indicate that a number of SMEs, estimated at about 20%-25% of the total, prefer sharia-compliant products . Thus, better risk management protocols would strengthen lenders’ confidence to create more sharia-compliant financing options. Risk management frameworks that protect lender's’ rights and address their concerns for transparent information could not only strengthen the evolution of Islamic finance with respect to SMEs, but allow traditional banks to develop more confidence in lending to SMEs, as well.
Your opinion matters and will be gratefully appreciated.Following
- Can Quantum 'Mechanical' Description of Physical Reality be considered Completed?
Simplicity is the key to the interpretation of physics. Nothing more simple in the analysis than supposing the existence of some parameter "hidden," invisible and not measurable which is an integral part of a pair of photons and that tells at the time of their creation: "you are oriented east" or "you are oriented to the west. "This analysis requires us to introduce "hidden variables", a process which in physics is debatable, but allows in a very elegant way to explain everything in realistic terms. The pair of photons has its own objective reality that can describe them completely. Part of this reality is unknowable but never mind, the problem is only human, nature is safe.
We have two options: 1) quantum mechanics is inherently probabilistic; 2) quantum mechanics is not inherently probabilistic, but deterministic. The first position is that of the so-called "Copenhagen interpretation", still very accredited by physicists, while the second was that of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) and of the "hidden variables". Subsequently, Bell showed that the hidden variables can not be there. John Bell in 1964 pointed the way for an experimental verification of the existence of hidden variables, but subsequent experiments, especially the French group of Alain Aspect, have shown the full validity of quantum mechanics.
Then, the second theoretical position is no longer sustainable. Instead it is if we consider the fact that the "ontological materiality" turns out to be greater than the "physical". There are no additional variables that may enter into the physic calculation, but there are physical materials that physics fails to consider which have an impact on theorizing. These factors determine the overall behavior of matter which, therefore, appears inherently probabilistic. It can be said that Einstein was right: the hidden variables exist, only that they lurk outside of physics, in ontology.
Many physicists (Einstein leading) have always refused that indetermination be an inherent feature of physical reality. Consequently, they preferred to assume that the description provided by quantum mechanics was simply incomplete. Their reasoning, in practice, consists in saying: even at the microscopic level physical reality continues to be deterministic, only that we can not know the exact values of the state variables and so we are forced to an indeterministic description. To explain this failure many proponents of determinism (starting from Einstein himself) introduced the so-called "hidden variables". At the microscopic level, there would be some factor that is not yet known which would prevent us from a deterministic description. The moment we knew, we could provide a description of these factors completely deterministic
For many years the debate between the advocates of the hidden variables and the promoters of intrinsic indeterminism remained on a purely metaphysical level. In 1964, however, the physicist J.S. Bell derived a famous inequality (Bell's theorem) that allowed to transfer experimentally what until then had been a metaphysical discussion. Such inequality, in practice, led us to expect different experimental results depending on whether had been true the hypothesis of hidden variables (at least limited to the so-called "local theories") or not.
Now, the Heisenberg principle would not only establish our inability to learn at the same time the values of the position and momentum of a particle. These values are established, before a measurement be made, they are absolutely and inherently indeterminate.
Einstein's objections to quantum mechanics made sense because he was perfectly aware that quantum mechanics is incompatible with determinism. However, his views obstinately deterministic and his attempts to defend them (hidden variables) have not stood the test of facts.
The microscopic reality is inherently indeterminate. However, what is surprising is that the macroscopic reality is instead largely deterministic. To explain this apparent contradiction is a fascinating challenge in theoretical physics. An interesting attempt at a solution appears that provided by three Italian physicists G. Ghirardi, A. Rimini and. T. Weber (in Physical Review D 34, 470, 1986).
So, in this context it became obvious that the description of the states of a physical system offered by quantum mechanics was incomplete and that such an incompleteness was responsible for the indeterministic character of the theory. In other words, it has been assumed that quantum mechanics is indeterministic only because our level of knowledge does not put us in a position to "see" some additional variable, able to "complete" the description of the physical system provided by quantum mechanics. According to this conjecture, if we were able to identify these new variables, currently "hidden", we would recuperate a level of description deeper than the quantum level and at that level determinism could be recovered. "
In fact, the enigma of the "hidden variables" was not solved by a logical-deductive approach, as Popper might have wished, or was it only partially.
As already said, “in 1964 the issue was a crucial turning point: J. Bell showed that for a large family of theories and hidden variables, the so-called local theories, it is impossible to reproduce with media operations on hidden variables all the predictions of quantum mechanics. "" the result of Bell had the great merit of showing on the experimental ground the theme of possible deterministic completions of quantum mechanics, and a great interest aroused for the realization of experiments sensitive to discrepancies between the predictions of quantum mechanics and that of the local theories of hidden variables . "(Enrico Beltrametti)
In 1981, Alain Aspect was able to realize the first of a series of experiments of high quality. In practice, the experiment showed that Einstein had been wrong in suggesting the idea of hidden variables.
As for Popper, we could say that he lost a game: the one with LQ,
Criticism of Popper was wrong from a logical point of view, but in many ways it had some basis. Popper did not want to admit a weakness of logic explicit in theory LQ. For Popper's logic was to remain an ‘a priori’ science, having as main feature the absolute independence from any content. Therefore, he refused to consider the possibility of choosing logics different from the logic, most suitable than this to the empirical character of particular situations.
Already in the Logic of Scientific Discovery, which was finished in 1934, then prior to the writing of Birkhoff and von Neumann, Popper anticipated: "... replacing the word" true with "the word" likely "and the word" false with "the word" unlikely ", nothing is gained.
However Popper earned another no less important point. The revolutionary discovery of Bell and Aspect was not from a pure inductivism, but from experiments carried out in the light of a theory already formulated ‘a priori’, then from a hypothesis to be subjected to strict scrutiny, identifying the elements and data that could refute it. At least on this ground, Popper took an important rematch.
At the time of the article in Einstein's death, the controversy was still strong and "philosophical" issues had a great weight, so much so that an American physicist was the victim of McCarthyism and lost his job for supporting a deterministic model with hidden variables. Today we tend to minimize the importance of our imperfect knowledge on the subject; theories are used as they are reaping the fruits without worrying about a coherent understanding of the underlying laws. Most physicists do not interpret more the principle of indeterminism in a metaphysical way. It is considered as a simple impossibility of knowing at the same time position and momentum of the particles in a system still felt completely deterministic. After all, beyond the supposed wave-particle duality, also in the macroscopic world there is a kind of uncertainty: for example, I can not measure my speed with accuracy higher than my reaction time to press the button on the timer.
Clifford, I think you are right that the asymptotic problem shown up by the Dyson instability is really more serious than the regularisation problem. You will find a note on that in the paper. If the underlying structure consists of particles, then it is natural that only a finite number of particle interactions are possible in any time interval. In this case the standard perturbation expansion is asymptotic to a finite expansion. I think one of the most important derivations in the paper is to show, non-perturbatively, that Maxwell's equations and the Lorentz force law are derived in the classical correspondence. This shows explicitly that the problems do arise from the mathematical treatment, not from underlying structure.
An underlying model of discrete particle interactions has another property, which is important for gravity. The mathematical abstraction has arisen because of relativity of position (in addition to relativity of motion) in a non-determinist universe. The physical metric is not present at the fundamental level of the theory. The metric arises from photon exchange in qed. Instantaneous reflection of photons would give flat space (as well as the Dyson instability and a Landau pole), but if particle interactions are discrete then instantaneous reflection cannot be possible. This perturbs the flat space metric. I have shown in these papers how we may treat gravity in such a model.Following
- What are the predictors of suicide in psychiatric patients?
Could you please suggest any additional expected predictor of suicide among hospitalized psychiatric patients to be investigated for a future research?
This is the initial list:
1- being young,
2- male gender.
3- high level of education.
4- history of prior suicide attempts.
5- presence of depressive symptoms.
6- presence of active psychotic symptoms.
7- good insight to illness
Some colleagues at Griffith University , QUT and I are working on a Design Out Suicide initiative - at the moment it's in its early stages - but stay posted.Following
- How can calculate transmission of photonic crystal ?
I want to design transmission spectrum of photonic crystal by comsol, but i do not know use rf module? please guide me.
thank you so much.Following
- Why did my mycobacterium smegmatis culture smell some sour?
After plating mycobacterium smegmatis on LB agar for 3 three days, I picked some clones and cultured bacterium in test tubes with LB medium with 0.05% tween 80 and 30ug/ml kanamycin. After 2-3 days' incubation in at 37℃, medium turned turbid. Then i subcultured bacterium in larger volume medium with a diluion of 1:100, the culture smelled bad and some sour. I have recultured mycobacterium smegmatis for three times and result was same. Furthermore, I used PCR to get 16sRNA gene and sequencing result showed that it was 16sRNA of mycobacterium smegmatis. Does anyone could help me? Thanks a million!Following
- What are your favourite apps for primary schools?
