ResearchGate Q&A lets scientists and researchers exchange questions and answers relating to their research expertise, including areas such as techniques and methodologies.

Browse by research topic to find out what others in your field are discussing.

Browse Topics

  • Do you think there is a need for bridging the gap between academia (researchers) and development practitioners? If so, how?

    Over the past decade, based on my practical experience in projects on capacity building and project monitoring and evaluation, I have noted that many international development agencies have broadened their activities on capacity development and knowledge sharing. Responding to this need, many academic institutes are offering their expertise by expanding their scope beyond the research community, by including stakeholders such as policy makers and development practitioners in the process of knowledge generation, providing consultancy to decision-makers and agencies committed to development. Despite this convergence of focus on development, a wide gap still exists: knowledge transfer between the two is limited, collaboration is limited and there is still a dearth of relevant knowledge reaching Southern stakeholders. Many efforts to bridge this gap have been initiated; almost as many have failed. (Ferguson, 2005).

    For further detail here is a link:


    Mahfuz Judeh · Applied Science Private University

    Yes of course. This is a long standing problem. There should be contacts or coordinations to bridge the gap between academia (researchers) and development practitioners.

    Some universities in Jordan has established some kind of partnership with industries, through what is called, "Doctor (Academic) for each factory or industry". This kind of partnership is for mutual benefits.

  • venkata reddy Bandugula added an answer in DNAse:
    Can we use HPLC grade water for molecular biology purpose?

    Is it DNAse and proteinase-free?

    venkata reddy Bandugula · Chonbuk National University

    Dear Friend,

    I, myself, don't have good answer for your question. But i think the following discussion will help u.


    The following answer by Dr.Miguel

    As far as I know both DNase free water and HPLC grade are prepared filtering water. In fact milliQ water and others are also "Dnase free" if you handle them carefully. I would never use DEPC treated water. You have many compound of degradation of DEPC after inactivation that do not interfere PCRs or RT but they can be a problem in other reactions (we work with NMR and we don't use it even when we are determining RNA structures). In any case, if you are not able to obtain water from a milliQ column and at the end you are going to buy it, 100ml of DNAse free water are more expensive than 1 or even 2.5l of HPLC grade water.

  • Lito Perez Cruz added an answer in Model Checking:
    Is there someone here who has used SMT - Satisfiability Modulo Theories?
    I would like to know what areas they are applying SMT to and to connect.
    Lito Perez Cruz · Monash University (Australia)

    Hi Ismaila,

    It seems that SMT highly surfaces in hardware verification.

    That is nice to know. My interest in the question is that in my project I have formulated a logical framework for combining logics and it is suspected that this formulation subsumes SMT. I am working on confirming that angle. It is presently called Logico Modulo Theories (LMT).

    Thanks for the input.


  • Kai Lin Woon asked a question in Gaussian:
    Gaussian calculation of excited states

    I am interested in calculating excimer emission from exciton coupling between two monomers  using Gaussian.

    Does it mean I just input two monomers with a defined intermolecular distance and then use Long range corrected TD-DFT to calculate the excimer emission?

  • Thanusha Av Ajay added an answer in Gelatin:
    How to prepare Gelatin microspheres?

    can any one tell the detailed protocol for synthesis..

    Thanusha Av Ajay · Indian Institute of Technology Delhi

    thanks a lot Hiep Nguyen,,,,

  • Cecilia Salsinha added an answer in Quality Control:
    How do I improve my R script for quality control?

    I have to make a script for quality control but the result not same as the journal. How do i improve my R script. This is the algorithm (file attached)

    Cecilia Salsinha · Gadjah Mada University

    i've reply your mail Mr... :)

  • Alok Ranjan added an answer in Wireless:
    Wireless sensors

    Are there any wireless sensors to measure residual stress (strain) and temperature for moving part (during experiment) that can be ran simultaneously? My pipe rotates at very slow speed (max speed:10mm/s). Thanks.

    Alok Ranjan · National Institute of Technology Rourkela

    Well , i have not applied sensor motes to capture temperature for such higher temperature domain.  You should go through the commercial websites and there you will find their range. If the temperature monitoring ranges seems not suitable for your application then you can drop a mail and may quote for the customization. what i have mentioned in the last answer is widely used sensor motes, not only in academics but also in commercial places.

  • Sally Crane asked a question in Inosine:
    Can primers using high numbers of inosine be used for qPCR of environmental samples?

    We are evaluating the use of multiple primer sets to detect alkB in environmental soil samples and some of the primers previously used have several degenerate bases and/or inosine residues. Has anyone had previous experience with combining such primers with qPCR? 

  • Koushik Majumdar asked a question in Values:
    How to assess the habitat suitability of less distributed critically endangered trees?

