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  • Godwin Akaba added an answer in Dietary Supplements:
    Are you interested in joining a multinational study on side effects and purity of supplements for pregnant women?

    We have the opportunity to analyze supplements in the form of pills, powder etc, not only for declared supplement values, a but also for other substances. We have temporary hight-tech equipment to do it. As You know in many countries dietary supplements are OTC preparations not controlled by pharmacologic authorities, or at least not much. we would like to start a multinational study on side effects and purity of supplements for pregnant women.

    Please write me if You are interested in. At the beginning we need supplements in small amounts but as many as are available on Yours country market. If You would like to come deeper into research pls feel free to contact us.

    Godwin Akaba · University of Abuja Teaching Hospital

    I am interested in joining your study as these medications are widely used in Nigeria without any regulations.

  • Rajiv Pandey added an answer in Block Design:
    Dear All, Kindly suggest the suitable block design to study the different agricultural practices experiment

    I am trying to study the role of cropping pattern on soil parameter. Which one block design will be the most suitable for the study.

    Rajiv Pandey · Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University

    Dear Rama Kant

    I would suggest you to define your problem more precisely. For the case mentioned, you may go with RBD, if only one factor (CP) is being studied. 

    If two you may go for factorial RBD or split-plot. Pl see.

  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer in Luxury:
    Who creates value in the fashion luxury sector?

    Customers find value in rational, emotional or symbolic aspects of luxury items, but when asked very often refer to superior quality, outstanding materials and craftsmanship (which is a rational type of value). Do luxury fashion brands still reflect these values or are they just efficiently communicated?

    Who, in a luxury fashion value chain is responsible for value adding? Where does it lie? In production or in a communication sphere? Is it designed maybe for effective distribution?

    Krishnan Umachandran · Professor

    Luxury fashion retailers should consider the areas in which they can credibly be seen as an authority and create quality content that allows them to strike a balance of commercial integration to gain trust from their target audience. In addition to meaningful content, retailers should consider two addition truths: brands are part of a broader cultural context and there is a single brand experience between online and offline


  • Alexander Abanov added an answer in QUANTA:
    Does the energy of a Byers-Yang type system change on adding magnetic flux quanta?

    What happens if one adds magnetic flux quanta into a Byers-Yang type system (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byers-Yang_theorem)?

    The wavefunction does not change according to the gauge transformation described in the article.
    But what happens to the hamiltonian of such system?
    If I am not wrong, then substituting the A = A' + \nabla \chi vector potential into a Pauli equation will produce some new terms, which I think will change the energy...

    Alexander Abanov · Stony Brook University

    The energy does change. The spectrum stays the same but if you turn on the magnetic field it creates electric field and excites the particle to the first excited state. The ground state energy is the same with the additional flux quantum. However, the old ground state becomes the first excited state of the system with an additional flux.

  • Dooyoung Lee added an answer in Trizol:
    How do you dissolve DNA pellet in TE Buffer?

    I have extracted gDNA from mononuclear cells using TRIZOL reagent, but it doesn't get dissolved in TE buffer. Why is that so? And is it possible to dissolve it in TE buffer?

    Please kindly share your experience and method to dissolve extracted DNA in TE buffer. Thanks!

    Dooyoung Lee · Seoul National University

    When you use Trizol to extract DNA, the final DNA pellet should be dissolved in a mild alkaline solution (8 mM NaOH). After full solubilization, adjust pH to desired one with HEPES free acid.

  • Can aanyone help me to give me a program to draw the TGA and DSC data?

    can aanyone help me to give me a program to draw the TGA and DSC data

    s there any program to draw the TGA and DSC data

    thanks a lot

  • Shashank Chandanala added an answer in Cell Stress:
    How do I make my cells to behave uniformly in vitro so that the exosomes released by them are qualitatively the same every time?

    Cargo packaged into exosomes is tightly linked to the behaviour of the cell releasing them. eg a stressed cell would release exosomes with a different protein and RNA composition as opposed to when it is not stressed. I would like to know that apart from passage number ,cell seeding density and cell culture conditions (ph , temp , % CO2 , humidity) what else should be taken into consideration in order to make the cells behave consistently on sub - culturing so that they release qualitatively uniform exosomes every time. Or what factors affect cell behaviour in vitro.

