Q&A

ResearchGate Q&A lets scientists and researchers exchange questions and answers relating to their research expertise, including areas such as techniques and methodologies.

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  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer in Logical Reasoning:
    Are moral behavior and action decisively depending on logical reasoning or on compassion and altruism?

    Dear friends,

    What if most humans, regardless of their culture, religious beliefs, age or sex, chose the same option when faced with a moral conflict? What if those same people gave wildly different reasons for why they made their particular choices?

    In fact, this is what is happening in the real world. Opting for the classic view of morality (in the work of, say, Aristotle or Kant), we can maintain that our morals are all derived from reason.

    Or, rather, moral action depends on compassion. Children need no reasoning to lovingly care for their aging parents. Neighbors need no reasoning to warmly welcome strangers to the neighborhood. Human beings need no reasoning to help other needy humans and creatures. All we truly need, for moral action to arise, is compassion. Compassion is the necessary and sufficient condition on which moral action depends.

    Often, we simply know. But moral action does not merely depend on reason. Moral action is rational action, because the moral law is a law of reason.

    We are morally responsible for a substantial share of our actions, and this would not be true if we never reasoned about them.

    Maybe to manny questions of mine seeems not to be in direct relation with science and research. But I think they are and , moreover, we are firstly human beings and only afterwards researchers. You are for me a gate to the Universe. Thanks for all the answers, past and future ones.

    Krishnan Umachandran · NELCAST

    @ Roland

    Thank you, I agree with you. Many among us in RG who frequently share and learn through Q&A have a unique weave "pro-humanistic" character, networking us, That could be one reason, we are in touch with each other, though we havent seen or studied or worked together face-to-face. I relish these as great moments in my life....

  • Dejenie A. Lakew added an answer in Epistemology:
    How do you communicate your research to an audience who may not share entirely with you the same epistemological position?

    I find it interesting how people with different viewpoints communicate in a conference situation. A colleague (who is a brilliant academic) found herself silent when the facilitator seemed not to understand her research (her research is quite different from the quantitative/traditional background of the facilitator). 

    Dejenie A. Lakew · John Tyler Community College

    Dear Bruna,

    If the audience does not share your position, the position of your particular epistemology up on which your research is done then your research follows a different theory of knowledge in which the audiences have hard time to accept the epistemology you follow and your work as well, not difficulty to understand your work. It might also be a possibility that the facilitator may not know the theory you are following and the works you have done and unable to communicate to the audience properly what your works are, in that case it is a good time for you to convincingly display what your work is.  . 

    The other possibility is that your theory might be  totally new and that might be the reason for the problem. In that case you are not alone, there are several such incidents in science where new ideas were totally rejected by contemporary leading people of research as being bad, evil, etc.

    Georg Cantor was one such example who died of colleague persecution driven insane because of his ideas on infinity, no colleague wanted to believe him, which later all what he said were found to be true. 

  • Gokul Raja T S asked a question in Spin Coating:
    In spin coating of Metal oxides, Does ageing time affects uniform coating of the materials?

    We are trying to coat some thin films on glass substrates, If the soution needs to be aged before coating on glass slides? If yes, then what is the role of ageing the solution in the spin coating of metal oxides?

  • Shadi Nabil Albarqouni added an answer in SIFT:
    How do I combine two orthographic projections of a vertebrae into a single file?

    I have images of vertebrae which are acquired using a C-arm machine. The images are captured in X-Y and Y-Z plane. I have to merge them to create a file which has combined projections of both planes such that segmentation is one view will reflect in other view.

    According to my study I have come across SIFT method.

    Please provide guidelines for any other method or SIFT is good enough?

  • Mattiullah Attari Butt added an answer in Organizational Commitment:
    Does anyone know of a scale for measuring organizational commitment of volunteers?

    What is the latest approved scale for measuring Organizational Commitment? Can we use the same scale to measure commitment of Volunteers?

    Thank You

    Mattiullah Attari Butt · Huazhong University of Science and Technology

    Thank You very much for the time, reply, guidance and papers... 

  • Shadi Nabil Albarqouni added an answer in Tomography:
    Tomography open source code

    Hi there,

    I am very new to tomography, I've searched and read quite about of papers about tomography in hope of searching for a quite visible algorithm or open source code in matlab that can help me to initialize the matrix and solve for velocity, but haven't seen any clues yet. Also I feel very confused as starting

    If you have been working on tomography, would you please give me some of your genius recommendations ? I am really grateful about that.

    Many thanks,

    Phung Chappi 

  • Mattiullah Attari Butt asked a question in Likert Scale:
    How to deal with extreme responses (All 5 or all 7 - Response Bias) in Likert Scales?

    How should one deal with extreme responses (All 5 or All 7 or All 1)? Can I give them the average score or must I exclude them? Any studies?

  • Shubrajit Bhaumik added an answer in Graphite:
    Is it possible to get lower coefficient of friction with higher frictional force?

    I performed two experiments - one with pure vegetable oil and other with vegetable oil containing graphite. The vegetable oil containing graphite showed lesser coeffient of friction than pure oil but when I checked the frictional force the frictional force is higher? Can anyone please cite the possible reasons please.

    Load :150N

    RPM :800

    the tests were reapted several times but the same results prevailed.

    Shubrajit Bhaumik · SRM University

    With lower loads the oil with graphite showed lesser coefficient of friction as well as lesser frictional force but as at 160N though the CoF was slightly lower but frictional force was much higher.

  • Neil Stephen Luy asked a question in Coconuts:
    What is the composition of coconut shell?

    What are the % of cellulose, lignin and other substances present in coconut shell? 

  • Lazin Viorica asked a question in G*Power:
    How to pursue a G*power analysis to determine how many participants I will need fro a quantitative covariance survey, pelase?

    I am aiming to conduct a quantitative survey analysis with two independent variable and three correlative dependent variants

  • Andrew Wutke added an answer in Special Relativity:
    Is there a solid proof of non existence of the absolute reference frame or no one has found the proof yet?

    Special Relativity tells us there is no privileged frame but these are just words in Einstein's seminal paper. In Einstein System the assumption of equal speeds of light in both direction cleverly relieves us from the necessity of having one, but as I see it it is just a convenience. But where is the proof?

    I think Galilean view is more likely to lead to the conclusion of non existence the absolute frame than Einstein's.

    Andrew Wutke · Thales Group

    Dear Alexander

    Thank you for your contribution in this discussion. My view is compatible to what you said:

    If you move with uniform velocity and  lock yourself in a well shielded metallic box, and don't try to put any detectors outside of it to measure the CMB spectrum, you may be blissfully convinced that you are not moving at all

    It seems the SRT has merits eliminating the need of knowing the velocity relative ARF to make practical measurement of motion equally for light and other objects relative to a frame. It seems tat Maxwell equations can be interpreted as in the ARF

    The problem is the failed concept of relative simultaneity which is only conventional, and being oblivious to the fact that  to make any prediction which clocks slow down or speed up as a result of change in velocity, the ARF frame and the velocity of the given frame needs to be known. The full reciprocal view of the world is a mathematical fiction easy on paper but in contradiction to reality. Clock either speed up or slow down and this is absolute. If it was relative there would not be the case of the observed extension in muons lifetime. They effectively lived longer between the creation and destruction due to the slow down of the process while at sub-luminal velocity relative to earth and therefore to the CBR.

  • Sharon Toledo asked a question in PBMC Isolation:
    Insighs on in vitro Infection of immune cells with viruses?


    Hey people. Some of you have experience infecting immune cells (monocytes,dendritic cells, PBMCs) with viruses?

    I am working with different viral strains that have a pretty good infection rate in insect cells, hepatoma cells and VERO. When I try to infect human immune cells like PBMCs, isolated monocytes or mdDCs (or even monocytic lineages like THP1), the infection rates are always lower than 10%, when they happen. I know that this cells have complex mechanisms to counteract viral infection, but even then, there should be some way to infect them in vitro. When I search in the literature, I see papers describing infections above 30% with the same MOI I use (MOI10). I´ve tried high MOI and long incubation times post infection (72h). My viral stocks are made in mosquito cells and have a good titer, and I always try to infect in the smaller volume as possible, for around 2 hours. What can be wrong with this protocol? Kind regards

  • Nai-Kei Wong added an answer in Biosafety:
    Raw 264.7 cell culture and possible contamination?

    I have recently had some issues trying to culture raw cells in my lab. Within 3-5 days when bringing them out of frozen I seem to get these strange blue non-motile floating specs along with my cells. Is it common to have a lot of cell fragmentation with this cell line? So far I have made sure my pipette tips and anything touching the cells is sterile, I have cleaned our incubators, biosafety hoods, the dry bead bath, the centrifuge, and our pipettes. I will try testing them for mycoplasma soon. I just finally received all the stuff to do it. Does anyone have any idea what this could possibly be besides mycoplasma?  I am a relative newbie to cell culture and this is incredibly frustrating for me so any suggestions/help would be greatly appreciated!

    Nai-Kei Wong · The University of Hong Kong

    Your RAW264.7 cells do not seem to have sufficient density (even for seeding). It should be 2 to 3 times higher. 

    Morphology-wise, they are not as uniform as desired. 

    See typical morphology below ("Control group" (Fig2)

    http://www.spandidos-publications.com/mmr/10/2/1077

    We bought RAW from ATCC two times in the past 8 years, and we did not have contaimination problems. 

    Consider disinfecting your culture facility if you find that your incubators have been infected, following the tests below. 

    Purchase liquid medium from Invitrogen (DMEM) instead of preparing your own. heat-inactivate your FBS. Add penicillin-streptomycin. 

    ***

    The tests you can do to check cell status: 

    First, you can stain the cells live with the DNA dye Hoechst (75 - 100 ng/mL; 30 min) and obverse under UV channel (blue emission). If the particles outside cells can be stained brightly, then they are likely contaminating microbes. 

    A second test is to take about 1 mL of the culture medium, put it into an eppendorf and let it settle at 37C for 10 min. Then, take a small sample of the supernanant (spin at 500 rpm or 50xg for 1 min) of about 50uL, and use it to inoculate a dish of clean medium (say 5 mL). Rock the dish gently, and take a few pictures at high and low magnifications. Allow incubation for like 3-4 days at 37C, then observe and take pictures again, and compare with the dish conditions days ago. 

    A third test is to use a kit to test for presence of microplasma.

    http://www.invivogen.com/plasmotest 

    ***

    RAW morphology -- they should be ovalish, roundish with occasional minimal arborization. One fraction (5-10%) of cells display a long "leavy" shape, and that's quite normal: 

  • Ankur Gajjar asked a question in Nonlinear Systems:
    What are the good books for control of linear and nonlinear sytems?

    Dear all,

                  I would like to study regarding control of linear and nonlinear systems in detail. So, please suggest me some books which can provide in-depth knowledge regarding it. Thank you.

  • Ghanshyam G Tejani added an answer in Google Scholar:
    Is Google Scholar Metrics better than JCR and Scopus Rank? Why?

    Is Google Scholar Metrics better than JCR and Scopus Rank? Why?

    Ghanshyam G Tejani · RK University

    In my view, Thomson Reuters, JCR and Scopus should be considered authentic. I don't think Google scholar is better.

  • Yipeng Cao asked a question in Gromacs:
    About GROMACS steer molecular dynamic?

    I want to do a ion through narrow pore(like ion-channel), however, i do not understand so clear that the GROMACS SMD and PMF calculated with what kind of theory in their tutorials(http://www.gromacs.org/index.php?title=Documentation/Tutorials/GROMACS_USA_Workshop_and_Conference_2013/Computing_potentials_of_mean_force:_Justin_Lemkul%2C_Session_2A)

    should anyone explain to me? thank you very much!

  • Rinky Sha added an answer in Thin Film Deposition:
    In an electrodeposition process is it necessary to use a potentiostat galvanostat or a simple power supply is sufficient (ie 2 electrodes only)?
    The electrodeposition process is generally utilised for coating purposes. It is also used for obtaining thin film materials on a conductive substrate. Can I use power supply instead of the potentiostat /galvanostat which uses 3 electrodes?
    Rinky Sha · Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad

    yes... it is right,basically for reversible reaction,  it is good bcoz we can check easily  the no. of electron transfer, detailed peak description, kinetics of reactions, in case of quasi reversible or irreversilble reaction ,electron transfer process is slow in comparison to scan rate...thats why  the quality of the coating will be poor

  • Naveen Bhatt added an answer in Illumination:
    Is it possible to have light without electrical power?

    In general, light is produced for household purpose with bulb, CFL, tube, LED etc from electrical power. There is a big portion of world that lives in dark after sun sets. These people do not want electrical power, they want light first.


    Is it possible to create a pollution free light without electric power and without burning something. Light that is sufficient to illuminate a 12 x 12 feet hut without an electricity connection. Light that is very very cheap (not more than $1 per week and 8 hours per day)….Don’t tell solar or known things….suggest something wild…some new idea….innovative…no power only light….Just for the sake of discussion….

    Naveen Bhatt · Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited

    @ Alexander E Kaplan......Nice one sir :-).....Your solution reminded me this very old story....

    https://parthdu.wordpress.com/humor/niels-bohr-barometer-question/

    Hope you will also enjoy it

    - Naveen

  • Alain Manuel Chaple Gil asked a question in Historical Article:
    There is any global guideline to developed historical articles?

    Just it. Thank you !!!

  • Alain Manuel Chaple Gil asked a question in Historical Article:
    Is Wikipedia a source that we can use to developed historical articles when scientist literature is not enough?

    I’m working in a historical article and someone told me that Wikipedia can be used to explain features that scientist literature can’t do. It’s true?