    Most of the existing habitat suitability index (HSI) modeling are related to wildlife, very rarely used in case of plants. It is a simple mathematical expressions for calculating one or more environmental variables, not related to demography and survival of parental and their offsprings. The calculated HSI values typically mapped and analyzed potential distribution and high value indicated more suitable habitat, whereas low value is unsuitable habitat.

  • Any ideas for fleet and energy storage optimization for Electric Shuttle Buses :Linear programming or Simulation which one is better?

    I want to optimize the fleet and battery for electric shuttle buses in my campus with constraints and mixed fleets. Pls tell me the program or algorithm that suit for this condition. 

  • Do you know of any connection between ancient Greek and Chinese medicine and/or civilization?

    Recently my interest in ancient Greek medicine has been growing. I think there may be some connection with traditional chinese medicine, particularly regarding the theoretical model. I am interested to know if you are aware of any kind of connection between these two civilizations that could explain some kind of overlapping knowledge in the field of medicine.

    Omboon Vallisuta · Mahidol University

    From my study there is more correlation between Greek and Ayuraveda. Traditional Thai Medicine also derived from Indian medicine and the physiology of our bodies are the Tridosha; Kapha, Pitta and Vata while Chinese has Yin and Yang. The ancient Greek also mention the 6 principle Jakras which are the same as those in Ayuraveda; Munladhara (root), Svatischtana (hip/genitals), Manipura (navel),Anahata (heart) Visuddha (throat), Ajna (third eye), and Sahastrara (crown). Moreover Unani Medicine also has similar paradigmas Ayuraveda. The medicinal plants used in Unani Medicine are very similar to Thai medicine. In my opinion as a Pharmacist it is easier to match the Tridosha system to western medicine.

  • Zin Mar Myo asked a question in LTE:
    How to run lte on ns-3.20

    I have done tests on tutorial of ns-3.For example: examples/tutorial.first.cc under drive ns-3.20,./waf -d debug --enable-examples --enable-tests configure   ...and than ./waf --run examples/tutorial/first.cc ; All of these are okay.However I need to test on lte. I have found lte module(lena) under src/lte/lena.I want to know how to run these files under this drive.

  • Cecilia Salsinha added an answer in Quality Control:
    How do you find UCL (upper control limit) and LCL (lower control limit)?
    In the attached article, it said that we can find the central limit by the mean of posterior distribution. How do we find the UCL and LCL if we don't know the formula of UCL and LCL?
    Cecilia Salsinha · Gadjah Mada University

    yes, if i'm not take beta based on the assumption i have an error result Mr...

  • Snehal Ingale added an answer in Thermophilic:
    How to preserve thermophilic organisms?

    I had preserved my thermophilic organisms by preparing glycerol stocks but everytime when i am reviving it they are not growing again on plates ...please suggest some methods

    Snehal Ingale · ARIBAS

    Sarabjeet, If your isolated thermophilic organisms are spore formers then you can grow the culture to  their sporulation stage and store them either by soil stocks or glycerol stocks.

  • Nagendra sastry Yarla asked a question in CTAB:
    Is there any protocol to isolate DNA from plant source without liquid nitrogen?

    Is there any protocol to isolate DNA from plant source using CTAB method without liquid nitrogen?

  • N. S. Balaji asked a question in Dielectric Constant:
    How do I determine the dielectric constant of a natural fiber Reinforced Composite material

    if possible to measure the Dielectric Constant

  • Zhenglong Sun added an answer in Medical Robotics:
    Reduce the hand tremors in assistant medical robot?

    To reduce or eliminate the hand tremors in assistant medical robot which control methodology can be introduced?

    Zhenglong Sun · Singapore University of Technology and Design

    One of the advantage incorporating robotics in medical operation is to reduce the hand tremor of the surgeon. In general, I will say there are two types of approaches for doing so. One way is to separate the tremor source, such as using master-slave setup. So the tool is actuated by robot rather than human directly. Examples as the da Vinci Surgical System, and the EYE robot by JHU. 

    The other way is to actively detect and compensate the hand tremor of the user. There are a few researches working on actively compensation of the hand tremor during microsurgery, such as retinal surgery. Examples as the hand-held active tremor compensation instrument developed by W.T. Ang, C. N. Riviere, and U.-X. Tan et al. 

    Detailed control methodology could be found in their publications. I guess for both cases, the control method depends on the actuation mechanism applied. Hope these info helps. 

    Best Regards,


  • Can you identify this species?

    The properties will show its location with GPS readings. Its seen at Gujarat coast, INDIA. Usually seen commonly with zoanthids (My research organisms)

    Khushali M Pandya · The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda

    Are these Green ones Bryozoans???

