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  • Vaidya Vasant Patil asked a question in Pearl:
    Which form of Calcium is best for consumption as medicine??

    In ayurveda following calcium sources are used in Bhasm form (Calx)

    conch shell




    Pearl shell. 

    It is regarded as Conch Shell> Coral> Pearl  calcium source us best according to the expert Physicians of Ayurveda. is there any scientific rationale?? plz explain with research evidences 

  • Is it possible to do horizontal 2D axisymmetrical modeling in COMSOL Multiphysics?

    Vertical 2D axisymmetrical modeling is the default in COMSOL Multiphysics. Whether horizontal 2D axisymmetrical modeling is possible? Please explain the same?

    Abdul aziz Jaafar · Universiti Malaysia Pahang

    Dear Prof Ramsay

    Nice to know you

    Most the commercial code that use cylindrical coordinate system for example, to solve angular momentum equation.. do not include body forces due to gravitational acceleration... correct me if i wrong.. axially symmetry means that the predicted values of quantities are equal in tangential direction..so the solution domain is represent by radial and axial directions 

  • Srikanta Karmakar added an answer in Electrostatics:
    How do you calculate the ESP surface of a negative or positive charged species in ground state and excited state using DFT and TD-DFT method in G09?

    I only able to calculate ESP surface in neutral state of a molecule...

    Srikanta Karmakar · Jadavpur University

    Thank You very much  Dr Kolář for your  help.

    I normally generate  cube file form fromated chk point file (.fchk) and save them as .tiff or .jpg file. will you able to send any  ESP cube file so that  I visualize the  four columns and able to set the range of ESP plot ?

  • Arturo Geigel added an answer in Neural Networks:
    How can I quantify the computational cost of currently available neuron models?

    It has been argued that the capacity as well as the speed of a neural network depends on the computational cost of its main building block. But, is there an objective (or at least, quantitative) criterium to measure and compare the computational cost of the traditional neuron models (Integrate and Fire, Izhikevich's, Hodgkin and Huxley's)?

    Arturo Geigel · Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico

    I will try to answer this as best as possible and please note that this is my opinion and does not necessarily reflect consensus.

    I will take as initial point the paper by Abbott et al.[1] where he positions  Hodgkin and Huxley's(H&H) model and  Hopfield along with McCulloch-Pitts on the other end. These extremes in my opinion are non comparable because at the one extreme is biological plausibility and at the other computational efficiency or other considerations. For example you cannot compare the delta E in [2] with the voltage evolution of H&H algorithmically since they will require a completely different algorithms and they may vary considerably based on the authors selection of parameters.

    If you look at the work of Long et al. [3] he started with all models at the same representational level to carry out the comparison. What I would suggest is to restate you model in terms of the voltage time evolution and do the complete path to simplification and then carry the H&H through a similar path until you can compare them at the level you desire.

    Hope this helps.

    [1]Abbott, L. F., & Kepler, T. B. (1990). Model neurons: From hodgkin-huxley to hopfield. In Statistical mechanics of neural networks (pp. 5-18). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

    [2] Hopfield, J. J. (1982). Neural networks and physical systems with emergent collective computational abilities. Proceedings of the national academy of sciences, 79(8), 2554-2558.

    [3]Long, L. N., & Fang, G. (2010, April). A review of biologically plausible neuron models for spiking neural networks. In AIAA InfoTech@ Aerospace Conference, Atlanta, GA.

  • Vaidya Vasant Patil asked a question in Herbal:
    I am looking for formulate the Herbal Inhaler (Rotahaler). Can somebody help me

    I am looking for formulate the Herbal Inhaler (Rotahaler). Can somebody help me

  • What is fail-fast property?
    At a high level - fail-fast is a property of a system or software with respect to its response to failures. A fail-fast system is designed to immediately report any failure or condition that is likely to lead to failure. Fail-fast systems are usually designed to stop normal operation rather than attempt to continue a possibly-flawed process. When a problem occurs, a fail-fast system fails immediately and visibly. Failing fast is a non-intuitive technique: "failing immediately and visibly" sounds like it would make your software more fragile, but it actually makes it more robust. Bugs are easier to find and fix, so fewer go into production. In Java, Fail-fast term can be related to context of iterators. If an iterator has been created on a collection object and some other thread tries to modify the collection object "structurally", a concurrent modification exception will be thrown. It is possible for other threads though to invoke "set" method since it doesn't modify the collection "structurally". However, if prior to calling "set", the collection has been modified structurally, "IllegalArgumentException" will be thrown.
    Brian Prasad · California Institute of Technology

    I am quite familiar with Fail-safe devices. Often this is safety -oriented or related devices and most of the time there are number on fail-safe devices installed into a system. During a typical/ normal operation, if one system fails, the other devices kicks in to take care  of-- that is to correct the situation.