  • Sergio Antonio Muñoz Pinzón added an answer in Friction-Stir Welding:
    How can I calculate heat-affected zone, thermomechanical-affected zone in friction stir welding of aluminum?

    How can I calculate heat-affected zone, thermomechanical-affected zone in friction stir welding of aluminum?

    Sergio Antonio Muñoz Pinzón · Los Andes University (Colombia)

    You can model FSW in FEM, there are many papers on that subject

  • Mohd. Asif Gandhi asked a question in Multiplication:
    How can one fine the effect of multiple variables on a set of other multiple variables?

    It is a causal study. So which tool can be used to analyze this?

  • PE Rajasekharan asked a question in Patenting:
    Is not better to protect the research results in the form of patent(IP) rather than publish in high impact journals?

    If a scientist is coming with novel results why not take a patent rather than publishing the same in hight impact journals. This will help the scientist and the organization with which he is working to recoup the money spent on the research.This is possible only when the scientist comes out with innovative research results which are patentable 

  • Loekas - Soesanto added an answer in Microbiology:
    Can anyone suggest a medium for inducing sporulation of fusarium oxysporum culture?
    Can anyone suggest to me a good medium in order to induce sporulation in the fusarium oxysporum culture? I want to harvest spores from this culture in order to carry out an assay.
    Loekas - Soesanto · Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

    You can also use CLA (carnation leaf agar)...is highly good to produce Fusarium microconidia

  • Jayanta Kumar Maji added an answer in Chromatography:
    Can anyone recommend a commercial software to perform the modelling of chromatographic band profile using the Equilibrium Dispersive model?
    E.g. I would need a computer program based on an implementation of the method of orthogonal col- location on finite elements (OCFE)
    Jayanta Kumar Maji · Gujarat Ayurved University,Jamnagar

    Dear Teresa, you can take multivariate curve resolution tutorial ,Solving curve resolution problem using MCR algorithom ,user friendly, free download at that web pahe.http://www.ub.es/gesq/eq1_eng.htm.   

    Software give a set of m-phile that facilitate the exploration in context of despersive equilibrium model

  • Dejenie A. Lakew added an answer in Chaos:
    Does distance exist between order and chaos?

    Order and disorder obviously differ. What is the distance or difference? Any mathematical approachavailable? What is your opinion?

    Dejenie A. Lakew · John Tyler Community College

    Dear Arno,

    The term distance in the literature  of mathematics is a measure of how apart or close things are in the space between them not how similar or different things are in physical world. Chaos and order are behaviors or properties of physical phenomena which are dissimilar  structurally in terms of stability in which chaos displays a huge structural changes for a very small perturbations unlike order.

    I therefore prefer terms like  how different or similar they are? or what differentiates one from the other than what is the distance between them.

  • Veera Manikandan R added an answer in Alleles:
    CAn I use Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons in genotypes and alleles?

    If I have 4 unrelated SNPs in the same study, for association with certain disease. I use Chi square for getting p value for each genotype and each allele, so I have 4 SNPs multiplied by 3 genotypes=12 p value. how can I use Bonferroni correction. and will I multiply p value by 4 (number of SNPs) or 3 (genotypes for each SNP) or (12 SNPs multiplied by genotypes)? or I will get only one p value for each SNP and multiply it by number of SNPs?

    Veera Manikandan R · Christian Medical College Vellore

    Dear Iman,

    The comparison in ANOVA is between the categories of a variable and not between variables. Similarly the comparison is between the genotypes of a SNP and not between the SNPs. Please read the attached articles for more clarifications.

  • Kedar Mandakhalikar added an answer in Biofilms:
    How might I differentiate between planktonic bacteria from biofilm?

    I want to quantify biofilm forming bacteria so I let E coli form a biofilm on silicone catheter for 48hr, then wash the catheter in PBS with vortexing to remove planktonic bacteria. Then I sonicate to extract biofilm and plate the sonication supernatant to get a count. I am not sure though that the count I get is all of the biofilm formed in 48hr or some biofilm was washed off during vortexing.

    On the other hand, if I directly sonicate, then there is a false increase in the count because of planktonic bacteria.

    Is there a way to extract biofilm without losing it or without an interference from planktonic bacteria? Does vortexing disturb biofilm formed on silicon surface? 
    I am grateful for any help regarding these questions. 

    Kedar Mandakhalikar · National University of Singapore

    Thanks Maria, I tried rinsing gently in PBS, but what I observe is that even planktonic bacteria, which are not a part of biofilm, are not effectively removed and hence give an over-estimation. I have done this with a non-biofilm mutant as well as a 10-min immersion control.