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  • What is the difference between pooled and single-donor HUVECs?
    I understand that pooled HUVECs are from multiple donors, and buying pooled HUVECs is a little cheaper, but are there any disadvantages to using these HUVECs vs. single-donor?
    Amierul Sharudin · Ministry of Health Malaysia

    is there any evidence on journal saying the pros and cons of single and pooled huvecs?

  • Can SEC columns be run upside down without effect on peak resolution?

    By which I mean not reverse flow, but can I position the column inlet on the bottom and run sample into it so that the sample travels upward against gravity?  Will that broaden my peaks or have other deleterious effects on the chromatograph?  Our HPLC pump/detector was positioned with the detector on top, but I think that this factory setup is not typically used with SEC columns.  Thanks everybody in advance for your thoughts on this. 

  • Arnold Trehub added an answer in fMRI
    Are high-level visual areas sufficient for conscious vision? How does subjective vision gain holistic access to spatially distributed neural codes?

    I have a thought experiment (video link: "Paradox of Subjective Bilateral Vision"16:00-28:00) that results in very strange situations if "high-level visual areas themselves are not sufficient for conscious vision, (or low/mid-level visual areas are necessary)", namely, that the neural mechanism of conscious vision, its verbal report and solving of perceptual visual tasks (e.g. bilateral symmetry detection) violates physics that we know of today. I would like to know if there is any experimental/theoretical evidence on this issue. Thanks in advance!

    Thanks to the two contributors, the above question has developed into a discussion on how subjective vision gain simultaneous holistic access to spatially distributed neural codes. There have been claims that 'holistic access' should be considered as a serious constraint on the neural mechanism of subjective experience. In case of vision, the seamless and the unified nature of our bilateral percept can be thought as an indicator of our consciousness mechanism having holistic access to wide-spread neural representation.

    Unlike many popular theories of consciousness, some scientists believe that holistic access should be solved by actual physical processes in the realm of established science. In other words, there should be some single 'entity' that has causal physical access with consequences, to all subjectively experienced information. Although, there are surprising small number of models on consciousness that actually implement such a mechanism.

    I explain my "Chaotic Spatiotemporal Fluctuation" hypothesis in the linked video (40:00 - 50:00), where holistic access is implemented by deterministic chaos components in neural fluctuation. Here, I define holistic access as 'every local change in the distributed neural code evoking global system-level changes in neural fluctuation', which relies on the so-called 'butterfly effect' of deterministic chaos. For the sake of clarification, the link between 'holistic access' and 'subjective experience' goes beyond physics that we know of today.

    I would very much appreciate comments on the first question too.    

    Arnold Trehub · University of Massachusetts Amherst

    Dear Jonathan,

    You wrote: "As I have always emphasised my model assumes a multicellular array with an output very similar to your model. I just put the experience where those signals arrive. To my mind a signal is not a signal until it arrives."

    I think your comment might expose the crux of our disagreement. In my view, conscious experience is not a signal; it is a presence -- our occurrent phenomenal world which is constituted by the global pattern of autaptic-cell activity in retinoid space. This egocentric retinoid space can contain a wealth of latent information, but latent information cannot be considered as a signal. It is only when patterns of activity in retinoid space are captured and processed by our pre-conscious sensory modalities (synaptic matrices) that the latent information of consciousness becomes kinetic information, signals that converge on the dendritic trees of the filter-cells in our synaptic matrices where they are processed for recognition. You might think of the arrival and integration of these parallel signals in each filter-cell as the locus of experience, but this is only our pre-conscious experience because these cells have no effective structure for a spatio-temporal locus of perspectival origin; that is, they do not have subjectivity.

  • Leonid A. Neymark added an answer in Geochronology
    What might cause variable 238U/206Pb ratios with invariant 207Pb/206Pb ratios is speleothem calcite?
    Has anyone else conducting U-Pb LA ICP-MS on calcite, zircon or other minerals encountered variable 238U/206Pb ratios with relatively invariant 207Pb/206Pb ratios? I've analysed a number of other speleothems from other caves in the UK, Canada and Australia, and the data produce proper isochrons, but all of the samples from Borneo have produced data like this and I have no idea what's causing it. The machine setup was operating within normal parameters and all standard analyses (91500, NIST614 and an "in-house" carbonate standard) behave as normal. If anyone can suggest any possible causes, or recommend any papers that have dealt with or encountered this, that would be a great help.
    Leonid A. Neymark · United States Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center

