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  • Does anyone know about the sources related to Social Exclusion in India and other texts or research books at international level?

    I'm working on Dalit women and Social Exclusion: A study of the Chamar Women in Post colonial Uttar Pradesh. I want suggestions, sources related to Dalit women in Uttar Pradesh, material / texts Social Exclusion and Chamar women related sources in Historical perspective. 

    Sharifah Syahirah SS · Kolej Poly-Tech Mara

    Hi. I ve heard and discussed about this issue in 2 conferences. There are few NGOs reports on this matter.

  • So-called Top-Down-Causation: Old Aristotelian Wine in New Bottles?

    I have found anecdotal evidence --see below-- indicating that the Aristotelian notion of 'Causa Finalis' (a.k.a. teleological causation), which is not accepted as proper causation in the modern concept of science, is being advocated again under a new label, namely: 'Top-Down-Causation'.

    Though I am rather skeptical about this new teleological attempt --from a terminological point of view I consider it as an example of an inappropriate use of the word 'causation'-- I would like to discuss this problem with philosophers and experts from the life-sciences, or with any scholar who believes that that 'Causa Efficiens' alone (based on the transmission of energy) does not suffice for proper explanations in the natural sciences.

    For clarification: I am not interested here in the figurative-metaphorical use of the word 'causation', such as --for example-- in: "The fact that my manuscript was rejected by the editor 'causes' me to feel sad". Moreover I presume that participants in this discussion will have inspected at least one of the several attachments provided below.

    Top-Down Causation and the Rise of Information in the
    Emergence of Life
    Sara Imari Walker



    Biological systems represent a unique class of physical systems in how they
    process and manage information. This suggests that changes in the flow and distribution of information played a prominent role in the origin of life. Here I review and expand on an emerging conceptual framework suggesting that the origin of life may be identified as a transition in causal structure and information flow, and detail some of the implications for understanding the early stages chemical evolution.

  • What are the specific differences between test, measure, scale, inventory, and questionnaire?
    Development and validation study on Psychology.
    Aisha Adamu · Federal Medical Centre, Birnin-Kebbi; Walden University, USA

    Hi Mustafa,

    Just like a test, a scale is a measure of the extent to which a variable of interest exists in a population of interest (i.e respondents) but unlike a test, a scale is usually applied to measurement of variables whose existence cannot be assessed by a single question or item; a scale therefore comprises a group of items that are seek to measure one dimension of the variable of interest.

    I view a questionnaire a vehicle via which a test or a scale could be used to measure a variable; a questionnaire is wider in its perspective and usually contains items that are not directly concerned with measurement of the variable of interest (for example biodata),

    The topic is confusing especially because some authors use the terms interchangeably while others make a distinction between them. I like to believe that they differ to some extent and i hope my little contribution has not added to the confusion.

    You may find the following reference useful.

    Frankfort-Nachmias, C., & Nachmias, D. (2008). Research methods in the social sciences (7th ed.). New York: Worth


  • Daryn Dyer added an answer in Questionnaire:
    Where can I find PEAQ and its scoring scale please?

    I need to locate the Personally Expressive Activities Questionnaire (PEAQ), any assistance is appreciated.

    Daryn Dyer · York University

    Hi Janine,

    Here is the PEAQ broken down into PPT format.....hope it helps.


  • Cora Anne Romanow added an answer in Predators:
    What are the herd prey reactions to predators (lions) living in close proximity and witnessing predator kills?

    I have been searching for evidence (mostly on Youtube) of herd reactions to lions taking down a herd member.  Are there any descriptions you know of?  I have the impression that when predators have taken prey the herd seems to return to normal behavior largely ignoring the kill and the predators, so long as they are at a certain distance.  Is this so?