    I am working on Zoanthids and these were seen along with them.... While referencing I came across Bryozoa association with zoanthids. therefore I am now confused.

  • Amit Manocha asked a question in Segmentation:
    Please suggest classifier for Ischemia having 5 features of ST segment in ECG signals

    hi, i have five features for ST segment Deviation : Energy, Mean, SD, kurtosis, slope. 

  • Abstract in Meta-analysis: To include or not to include?

    I am performing a meta-analysis and my search was extended to EMBASE.

    As part of the process I have retrieved a few abstracts that were included in some congress abstract books. The results of these congress communications are not yet published as full papers, but still some data is potentially extractable from these abstracts and could be included in the meta-analysis.

    Should I include them and state it in the Materials and methods section?

    I know that they have low quality evidence that could possibly bias the research but wouldn't it be worse to exclude something that could be counted?

    Thank you very much for your suggestions!

    Tracy Merlin · University of Adelaide

    Whole-heartedly agree, Constantine.

  • What is parallel programming in High performance computation?
    Can anyone provide me the materials regarding this parallel programming in image processing in matlab and openCV. I wanted to work in image processing field in opencv and in matlab. If me you could provide me with some papers related to applications of parallel programming in gesture recognition (image processing) that would be appreciated.
    Kinjal Prajapati · Nirma University

    Hi Rashmi,I think you should go for the video tutorial at Udacity for the course Intro To Parallel Programming. These are the videos for parallel processing in image processing.It may help you. Mathwork also provide the tutorials for GPU Computing with matlab.

  • Oleg Nemtsev added an answer in Publishing:
    Should professors jointly publish papers with students?

    At what point should/could a student be encouraged to publish a worthwhile, viable paper on his own vs. the professor adding his name?  Consider the academic level of the professor/student collaboration:  undergraduate, master's, doctoral.  What is the amount and value of the professor's contribution--a minor edit, a substantial rewrite, repeating an experiment, etc.--that determines when the professor and student should publish jointly?  Whose name goes first?  Is joint publishing a misuse of a student's work?  Should professors give students with potentially publishable papers all the help they need without requiring their names be used? 

    Oleg Nemtsev · Adyghe State University

    Dear MaryHelen,
    If professor is co-author of paper without participation in its writing or if his/her participation is 99%, but he/she is second author it is not science. It is problem of system of education and science. And nobody says "no problem".

  • Ravi Kumar Chanana asked a question in Low-Voltage:
    Does stress induced leakage current occur in jet vapor deposited silicon nitride?

    It is a phenomenon that occurs at low voltages in SiO2

  • Are there simple guides to analyse video recordings?
    I have more than a dozen videos recorded from class observations. Are there any simpler and faster ways to analyse and transcribe these recordings?
    Krishnan Umachandran · Nelcast Ltd.,

    Analysis of video recordings is an approach to archive the activities for a detailed observation and study. This can be helpful identifying various "missed to note" factors while carrying out a study. It is not possible to recover the details of talk through field observation alone, and if it is relevant to consider how people orient bodily, point to objects, grasp artifacts, and in other ways articulate an action or produce an activity its
    unlikely that one could grasp little more than passing sense of what happened.

  • Arnab Kumar Banerjee added an answer in Logic:
    What logically follows from theory of evolution?

    what is the logical conclusion that follows from theory of evolution?

    Arnab Kumar Banerjee · udaysagar University

    what evolutionery process can be acting on HIV virus population? how they evole and from whom?

  • What is the application of CFD in chemical Engineering?

    I want to know major research areas in Computational fluid dynamics field? 

    Subhasish Mitra · University of Newcastle

    Very correct indeed. From macroscopic problem like heat, mass, momentum transfer coupled with reactions in chemical process industry to micro-scale level applications, CFD is used ubiquitously to treat variety of problems. Also, simulation of solid liquid gas suspension using DEM-CFD and LBM methods and solid structure and fluid interaction (FSI) are few emerging areas of CFD field.

  • Ravi Kumar Chanana asked a question in Work Function:
    How is the work function of heavily doped poly-silicon carbide affected by temperature?

    doped poly-silicon carbide may be needed as gate contact for SiC devices.

  • Yuan-Yeu Yau added an answer in Digital PCR:
    What is Digital PCR?

    I would like to know about Digital PCR. What is the differences between Digital PCR and conventional PCR? some application for it? any advantage than conventional PCR?

    Yuan-Yeu Yau · Northeastern State University

    Hi Mahboubeh,

    This article "Digital PCR: Separating from the Pack" published by Biotechniques (03/05/2014, Nathan S. Blow, PhD) uses "plain language" to describe Digital PCR, including its development history, and what exactly is Digital PCR. It should be useful for people want to know the basics of Digital PCR. You can assess this article by clicking on the link below: