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  • Can anyone recommend literature on power, influence and political behaviors in strategic leadership?

    I'm conducting a literature review of power, influence and political behaviors found in Strategic Leadership. I have not had much luck finding studies looking specifically at the nature of power and influence in Strategic Leadership. I will likely map the constructs I've found in other studies but any ideas would be greatly appreciated. 

    Muhammad Maqsood Khalid · Superior University, Lahore, Pakistan

    Hallo, Power and Influence factors in Organizations are part and parcel of organizational life. These shape organizational behavior. An insight of related literature provides a rich exploration opportunity to detecting emergent trends and new perspectives. The following literature will definitely help to advance your thought:

    Power and Influence in Organizations Roderick M. Kramer Margaret A. Neale 1998 SAGE

    Allio, J. (2006) “Strategic thinking: the ten big ideas, strategy and leadership”, 34 (4), Emerald Group Publishing, pp. 4-13.

    Managing With Power: Politics and Influence in Organizations – November 1, 1993 by Jeffrey Pfeffer
    Denison D.R, Hooijberg ,R & Quinn, R.E. (1995). Paradox and Performance: Toward a Theory of Behavioral Complexity in Managerial Leadership. Organization Science. 6(5), pp.524-540

    Hofstede, G. (1997). Culture and Organizations: Software of the Mind: Intercultural Cooperation and its importance for Survival. McGraw-Hill

     Yukl, G (2006) “ Leadership in Organization (6th edition), Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. Pearson Prentice Hall

     Ringer, T. (2007) “Viewpoint leadership for collective thinking in the workplace”, Team Performance Management, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 13(3/4), pp. 130-144.

     Rahim, M. and Minors, P. (2003) “Effects of emotional intelligence on concern for quality and problem-solving”, Emerald Research, 18(2), pp. 150-155.

     How leadership style influence and shapes organizational culture. Work of KELLY WEE KHENG SOON can be consulted “Leadership and Organizational Culture of Workplace in Malaysia”

  • Au-Fe core-shell?


    what possible applications is there for Au core-Fe shell nanoparticles?

  • Mushtaq Ahmad added an answer in BALB/c mice:
    Any suggestions on the factors for a Balb/c mouse lethal dose irradiation failure?


    Recently, I conducted a BMT method on balb/c mice (12 weeks old). So, I irradiated the mice with 750cGy X-ray dose. However, the mice died within 6-8 days without BMT. For allo-BMT only (without T cells), the mice started to die on day-6. Does anyone know the factors that cause them to die earlier? Is 750cGy is too high?





    Mushtaq Ahmad · Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission

    with reference to "Principles of Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT): Providing Optimal Veterinary and Husbandry Care to Irradiated Mice in BMT Studies" dose given to mice was appropriate. please see the pages 15 and 16.

    BALB/c mice are very sensitive to irradiation [42,50]. Whereas the commonly used B6 mice can typically tolerate a radiation doses of 1000 to 1100 cGy [25], the LD50 of TBI in BALB/c mice is about 880 cGy [42]. If given higher doses, BALB/c mice develop considerable radiation-induced sickness (lethargy, inappetance, diarrhea) that may lead to death. Therefore milder irradiation doses [87] should be used with BALB/c mice to avoid unnecessary irradiation-induced deaths. However, in recent disease studies of GVH and GVL using BALB/c mice as recipients, radiation doses of 800cGy were well-tolerated [27]. Others have used similar radiation regimens in BALB/c mice [28].

  • Mehmet Filiz added an answer in Humans:
    What is better in a teacher, the human values or the content?

    I asked to my son this question, he said: "In my opinion, the best is who has human values, or a bit of both".

    Mehmet Filiz · University of Ottawa

    I agree with your son. Especially, I have experienced that the human relations are essential for students in primary schools. It is also interesting that parents asked me to teach other subjects in addition to mathematics. This is the reason why parents think that their kids could study more whatever I teach due to positive relationships between their kids and I.

  • How do I perform in vitro irradiation on GBM cells?

    Hello everyone,

    I'm performing in vitro irradiation of GBM cells, but I wonder if its better to keep them on ice during the irradiation or if this is better to stay at RT° ? 

    Because I read some papers describing the effect of temperature change on the gamma H2AX level, and this is the protein that I want to check after by WB… 

    Thanks in advance

    A. Henry

    Aurélie Henry · University of Liège

    Thanks for your answers Maxim and Elsie :)

  • What is the latest pattern recognition technique used by statisticians to handle huge set of data?


