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  • Rohit Mathew added an answer in Recrystallisation:
    Is there a relation between sample thickness and recrystallisation and grain growth resistance?

    If I have a deformed specimen and I used wire EDM cutting to cut the material into samples of different thicknesses. Assuming the HAZ from the EDM wire cutting is removed, if I were to heat treat all the samples to same conditions of temperature (above Trx) and time, would the grain sizes be the same for all the samples? Is there any relationship between sample size and recrystallisation and grain growth?

    Rohit Mathew

    Dear Dr. Schulze,

        Thank you for the great answer. What I needed to know is about the recrystallisation of deformed sheets. The sheets were cut from a cold rolled bigger bulk block. But even after rolling the initial block has a very large grain size (2000 microns) whereas the sheet used for heat treatment is of 100 microns only. If this thin sheet were to be heat treated, would it show the same recrystallisation phenomena as the bulk?

  • Manimaran D added an answer in Density Functional Theory:
    How can I find out FUKUI FUNCTION by DFT using B3LYP 6-31G++(d.p) basis set. Please advice me if anybody know .
    Manimaran D

    Hello Vinay,

    Kindly find few programs to carry the Fukui funcion calculation from the Gaussian files

    1. Multiwfn



    2. UCA-FUKUI


    Download Link: http://www2.uca.es/dept/quimica_fisica/software/UCA-FUKUI.zip

  • Paul Dirkes added an answer in Periodontics:
    Does anyone know about root surface caries treatment, a combined treatment?

    Is it possible to approach root surface caries in a restorative and periodontic way at the same time? How are the results?

    Paul Dirkes

    Dr Paul Keyes in the 70s and 80s advocated once a week use of regular household bleach, which I think is 5%, and place a spoonful of bleach into a water irrigation unit with around 1000 ml of water.  The rest of the week he (we) use baking soda in the water instead of the bleach. The taste is not bad but I rarely recommend it as I am afraid of patients over doing it with the bleach.

  • Domenico Voltolina added an answer in Flocculation:
    Does anyone know of procedures for bioflocculation of algae?

    procedures for bio flocculation of algae?

    Domenico Voltolina

    perhaps these might help? both have an extensive reference section. In most cases however, flocclation agents will work in a species-specific way. So, try the simpler ones first. Good luck

    + 1 more attachment

  • Alisson Pacheco Kovaleski added an answer in Tomato:
    Is it possible to include green (premature) fruits in the total yield of tomato?

    I conducted a variety trial of tomato. However, due to early frost period, I decided to harvest all mature fruits and cut the plants to determine plant biomass while there was some premature fruits (green fruits) which was also weighted separately from plant biomass. I am wondering if it makes sense to include these premature fruits as yield? The proportion of the remaining fruits was about from 10-20% comparing to the harvested mature fruits.

    Alisson Pacheco Kovaleski

    If you have information on what is the % drop (as in how many of those green fruit would drop rather than become fully grown), then you can come up with an estimate of your total yield. As long as you describe carefully how you estimated the yield it should be alright.

  • Sergio Espeso Gil added an answer in Oligodendrocytes:
    Could anyone please suggest me good antibodies to check different glial populations by immunohistochemistry?

    Hi, I am trying to find the best antibodies to perform immunohistochemistry and check neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglial populations. I know that will be tough to check everything at the same time because of color-dye combinations. I have some in mind, but I will really appreciate expertise input before buying them. 

    Thanks a lot!!

    Sergio Espeso Gil

    Thanks a lot to everyone!!  

    Yes, it will be on fixed brain sections Oksana.  Hope you could see nice IHC soon! :-) 

  • Paul Reed Hepperly added an answer in Edible Plants:
    How far could germplasm diversity address different soil fertility constraints and ensure optimum plant nutrition?

    Over the years, germplasm have been extensively used in addressing various biotic and abiotic stresses through a series of in-vitro and in-vivo studies. Ironically , there have been very limited studies to look into the nutritional behaviour of different germplasm , especially accumulation pattern of nutrients like Fe, Mn, Zn , P , S etc which are so commonly observed globally . There is hardly any systematic studies to utilize the germplasm diversity with regard to nutrient accumulating pattern  or  abundance of certain phytonutrients having neutraceutical value. My further   set of questions is  addressed to these issues:

    * Why germplasm diversity is not gainfully exploited for addressing the globally crunch nutrients as soil fertility constraints  ?

    * How can we overtake the poor plant sink  capacity to accumulate  micronutrients in edible plant parts?

    * Is there any effort to look afresh about the widespread soil fertility constraints through germplasm interventions?

    * How are different land races/wild types useful in overcoming soil fertility constraints in different crops?

    * Is there any information about the ability of some plant species being better natural nutrient chelators , while others not ?

    Thanks for your responses. Regards as well

    Paul Reed Hepperly

    How can we overtake the poor plant sink  capacity to accumulate  micronutrients in edible plant parts?

    When we accumulate more labile and passive organic matter the conservation and mobility of micronutrients are favored. in addition the organic matters serve as substrate, habitat and are able to provide effective chelating agents. I am a big mycorrhizal fan as they consistently improve the most immobile of nutrients such as P, Zn, Cu and others. As we design our food system to optimize mycorrhizae and provide micronutrients the poor plant sink capacity we be overcome. We can also look to Carbon pools themselves. One of the biggest ways to make sure micronutrients are not limited is to add they according to need which is quite economical considering the small quantities needed.

  • Sugrib Kumar Shaha asked a question in Bruker:
    I am looking for a free software which can read 2D-detector, XRD data. If anyone using any free software, please let us know. Thank you in advance?

    Recently I got a new XRD D8-discover, made by BRUKER for student uses. Now, I'm trying to use XRD2DScan to evaluate my texture data measured by BRUKER 2D detector in my laboratory at University of Waterloo, Canada. I'm having some problem with it. The software does not show the frames at all. Is it possible to evaluate 2D-detector data using XRD2DScan in Windows 7/8? Or any other software?.

  • Jwal Doctor added an answer in Bacteriocins:
    How can I increase bacteriocins?

    Dear all,

    I want to enhance and increase the production of bacteriocins, how can I do it? Thank you for your answers. Best regards

    Jwal Doctor

    Bacteriocins are a heterogeneous group of bioactive bacterial peptides or proteins, displaying antimicrobial activity against other bacteria. Bacteriocins are produced both by Gram-positive and by Gram-negative bacteria. Their antimicrobial activity is attempted to be used in medicine, in treatment of infections induced by pathogenic multidrug-resistant strains. The largest and till now best recognized group of bacteriocins involves bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria. Their principal representative is nisin, originating from Lactococcus lactis. It is commercially used in over 40 countries as a food conserving agent of milk products, cheeses, meat, fishes, salads, and canned foods.

  • Rogério Ferreira asked a question in Gears:
    I am planing to develop a study of induction tempering, then I would like to know if anyone have some papers or content that I can use as reference?

    process: tempering of a 42CrMo steel hardened by induction.

    - Gear hardening process.

  • William L. Johnson added an answer in Pedagogy and Education:
    Can anyone suggest how the gap between university research and classroom practices could be bridged in a developing country?

    We have a wealth of university research findings of new innovative pedagogies and classroom dynamics, all in the archives of the universities' libraries, departments and faculties. However, the classroom practices remain the same. How can this gap be bridged?

    William L. Johnson

    Another thing to consider is process skills.  I've found, even at the university level, that many students are very weak in process skills.  If students have trouble with these skills, then they will have trouble at the university level.  Focusing on process skills may  be a "bridge over troubled waters."

  • Peter Shanta added an answer in Analytical Chemistry:
    How would someone explain several red-shifted Raman bands (assigned to N-H or C-N) with a strong increase in intensity?

    SERS experiment... The compound is R6G... The red shift occurs after application of an amphiphilic self-assembled-monolayer to nanoparticle.

    Peter Shanta

     @ John Clarkson... I apologize; SAM is actually a misnomer in this example. I believe for the control a strong SERS signal is occurring as result of hotspots (i.e. nanogaps). The shift occurs after application of "the SAM" which is actually a monolayer underlayment that the nanoparticles rest on. Therefore, it is not possible to modulate the underlayment, as you suggested. I do believe the underlayment increases adsorption efficiency but I cannot explain the redshift which are 1180-1186 and 1308-1314 for N-H bends, and 1507-1512 for C-N stretch. My current theory is that charge transfer interactions are occurring between the R6G-cation and underlayment anion-moieties (CT enrichment), which is accompanied by a loss of phonon energy (red-shift)???

