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  • FC Prinsloo added an answer in Green Energy:
    What actually is green energy?

    Green energy or Alternative energy-- which is the best coin?

    FC Prinsloo

    Dear Abhidit

    To my knowledge, green energy is defined in general as energy that comes from resources which are naturally replenished, including sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.

    I think it is better term than alternative energy as this term is more descriptive of change in energy source, of which green or renewable energy is a subset. 


  • Girish G N added an answer in Image Segmentation:
    Is it possible to extract a region based on its area?

    I am  working on segmentation,my segmented image contain 2 regions which have same intensity,so is it possible to extract the region of interest based on its area??

    Thank you

    Girish G N

    regionprops will be the best function to extract the segmented regions

  • Zameer Gulzar asked a question in Higher Education:
    Scholarly sources ( articles) and statistics.

    Does Anybody need scholarly sources ( articles) and statistics on Indian higher education?.

  • Jekishan Kantilal Parmar added an answer in Postgraduate Studies:
    What is the simple and best simulator that can be used to simulate VANETS? Can NS2 alone can be used to simulate routing algorithms in VANET?

    Have to do the simulation for Collaborative learning Automata based routing for vehicular sensor networks as part of my post graduation project. Currently working with NS2? Is  adding IEEE 802.11p parameters in manet is sufficient to convert into VANET ? or we have to go for other simulators like MOBISIM,SUMO ?

    Jekishan Kantilal Parmar

    You can have OMNETPP IDE installed which is an open source platform and upon it you can import VEINS, which is an open source simulator for VANETs. Here, I have also attached the link for the same. It also has a good documentation, which can help you.

    + 1 more attachment

  • Vikram Zaveri added an answer in Photons:
    How can you explain a possible inconsistency with the Bohr atom model?

    It is well known that Bohr model is not totally right. But I recently discovered a very curious inconsistency (if I am right) which I haven't seen explained anywhere.

    The first postulate of Bohr theory is that the Orbital momentum of the electron is quantized L=mvr=nh  (where h  means the Dirac constant). This means that if there is a transition between level n=5  to n=1  (Balmer series) the orbital momentum changes by 4h  !!! Based on this rule and his second postulate Bohr finds the right energy for this transition (and all others as well). But this transition is a release of just one photon and a photon has spin 1h  . It can add to L as (h,0,−h)  . So it can change the orbital momentum with 1,0  or −1  and not by 4.  I'm very surprised to make such conclusion.

    Am I wrong here?

    Vikram Zaveri

    Speaking strictly about of the Bohr model only, I have to say that you are unnecessarily mixing up orbital momentum of electron with photon spin 1. When you talk about Bohr model, there is no need to talk about photon spin at all. Secondly, there is no need to talk about Quantum mechanics of Dirac and Heisenberg. Thirdly, there is no need to talk about Hamiltonian of Schrodinger Wave mechanics. These later developments of atomic model have thrown out of the window, couple of basic formula of Bohr model. Bohr model is based on the wave property of electron orbit which puts following restriction on the orbital radii.
                                                    2*pi*r = n*Lambda.
    where Lambda is the De Broglie wavelength of the electron wave. In Bohr model, orbital velocity of electron is given by
                                                v = e^2*k*Z / (h_bar*n).
    From the first formula you can see that for n=1 state, there is only one standing wave. For n=5. the circumference of the orbit is made up of five de Broglie waves. From second formula, you can see that the velocity of electron is five times greater for n =1 than for n = 5. Therefore photon spin has nothing to do with the transition from n =5 to n = 1. If you put the velocity formula in Rydberg constant, you will find that                                     

                                                 R = m*v^2*n^2 / 2.
    Therefore quantized energy level are simply the kinetic energy

                                                  E = m*v^2 / 2.

  • Zameer Gulzar asked a question in Research Topics:
    Research Topic.........

    Does anybody need Research Topic on Artificial Intelligence, Knowledge Management.?

  • Anil kumar Mutyala added an answer in Polarity:
    Which one is polar? ethynyl-bridged bisphthalocyanine complex or ethynyl-phthalocyanine complex?
    Which one is polar? ethynyl-bridged bisphthalocyanine complex or ethynyl-phthalocyanine complex?​

    see the reference for more details   

    Which one is polar? ethynyl-bridged bisphthalocyanine complex or ethynyl-phthalocyanine complex?

    Anil kumar Mutyala

    Dear Cem, Thank you very much for calculation.

    I also observed in TLC ethynyl-bridged bisphthalocyanine complex as a polar spot.

  • Gert Nolze added an answer in Grazing:
    What peaks will I observe in a out-of-plane grazing incidence XRD spectrum of a single-crystal film?

    I have a (001) oriented single-crystal film. Will I see the (001) peak in case of out-of-plane Grazing incidence XRD scan? If not, what peaks should I expect to see?

    I am sorry, if it is a trivial question.

    Gert Nolze

    Abil, you are right for poly-crystalline films but for single-crystalline it would be inlikely that you will measure in this zone, except you are rotating your sample. But even then you will detect this interference for just some moments.

  • Aarthy M asked a question in MestReNova:
    Is this peak area or proton integral in NMR spectra?

    I would like to know what proton integral they have given in the paper I have enclosed below. Its above 500. Is it peak area or something else? (I have highlighted the text in yellow).

    If it is peak area, how can I find it using Mestrenova?

  • Xiaojing Tang asked a question in Euchromatin:
    Are the results of chromosome banding all the same in different tissues?

    We know that many genes are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Mechanisms include the remodeling of heterochomatin and euchromatin. I wonder now  if there's any way of high-resolution chromosome banding could show such difference? Or is there any other ways of staining could indicate that one gene is located in heterochromatin or euchromatin?


  • Jaysukh B Kathiriya added an answer in Pathogens:
    What is the best method for isolation of Listeria spp. from various animal origin foods

    Many pathogens causing food toxicity.Listeria is common pathogens among them. so it's necessary to identify this pathogens properly.

    Jaysukh B Kathiriya

    Thank you Sir

  • Ron Reiserer added an answer in Speed Control:
    Is it possible for Electronic Speed Controller (ESC) to turn brushless motor clockwise and anti clockwise?

    I am about to use brushless motor for my hovercraft project which include Arduino, GSM Shield and Android apps for system control. Helps will be highly appreciated. Thank you.

    Ron Reiserer

    An H-Bridge would simply reverse the polarity of the line it is connected to (essentially a 180o phase shift on a brushless DC motor line). This is not really what you need to reverse the motor. A three phase motor has a phases difference of 120o, reversing one phase would would not maintain this relationship.

    Most ECS's have 8 lines. Two for the battery source for the motor (thick wires), three for the motor (thick wires), and three for the logic (thin wires). Some ESC's can supply voltage to run a receiver so you don't need a separate battery and do so through the logic connector so you won't want to connect that +V to your Arduino if you have that kind of ESC.

    Can you provide any information about your ESC? Model number? Motor control chip number? Then more specific information may be provided.

  • Sheeba Naz asked a question in Adolescents:
    How to find a questionnaire for time series survey on use and misuse of digital devices?

    I am doing cross sectional survey on use of touch screen devices by adolescents .It is a time use survey .My objectives are to exlplore use of smartphones, tablet,chrome booksThis time use survey gives a view to estimate the time spent by adolescents and their parents on TSD and to study the  gender discrimination in  using TSD Cyber safety education should go hand in hand with the usage of technology. Therefore the title of the study will be “Time -use Study of Digital Devices used by Children”.


    •           To study time use of touch screen devices by adolescents.

    •           To study the parental involvement with the adolescents who use Touch Screen     

                 Devices (TSD) .

    •           To analyze the time- use of TSD in educational purposes.

    •          To study apps used for education by adolescents.

               •          To study the behaviors of adolescents who use TSD .

    •           To explore behavioral problems of adolescents due to excessive use of TSD.

    •           To study the awareness regarding digital wellness  among adolescents.  

     •          To explore   most widely used apps by adolescents.

    •           To explore TSD activities helping in academics.

    •          To study the total screen time by adolescents on TSD per day.

    •           To explore the behaviors of children of parents who use TSD .

    Please help me in finding the tool for this survey.

  • Amir Hassan Zadeh added an answer in Google Analytics:
    Is anyone working with social media data?

    or using google analytics or other tools? any recommendation please?

    I am working with social media data, one of the chapter of my PhD. Facebook, Twitter,Instagram, Google +,Thumbl etc. I want to know the best way to gather my data. Thank you 

    Amir Hassan Zadeh

    All of the social media platforms have apis that you can use to get data in and out programattically.

  • Erini Abdelmessih asked a question in Grounded Theory:
    What is the most appropriate qualitative approach?