    Fail-fast property is typically a detection devices or indicators showing when a system fails to operate as designed. Fail-fast property is often used as a trigger to launch some of the fail-safe devices. 

    Hope this answers your question. If not please elaborate...


  • Filippo Salustri added an answer in Philosophy:
    Can ethics be measured objectively?
    Ethics, ethical committee, ethical approval and other ethical related words are extensively used on Researchgate and other places. How to define and measure ethics in objective bases?
  • Transmission of knowledge of 'mental health' and 'mental illness' from parent to child

    I am trying to find some empirical work that has examined the relationship between parents' and children's beliefs/knowledge around 'mental health' and 'mental illness'. Any pointers would be appreciated.

  • Vaidya Vasant Patil asked a question in Whey Protein:
    How to remove allergenic active principle present in Whey Protein ?

    For preparing whey protein based health drinks, removal of allergenic active principle is necessary, otherwise allergic reactions may occur.

    plz tell me How to remove allergenic active principle present in Whey Protein ?

  • Fidal Kumar asked a question in Zno Thin Films:
    What might be the reason for difference in density of ZnO thin films deposited on 2 different substrates under similar conditions?

    I am using reactive dc magnetron sputtering and substrates are glass, acrylic. desity was lower on glass.

  • How can one effectively blend instruction and assessment in a lesson? Should you have an equal number of strategies for instruction and assessment?

    I noticed that many teachers prioritize instruction over assessment.  They tend to employ more strategies for instruction.  The assessment formats or techniques they use are usually discrete point.  Would this affect the overall quality of teaching?

  • Core/Shell Nanoparticles: Classes, Properties, Synthesis Mechanisms, Characterization, and Applications

    How can I achieve paper  with title :Core/Shell Nanoparticles: Classes, Properties, Synthesis Mechanisms, Characterization, and Applications

    Syam Kandula · Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

    You can get it from scifinder......its available in online......even i have the soft copy of this paper. If u want i can send to you.

  • How the wifi works in physical layer, data link layer, network layer, transport layer and application layer?

    Anyone can suggest a book name or website link for this topic?

    Cristian Chilipirea · Polytechnic University of Bucharest

    When it comes to the physical layer there are a lot of things to be considered: bit encoding, frequency, country by country regulations and so on. I know of no better way to learn this other then reading the 802.11 set of standards (a,b,g and now n).

    On the data link layer I found 3 documents that help me understand things in the past:

    1. is a list of all the packet types.

    2. is a book that explains rather clear what the packets are meant to do.

    3. is a presentation that makes a summary of the important packet types.

    Do not forget WiFi includes things on the data layer that are considered to be on different layers on the OSI stack (such as encryption), but are not considered at all on the TCP/IP stack.

    Network/Transport layer is the same over WiFi and wired connections.

    If you are new to all kinds of networking I really recommend the Computer networks by Andrew S. Tanenbaum. It's a really good start in networking.

  • Dr. HP TIWARI asked a question in Coal Tar:
    How to increase the coal tar injection in Blast Furnaces?

    I want to know, how to increase the combustibility of coal tar for maximizing the tar injection in blast furnace. What analysis method can be used to check the combustibility of coal tar?

  • I would like to read about other educators' experiences in methods for teaching the skill multimedia modeling?
    In my experience, many teachers in the teaching of media tend to develop students' computer and intellectual skills that allow the use of authoring tools to create multimedia, from my experience that one of the basic computer skills mastered by students is the ability to model multimedia. I have been experimenting with methods of teaching the skill multimedia modeling and I would like to read about other educators' experiences in this area.
    Josue Segura · joven club

    Thanks for your reply and clarification, I would like to share with you about the issue further. Right now I'm doing a doctoral research in pedagogical science, which in essence is to seek best method to develop in students the ability to model multimedia as a basic skill that must be mastered for process multimedia quality products, I would like you to be part of groups of scientific experts to validate my results. in waiting for their response. Excuse my English
    Bst regards

  • Brian Prasad added an answer in Value Engineering:
    How does one integrate value engineering and life cycle engineering?

    I need to review literature on - How does one integrate value engineering and life cycle engineering. Can anybody, please assist me in sourcing the literature?

    Brian Prasad · California Institute of Technology

    You may find the following publication interesting. 

    It discusses few novel approaches to Value Stream Mapping (VSM). I have few key publications that discusses how to manage life cycle engineering (LCE) for product development. Take a look. Let me know your perspectives.

    Thanks Brian

  • Martin Ebner added an answer in Research Papers:
    What is your preferred word-processor for writing papers or manuscripts? Word or LaTeX?

    I like to know how do you prepare your research papers for submission. Many of the journals give a choice - Word or LaTeX submission, but some journals accept papers only written in LaTeX. Some Universities also require PhD thesis to be submitted using LaTeX only. Which is easier? Which word processor do you prefer? Thanks!

    Martin Ebner · Graz University of Technology

    It depends on the content - if there are lot of formulas take LaTeX, otherwise Words (its easier to handle) ...

  • Jalil Zorriehzahra asked a question in Fish:
    Which bacterial disease in Rainbow trout has rectum prolapse as pathognomonic clinical sign?

    In early acute epizootics, affected Rainbow trout are lethargic and anoretic, and have subcutaneous hemorrhages in and around the mouth, oral cavity, and isthmus, and at the bases of and between fin rays. Gill filaments may be hemorrhagic. Petechial hemorrhages occur on the surface of the liver, pancreas, pyloric caeca, and swim bladder, and in the lateral mus- culature. The spleen is enlarged and friable, gonads are hemorrhagic, and the lower intestine is inflamed and filled with a thick yellowish or whitish fluid. As the epizootic progresses, unilateral or bilateral exophthalmos occurs, commonly accompanied by hemorrhages around the ocular cavity and iris. Affected eyes commonly rupture. If fish survive, they darken and seek shelter, or withdraw from other fish.

  • Raoufi Mustapha added an answer in Circuits:
    Can we use a buck-boost converter for driving and braking a dc motor?

    I want to use a single circuit for accelerating the motor in bi-direction ,and also want the same circuit to provide dynamic braking for the motor.Will a buck-boost converter be helpful , when i am using a micro-controller as a master control for the circuit?

    Raoufi Mustapha · Cadi Ayyad University

    Buck-boost converter is a one quadrant converter. The power flow is in one direction, so dynamic braking is not allowed

  • Daniel Baldomir added an answer in Electromagnetism:
    What is the significance of the Poynting vector in a static electromagnetic field?
    In an electromagnetic field the flow of energy is given by the Poynting vector. For an electromagnetic wave, this vector is in the direction of propagation and accounts for radiation pressure. However, in a static electromagnetic field the Poynting vector can of course be non-zero. It's not easy to understand how there can be a 'flow' of energy in a static situation. Please discuss.
    Daniel Baldomir · University of Santiago de Compostela


      Being more explicit. At least that you had an external source of energy which were making to pass a continuous flux of electromagnetic energy, On the other hand, given that the Poynting vector depends of r^(-4) if you can choose the surface as far as you want, then it must be zero.

  • Does anyone have knowledge about application of Particle swarm optimization (PSO) for finite element model updating?

    Any experience of using PSO for model updating? I haven't seen enough papers on this topic.

    Hafizul Alim · Lamar University

    Please see the attachment . I think would help.

  • Ljubomir Jacić added an answer in Rationalization:
    {Discovery, Invention, Rationalization} - the set of possible statuses of scientific results. What are the statuses are not included in this set?


    A new element in the periodic table - a scientific discovery
    The new model of known object - a scientific invention.
    An improved method of solving of known problem - a scientific rationalization.

    Ljubomir Jacić · Technical College Požarevac

    Dear @Vladimir, I have found some explanations about Rationalization! Please do read because of notion about the source: "Warning! The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased"!!!

  • Sajjad Shokoohi asked a question in Wind Turbines:
    Airfoil choice?

    I want a horizontal axis wind turbine blade design with 3 KW power, but I'm not know how to select the proper airfoil.