  • Faraidun Salh asked a question in Iterative Methods:
    Are any one has a method for solving NonLinear system of equations?

    In Exact solution ?

    I know the approximate solution by 1. Iterative method

    2. Newton Raphson method

  • Lakshmi Narayana Thalluri asked a question in SIFT:
    Is BRISK features are illumination invariant or not?

    sift features are illumination invariant but, BRISK features are illumination invariant or not   

  • Christa Van Staden added an answer in Collaborative Learning:
    Should the "Facilitator" be knowledgeable in a learning environment?

    Teachers, academia, market players and students collaborate in learning process through exchange of ideas, facts, and at times experiential viewpoints. As regards learning of the students, normally "facilitators" come in who create and nurture repository and establish environment for "guided"  learning in a classroom environment irrespective of its form  (digital, broadcast, multicast, uni cast, physical set up). So, is it necessary that the facilitator should be knowledgeable enough to handle such critical process!

    Christa Van Staden

    I cannot speak for lecturers in other countries. but I can speak for myself. In distance education, you need to know the learning management system. A word I actually do not like, since you cannot manage learning. You can manage the course, not the learning that happens. I believe I have to be the guide at the side, therefore I need to know the online learning environment so that I can guide my students when they struggle with the technology.

  • Luis Rafael Fonseca added an answer in netCDF:
    How do I convert NetCDF to Raster in ArcMap?

    I'm trying to import a NetCDF file to Arcmap 10.2. I'm using the MultiDimensional Tools: "Make NetCDF Raster Layer" Tool. I get an error saying that "One or both dimensions have variable spacing in their coordinate values". What does this mean?

    When I looked for help on ESRI's support page, I saw that they say the spacing between the x-coordinates and the y-coordinates must be equal. Mine are, as far as I can tell (the cell size is the same for x and y directions). ESRI recommends that I creat a NetCDF feature layer and then interpolate to raster (not quite sure what "interpolate to raster" means, any ideas?). I tried to follow their advice and got more problems.

    When I go to create a NetCDF feature layer (using the "Make NetCDF feature layer" tool), it gets imported as a single point. This doesn't seem right. This all leads me to believe that maybe my NetCDF files are not in the exact right format. Does ESRI have a specified standard that NetCDF files must follow to be readable in Arc? Any help on what steps I should take now?

    Many thanks,

    Luis Rafael Fonseca

    try with interoperability

  • Joydeep Pal added an answer in Freshwater Fish:
    Can freshwater fish have better relative growth rate when in stress than in normal conditions?

    Specifically this question is in relation to RGR of fish under Stress environment for fishes. 

    Joydeep Pal

    Paunovic can you suggest some related paper in evidence of the positive answer.

  • Brian Thomas Foley added an answer in GBlocks:
    Is the Topology of a phylogenetic tree same from different tools?

    I am very new to bioinformatics. Here,i am trying to make a phylogeny reconstruction of protein sequences following methods like Maximum likelihood (MEGA 6.0 and GARLI) and Bayesian inference (Mr.bayes).  At first, the corresponding protein sequences are collected and aligned using ClustalX. Later, i used gblocks to get a block for the further studies. For ML analysis tree, bootstrap of 1000 replicates was done and for Mr.Bayes, the tree was obtained after 1000000 generations with 2 parallel runs 4 chains (1cold and 3 heat). Indeed, both the methods did use the same substitution model (JTT) and rates (gamma; 6). But still, both the trees looks different and does not have the same topology to each other for the same set of proteins. I really cannot understand it. Please some could advise me to go forward in this work. 

    Brian Thomas Foley

    Patrice Cornell gave excellent advice, and Dr. Yang's papers are available from his web site:  http://abacus.gene.ucl.ac.uk/ziheng/cv.html   You stated that you are working with amino acid sequences, protein alignments, but the same principles apply to both DNA and protein evolution.  Choosing good models of amino acid substitution is important.