Increasingly, teachers in primary schools are investigating, reviewing and identifying suitable apps.
Can anyone highlight any evidence-informed research and/or evaluations which provide guidance for schools and teachers of the best apps for primary schools?
Hmm, apps in primary? I did not even know that there are computers during prim. yet as a teenager i hacked them routinely. What I wanna say, in prim. none of my child would be allowed to use a device to run any app. Regards BMSFollowing
- Can anyone identify this? Aborted foetus?
Apparently washed up on a beach in Iluka, NSW, Australia.
St. Augustine monster comes to mind:Following
- Gazing into a crystal ball to view the hospital of the future, what do you say about the future of medicine?
I've been looking at challenges and the opportunities that face the next 100 years of medical care. Of the many factors, one of the really interesting things is the convergence of technology-based diagnosis (the internet, devices, products like Watson), and the explosion of surgical, medical and psychiatric robots (like Elsie). In 2006, an artificial intelligence doctor conducted a very successful heart operation. So what does it mean when people can get a warning from their phone, calling them to get further tests from an AI kiosk at a local health centre, which automatically gives them a diagnosis, books them for surgery, completes the surgery and monitors their home-based recovery all without humans getting involved? I think the medical profession will split into professional carers and those who pump away providing research for the 'machine'. What do you say?
PS I enclose my talk: Golembiewski, Jan. (2015). Raising our horizons – healthcare planning for the coming century. Paper presented at the New Zealand Health Design Conference, Aukland.
Auckland (sorry to my friends in NZ!)Following
- Can the scientistic ideology, that claims to know 'a priori', achieve the same results of science?
Scientism is, first of all, an ideology, in the sense that claim, ‘a priori’, to be able to understand all of reality. The accusation is authoritative because it comes from the words of Mauro Ceruti, Professor of Philosophy of Science at the University IULM, Milan, one of the main exponents of the 'complex thinking' together with the philosopher and sociologist Edgar Morin. Scientism is, as claimed by John Dupré, philosopher of science, the truth about physical matter and about everything; believe, and the word is misused, that such evolution is unable to explain anything; claim to be able to apply a scientific idea of success far beyond its original domain, and usually with less and less success as the application is extended.
Like any ideology, scientism starts from a true ‘datum’, irrefutable, but partial, of reality: the existence of matter, the corporeal man. Hence it resulted also the totalitarian ideologies of the twentieth century.
The main accusation directed to scientism invests the ground of ethics: it argues that the scientific picture of the world leading to a desperate conception of life, in which values and what matters most to the full realization of a human being reduced to a contingent expression of subjective tastes, variable both in space and in time ("ethical relativism"). The fact is that if the assumptions of scientism were passed under the lens of philosophical analysis, there would arise an unexpected effect "deflationary ": the ball of scientism will deflate revealing for what it is, a rhetoric invention used for political or apologetic purposes.
Popper expressed strong criticism of constructivist rationalism that underpin scientism, seeing there the assumption of totalitarianism. Scientism, in fact, does not take into account that science does not proceed by induction, but it is always the result of human invention, and therefore should be reassessed in the critical role that it takes other forms of thought such as intuitive or metaphysical.
What is important is to emphasize that scientism starts from the same premise: having, by statute, to explain everything, it reduces the complexity of reality to what is less complex. Hence the foundation of scientism: man is only matter and genetics, can be studied exactly like a stone. Escapes the scientistic the fact that the only attempt to explain man, differentiates him from other forms of life and non-life, more easily understood. It was scientism that, generalizing theories, attributing them meanings philosophical, ideological or religious, using it to support systems thinking, converted legitimate axioms into arbitrary dogmatism and spread the illusion that scientific knowledge was the sole or supreme form of knowledge
In dogmatism and scientist misunderstanding fell or are still passing many subjects: philosophers, cultural operators, teachers, academics etc. Also much of the media simplifies and manipulates, with superficial incompetence, mere hypotheses and theories, making them sensational 'facts'.
These pseudo-cultural, arbitrary and unfounded manipulations, distort reality by giving real and universal content to terms purely conventional, processed for convenience of expression.
In conclusion there is to recognize that the scientific method is still the one that is the foundation of our knowledge.
Something has split scientism and led to the "crisis of science", or the confidence that these sciences may be that human progress leading to the resolution of the existential problems of man. Faith, this, and trust, understandable if we take into account the cultural context in which it is expressed. The positive sciences, strong as foundation of knowledge, collapsed as the basis of life, as constant progress and way to happiness.
@Gianrocco Tucci, as it was with the CAST-Study (http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM199103213241201). In the 80ies of last century medicine knew that the most likely reason to die from myocardial infarction (once you reached a hospital) was cardiac arrhythmia. Subsequently, these patients were treated with 'heart-rhythm-stabilising' agents. It took 10 years (1991) until the CAST-study hit the scene to prove (a-priori) that anti-arhythmicas did more harm then good.
Pre-hoc, post-hoc, ad-hoc (the most pervert fraud probably, the ad-hoc)–it needs brain and, as you stated, 'lateral thinking'.
Thank you for your quick response,
- Are there published expamples of paragraded groups?
Paragraded groups were introduced in the scientific monograph: Structures paragraduées (groupes, anneaux, modules), Queen's Papers in pure and Applied mathematics, No. 77, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada (1987), pp. 163,
Additional information regarding one of questions:
1. More precisely, you can find two examples of extragraded groups (pp. 70-72) in my joint monograph with M. Krasner: Structures paragraduées (groups, anneaux, modules), Queen' s Papers in pure and applied Mathematics, No. 77, Queen's University, 1987, pp. VIII + 163.
2. each extragraduation is at the same time a paragraduation.
Remark: This theory has not yet been sufficiently explored, so it would be very important to find examples which might illustrate the role of the introduced notions and show their importance.Following
- How to tackle dry land salinity?
To reclaim the salinity of soil lot of good quality water required. Your input is required to control salinity in dry land areas where water scarcity is common.Following
- What are the key words of the ecotoxicology book titled: Biological Effects of Surfactants?
Key words are useful and helpful in searching new scientific information on environmental toxicology and ecological hazards of detergents.
In the book, Biological Effects of Surfactants, the Common terms and phrases, English key words:
algae, algal, cells, alkyl, benzene, sulfonate, anionic, surfactants, anthropogenic, aquatic, ecosystems, medium, aqueous, assessment, bacteria, benthic, Biology, activity, bioassay, biological, biotesting, bivalve, cationic, cerevisiae, chemical, cyanobacteria, dodecyl, ecological, hazard, nonionogenic, synthetic, environment, Fagopyrum, esculentum, filter, organisms that are filter-feeders, filtration, activity, freshwater, growth, aquatic organisms or hydrobionts, impact, incubation, inhibition, Isochrysis, galbana, larvae, marine, mollusks, Mollusca, Moscow, University, Mytilus, edulis, Nauka, Publishers, nonionogenic, surfactants, optical, density, organisms, pesticides, phytoplankton, phytoremediation, plankton, plants, reservoirs, seedlings, sewage, waters, dodecyl, sulfate, species, Stavskaya, substances, sulfonol, surfactant-containing, suspension, detergents, Tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide, Tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, TDTMA, toxicity, trophic, water, filtration, xenobiotics, water, water quality, purification, self-purification, Hirudo, medicinalis, Unio, Crassostrea, gigas, oysters, leeches, Euglena, higher plants, rice, Oryza, sativa, Lepidium sativum, Sinapis, alba, elongation, ecotoxicology, mussels, plant seedlings, non-animal methods, non-animal testing, non-animal toxicity test, pollutants, chemical pollutants, pollution, euglens, Euglena, ecology, nonylphenol, endocrine disruptors, environmental impact, environmental safety, SDS, Sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium laurilsulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, cleaning products, hygiene products, domestic cleaning products, alkyl sulfates, bubble bath formulations, dispersants, emulsifying agent, Laundry Detergents, Triton X-100,
- Can anyone guide me to papers containing experimental data for water retention (soil-water retention curve) for a set of monodisperse glass spheres?
I'm looking to potentially validate an analytical solution for the SWRC for monodisperse glass bead media; however I am having difficulty finding published experimental data including curves from which I can compare my results. They must have almost no polydispersity if possible, which is where it is difficult to find papers.
- How can we eliminate static charge from plastic tubes (eg. eppendorf 2, 15, 50 ml etc)?
I always find difficulty in transferring my (powdered) samples to/from plastic tubes. As I remove the contents from the tube, they stick to the walls, may be due to static charge inherent in the tube. The result is I lose my samples and handling is difficult. What sort of pretreatments can I do so that I will not contaminate my containers?
- How much time does it take for one SHA-1 invocation on a smartcard?