    Dear Christopher,

    I am slightly puzzled by the fact that this particular stalagmite was shown to be in secular equilibrium (>500 ka) by U-230Th method. A simple calculation shows that if you start accumulating radiogenic lead in a speleothem initially having common Pb (206/204~18.5, 207/204~15.6, and 208_204~38.5) and 238U/206Pb=50, then in 3 Ma in a closed system its 207Pb/206Pb will be =0.68, which is a bit lower than your lowest measured 207Pb/206Pb value. Because 238U/206Pb value decreases with time, measured values of ~1000 in your sample may indicate that initial 238U/206Pb was even higher. For the initial 238U/206Pb=1000 207Pb/206Pb will be =0.15 in 3 Ma, which you do not see. Therefore, there are at least 2 natural reasons to explain your data:
    (1) Your speleothem is younger than ~ 50 ka
    (2) You deal with open U-Pb system. The first scenario would require COMPLETE loss of radiogenic Pb, which is highly improbable. The second scenario would require very recent considerable U gain, which would result in young 230Th/U ages.
    Therefore, my suggestion would be (1) to double check U/Th dating results and confirm that the same materials were analyzed for U-Pb and (2) carefully check the accuracy of your U/Pb ration LAICPMS measurements during the analytical sessions when these data were collected.
    I hope this would help in resolving your puzzle.


  • Paul Hubert Vossen added an answer in Statistics
    Is a Likert-type scale ordinal or interval data?
    I've heard arguments that a Likert-type scale is ordinal data. I've heard arguments that this type of data is interval data. Some believe it is quasi-ordinal-interval data. Which exactly is it?
    Paul Hubert Vossen · Duale Hochschule Baden-Württemberg Mannheim

    @ Reginald : What exactly do you mean with "... used the Likert-type scale data as dependent variable ..."? If data should act as a dependent variable, you probably want to explain or reconstruct or predict them from some set of independent variables given a functional relationship (postulated or estimated from all data). If you have reason to believe that your Likert-type scale data are an accurate representation of an ordinal structure, the only restriction you have to put on the functional relationship is, that it is a monotone transformation of that Lickert-data. If a single monotone transformation applies for all measured objects or subjects, I would say: that's OK. If you need different transformations of the scale for different objects or subjects, I think there is in fact reason to be suspicious about your model: there may be other independent variable(s) that you should include in your model to explain all variance. Does that make sense to you?

  • Jean W H Yong added an answer in Orchidaceae
    Does anybody have information about ethnobotany of Dendrobium helix?

    Where can I download the references related to the ethnobotany (local use, traditional medicinal use etc.) of Dendrobium helix? 

    Jean W H Yong · Singapore University of Technology and Design

    Agus, here are our past journal articles about orchids (including Dendrobium) used in traditional medicine.

    For this area of ethnobotany, it is better to refer to books.

    There are great coverage of this area by Prof Joseph Arditti in his excellent book "Fundamentals of orchid biology", or his review series (Orchid biology: Reviews and Perspectives":

    Good luck to your research. John (Singapore)

    + 4 more attachments

  • How can I determine stacking fault energy?
    How can I determine stacking fault energy of a high manganese austenitic steel from TEM images and XRD pattern?
    Patrick N.B. Anongba · University "Félix Houphouët-Boigny"

    I didn't succeed, Sorry

  • Peter A Wilderer added an answer in Climate Change
    Is it time we forget climate change & focus on the 'Human Dimension'? Is it not obvious that nature can heal itself, if only left alone?
    A lot of hue and cry is made about climate change and the environment in general. Public and private money is poured into research to study its effects on the environment, sustainability etc. Should we study nature or ourselves? Human activities have been found to have a direct correlation to climate change and its impact on the environment(I=P x A x T, the Ehrlich and Holdren equation), in spite of what some complacent sections say to protect their own self interests. It is pretty obvious that it is human beings who need to be studied. We hardly know about Human nature. We can scarcely predict human behavior. We need to find out why we think like we do and why we do what we do and why, in spite of all knowledge and wisdom, consume more than what we need, in the form of addictions to consumption and imbalance not only ourselves but also the family, society and environment around us.. Humanity is directly responsible for all the imbalances occurring on the planet. Yet we refuse to take responsibility and instead focus on climate change, or fool the public exchequer with a 'breakthrough in renewable energy just around the corner'. We scarcely know what drives human beings. If we had known, all the imbalances around us would have had solutions. Are we blindly groping in the dark of climate change because we don't know the answers to our own nature? Is it not high time we focus on what makes us human, correct our consumptive behavior and leave nature to take care of climate change? Why focus effort on 'externals' when the problem is 'internal'- 'me'? Aren't we addicts denying our addiction and blaming everything else but ourselves? The reactions we have right now can be grouped into: 1. I worked hard to earn my money. I can use it and consume as I please. Climate change is for the birds. Material consumption and more gives me happiness. 2. Life is competitive. Only those who struggle will survive. Its a 'winner takes all' situation. Otherwise we are all dead as a dodo. I would like to safeguard my future by saving as much as I can for the future. 3. Life is all about cooperation with your fellow beings. 4. Invest in more technology that will ease the current logjam in resource availability. More technology can mean more for everyone and we can continue to consume. 5. Invest more in climate change study. 6. Invest in legislation to prevent ourselves destroying the environment. 7. Invest in studying Human Nature and use that to educate and bring about legislation aimed at understanding addictive consumption and prevention. 8. More perspectives are welcome! IMHO, We don't need to save the World. It is enough if we save ourselves from ourselves. The need of the hour is not vain glorious interventions, but self-restraint and self-correction!
    Peter A Wilderer · Technische Universität München