    Shashank Chandanala · School of regenerative medicine , Manipal university

    thank you somnath , venkatesh and lauriane for your help . This was a crucial point which i failed to consider.

  • Akbar Reza asked a question in Ponds:
    I am curious with floating-scumlike filamentous algae in fish pond

    Few weeks ago i was conducted a research in fish pond and observe that every daytime there are floating-scumlike filamentous algae in the water surface but disappeared in the night. How it could be? Since as far as i know they cannot actively move. Thank you :)

  • Is it possible to get second order accuracy at the boundaries using finite difference method?

    I read recently that "it is not possible to get second order accuracy at the boundaries using finite difference method, were as same is possible with finite volume method. Which by the way is one of the differences between finite difference and finite volume method." Can anyone give me a better insight into this?


    Rajesh Alayil · Indian Institute of Technology Madras

    @ Guevara-Jordan, thanks for the update, it is highly helpful.

  • Is dental abfraction real, or is it a myth?

    For dental abfractions, the theory suggests that the high occlusal loads cause large cervical stress concentrations, resulting in a disruption of the bonds between the hydroxyapatite crystals and the eventual loss of cervical enamel.

    Asaad Javaid Mirza · Peshawar Dental College,

    Dr Luis is very right. In teeth with normal occlusion, abfracton is produced on buccal surfaces. Teeth in malocclusion should have abfraction lesions on lingual surfaces. But such finding is not common.

  • R.C. Chhipa added an answer in Toxicity:
    Accordingly Number of Water Pollutants are disributed What are the adverse effects on Natural Rechrge Water

    Please discuss

    Number of toxic materials are distributed in our life.About 30 Thousan toxic materials are there in surronds of ourselves.

    R.C. Chhipa · Suresh Gyan Vihar Univeristy, Jaipur

    Thanks Sehgal

    Recently extention of NCR   Delhi includes District Alwar (Rajasthan) ;This calls  Sustainability only because of Water(Very shortage of Water)

    And if extention of Human Population in this way certainly Effects the Natural Resources like:Animal ,Plants ( specially of Herbal and Medicinal ) and Mineral Resources.

    This also defines addition of so many pollutants.

    I appreciate your valuables like:

    widespread scarcity, the gradual destruction and the aggravated pollution of the water resources also lead to degradation of ecosystem. 

  • Waleed Ahmad added an answer in Gasoline:
    What is the catalyst window for a CNG fueled Engine?

    I want to make catalytic converter for CNG engine. As in the case of Gasoline there is a well established catalyst window in which catalytic converter works at 80 percent efficiency. So what is the catalytic window for CNG engines?

    Waleed Ahmad · National University of Science and Technology


    Really thanks for your answer. In actual i am doing research on catalytic converter. I found in literature in case of gasoline the A/F is stoichiometric at 14.7 and one unit back or one unit above means at 14.6 and at 14.8 the catalytic converter works at its 80 percent efficiency. But in case of CNG i did not find even that what is A/F ratio at stoichiometric. What i want to do i want to develop a Catalytic converter for CNG. So if anyone did work on this or found in literature kindly ans me

  • Rakesh Kumar Tekade added an answer in Hep G2 Cells:
    Low concentration of AuNPs on HepG2 did not show any signs of cell death can I increase it?

    I have checked low concentrations of AuNPs on HepG2 but I did not get any signs that significant (5,10,15,25,50,75,100,150,200ug/ml) so I need your help to get an effective concentration.

    Hi Saeed,

    Justa  quick suggestion. It is very important to make sure that the concentration of solution you are treating to the cell must be VERY AUTHENTIC and reliable.

    Which technique you used to determine concentration of stock solution of gold NP. Is that ICP??

    Please re assure and re- check.


  • Ruchi Sharma added an answer in Caspase:
    How can one quantify protein concentration of cell culture supernatant samples precipitated by TCA ?

    I need to know the activation of IL-18 and caspases and for that I want to run WB of cell culture supernatants. I used TCA method for precipitation, but I don't know how to quantify the protein precipitated.Could anyone please help me out.


    Ruchi Sharma · National Eye Institute

    thanks a lot for your suggestions and answers.

    I really appreciate it and it helped me a lot in clearing my doubts.

    I will definitely try it in next round of experiments. 

  • Saif Uddin added an answer in Bioeconomics:
    Is anyone working on developing a bioeconomic model for the cost of ocean acidification?