  • Beni Rohrbach asked a question in Elements:
    Sustainabilty and dynamics in discussions

    Is there any connection between sustainability and the dynamics in a discussion? Supposedly, there are some connections between sustainabilty and participation (e.g. local Agenda 21). However, imagine to organize a discussion with the public as element of participation: Could you flag elements of the discussion as particular important contribution to sustainability. E.g. is a discussion, characterised by respect a bigger contribution to sustainabilty than conversation containing aggressive statements? Any comments highly welcome!

  • John Franklin Wilhite asked a question in Publishing:
    Should professors jointly publish papers with students?

    At what point should/could a student be encouraged to publish a worthwhile, viable paper on his own vs. the professor adding his name?  Consider the academic level of the professor/student collaboration:  undergraduate, master's, doctoral.  What is the amount and value of the professor's contribution--a minor edit, a substantial rewrite, repeating an experiment, etc.--that determines when the professor and student should publish jointly?  Whose name goes first?  Is joint publishing a misuse of a student's work?  Should professors give students with potentially publishable papers all the help they need without requiring their names be used? 

  • Dignesh Thesiya asked a question in Windows 7:
    I required SEM image analysis software for Window 7 operating system

    I required SEM image analysis software for Window 7 operating system

  • Gour Gopal Satpati added an answer in Algae:
    What could be the best way to prevent contamination of Phormidium (Cyanobacteria) in green algal cultures?
    In 14 days old culture of Chlorococcum (Green algae) I have found Phormidium within the culture. Please give me some suggestions as to how I could remove the cyanobacteria from the culture.
    Gour Gopal Satpati · University of Calcutta

    Thanx Rene and Anindita for your valuable comments...

  • Diseko Boikanyo asked a question in Graphene Oxide:
    EIS Plotting Equivalent Circuits

    I have run impedemetric measurements for electrodes that I have modified . This is preliminary electrochemical characterisation. I am using carbonaceous nanoparticles ( graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide and mwcnt) with Metal oxides on GCE. I am having an incredibly difficult time fitting the equivalent circuits. I AM NOT WINNING. In fact feeling very frustrated.

    1. Is there a specific method to the madness or do you sit and fidget with the circuit components in a trial-and-error fashion?

    2. What do you use to decide if the circuit is equivalent? Chi-square, %Est.Error? Because sometimes I obtain minimal %Est.Error, with ngtv resistance(Rs and or Rct ) values.

    I am using Autolab Potentiostat PGSTAT 302 driven by GPES and FRA software.Frequency range 100kHz-1Hz, 0.2V perturbation in 5mM K3Fe(CN)6 (1:1) mixture in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) of pH 7.0.


  • Is there a way to increase the hardness of A286 (or SUH660) steel above 34HRC?

    We are trying to manufacture fasteners made of A286 steel. The fasteners were forged and solid solution treated at 900oC for 2.5hours followed by 680, 720, or 740oC aging for 16hours, which is well-known heat-treatment process for gamma' precipitation of A286. After then, hardness in the range of 30-32HRC was obtained.

    This result is pretty much unsatisfactory to us because we need to make A286 fasteners with 34HRC or above. I heard that maximum hardness of A286 would be around 35-36HRC but our heat-treatment couldn't lead to the value.

    Can anybody suggest any heat-treatment process to improve hardness of A286 steel? Unfortunately, we cannot conduct cold rolling more after solid solution treatment due to client's request. For your information, grain size of our materials is around 12-13 micro meter.

    Any assistance would be greatly appreciated.
    Thank you,

    JH Kim

    Nihad Ben Salah · Heroux Devtek Inc.

    The dimension of the material stock from which you'll manufacture the part is very important to have the required hardness. Try to get material that is capable to reach the hardness you need by choosing the right specification (I suggest aerospace specs AMS5895 or AMS5737).

  • David Edwards added an answer in Schema Therapy:
    Are any articles available addressing the role of schemas in the development and maintenance of psychological disorders. Can anyone help me?

    My thesis includes a chapter on how emotion schemas may be implicated in treatment resistance in PTSD. However, my knowledge of schemas (especially those related to emotion experience and expression) is restricted to the works of Gottman and Leahy. I know Jeffery Young is the author of schema therapy so I will be reading his work. But does anyone know of any research out there where schemas are implicated in treatment resistance in disorders other than PTSD?

    David Edwards · Rhodes University

    Also Catherine Flanagan's recently published article in Journal of Psychotherapy Integration 2014 entitled "Unmet Needs and Maladaptive Modes: A New Way to Approach Longer-Term Problems"