    Sunil Koundal · Defence Research and Development Organisation

    Thank you Davide,

                                  I really appreciate your help



  • Amjad Ali Mahmood added an answer in Copper:
    What are the rare earth element (REE) concentrations in copper ores?

    My point of interest are especially sedimentary and stratoidal type deposits.

    First check the physical parameters, density is first to start . REE have highest density. So it will give u a good idea.

  • Can anyone provide information or reference on the impact of shrimp culture on groundwater quality?

    With reference to P.monodon and L.vannamei culture.

    Mohammad Mosarof Hossain · Sylhet Agricultural University

    Dear respected Rajeeb K. Mohanty, 

    Thanks for your nice query. I am agree with the answer of Michael A Rice. In addition of salinization of ground water, residual seepage of chemicals and antibiotics, heavy metals (non-biodegradable) may be an important issues (on the basis of oral consultation with Experts in Bangladesh). Any way accumulation of acid-sulfate soil (particularly in Bangladesh) may also keeping in mind concerning leaching.      

  • Afrouz Arzehgar added an answer in Breast Cancer:
    How do I use contour points in INBreast database?


    I need help in using contour points of mass ROI in mammography INBreast database with MATLAB.

    any help will be highly appreciated.

    Afrouz Arzehgar · Islamic Azad University Mashhad Branch

    Wen I want to use "Point_px" of Images in order to extract the region of lesion, But Values are not integer, for example (150.203003, 2208.959961)

    Do you know how can I show or process just the region of mass?

  • Wai Hang Cheng added an answer in Dementia:
    I am interested in the risk factors and protective measures that could potentially influence the onset and progression of the condition Dementia?

    I am investigating the progressive degenerative disease of the various types of Dementia and exploring the possible risk factors such as biological, environmental and hereditary factors, as well as the protective measures that could potentially influence the onset and the progression of the condition. Could you direct me to research on this condition particularly recent research?

  • How can I accurately estimate plasma volume variation?

    We are interested in estimating plasma volume variation (%PV) in athletes between 2 points. We have haemoglobin and haematocrit pre and post. Dill and Costil (1974) purposed an equation, but we don´t understand how use it. Can anyone help us to calculate %PV?

  • Gudrun Lang added an answer in Lymphoma:
    How long should a tissue submitted for histology remain in neutral buffered formalin?

    Some tissues might be overfixed, can this affect the outcome incase you need to perfome immunohistochemistry e.g. for lymphomas.

    Gudrun Lang · Allgemeines Krankenhaus Linz

    Rose: a question about the brittleness of the mouse-brains.
    When you touch the mouse-brain after fixation, do they feel really hard or brittle?

    In my experience brittle outcome of tissue is more a matter of over-processing. Too long dehydration, too long xylene, That leads to over-dehydration and de-fatting of tissue. For sectioning this can partly be emproved by soaking the trimmed paraffin-block in water for a few minutes.

  • Does anyone have this article? "Predictors of adolescent dieting behaviors: A longitudinal study."?

    please send me this article... thank you

  • Anton Manakhov added an answer in Nitrides:
    Can anyone suggest a method to investigate the structure of TiAlN/Nitride coatings through SEM?

    I am depositing TiAlN coatings on Si wafer in order to study the coating structure. Unfortunately I am unable to achieve very clear pictures for this coating. Can anyone suggest a suitable method for the investigation of such coatings on Si wafer?

    Anton Manakhov · Central European Institute of Technology-Czech Republic

    Well, I recoment to combine the SE (secondary electron)

     and BSE (backscattered electrons) image to know better chemical and morphological contrast. Do also EDX including mapping.

    As regards of the imaging problem, it might be charging effect. What is the resistance of your coating? You may deposit thin Pt or Au layer to avoid charging. Otherwise, trz different HV.

  • In cable supported bridges, what is the optimum sag value for the cables?

    What is the optimum values of sag for cables in cable stayed ( a value of 1/10 of the length of cable is right or what?) and what is the range of the inclination angle of the cables?

    Marco Petrangeli · Università degli Studi G. d'Annunzio Chieti e Pescara

    For suspension bridges the sag ratio of the main suspension cables is normally between 1/11 to 1/9. The higher the denominator the stiffer the bridge.

    For stay cable bridges (cable stayed), angle of inclination of stays do not generally goes below 22 degrees to the horizontal. For smaller angle the stay become too inefficient ant you have very high compression forces in the deck.

    Smaller angles are used in extradosed bridges, bridges that are intermediate between stayed girders and post-tensioned ones, but these i would not classify as cable supported.

  • Mohammad Mosarof Hossain added an answer:
    How can I separate the effect of pH from salinity on benthos distribution in an estuary where these two factors co-vary?
    I am working in an estuary where pH and salinity vary simultaneously . I want to know which factor has more effects than other on benthos distributional pattern?
    Mohammad Mosarof Hossain · Sylhet Agricultural University

    Dear Belal vai, 

    Salinity is the intrinsic issue in Coastal waters, however pH may be have the significant contribution in benthos distribution.

  • Which model can be used for ground water and surface water modelling?

    I would like to make a review of all the modelling software related to ground and surface water 

  • David Arbon added an answer in Suction:
    What evidence supports the statement that a patient admitted ICU with Meningococcal infection can have precautions lifted after 24 H of AB therapy?

    Patients admitted to the ICU are isolated with “Droplet Precautions” Intubated ventilated and suctioned every two hours with perhaps a closed suction system and then open suction technique when precautions lifted 24 hours after starting antibiotic therapy.

    Any thoughts or references in medico-scientific literature will be helpful.

    D Arbon 

    As Health and Safety Rep.

    David Arbon · Southern Adelaide Local Health Network

    Thanks Fabio,

    A check of the references in some guidelines lead me to

    'Persistence of Neisseria in the upper respiratory tract after intravenous antibiotic therapy for systemic meningiococcal disease;  by Abramson J S and Spilka J S . Journal of Infectious diseases 1985 Feb 151(2)370-1

    An article that is quite hard to access, has a small sample size,14, and may suggest that after 24 hour relative risk to the hospital population is small. However the statements that ' N meningitis was not cultured from the respiratory tract of any of the patients 24 hours after the institution of iv antibiotics' and ' The strain of N Meningitidis causing the infection was cultured from from the respiratory tract of one patient at the termination of iv antibiotic therapy and four patients (28.6%) had positive cultures one week after completion of therapy.'  Seems somewhat contradictory to me. I wonder if it was followed up?

    I still need some good studies to back up the idea that precautions for ventilated ICU patients can be lifted after 24 hours of IV therapy. :)


  • Vahid Rakhshan added an answer in Patient Rights:
    Who owns patients' health information?

    According to the Freedom of Information Act, American patients can access their health information upon their request. I wonder if there is a global consensus over this issue? Do other countries have a similar legislation?

    In my country, doctors can refuse to show the patients their own information. They believe and say that the doctor and not the patient owns the patient's information. Is it legal? Is it ethical?

    ps. By "owning the health information" I mean "the right to read, copy, or keep a copy of everything written in the patient's record".

    Hi Julian

    We have been through this before, and you can see that there is a line in the question body, reading 'By "owning the health information" I mean "the right to read, copy, or keep a copy of everything written in the patient's record"'.

    So, I think your concern was already addressed.

    Plus, the term "own" has a sarcasm side to it, as many doctors (at least in my country) think they own the patient and his/her information.

  • Hemendra Tripathi added an answer in Astrophysics:
    Can the effect of coriolis force distort the structures of stars? Why would that be?

    Astrophysics and Astronomy

    Hemendra Tripathi · Gautam Buddh Technical University

    Yes definitely, the structure of stars must be distorted by the the effect of Coriolis forces, as it arises due to the rotational motion of materials present on the stars. Even Newtons first law describes the effect force.

  • Is anyone working on new techniques of distilling aromatic plants to produce essential oils?

    Hydro, steam and hydro-cum-steam distillations are widely employed for distilling aromatic plants and produce essential oils from them. Though the technology is simple, plant biomass is burnt to generate heat energy for steam production. With advances in solar power technology, is any one researching on developing solar power powered distillation unit designs? Other methods of essential oil production described in the following link are not as popular as the distillation technique:


    B.R. Rajeswara Rao · Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

    Dear Prof. Krishnan

    Thank you for your contribution. This is the popularly used distillation method for isolation of essential oils from aromatic plants. Purity and quality are differently viewed. A pure natural essential oil of an aromatic plant is the one which is not adulterated or reconstituted (essential oils are fortified by synthetic constituents or synthetic essential oil) or some of its constituents removed (deterpenated essential oils, dementholised menthol mint essential oil etc.). The quality of an essential oil is evaluated by its physico-chemical properties (color, odor, specific gravity etc.) and its chemical composition (assessed through GC-FID and GC-MS). The quality of an essential oil is influenced by several factors some of which you mentioned in your post.

  • Anton Manakhov added an answer in Plasma Chemistry:
    How can increase the quantity of monomer flow into the reactor chamber and reduce the leakage of the piping connection at the monomer inlet?

    The monomer I used was heptylamine.

    I did for warming up the monomer by immersed the bottom flask in the water bath. I used the heating tape to warmed the SS piping as well and the SS piping had the heptylamine odor strongly.

    However, it showed air plasma reaction (pink color) once turned on the RF power. Heptylamine seem doesn't flow into the chamber because it doesn't have any odour of Heptylamine inside the chamber.

    How can I improve the system to gain more monomer flow into the chamber? Any methods to tighten the bottom flask to holds the stainless piping?(Figure 1)

    Anton Manakhov · Central European Institute of Technology-Czech Republic

    Hi Chen,

    So check the leakrate and also the monomer flowrate bz measuring the pressure increase at a closed pump. So you need to pump your reactor to reasonable vacuum (below 2 Pa) and then close the pumping (normally you should have a valve between reactor and pump). Then from the increase of the pressure you can calculate the leakrate. If you ope the monomer injection line, you measure both monomer flowrate and leak rate. So the you can easily calculate the monomer flux. It is absolutely necessary before discussing all other problems. You may read how to calculate the flowrate from the pressure increase via link below .

    Note :  At first You will need to calculate the volume of your reactor by monitoring pressure increase when apply known flowrate (e.g. nitrogen flow controlled by the mass flowmeter), i.e. to do calibration,

  • Tipu Sultan added an answer in FLUENT:
    How can we introduce a friction factor (Darcy's friction factor) in velocity profile for ANSYS fluent?

    Thanks in advance for your replies.

    Tipu Sultan · Hanyang University

    Dear Professor K. V sharma.

    Thanks a lot for the valuable suggestions and guidance.

    With profound regards 

  • Is mwcnt or swcnt more suitable for electronic devices applications?

    There are confusion of comparative dispersibility of MWCNT in Ethanol and Acetone for their separation and also for their compatibility for nanostructured devices like FET, junction diode.

    Uppari Venkataramudu · University of Hyderabad

    CNTs can be formed as single-walled nanotubes (SWCNTs) which are either semiconducting or metallic depending on their chirality and multi-walled nanotubes (MWCNTs) which are metallic.  For FET devices, requires separating the metallic CNTs out of the mix with SWCNTs 

    So,  swcnt more suitable for electronic devices applications.

  • Nahid Ahmadi added an answer in Comet Assay:
    Can anyone help me with the setup of my Comet assay (question part 3)?

    Recently we’ve started to set up comet assay in our lab. As the first experience, we encountered some problems in our results. The following photos are related to our first attempt’s results. We are so pleased to know your interpretations and comments about the results and photos.


    T: Total blood

    L: Lymphocyte

    +: Positive control (50 μM H2O2)

    -: Negative control (PBS)

    Nahid Ahmadi · Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Dear professors,

    Thank you for responding to my inquiry. Your valuable and constructive inputs are greatly appreciated.


    Nahid Ahmadi

  • Indesh Attri asked a question in Enzyme Immobilization:
    Can we immobilize enzymes on silver nano particles?

    Silver nano particles can be obtained by various methods. But how to use them in enzyme immobilization? if yes how to immobilize what is the procedure.?

  • Ayman Hefnawi added an answer in Reward:
    How can we motivate our students effectively?

    Research refer to the potential effect of praise and rewards on students’ intrinsic motivation, especially on the long term. So, what techniques do the latest research propose in order to keep our students motivated?

    Ayman Hefnawi · Abu Dhabi Education Council

    Quite interesting reply Qefsere, Thank you .

  • What protocols/kits are suitable for isolating vertebrate DNA from soil samples?

    Is there any reason why kits developed for isolating microbrial DNA from soil would not also isolate vertebrate DNA? This is an eDNA project.

    Vladimir P Pushkarev · Ural State University of Physical Culture, Chelyabinsk, Russia

    Dear Megan,

    I have no experience of DNA isolation from the soil. But the device (the link below) seems to me is capable to work wonders in this plan.


    All the best,


  • Sudev Naduvath added an answer in Walking:
    Do we need to do vigorous exercises in order to get fit and lose weight?

    Would a light exercise do? Is it healthier to just take a walk everyday or do we really need to use up all our glycogen reserves to provoke protein and fat catabolism?

    Sudev Naduvath · Vidya Academy of Science & Technology

    We have to do hard exercise to get fit  and reduce weight.  The exercise must be hard enough to burn out  the extra  energy we gain from our food.  I think food control can not do very much with weight loss.  Food restrictions, beyond a limit, will definitely affect the nutrition to our body and hence will affect our activities badly. So regular exercises must be done without fail.