    There is growing interest in understanding the economics of climate change. There are few studies which are looking at the economics of ocean acidification. I would like to know what approaches are currently being undertaken.

    Saif Uddin · Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research

    Thanks Jane. I will read about it.

  • What is the variational principle for the homogenized thermoelastic constants?

    Dear colleagues,

    Inform me please if you know a Vibrational Principle for the homogenized

    thermoelastic constants, i.e., representation of the form

    homogenozed thermoelastic constant = max (min) Functional

  • Dooyoung Lee added an answer in RNA:
    Biotinylated RNA pull-down assay: is it recommended to avoid the use of frozen RNA?

    I am performing a biotinylated RNA affinity purification to identify proteins bound to an RNA of interest. I synthesize the RNA by in vitro transcription and biotin-NTP incorporation along the sequence of the RNA. I wonder whether it is better to always use freshly biotinylated RNA for the assay, or if I can also re-use frozen RNA from the same reaction as I normally do for other kind of experiments. Of course, I know that the RNA can get degraded after numerous cycles of freezing and thawing but I was wondering if biotin labeling needs a particular caution.

    Thank you!

    Dooyoung Lee · Seoul National University

    There's no particular caution when dealing with biotinylated RNA―it's not that different from cold one. Nevertheless, it is recommended to distribute RNA into single-use aliquots to avoid freeze-thaw cycles.

  • Qiang Yuan added an answer in Powders:
    Is there any way to calculate the amount/percentage of the CH from XRD spectra for a hydrated cement powder?

    I have a powder sample obtained from a hydrated cement and I want to calculate the amount of the CH compound from the XRD pattern of this powder. Is that possible or not?

    Any help would be appreciated!

    Qiang Yuan · Central South University

    it should be no problem.

  • Sushil Thapa asked a question in Greenhouse:
    Which experimental design is this?

    I have planned a greenhouse study in 36 experimental boxed with - 2 plantation methods, followed by two water levels and three surface types (mulched, non-mulched and lid covered). Boxes will be randomized within the replication. Objective is to see the yield difference in two plantation methods. Anyone can suggest me which experimental design is this?

  • Muresanu Cristian added an answer in Sperm Biology:
    How many mitochondria can be found in a healthy human sperm cell ?
    Human cells may house anywhere from 2 to 2,500 mitochondria, depending on tissue type, antioxidant status, and other factors.
    Muresanu Cristian · Romanian Television

    Very good paper. Thank you Marika.

  • For electrophysiology and calcium imaging, Does exist some ATP chelator??

    I need to quit ATP of the extracellular medium but not by hydrolysis or inhibiting its synthesis

    Mudhir Sabir Shekha · Salahaddin University - Hawler

    Hi dear may you can take benefit from this article

  • Prasanna Kumar Reddy added an answer in Albendazole:
    After splenectomy for Hydatid cyst (no spillage), do the patient [pre op CT; no other foci]needs albendazole?

    Post splenectomy histology confirms Hydatid cyst. Does the patient need Albendazole therapy?

    Prasanna Kumar Reddy · Apollo Hospitals

    It is a good question as you have done spleenetomy unlike in case of liver hydatid.Still I recommend three does of Albendazlole to prevent recurrence.Follow up with u/s or preferably ct after 6months.

  • Bubba Nicholson added an answer in Depression:
    Will the pheromone passed in kissing help cardiac surgery patients revive from mental depression and depressed healthiness?

    Recently NBC news broadcast that Leway Chen's group at Strong Memorial Hospital in Rochester noticed that two patients improved once they established a romantic attachment.  Pheromones passed in kissing may be responsible.  We have human donated skin surface lipids in doses of 200mg (and identically handled/uv illuminated/packaged) pheromone doses which could be supplied to depressed surgery patients to lift their spirits (and vital signs).  So, are there any cardiac surgeons who want to improve outcomes for their patients out there?  

    I proposed research carried out at Strong some years ago that pheromones emitted during distress would diminish T-cell counts and other indicators of depression at the Hull conference of ISCE back in the late 80's.  Basically this is the opposite.  Anger/fear/distress pheromone diminished immunity as I hypothesized.  Love/affection skin surface "kissing" pheromone passed in osculation, could account for Chen's patient benefit.  

    Who's game?  Anybody?  Hello?  Calling all thoracic surgeons!  