Just your best estimate
Well as i remember SHA-1 maximum oracle queries (maximum number of block entries) is 264-1 so 269 is normal. I dont know about this 280 but i'll check. Thank youFollowing
- How can we measure the negative effects of Destructive Leadership on organization?
- destructive leadership definition.
- its implication on employees and the organization as a whole.
Leaders influence their followers mostly through emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence. Spiritual intelligence means using a set of cultural values in which a leade3r does believe. Metaphorically, if we accept that there is matter and anti-matter, particle and anti-particles, we may assume that there are values and anti-values. If decisions made based on values are constructive, then decisions made on anti-values are destructive. That means that a destructive leadership is based on a set of negative or anti-values. The effects of such a leadership can be measured by evaluating the spiritual climate in organization. Usually, destructive leaders have personal goals and strategic objectives above those of the organization and they try to achieve their goals, not organizational goals.
The book I published recently:
Organizational Knowledge Dynamics: Managing Knowledge Creation, Acquisition, Sharing, and Transformation (IGI Global, www.igi-global.com) contains two important chapters from this point of view, one about emotional knowledge and another about spiritual knowledge and intelligence.Following
- Can we correlate science with religion?
Science and religion...
Science and Religion are absoultely different and may not be correlated. Science based on the facts and principles while religion is way of living, it guides the people in a systematic way.Following
- I want to measure antioxidant capacity of my samples by ABTS assay. How can I measure Vitamin C Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity(VCEAC)per g of sample?
I will be thankful if anybody answer my question and send me a clear protocol to measure ABTS Radical scavenging activity of protein samples.
ممنونم از ظرافتتون در طرح این سئوال. نمیدونم لطفا سئوال بعدیFollowing
- How to explain that the residual stress can shift some xrd peaks in one direction, and other peaks in the opposite direction?
This is may be due to the need to balance stress at grain boundaries, and satisfy constraints on the strain tensor (for example a tensile stress along one direction must be balanced by a compressive stress in the normal direction, so the direction of peak shift is often hkl dependent. Is there any reference related to this issue?
In my point of view, your sample will have so many inter-phases/inter-faces. From W-H plot (From XRD) you can differentiate the tensile stress or compressive stress in your sample. The negative plot gives you compressive strain and positive plot gives you tensile strain.Following
- How the forest ecosystem related to climate change?
Forest are the main source of the earth which support to protect biosphere. How the climate change effects the natural forest ecosystem and how can we predict impacts and mitigate those impacts?
Forest ecosystems entail every living organisms and more so it is a very important habitation for the survival of variety of biodiversity. Human beings in particular are highly dependent on it for survival and hence this resets on serious evironmental issues like deforestation. Deforestation is directly linked with climate change as forest preserve the environment from high level carbon emission.Following
- Can you give me advise for why zero concentration of protein elctrochemical immunosensor current given?
I am working electrochemical Immunosensor for detection of protein (toxin).I am modified GC electrode surface for cobalt phthalocyanine as redox mediator than Immunosensor reaction of antibody and antigen interaction reaction.100ng to 1 ng detection I got signal. But zero concentration of protein also given signal Why? How to solve the problem. Can you give me advice?
Thank you sir. some more problem can you tell me sir.
i follow articles as zero concentration is not given signal.my gc electrode modified is correct or not.
blow i give my full experiment methods details.this system will work properly or not can give me advise.
cobalt phtalocyanine and chitosan mixed added on GC surface than Capture antibody, antigen Concentration (zero con.) ,reveling antibody tagged with gold nano particle(nano catalyst). the elctro surface incubation of substrate as P-nitro phenol and NaBH4. TO detect the DPV methods as redox cycling reaction.Following
- Do head space and workload hinder Creativity?
Does creativity and growth happen only when people have the head space for it, or does a creative mind find the head space whatever the workload?
Just as Miranda had mentioned, creativity is thinking out of the box and this is where critical thinking comes to fore. Creativity is a function of getting to solve critical problems or challenges, like she said, that different people have their thought patterns and conditions, most people think innovatively and creatively under pressure just as i have said, where there is no pressure, there is no quest, therefore it sometimes make life and situation a comfort, but where a pressing need arises, then the critical reasoning comes up thereby paving way for creativity which eventually sets one out of the challenges.Following
- Does anybody know a good identification key for Arabian Gulf marine species?
Does anybody know good identification key for Arabian Gulf marine species?
Dear Susanne Lindauer,
I already have it thank you .Following