    Cora Anne Romanow · The University of Winnipeg

    Animal behaviour is absolutely relevant to your question. :) This natural universe we live in is totally interconnected. I think very deep questions are best addressed by considering many angles. Also: how could you ignore the behaviours of animals when considering something so intimate about the animals themselves as their "consciousness of death"? (I don't mean to sound rude, I am genuinely curious about your point of view)

    I have seen mother elk grieve after the loss of their calves. One mom stood right in the spot her calf had been removed from (his dead body had been picked up by the ranch owner) and defended the spot as if her baby was still there. She (the mom) had many expressions of distress: wide eyes, flared nostrils, many head movements, pacing, and little worried vocalizations. 

    Whale mothers (I have heard) act in very similar ways. In fact, if a baby whale is taken, the mother (and sometimes other whales if they are in a group) follow the ship onto which the little guy was taken as it leaves. I also read something about a pair of brother whales singing sad songs and re-tracing their mother's last routes before she was killed (by a whaler or by a non-human predator I cannot recall). I will see if I can't find that for you.

    There is serious concern in the ethics of slaughtering cattle or other "live stock" (as they are disrespectfully referred to) in front of each other. It is painfully obvious that the animals become upset upon witnessing their kin be killed (especially if their kin screams and writhes). 

    I'll attach another two papers that you may find interesting. Again, relating to the scientific study of animals and their minds and behaviours... but absolutely part of the "answers" to the questions you seek. In my opinion you gotta hit all the scales. ;)

    ps: the paper in the last message was written by my supervisor: I claim no credit!

  • Hi! Can anyone share articles related to anti-violence against women & girls strategies - national or regional?

    Gender studies

    Women's rights


  • Hossein Talebi added an answer in Abaqus:
    System error code 1073740940 when using UEL ?

    I'm trying to run an analysis with a simple UEL subroutine that I wrote and after compiling, linking, analyzing the input file and the subroutine suddenly it crashes with this error:

    Abaqus Error: The executable standard.exe
    aborted with system error code 1073740940.
    Please check the .dat, .msg, and .sta files for error messages if the files

    has anyone encountered this before? I can not find a bug in my code (I write out all the matrices and they're all correct) I also checked everything else that comes to my mind.

    P.S: I can run other subroutines to the completed stage

    Hossein Talebi · University of New South Wales

    That error report is very vague. If the crash occurs in your user subroutine (you can check it by putting some print commands in your subroutines), then you need to debug it.

    -If it is your input data, you can pretty much isolate your user subroutine and call it from a Fortran main program given the input data. This way you will not need Abaqus at all.

    -It might also be just the subroutine interface where you do not create the right subroutine input output variables.

  • How can I find an invariant set of nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) systems?

    I want to find an invariant set of an ODE system. Are there some approaches to find it ? Could you provide some references which present the methods and examples? 

    Mohamed El Naschie · Alexandria University Alexanderia Egypt


    The VAK of vacuum fluctuation: spontaneous self-organization and complexity theory interpretation of high energy particle physics and the mass spectrum
    MS El Naschie - Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, 2003 - Elsevier
    The paper is a rather informal introduction to the concepts and results of the E-infinity
    Cantorian theory of quantum physics. The fundamental tools of complexity theory and non-
    linear dynamics (Hausdorff dimensions, fat fractals, etc.) are used to give what we think to ...
    Cited by 62 Related articles All 11 versions Cite Saved
    The concepts of E infinity: an elementary introduction to the Cantorian-fractal theory of quantum physics
    MS El Naschie - Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, 2004 - Elsevier
    ... and [4]. 5. The VAK of vacuum fluctuation and the main dimensions of ε (∞). Although
    quantum mechanics ... different dimensions [4]. The time is ripe now to explain the VAK,
    which stands for Vague Attractor of Kolmogorov [14]. To explain ...
    Cited by 140 Related articles All 3 versions Cite Saved
    VAK, vacuum fluctuation and the mass spectrum of high energy particle physics
    MS El Naschie - Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, 2003 - Elsevier
    We introduce a fundamental hypothesis identifying quantum vacuum fluctuation with the
    vague attractor of Kolmogorov, the so-called VAK. This Hamiltonian conterpart of a
    dissipative attractor is then modelled by ε (∞), topology as a “limit set” of a wild dynamics ...
    Cited by 40 Related articles All 7 versions Cite Saved

  • Nabil Morcos added an answer in Neutrons:
    Is (2n,f) or (3n,f) reaction possible? if yes, will the mechanisms of such reactions be the same ?