    very true, particularly your last sentence


  • How often are scientific publications made unnecessary intellectually complex?

    Many scientific publications result from education products like PhD or Master work. However, students are also often educated to be able to have complex reasoning, to handle complex problems, or to be able to use complex techniques. Does all this result in unnecessary intellectual complexity reflected in many scientific publications? Why using more complex language/ reasoning/ methods when scientific questions/problems can also be solved with less complex language/ reasoning/ methods?

    José Antonio Acevedo-Díaz · Junta De Andalucía

    Dear Hanno, you say:

    "The special jargon facilitates the inter-colleagues-communication. But at the moment, you enlarge the audience circle, you have to translate into a compact and pregnant argumentation and speech.
    Otherwise you provoke yawning and disinterest."

    OK, but I think that so would be scientific dissemination (also very important, of course!).


  • How can I get rid of "bubbles" from the plating solution (W powder+H2O2+HNO3) during the electrodeposition of WO3 thin films on ITO glas substrates?

    I am working on electrodeposition of WO3 thin films on ITO substrates. During this experiment what I observe from the plating solution is bubbles coming from the bottom to top (even before starting the experiment). When I try to use this solution for deposition on ITO substrates these bubbles covers up the entire surface of ITO and it prevents the deposition of WO3 thin films.

  • Does anybody know any authors currently working on TCP SYN attack detection / mitigation?
    I'm interested in finding the latest papers on TCP SYN attacks.
    Vijay Chaitanya Reddy Kovvuri · University of Bedfordshire

    check this..



  • Jean W H Yong added an answer in Botany
    Is there a checklist of plant taxa and their photosynthetic pathway?

    My impression is that all this information is scattered through different references, I have seen many devoted to some families, subfamilies and genus (example attached), but I wonder if this evidence has been compiled systematically somewhere.

    Jean W H Yong · Singapore University of Technology and Design

    Hi Antoine, I worked on epiphytic plants that are either C3 or CAM. You can get a partial listing in this book. I've also attached the book chapter for your reference. Hope it is useful for you? Best wishes, John.

    + 1 more attachment

  • Fateme Kouchaki added an answer in Mathematics
    What is the best method to approximate a continuous function f over [a,b]?
    Based on your experience, what is the best method to represent a smooth function f? Taylor, Lagrange, Newton, Hermite, spline, parametric polynomial or trigonometric approximation? Least-squares method? Each method has its strengths along with conditions and "information". Which method did you practice? Did it work? Are there any drawbacks in the method? Which method do you suggest for young researchers to use? Explain? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stone%E2%80%93Weierstrass_theorem http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polynomial_interpolation
    Fateme Kouchaki · Kerman Graduate University of Technology


    As I know, spline method give the most smooth function. Fortunately, there are so many kind of splines which you can choose in depend on your problem.

  • Can anyone help in listing out the researchers working in TCP SYN flood attacks?
    With relation to my research work, I would like to know the recent work going on in TCP SYN flood attack.
    Vijay Chaitanya Reddy Kovvuri · University of Bedfordshire

    You may find plenty of research papers on this....


    try to consolidate researchers based on the type of work you were going to perform. 

