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  • Is there any new software for simulation of wastewater treatment plant?

    new software like GPS-X for wastewater treatment plant

    Khan M.J.H. · University of Malaya

    Hi Amr you can use gPROMS.

  • Prem Rajak asked a question in Comet Assay:
    What should be the precentage of viable cells in a particular tissue to carry out Comet assay?

    In a tissue sample, I got only 70% viable cells. Is it acceptable to carry out Comet assay in this tissue sample?

  • Is anyone using transdisciplinary process?

    I’m investigating the transdisciplinary processes. I am reading about it, but I am still with few information. I would like some advice about recommended authors. I’m really looking to find out if the method has proved to be good for social research.

    Evelinda Santiago

  • Mir Muhammad Lodro added an answer in Massive MIMO:
    What is the acheivable Massive MIMO capacity?

    If capacity varies with min of Mt and Mr where those parameters are the transmitting and receiving antennas respectively, then what is the capacity gain from gigantic number of antennas @ base stations, although user equipment at max is equipped with 2 antennas?

    Mir Muhammad Lodro · University of Nottingham

    Massive MIMO is essentially a 5G cellular technique which shall be realised symbiotically with Millimeter Wave (mmWave) and Small Cell Networks (SCN). Therefore, the capacity shall not be only scaled with number of antennas, but with the increased transmission bandwidth at mmWave, around 500MHz unlike 10-20MHz for current broadband networks, and increased frequency reuse which is natural because of increased path loss at mmWaves. Further the path loss can be compensated by advancements in beamforming algorithms to create steerable sharp beams with certain risk of interference---interference control and mitigation techniques should come into handy here.

    Recently, it has been implied to use around 32 antennas on the bottom and top of the user equipment with alternative polarisations, whereas the number of antennas at the base station side can be of the order of 100s. This is spatially permissible at higher mmWave frequencies of 28GHz and 38GHz where the signal dimension becomes much smaller than the electronics in UEs. 

  • Xun Wang asked a question in Cell Cycle Proteins:
    What is the origin signal pathway of myoblast differentiation?

    Because myoblast is differentiated to myotube with 2% horse serum,  what is the origin signal pathway of myoblast differentiation?  cell stress or cell cycle proteins?

  • Muzaffer Çetin added an answer in E-Learning:
    Is there anyone who is interested in exchanging ideas on e-mentoring?

    is there anyone who is interested in exchanging ideas on e-mentoring?

    Muzaffer Çetin · Antalya International University

    Hello everyone,

    I am also about to design a teacher training ementoring project. Can we all have skype meeting and exchange our experiences?

    skype: smilingodessa


  • John Tatini Titantah added an answer in DCM:
    Why does the decay time decrease with increase in water fraction in solvent mixture?

    Decay time of a molecule having charge transfer character shows decrease in life time with increasing amount of water in THF/Water system. Quantum yield also decrease along with red shift. But the molecule shows longer decay time with increasing solvent polarity (Tol.<DCM<DMSO) along with red shift and decrease in quantum yield.

    John Tatini Titantah · The University of Western Ontario

    As the water content increases, the first hydration shell of the molecule (where dynamical slow-down is experienced) gets filled-up and any additional water molecules adopt quasi bulk-like character. Dynamical analysis that include both hydration and these quasi bulk water molecules will tend to yield smaller decays times.

  • Prem Rajak added an answer in Comet Assay:
    Is there possible to create a slide archive of etidium bromide staining (such as silver staining) for comet assay?

    as regards that etidum bromide stain is very sensitive to light

    Prem Rajak · University of Burdwan

    I have used EtBr for Comet assay and it gives better results.

  • How to get Fe Atomic Energy using G09?

    I want to calculate the energy of Fe atom. In G09, orbitals occupancies are integer and accordingly one electron occupies one of the down spin d states. This makes the d state non degenerate. So, I would appreciate if somebody kindly inform me the way to calculate the atom energy.

    Bheema Lingam Chittari · Dr. Vijay Kumar Foundation

    Dear Bartosz Trzaskowski,

                                                   The occupancy of one electron in all down spin d states is equally probable which demands for all degenerate down spin d states.

    Is it possible to get degenerate down spin d states in G09 for Fe atom to get proper energy? 

  • Surajit Chakraborty asked a question in Fasting:
    What are the minimum and maximum Blood insulin concentrations?

    What are the minimum and maximum Blood insulin concentrations in the following conditions?

    1) Fasting and postprandial - Non-diabetic lean subjects

    2) Fasting and postprandial - Non-diabetic obese subjects

    3) Fasting and postprandial - Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (where  Insulin resistance, Hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia are dominating features).

  • Vikram Zaveri added an answer in Particle Physics:
    Both particle and wave aspects are embedded in quantum objects. Can we suppress either aspect of a quantum particle?

    Thanks in advance.

    Vikram Zaveri · Independent Researcher

    To those who have witnessed (experimental or experiential) a truth (of any kind), the existence of a phenomenon becomes a reality. To those who have only heard or read a second hand account of the existence of a phenomenon, it becomes a matter of belief. This is equally applicable to both the QM and the religion.

  • How can you explain that Polish successors of family businesses chose diligence, courage and accuracy?

    In recent months, I moved 106 research (survey) successors of family businesses. In their opinion, the 3 most important features of the successors on the Polish market,  are: diligence, courage, accuracy. How can you explain such opinions? They are different from your opinion.

    Jaharkanti Dattagupta · Novel Group of Institutes

    Ewa, I don't see any contradiction between your findings and my statement, where I said that the three core competencies for success of a family business successors are : Drive with a vision, Initiative with pursuance for achievement, and Creativity for Innovation. Rather, I find both complementary or balancing. Diligence is the virtue of hard work, which makes a person to take initiative and not avoid responsibility. A courageous person has the inner urge to explore new things, which is drive. A person,  who looks for accuracy, is trying to be perfect or precise. In the process, the person tries to find newer ways and means to achieve perfection, thus being creative.

  • For simplification in numerical modeling, can fins be replaced by employing effective thermal conductivity?

    I have a finned heat pipe (copper) through which heat is transfered to the shell material. The shell material is a solid having a thermal conductivity of 1.5 W/(m*K). I am developing a 3D model to study the flow and heat transfer characteristics. For simplifying the numerical model, whether the fins can be replaced/ignored by employing effective thermal conductivity (% copper + % shell material) to the shell material? Are there any previous works reported similar to this?

    Pritam LAL Sahu · RINL

    I think it can be done. Basically, heat transfer between the substances inside the inner tube and outside the inner tube is proportional to conductivity of inner tube material and heat transfer area which is higher in finned tube compared to the plain tube. As both are directly proportional, the degree of accuracy over a range of parameters are only to be seen.

  • Gopinadh Pulaparthi added an answer in Alanine:
    How can I increase the sensitivity of the Alanine Aminotransferase assay?

    I am trying to standardize the ALT assay between 1IU/L to 40IU/L, but I cannot optain any results below 50IU/L. I cannot suspect any issues in reagents, since it is working well with above 50IU/L.

    Thank you very much for your suggestion. I would like verify the concentration of NADH and its variations in my protocol.

    My protocol contains:  2-oxoglutarate 12mM, L aspartate: 200mM, MDH 500IU,  NADH .18mM and Tris buffer 100mM at pH7.8 with 5mM EDTA solution per Liter.

    Once again i am very grateful to you for your suggestions.

  • Harisankar Bendu added an answer in Diesel Engines:
    How the thermal efficiency of a dual fuel diesel engine can be improved without changing or modifying the fuel used?

    Is there any viable engine modification to increase the thermal efficiency without penalty in the exhaust emissions?

    Harisankar Bendu · National Institute of Technology Rourkela

    It is better to do all the below at a time to improve the thermal efficiency of dual fuel engine.

    1) fuel preheating

    2) increased injection pressure

    3) proper injection timing

    4) slight addition of EGR

    These are suggestions to improve the dual fuel efficiency without any engine modification. 