    Actually we have cross sections for (n,f) type of reaction, but what will happen if 2 or 3 of the neutrons simultaneously incident on the target? will the cross section for such a reaction will be the same as the cross section of (n,f) reaction?

    Nabil Morcos · Macquarie University

    I believe Prof Dupont's attempt to answer the question is a bit clearer. The question was about "Simultaneous neutron reactions" and not successive capture. I think the physics analysis for the processes must be carefully assessed. Maybe more of the possibility of a compound nucleus systematics?

  • Is there anyone who uses RETScreen to see the feasibility of a clean energy project?

    I want to know the use of RETScreen to see the energetics and economic feasibility of industrial waste heat recovery project.

    Fernando De Lima Caneppele · University of São Paulo

    Dear Ali Fguiri,
    In RETScreen the web-site you can find many support materials for clean energy projects.
    Especially recommend reading the manual - Clean Energy Project Analysis: RETScreen Engineering & Cases.
    It will certainly be useful for the use of software to check the viability of clean energy projects.

  • Is there any approach to define slab without periodicity in z-direction?

    Dear all,

    I want define a periodic slab in xy plane, and my slab has the net dipole,

    considering the intrinsic problems by  using the dipole correction, I prefer have the finite structure in z-direction (no vacuum definition)

    which theory and codes could be helpful to do this? 

    Yavar Taghipour · Atomic Energy Organization of Iran

    Dear Dr. Goumans,

    Thanks so much for your complete answer and discussion, 

    I found that using  slab+vacuum(3D) approach, leads to  unrealistic  results in the case of work function calculation for semiconductor oxide slab after adsorption of  organic molecules ( for example dyes on TiO2 slab) and I think  dipole correction is useful only for the small adsorbents and high loading (uniform surface coverage).

    At the other hand, building completely symmetric slab in Z-direction by adsorbing of  molecule in both sides of slab ( P_z=0) maybe solve the problem in some cases, but it is not pragmatic in all cases.

    Best regards.

  • What is the validity and accuracy of high frequency power measurement set up consisting of current probe, digital scope and software power module?
    Normally we measure power of high frequency signal using power sensor which convert the power of signal to power around its DC component then monitored by power meters .
    Now , is it valid if we use the system of current probe +digital scope +power module?
    Prasanna Waichal · Fiji National University

    Respected Prof. Julien,

    I answered the question keeping in view the usual "routine" research taking place in the academic/university level.

    In my view, I can say high frequency to range from about 10kHz to several GHz typically 5-6 GHz. Anything above are the classic microwave frequencies. THz are still the distant galaxies if not near-by-stars especially in the more common academic research! (There are however exceptions of the groups that are directly involved in the THz  R& D and application developments.)

    The power level that was under consideration range from few mW to several hundreds of Watts. We might not be interested in building large power-plants to pour hundred of MW at those High Frequencies!

    Thanks any way for your probing question! Have Happy Easter Holidays!

  • Does anyone know where I can acquire some skeletal models of armadillos and badgers?

    I am in need of skeletal specimens of digging mammals for teaching my Comparative Biomechanics course. I am open to models of other digging mammals as well. Thank you for any help you can provide.

  • Toula Kourgiantakis added an answer in Autism:
    What parameters one should consider while designing teaching learning material for children with autism?

    i want to design teaching learning material for autism children so what parameters i should consider for the same and is there any website while display teaching learning material for children with autism

    Toula Kourgiantakis · Centre for Addiction and Mental Health

    Hi Shalini,

    Many centres working with individuals who have autism use an applied behaviour analysis model (ABA) and many professionals are required to be ABA certified.  This approach shapes educational strategies.  I am pasting the link for the local ABA site which has a long list of articles, as well as the link for the international site.  