  • Jean W H Yong added an answer in Photosynthesis
    Value of carbondioxide compensation point for indiica rice

    I need the value of  CO2 compensation point especially for indian rice varieties for estimating mesophyll conductance

    Jean W H Yong · Singapore University of Technology and Design

    Hi, it should be 50 - 60 ppm if your Closed CO2 chamber is functioning well. Read page 814 of our earlier paper for a C3 orchid. Good luck!!!

  • Serkan Cakir added an answer in Halal
    Any researcher working on halal poultry slaughter experiment?


    I am working on halal slaughter on broiler and the other animals.

    I have project about this topic. Who wants to share about halal slaughter of broilers?

    -Effects of stunning on

    - Death of animals (ECG)

    - Meat quality (microbial statusi shelf time etc)

    - Bleeding time and amount

    - Slaughter with and without Tasmiah


    Serkan Cakir · Abant İzzet Baysal University, Faculty of Agricultural and Life Science

    Here, in Turkey we also eat halal. 

    But we must conduct this kined of experiments as Muslim 

  • Venkatesan Annadurai asked a question in RID
    How can I get rid of "bubbles" from the plating solution during the electrodeposition of WO3 thin films on ITO glas substrates?

    I am working on electrodeposition of WO3 thin films on ITO substrates.  During this experiment what I observe from the plating solution is bubbles coming from the bottom to top (even before starting the experiment).  When I try to use this solution for deposition on ITO substrates these bubbles covers up the entire surface of ITO and it prevents the deposition of WO3 thin films.

  • Martin Stoffel asked a question in Statistics
    Why doing Mantel test instead of a glm? What about multiple testing?

    I am currently doing an analysis where I have to do multiple Mantel tests. Concerning the problem of multiple Testing I am thinking of "rolling out" the matrices to vectors and then just do a GLM. But is that a valid analysis? And if not, is there any Mantel Test framework for multiple testing?

  • Is it possible to derive the constant & uniform velocity of light & the Lorentz transform without starting from the principle of relativity?
    Originally the Lorentz transform was developed to explain the Michelson-Morley experiment in terms of length contraction due to motion through an ether. Some work was done on how this might produce distortions of electromagnetic forces and interatomic bonds to produce length contraction. Einstein postulated a fully symmetric (i.e. relative) form with no preferred frame of reference, and gave a different derivation based on the principle of relativity, that the laws of physics including the velocity of light should be the same in all inertial frames. It is a pretty large assumption and gives no insight into mechanisms. In years of searching I've found only two papers that claim to derive something like the relativistic Lorentz (not the ether one) from more fundamental principles, one by Yilmaz using de Broglie waves which has received no follow up discussion that I can find, and one by Matthew Brown using pseudo-measurement interaction counting which is only on arXiv (and RG in his profile). Are there any others? Does it make any difference if relativity can be derived from some mechanism-like postulates? Does it have any implications for understanding things like spooky action at a distance (entanglement)? Or inertia/gravity?
    Robert Shuler · NASA

    @Kassner, I believe you have written an interesting full-length paper, complete with references.  It needs a title and abstract, and perhaps a conclusion section.  In some ways it is a rebuttal of a recent paper by Francis, which I state as a relative fact without favoring one over the other as I find interesting points and things I would quibble with in both efforts.  Have you seen Charles' paper on this subject or are you just responding to posts here? 

    I think this is a worthwhile discussion.  But I think it deserves its own QA thread.  Would either of you (Kassner and Francis) care to start one?  If not, I may with my own particular slant to the question.

    I don't see what it has to do with Lorentz transforms and SR, though I might have missed a connection among all the posts.

    The problem with both sides of the discussion that I see, from my background in information and computability theory, is that arbitrary assumptions are made without regard to the laws of physics, and in likely violation of them.  So I don't view the arguments on either side of the determinability question as appropriate to the physics.

    For example, "dispersion" is a relative term.  It fails to consider that quantum measurement is the result of TWO or more propagating states, not one.  All the proofs treat as if only one state were propagating.  But there is at minimum the state of the measurement device, often very complex.  And more likely there is the state of the entire universe.  We cannot prove that any other given and seemingly unrelated wave state in the universe does NOT have some effect on the outcome of a particular measurement, because in general quantum states are not finite in extent, even bound ones.

    Further, I see no arguments on either side which effectively eliminate HISTORICAL states (including outcomes), nor COMPLEXITY.  I'll summarize their importance.