  • Aqeela Albar asked a question in Hyperchem:
    Setting orbital criterion to 3,3 in Hyperchem when calculating electronic spectrum. Why?

    Hi, I'm doing some calculations on Hyperchem for my research and most sources that I read say the orbital criterion should be set at 3 for both the occupied and unoccupied when calculating the electronic spectrum. Could someone please explain this to me?

  • Ji-Hyun Cha asked a question in Graphene Oxide:
    Can anoyone suggest a good supplier of graphene oxide in South Korea?

    I would like to use some graphene oxide sheet for capacitor experiments

  • Proton- proton reaction in star center can anyone help?
    The proton-proton reaction in star center goes on for billions of years. But when the reaction starts on the surface as in the case of the nova, it only lasts for a few weeks. Can somebody explain this difference?
  • What are the health benefits of Guava?

    Some excerpts from the article "Go guavas – 10 reasons to eat this fruit!" by Sameer:

    "Guavas or amrood is blessed with many nutrients by nature. Originally found in South America, this fruit was presumably brought to India by the Portuguese. Here are some of its health benefits:

    Improves your immunity

    Guavas contain four times the Vitamin C content present in oranges. Vitamin C helps in improving your immunity and thus keeps your body healthy and protects it from pathogens that cause infections. (Read: Immunity-boosting foods that are available in India and easy on the pocket!)

    Improves your hormonal function

    Copper, present in guava, helps in the production and absorption of hormones. This property helps in improving the function of your endocrine system especially thyroid glands which is responsible for the way in which you metabolize food, use energy, etc.

    Lowers risk of cancer

    Being diagnosed with cancer can be a person’s worst nightmare. Being rich in Vitamin C and antioxidants like lycopene, eating guavas can protect your cells from damage and reduce your chances of getting cancer. Additionally, Vitamin C boosts your immunity which is critical in fighting cancer cells. (Read: Top 10 food habits to prevent cancer)

    Good for diabetics

    Rich in fibre and with a low glycaemic index, guavas can be consumed by diabetics and those who want to prevent diabetes. When you have diabetes, your body stops producing insulin which is responsible for the absorption of glucose. Consuming fruits and vegetables rich in fibre is recommended.

    Has anti-ageing properties for your skin

    Guavas are rich in Vitamin C, Vitamin A and antioxidants like lycopene and carotene which protect your skin from wrinkles and fine lines, thus making you look younger. Old-age is a certainty in everyone’s life, and eating a guava every day can at least prolong the process.

    Helps treat constipation

    Constipation is caused when food is stuck in our colon. Guava, is rich in fibre which helps in clearing the blocked pathway and thus curing your constipation. (Read: Top 10 home remedies for constipation)

    Helps improve vision

    Even though, guavas are not as rich in Vitamin A as carrots, they still are still a very good source of the nutrient. Vitamin A helps keep your eyes in good condition, and also helps improve your vision. Night blindness is one of the diseases associated with a Vitamin A deficiency.

    Good for pregnant mothers

    Guavas contain Folic acid, or Vitamin B-9, which is recommended for pregnant mothers since it can help in developing the baby’s nervous system and protect the newborn from neurological disorders.

    Helps you relax

    Magnesium present in guavas helps in relaxing your nerves and muscles. In today’s stressful times, consuming a guava to combat stress and relax is certainly a good idea. (Read: Feeling stressed? Try these natural remedies)

    Good for your brain

    Brain is one of the major organs of our body, and keeping it healthy should be on our priority list regardless of how intelligent we consider ourselves. Guavas contain Vitamin B3 and Vitamin B6, also known as niacin and pyridoxine, which helps in improving blood circulation to the brain and relaxing your nerves."

    Your views are welcome! - Sundar

    Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan · Vel Tech - Technical University

    You may kindly refrain from taking alcohol. Instead take green tea, which is good for health. I have already written about the benefits of green tea, lemon tea etc.

  • Kiran Tummalapalli asked a question in Review:
    Any body can help me for getting this review paper


  • Do you know of any MRI image database?