    Bubba Nicholson · NicholsonScience.com

    Please feel free to download my publications for detailed information.  If you have further questions or would like to see a sample dose, just let me know.

  • Dean Whitehead added an answer in Nursing:
    Has anyone used qualitative descriptive design in the past five years?

    Qualitative descriptive design has been used in nursing, however, I would like to understand how it has been used in business.

    Dean Whitehead · Massey University

    Jane - without reference, I can only assume that Tongila is referring to qualitative descriptive exploratory (free-form) design. If that is the case, then any reference to phenomenology or (Deanna) phenomenology is mute 

  • Imran Bashir added an answer in Filtration:
    We should must filter sterilized the antibiotics and herbicides solutions for transformation work?

    Hi every one,

    I want to know about the antibiotics and herbicides solution, when we make the stock solutions we should filter sterilized them or we can use with out filtration and in case of filtration what kind of filter we should use ?

    My question is especially related to Hygromycin, Acetosyringone, Basta and other antibiotics used for Agrobacterium mediated transformation.

    I will be very thankful to you If some one can help me in this regard. 

    Thanks in anticipation.


    Imran Bashir 

    Imran Bashir · Dongseo University

    Thank you sir for your kind response, 


  • Liu Liam added an answer in Akt:
    How could I get a sharp band when doing WB?

    I've done Western Blotting using total Akt, pAkt ser 473 and pAkt thr 308. For total Akt and pAkt ser 473, I mostly see a very clear and sharp band. But there are so many non-specific bands for pAkt thr 308. All of the conditions are the same. I use 5% non-fat milk to block and 5% BSA to dilute the primary antibody. 

    Thank you!

    Liu Liam · Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Maybe the buffer for primary antibody, espercially the pH have something to do with the perfomance of your antibody, you can try to change it. Generally We use TBST (0.5% tween 20) to wash the membrane.

  • Palani Shanmugasundaram added an answer in Shyness:
    How to increase the group discussion skills of the students?

    Dear Professor/RG members/friends,

    Some of the class toppers don’t speak in the structured or in the unstructured mock group discussion. They don’t shed away their shyness.
    Some of them may be good in class seminar presentation . But they don’t make their contributions in discussion. Even though we educate them on

    What should be done and what should not be in the GD,
    on the various tips (internet sources)
    collected from management experts ;and
    arranging guest lectures by corporate sector managers.
    At the same time some of the average students make their best contributions in the GD. I used to appreciate them.

    Dr. Shanmugasudnaram P

    Palani Shanmugasundaram · Vels University

    I appreciate all the valuable answer of the senior Professor.

    Every ones contribution to this Question is very valuable. A good article by Dr. Miranda.

    Thank you

    Dr. Shanmugasundaram P

  • Gerald J. Rys added an answer in Nitrate Leaching:
    What are some methodologies and technologies to measure real-time nitrate leaching in pastoral animal grazing systems?

    There is growing concern at the impacts of intensification of pastoral grazing animal systems on water quality, with the main concern related to nitrate leaching.

    There is a need to relate real-time nitrate leaching levels to subsequent water quality in nearby rivers and groundwater.

    I'm interested in the methodologies and technologies that might be deployed to assess this issue on larger scales, for example in paddocks or catchments.

    Gerald J. Rys · Ministry for Primary Industries

    Thanks for all your responses. Some useful insights. 

  • Bruce Rout added an answer in Earthquake:
    Can anyone help me in explaining the correlations between rock settings and earthquake tolerance of a region?

    Different zones on the earth are characterised by various types of rock settings. In the case, how far and which type of rock settings are useful in balancing the shock due to earthquakes?

    Bruce Rout · Simon Fraser University

    This question cannot be really satisfactorily answered in a brief post. If we are considering subduction zones, we could ask if the rock formations are the result of subduction interactions. Along such zones there are cross fractures and so on which create complex morphological features and the analysis of microgeological topologies in these regions are not simple. Be that as it may, in sandy or sandier areas, or in areas with significant fracture morphology, the shockwaves tend to liquify surface layers and create significant damage to buildings and so on.

    There are other earthquake prone areas which are away from subduction zones and damage, or shock wave impact, would be less. If looking at a rock formation, the stress tensor applied to the type of rock would help you a lot to determine impact.

    I think that is what you are asking and I hope that helps.