    Unless infinite states (or complexity) are eliminated (by assumption or proof) then no one can prove whether a particular variable (or outcome) is random or not.  Dispersionless or not.  I know that Charles is indisposed to take infinte states or complexity seriously, which may be a reasonable position but does not mathematically address Bell's hypothetical hidden variable as summarized by Kassner, which being a continuous variable is also infinite.  Consider an infinite state which defines outcomes which are being tested for randomness.  Turn the problem around.  Make the measurement and determine the outcome.  Then no matter how complex the result, even over all cosmic time, some specific initial state might be found that produces that outcome.  In other words, an infinite number sequence can always match a finite length random number sequence.

    Now on the matter of historical states.  Statements about probability and commutation and sums of probability can only be evaluated in light of historical data.  A single data point does not define any probability.  The role of the probability relations in QM is to enforce conservation of energy and likely the law of entropy as well while at the same time allowing quantization.  If some determinism more so than specified in the wave description were discovered in the distribution of results, it could be, I suspect, exploited much in the same way as Maxwell's demon would, if it existed, exploit hidden knowledge (of where the next molecule is coming from) in statistical mechanics.  The conservation of energy mechanism, which is in summary and abstract form expressed mathematically as the Schrodinger equation (based on Hamilton, though this gives no idea "how" it works), forbids this.  All the universe has to do is employ a computer (in some other hypothetical dimension so that it does not have to be powered by or accounted for in the universe we know) to keep track of all historical measurements, compute the propagation of all quantum states, and select future outcomes that are consistent with the required probability relations.  This could not be distinguished by us from randomness, though in fact it would be perfectly deterministic.  It would not necessarily be dispersionless with respect to any variables that exclude the historical data. 

    If the historical and infinite techniques are employed together, then outcomes would not be dispersionless even with respect to historical data.  Note that considering the entire universe, repeating any total historical data point is unlikely.  It would imply the universe entered the same identical state twice (effectively a loop). 

    And now for my final coup-de-grace, the number of angels dancing on the head of a pin is ... [oh well, I should hold something back].

  • Is the economic collapse – a black hole syndrome?
    Mathematics justifies that greed and extreme selfishness cause economic collapse of societies. Any system that is established from relations from different groups and the forces created thereof, continues to exist if the relations remain fair and the forces that are created from the relations to keep the system alive remain on balance and valid to all parts. When one of the forces dominates to the extent of diminishing the strength or eliminating the powers of others, then only a force of pulling towards the dominant entity remains and that leads to the collapse of the system - this is what I call it the black hole syndrome. What do you think, is greed and extreme selfishness the cause of economic system collapse?
    Francesca Cansani · University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland

    Dear Dean von Germeten,

    I think that here is the Point. Humans are not Animals, or better, they are another Kind of Species, and independently of Darwin Theories, we cannot compare our Behaviour to that of Animals: we might admire and/or criticize it, but this means not that we should or shall imitate it. At all. And therefore, we cannot compare our Behaviour to theirs, as much as they won't compare theirs to ours.

    Life is difficult, this looks certain, though, the so called 7 capital Sins worsen our Condition, or better, that of the Majority of us: if we consider a Kind of, let's say, divine Justice, or Karma Law, let's say, Reincarnation Law, even the Sinner is not going to enjoy his/her vicious Attitude forever. The natural [not artificial, manmade], let's say Law of Retaliation, will sooner or later get applied [a Kind of Dantesque Afterlife].

    Animals, differently from us, Humans, are not used to Sophistication, which is, in my Opinion, our present Day's Damnation [because it has become excessive]. More Sophistication, Artificality, means less Sentiency, less Understanding, less Compassion or Equanimity: Buddhism would say that Equanimity is a Aim that Humans can definitely achieve.

    Though, you are right: who among us has ever concretely seen a perfect living Society? Where the Wellbeing of Every1 has been achieved? This actually remains, in my Opinion, an open Question.

    Enlightening Enlightenment to Every1 of us.  

  • What does evolution aim to?. What is its goal, if it has any?

    Computer simulation of biological evolution is largely determined by the objective.
    What is the evolution searching for?. Does it try to increase the biomass of the system? Does it try to increase the complexity of biological structures? Nothing at all? Just follow its own rules. And if so, are these rules the only possible or are they just contingent?

    Aleksandar Simeonov · Independent

    Hi Federico,

    I suggest you read this very interesting article by Dr. Karo Michaelian:


    It seems that the ultimate goal of biological evolution is "increasing the global entropy production of the Earth in its interaction with the solar environment". Hope you like the article. Regards, Alex

  • Rachel Korn added an answer in Entomology
    What is the most starvation resistant insect?
    Hi, I am looking for reports about starvation in insects. I would need examples of the more starvation resistant insects. Thank you!
    Rachel Korn · Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz

    When blood-feeding insects are welcomed, bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) are said to tolerate starving up to six months

  • Martin Stoffel added an answer in Education
    How to find a factor structure in a survey questionnaire/data set and how to ensure the validity and reliability of the factor structure?