    I would like to do research on MRI images. Can you please suggest some websites from where MRI images can be downloaded. Thanking you. Gautam Talukdar. 

    Farzaneh Keyvanfard · Amirkabir University of Technology

    Dear Talukdar,

    I would like to suggest following website:


  • What do you think of the "health" of the Capital Asset Pricing Model?

    The CAPM is based on a robust theoretical framework, but empirically demonstrated weakness. The beta does not seem to be the only factor that can explain the risk-return relationship. Do you really think that the CAPM is dead?

    Bradut Vasile Bolos · University of Buraimi

    Any model that allows investors to accurately forecast the value of financial assets will either crash the market or be crushed by the markets. That's because if all investors would start using the model, the market would bubble and crash.

  • Mehwish Hussain added an answer in Biostatistics:
    Software for forest plot graph of odds ratio
    I'm looking for a software to create a transparent forest plot graph of Odds Ratio. Do you know any recommendable programs?
    Mehwish Hussain · Dow University of Health Sciences

    I worked in Stata. I found it user-friendly.

  • Is probability sample required or not required in inferential statistical analysis?

    Please cite works of noted authorities on the subject.

    Eddie Seva See · Bicol University

    Thank you Ali. Your sites express that probability sampling is a requirement for inferential analysis.

  • How much salt is good for you?

    Diet-conscious people need to be aware of how much salt is good for them in their daily food intake.

    I recently read an article titled "The Truth About Salt: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly", which cautions us against taking too much salt than needed, and the consequences of excess salt intake.

    Kindly take care of your salt intake. Comments are welcome!

  • Vikram Zaveri added an answer in Metaphysics:
    What is the mystery of 'charge'?
    Similarly charged particles repel each other and dissimilarly charged particles attract each other. To know what causes repulsion and attraction, the mystery of charge is required to be understood very clearly. In this context, the question asked becomes significant. The mere definition of charge is rationally unsatisfying.
    Vikram Zaveri · Independent Researcher

    Many have criticised anthropic principle explanation as circular. But this is the best that science has to offer at the present time. This is a humble way of saying we don't know why it is so.

    There is another explanation for attractive and repulsive force between charges that comes to my mind. We have electron with negative charge and its anti-particle positron with positive charge. So naturally they have attractive force between them. When they collide with each other, both particles gets annihilated and the result is two photons having same total energy but no charge. This means that the charge energy has transformed into kinetic energy of photon. If we reverse the process, we can say that some part of the kinetic energy of the photon gets wound up in a peculiar way to crate the effect that we call charge. And this winding up of energy is such that when two similarly charged particles come close to each other they repel.

  • Shahinaz Mahmood Shams added an answer in cDNA:
    How should I design my 96 well plate for qPCR?

    I have two cDNA samples

    i need to compare the expression of 5 different genes ?

    How should i do this?

    Shahinaz Mahmood Shams · Georgia Regents University

    Thanks so much  Raghuvaran Narayanan, i appreciate this very precise and organized protocol so much

    you are a great help to me


  • James F Peters added an answer in Addiction:
    Do you consider conducting research as a form of addiction?

    I believe so, what is your opinion?

    James F Peters · University of Manitoba

    Doing research is habit, not an addiction. 

    Doing research is matter of discipline, a strength we acquire rather than a weakness associated with addiction.

    And it takes years to cultivate that habit.    Doing research is comparable to swimming.  Once we have cultivated the habit of doing research, we have learned to detect clues that lead us to a discovery much the way a swimmer learns strokes that make it possible to travel through water to reach some  destination.

  • Angel Lee asked a question in Wrist Joint:
    Does anyone know how to calculate the angle and the center of gravity in the simi motion system?

    Now we are doing the research of participants using smart phone in different positions, such as sitting down in the couch with legs down floor, prone, lying down. And we use simi motion system to capture the participant's joint motion. 

    But there's a problem that we can not calculate the angle successfully (such the wrist joint angle, or shoulder elevation) also the center of gravity.

    Is there anyone familiar with this system and know how to use it to make analysis?

    Thank you in advanced!