  • Pawel Wypych asked a question in Graphical Analysis:
    What methods can I use to graphic analysis of Au substrate after breaking off process?

    Hello, I am making experiment about sintering process. And I have a question, what methods can I use to graphic analysis of Au substrate after breaking off process. I think about some binary or threshold graphics methods (using some programs to making database and after all analysis of them). Maybe You have some ideas?

  • Jerome Sah added an answer in Bacterial Growth Curve:
    Hello every one, would anyone give me E.coli growth curve protocol?

    I wound to compare the growth cure between wildtype and  mutant type

    Jerome Sah

    Measure the OD of a suitable dilution of the culture at 600nm (Make sure your absorbance/OD of the dilution is <1.2. The principle of measurement is light-scattering  

  • Nikhil Chotai asked a question in Solar:
    Pressure drop in Pipe using ANSYS Solar Load Model Tutorial & Example

    Can any body Guide me for Solar Load Model Example

    As i want to calculate pressure drop or increase due to heat addition due to Solar load.

  • Maria Pamela David-Dobay added an answer in Text Mining:
    Can someone point me towards a stopwords list for text mining on scientific paper abstracts?

    I want to do text mining on some scientific papers abstracts. Is there any list of stop-words related to scientific papers including research, study, method, data, results?

    Maria Pamela David-Dobay

    You can check out if there are controlled vocabularies in your field; in biology, for instance, you can use the Medical Subject Headings (https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/) as a base dictionary for digging out information on methods used and general subject area of a paper.

  • Shilendra Kumar Sharma added an answer in Gnuplot:
    How does plot bandstructure in GNUPLOT from VASP calculation ?

    How does plot good looking publishable bandstructure from VASP calculation.

    I have tried p4vasp but we can not modify graph in p4vasp. Any other suitable method for plotting bandstructure from VASP calculation.

    Shilendra Kumar Sharma

    Dear All, Thank you for your kind help.

    I have cleared simple bandstructure plotting in GNUPLOT by extracting data from p4vasp. Now I want to plot bandstructure with LORBIT=11 to see atomic contribution in bandstructure.

    I was trying with p4vasp by taking vasprun.xml file. it is showing atomic contribution but when I am extracting data in .dat format and plotting in GNUPLOT it is not showing atomic contribution only showing total band structure. Where I am doing mistake.

    Same thing we can plot from PROCAR file and how ? I have attached here my PROCAR and vasprun.xml file.

    + 1 more attachment

  • Mohammed saleem Ali-shtayeh added an answer in Medicinal Plants and Herbs:
    Eruca sativa is a well known medicinal plant; has any one used it clinically?

    Its leaves are used as a salad.Seeds yield an vegetable oil used in India similar to mustard oil.

    Mohammed saleem Ali-shtayeh

    thank you Aashish!

  • S. Kent Hoekman added an answer in Carbonization:
    Could anyone please explain the difference between wet torrefaction and hydrothermal carbonization(HTC) processes?

    Could anyone please explain the difference between wet torrefaction and hydrothermal carbonization(HTC) processes?

    S. Kent Hoekman

    The terms "wet torrefaction" and "hydrothermal carbonization (HTC)" are used to describe the same process. This usage is confusing, and in my opinion, should be avoided. By definition, torrefaction is a dry process, involving mild pyrolysis of biomass in an inert environment. During torrefaction, water and other volatiles are driven off, leaving behind a dry, powdery biochar.

    By definition, HTC is a wet process, involving reaction of biomass with hot, pressurized liquid water. During this process, numerous chemical reactions take place, including hydrolysis, condensation, decarboxylation, and others. The produced char is called "hydrochar" to distinguish it from "biochar."

    In my view, the term "wet torrefaction" is misleading, and should not be used. The term incorrectly suggests that HTC is similar to torrefaction, but is simply conducted in a wet medium rather than a dry medium. In reality, the reaction chemistry and the produced chars are very different between torrefaction and HTC. 

    S. Kent Hoekman 

  • Simon Hager added an answer in Reverse Osmosis:
    What are typical materials for feed spacers in reverse osmosis? Is there a connection between scaling and the polymer of the spacer?