    I'm currently doing an assignment where I have a survey questionnaire with a data set (SPSS). I need to find out the factor structure in the data set using exploratory factor analysis. Also, I need evidence to show the validity and reliability of the factor structure, which is in turn evolved from the data set.

    Martin Stoffel · Bielefeld University

    Hi Israt,

    one way would be to split the data set and derive a model from the first set with exploratory factor analysis and do a confirmatory factor analysis with the derived model on the second half. Then you can see with some common fit indices like RMSEA how well the model fits to the independent data set. There are some crucial points in doing an exploratory factor analysis like Number of factors to extract, Rotation method and some more. We wrote a paper on exactly that topic, maybe you want to have a look.




  • What are some open challenges in cloud security at SaaS and IaaS?
    I am willing to do work on cloud security issues at SaaS and IaaS. for the same. Can anyone suggest approaches and future scopes for this?
    Vijay Chaitanya Reddy Kovvuri · University of Bedfordshire

    There is a lot of resource crunch over cloud security  . However there were some organisations which work towards finding best practices and providing advocacy to professionals , organisations and industry  .

    There were Top 10 Risks Published on cloud security from OWASP (Formerly popular for web app security).

    1. Accountability and Data Ownership

    2.User Identity Federation

    3. Regulatory Compliance

    4.Business Continuity and Resiliency

    5.User Privacy and Secondary Usage of Data

    6.Service and Data Integration

    7.Multi Tenancy and Physical Security

    8.Incidence Analysis and Forensic Support

    9. Infrastructure Security

    10.Non Production Environment Exposure

    You may find more info on..




    Hope this helps ...!


  • Maohong Fan added an answer in CO2 Capture
    Can any techniques be utilized to detect the reaction mechanism in CO2 capture by secondary amines?

    Some scholars proposed that the absorption mechanism was the formation of Zwitterionic,e.g. carbamates. (two steps)

    Some proposed that it was a 3 Molecular  Mechanism which is the reaction was carried out by only one step without any formation of carbamates.

    Can any techniques be well applied for the detection of the reaction mechanism?

    Maohong Fan · University of Wyoming

    Good luck, Bin!


  • What would you do if you received a report from the reviewer of your paper asking for a major revision, with which you completely disagree?
    What would be your response? Would you appeal to the editor by asking him/her to make the final decision, would you be weak and amend what you believe is right, would you argue back with facts, would you re-submit the paper to another journal?
    Godfred A Menezes · Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research- JIPMER, India (past), Erasmus MC, Holland (past), Sree Balaji Medical College & Hospital (Current)

    Dr. Mahfuz, 

    The authors can reach the Reviewers through EIC. Names of the Reviewers are never revealed by the EIC.

    That is authors would email the EIC posting the queries they have against the Reviewers Comments.

    EIC would forward it to the Reviewers if he thinks if its apt and worthwhile to drag the issue (if the manuscript can still make a way in their journal).

  • How can we use SERVQUAL with fuzzy set theory to measure teaching quality (performance) within academic institutes?

    Various techniques such as SERVPERF, SERVQUAL / weighted SERVQUAL are being used for measuring service quality in banking, airlines, restaurants, etc. Is there a review on evaluation of different models of service quality using fuzzy set theory ?

    Sylantyev Sergiy · Kyiv National Economic University

    Dear @Mahmoud, theory of fuzzy sets can not be improved due to the fundamental features of the method associated with the loss of information. Firstly on fuzzification stage (the loss of information), and secondly on the defuzzification stage (the loss of information). The use of any methods to combine and hybridize any metrics can not make up this loss of information.

  • Gifty Abera added an answer in Plant Biotechnology
    Can anyone give advice on the full protocol of how to extract total protein from leaf sample to run SDS-PAGE and 2D?
    I am working on the abiotic stresses in relation to plant hormones and want to add proteomics in my study.
    Gifty Abera · Ghent University

    Hi Prakash kalita, 

    i can see that you had a experience in proteomics . I believe i can get a good guidance from you. I want to do the proteomics from freeze dried  powder of indigenous African potato tuber.  I have access to Kejeldahl for measuring the protein content. 

    I will appreciate if you have some protocol.