    In my qualitative study I will ask ethnic patients regarding their health care preferences and needs so to manage their disease. Then,  I will ask them to validate a proposed patient-centred care model based on their preferences and needs. I read extensively, and not sure whether phenomenology would suit (given that patient perspective is sought) or would it have to be grounded theory given that I am developing a patient centered care model for a certain patient group? Thanks 

  • Ratan Khuman added an answer in Spondylolisthesis:
    Is there any study on impact of mobilization on grade I and II Spondylolisthesis at L5-S1 Level?

    type of spinal mobilization technique with outcomes

    Ratan Khuman

    Dear Shakil, thanks for putting up this question in RG. As per my clinical experience YES relocation mobilization is benefit in Grade I & II Spondylolisthesis patients. Here the aim of mobilization is not to improve the ROM but to re-align the anteriorly shifted vertebrae. I have used AP glide using intra-abdominal pressure in almost 250 patents with grade I or II spondylolisthesis (L4 over L5 or L5 over S1). Till now I didn't find any adverse effect with this technique. When we applied the AP glide with correct dosage, many of patient achieved immediate pain relief, improve SLR range, bed mobility, gait and other ADLs. Therapist need to be very precise about the targeted vertebrae & its required dosage. Performing AP glide in such condition should be always with cautions. I do not have any published article to support my clinical experience.

    Mobilization alone should not design in treatment protocol. Segmental Core muscle activation starting with Level-1 will always reinforce the effect of mobilization. Global core muscle activation may be added in following.

  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer in Student Engagement:
    In brief, how do you sustain the students' engagement, enjoyment, happiness and enthusiasm in the design studio?

    Teaching Design is not about the final product itself, the process is the key for the experience. the struggle might be physical, mental and sometimes emotional. Sleep deprivation, depression, unconsciousness reflections ...and more.

    To sustain the students' envolvement and productivity during all that, the experience must be worth it!

    How do you achieve this in your studio? Starting from planning the tasks to the management of the studio itself?

    Krishnan Umachandran

    That was on school.....The students, parents, teachers and administration have a joint responsibility to ensure that such a learning environment is provided and consequently they have an obligation to implement and support the Student Engagement


    On studio....Geelong Grammar School may be suitable to get inputs....


  • Taib Iskandar Mohamad added an answer in Standardization:
    What are the regulated standards for Solar Hot Water Systems?

    I came across standards for SHWS from BS and SRCC. But are there any other standards worldwide I.e. ASME, ASHARE etc. Please help. Thank you.

    Taib Iskandar Mohamad

    Thanks Gerro

  • Muhammad Fazrul Qazwan Bin Mohd Zaki asked a question in Biodiesel:
    Do you think a car battery can survive in one hour non stop if we use it as power supply to conduct an experiment?

    Biodiesel experiment

  • Shama Parveen added an answer in Dielectric Constant:
    What is the dielectric constant of Carbon nanotubes and how can we find it?

    I want to use CNTs for sensing purpose. So I need it dielectric constant, plz suggest me. It will be appreciated, if provided the easiest method to find the DC of CNTs. 

    Shama Parveen

    thanks for response.

    in these papers, suggested methods are out of my approach. So, plz suggest other method, if possible.


  • Swati Verma added an answer in Nanoparticles:
    How do I disperse Aluminium nanoparticles in toulene?

    How to disperse Aluminium nanoparticles in toulene?

    Swati Verma

    Thank you V.N.Ravi

  • Pornima Kadam added an answer in Classroom Research:
    I am investigating the 'Art and Social Practice' program, do any educators have experience with this either in the classroom or as researcher?

    Has anyone applied their knowledge and or experience gained from the 'Art and Social Practice' program in a post secondary education setting? Or, what would be, or is the application of this program to education, public art, higher education practices, etc.? Do any recent graduates have jobs at PSU? 

    Pornima Kadam

    Ms. Mary,

    That's very interesting aspect. I have used Jurisprudence Model of teaching as a social practice in higher class. 

  • Helen Kas added an answer in Heat:
    How to remove agglomeration in heat treated powder samples of metal oxides?

    the samples were grinded and the heat treated at 1100 degree celcius. the size of samples was found in nano range. with passage of time, the agglomeration has been caused. how to remove the agglomeration?

    Helen Kas

    What is the use of controlling rpm in this problem sir

  • Arman Rezayati added an answer in Modeling:
    Does anyone know any good reference that comparisons between data-driven and non-data modeling?

    Does anyone know any good reference that comparisons between data-driven and non-data modeling?

    Arman Rezayati

    Dear Ahmad

    Thank you very much.

  • Guy Jakeman added an answer in Rationality:
    How do the economists define self-interest and rationality?

    How do the economists define self-interest and rationality so as to make these concepts different from the animal instincts, beast behaviour, and barbarism? What is that which forms and what is that which does not form the self-interest? Moreover, are these the behavioural guides for all individuals? Are these the collective guides for policy making? 

    Given the propensity for free riding in each economic-beast, does not the collective policy results into a collective free riding of those who make policies over those who do not?

    Guy Jakeman

    Hi Yoshinori,

    On reading more of the phrases you use to explain things I am going to change my position w.r.t. post #104 and say that the logical flaw is actually with your interpretation of what it is people are maximising.

    Restating your transitivity of preferences and utility maximisation logic:

    "For example, imagine we have a countably infinite set S of alternatives and an objective function U. We can number all elements of S. The set of all elements that have number less than or  equal to N is denoted S(N). Then consider the next mathematical inference:

    (a) We can choose a maximal solution in S(1), i.e. the element that gives the maximal value U(x) among all x in S(1).

     (b) If we can choose a maximal solution among S(N), then we can choose a maximal solution for S(N+1).

    (c) Then we can choose a maximal solution for any set S(N).

     In this inference, proposition (a) is trivial, because there is only one element. Proposition (b) is much more plausible than the baldness case, because we can compare the maximal solutions x* of S(N) and x(N+1). Then x** = max{x*, x(N+1)} gives a maximal solution of S(N+1). However, as you can easily guess it, proposition (c) is not valid for a humble human being. This proposition is equivalent to claim that you can find a winning strategy for any game that satisfies the theorem I cited in my first post.

    Guy Jakeman 124 does not understand this subtle logic. One can improve his or her state without limit if they invest more time or resource. "

    This (a), (b), (c) logic is fine. The question is "what is a maximal solution"? Using your example that when playing a game of Chess or Go you believe that the maximal solution is to win the game. Yes it is true that people would (generally) be aiming to win. However, that they fail to win is not an example of the failure of the transitivity of preferences axiom or that people are acting in ways that they expect with improve their utility. It is actually a failure to be able to have all of the information available and/or the time to gather and process it. I make my first move in a game "imperfectly" because my goal of winning the game is constrained by the fact that I do not have perfect knowledge of what the perfect move is nor do I have an infinite amount of time to obtain it. I need to go home and bathe the baby, have dinner, do the dishes and try and catch up on some sleep.

    Hence I only have a limited amount of time available to make my decision with the limited amount of information I possess (much of which has been accumulated from my previous experiences in playing the game). Me making an imperfect move is a priori utility maximising across the multiple considerations in my life, not least of which is that I only have a finite amount of time available to me.

    Consequently, I AM choosing the action that I believe will bring me the maximal amount of utility (across the whole breadth of my desires and not just in one specific area). In essence, the utility maximising action is a portfolio problem.

    Additional complexity arises from the fact that as soon as I act I experience the consequence of that action and I learn. Hence, my utility function is continuously adapting and is never a fixed thing.

    Finally, in terms of the number of alternatives in S(N), they are actually finite because I have no knowledge of many things I could possibly do with my meagre time and resources. New experiences will increase the size of N while imperfect memories will decrease it.


    (1) It is always possible to build and keep consistent preference among possible states.
    (2) It is always possible to find the solution (maximal solution) that gives the maximal value of the utility function u. 

    BUT the states are constantly changing and the expected utility being maximised does not include things that I haven't experienced yet (or may have forgotten).

  • Tree Happy asked a question in Phylogenetic Tree:
    How to combine support values generated from different method into one single tree?

    Hello everyone, recently,when building phylogenetic trees, I run into one question-how to combine the support values from two trees into one single tree? which software or which method is the best and most popular solution? Thanks very much for any help!

  • Dismas Choge asked a question in Lithium Niobate:
    Which sofware can i use to model reverse proton exchange waveguides?

    Buried waveguides in periodically poled Lithium Niobate(PPLN) are achieved by annealing proton exchanged waveguide followed by reverse proton exchange to obtained a circular geometry. I would like to model this waveguide first before fabrication. Can someone guide me on how to go about it and if possible let me know where I can get the software.

  • Subhash C. Juneja asked a question in Climate Change:
    How we can change climate?

    The conference of climate change is underway- How demonstrations are helping them? Though it is each one's responsibility. Are these demonstrations political or real people?

  • Mohan Venkatappa added an answer in Pedigree:
    Which pedigree software do you suggest ?

    We are looking to buy new pedigree software for our lab. I have used cyrillic, I found it difficult to convert it to JPEG.

    Mohan Venkatappa