    I deal with scaling in reverse osmosis. In a spiral wound module for desalinating municipal water we found CaCOprecipitates on the spacer even if deposits were barely visible on the membrane.

    I would be glad if someone could share experience in this area.

    Simon Hager

    It's been a while, but thank you all verry much for your replies!

    I'm going to perform some tests and simulations concering scaling in general. I will let you know if there is some new findings.

    Best regards, Simon

  • Delphine Fagegaltier added an answer in Next Generation Sequencing:
    How useful are spike-in controls (like ERCC1 for example) for whole transcriptome RNA-seq in mouse or human?
    What refined analysis is possible and are they reliable?
    Delphine Fagegaltier

    Interesting assessment of Spike Ins, highlighting the necessity to find better sets in this article:

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Normalization of RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data has proven essential to ensure accurate inference of expression levels. Here, we show that usual normalization approaches mostly account for sequencing depth and fail to correct for library preparation and other more complex unwanted technical effects. We evaluate the performance of the External RNA Control Consortium (ERCC) spike-in controls and investigate the possibility of using them directly for normalization. We show that the spike-ins are not reliable enough to be used in standard global-scaling or regression-based normalization procedures. We propose a normalization strategy, called remove unwanted variation (RUV), that adjusts for nuisance technical effects by performing factor analysis on suitable sets of control genes (e.g., ERCC spike-ins) or samples (e.g., replicate libraries). Our approach leads to more accurate estimates of expression fold-changes and tests of differential expression compared to state-of-the-art normalization methods. In particular, RUV promises to be valuable for large collaborative projects involving multiple laboratories, technicians, and/or sequencing platforms.
      Nature Biotechnology 08/2014; 32(9). DOI:10.1038/nbt.2931
  • Antony Brayan Campos added an answer in Nanoencapsulation:
    How can I increase the encapsulation efficiency of two drugs in nanospheres obtained by the emulsion/solvent evaporation technique?

    I can not have more than 13% of nanoencapsulation efficiency for two drugs of different properties (Specifications below).

    What should be done in order to increase this efficiency of encapsulation? Which are the critical parameters that I should concern the more?

    I’m synthetizing nanospheres by the emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. The devised nanosphere may encapsulate: One hydrophobic drug (pKa values of 1,7 and 7,9) and one hydrophilic drug (pKa values of 3,35 and 13,61).

    Thanks in advance!

    Antony Brayan Campos

    Thanks so much for your time and valuable feedback! For sure, the experiment will be accomplished.

    Hope I can have new and better results soon!

    Best regards,

  • Mihai Prunescu added an answer in Discrete Geometry:
    Has it been determined if there is a single contiguous monotile that tiles the plane aperiodically?

    Roger Penrose's set of two tiles (e.g. the kite and dart) tile the plane aperiodically. Throughout the years, I have thought about the difficult question of whether there exists a monotile that tiles aperiodically and would like to learn if there are any recent developments.

    Mihai Prunescu

    There is the Socolar-Taylor tile which is 3-D and connected. The 2-D variant is not connected. Maybe the problem for connected 2-D is still open. See here:


    and the cited sites / manuscripts.

  • Louis Brassard added an answer in International Migration:
    What solutions do you propose for the reception of immigration to current Europe ?

    Due to the wave of immigration to Europe that has become more pronounced in recent times, what solutions do you propose for the reception of emigration to Europe ?

    Your answer will be greatly appreciated.


    Louis Brassard


    I am not a political analist.  Here is my reading of the situation.

    The western alliance is acting in the middle east with the same strategy it used in Afganistan: An alliance with the muslim fondamentalists  for the destruction of the governments that oppose the western alliance. In both case Saudis's money and ideological guidance play a major role.  The difference is that this time the propaganda justifies the military implication from the air not in term of the true objective but in term of fighting the muslim fundamentalist that it covertly support.  A total smoke screen hiding the real objective.  The Iranian and russians are now threatening the success of this strategy and it become very difficult for the US and and its western allies and its client states to hide it.   Turkey play the western alliance agenda and also its own local interest.  The latest message it send to moscow under the approval of the west is the second warning shot, the first was the passenger airplane in Egypt.