    I am also pasting the link for a children's mental health centre that does online courses on ABA and has one specifically designated for educators.  In case the link does not work, it is called the Geneva Centre for autism.



  • Suitable Organic working fluids for ORC cycle?

    I am working on feasibility analysis of ORC cycle for waste heat recovery with hot gases temperatures around 280 degree centigrade. I would like know the suitable working fluids for this temperature.

  • Michael L Sinnott added an answer in Beta 1-4 mannan oligosaccharides:
    Which use can be found for beta 1-4 mannan oligosaccharides?
    I need to know if 3 to 7 DP oligosaccharides from beta 1-4 mannan oligosaccharides can be used for food, feed or pharmaceuticals
    Michael L Sinnott · University of Huddersfield

    galactomannan was used as a dry strength agent in paper, but dp 7 is still a bit low

  • Aswati Vijaykumar asked a question in Coding:
    How can MATLAB code be converted to VHDL code?

    Is it possible to convert Matlab code to VHDL code directly.

  • Hanifah Adawiyah asked a question in Collagen:
    Why collagen extraction should be done at temperature 4-6°C?

    I've read some article about collagen extraction from fish waste. Some article said that all procedure should be done at 4-6°C to reduce chain fragmentation. Why it should be done at that temperature, whereas the denaturation temperature of collagen is about 30-40°C. Is it okay if the procedure done under 4°C or more than 6°C?


  • Chaoyun Liang added an answer in Self-efficacy:
    Does anyone have research to suggest me where an interview questionnaire is available in connection with the self-efficacy for primary students ?

    I'm looking for interview questionnaire in connection with the self-efficacy for primary students. Does anyone have research to suggest me where the questionnaire is available? Thank you very much for your help.

    Chaoyun Liang · National Taiwan University

    Hi Danna,

    Please find the attached two files. The first one is designed for the schoolers. The second one is a research paper for revising the GSE (items in p. 79).

    Enjoy them.

  • Daryn Dyer added an answer in Papers:
    Are there any management articles that use the term magical realism?

    I am interested in tracking down either empirical or theoretical papers.

    Daryn Dyer · York University

    Here is plenty to get you started, interesting concept....

    Arva, E. L. (2008). Writing the Vanishing Real: Hyperreality and Magical Realism. Journal of Narrative Theory, 38(1), 60-85.

    Reeds, K. (2006). Magical realism: A problem of definition. Neophilologus, 90(2), 175-196.

    Warnes, C. (2005). Naturalizing the supernatural: Faith, irreverence and magical realism. Literature Compass, 2(1).

    Caminero-Santangelo, M. (2005). The Pleas of the Desperate": Collective Agency versus Magical Realism in Ana Castillo's" So Far from God. Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature, 81-103.

    Hart, S. M. (2004). Cultural Hybridity, Magical Realism, and the Language of Magic in Paulo Coelho's The Alchemist. Romance Quarterly, 51(4), 304-312.

    Palma, J. G. (2002). The magical realism of Brazilian economics: how to create a financial crisis by trying to avoid one. John Eatwell and Lance Taylor, ed, 391-432.

    Walter, R. (1999). Pan-American (Re) Visions: Magical Realism and Amerindian Cultures in Susan Power's" The Grass Dancer", Gioconda Belli's" La Mujer Habitada", Linda Hogan's" Power", and Mario Vargas Llosa's" El Hablador". American Studies International, 63-80.

    Strecher, M. C. (1999). Magical realism and the search for identity in the fiction of Murakami Haruki. Journal of Japanese Studies, 263-298.

    de Rios, M. D. (1997). Magical realism: a cultural intervention for traumatized Hispanic children. Cultural Diversity and Mental Health, 3(3), 159.

    Conniff, B. (1990). The Dark Side of Magical Realism: Science, Oppression, and Apocalypse in One Hundred Years of Solitude. MFS Modern Fiction Studies, 36(2), 167-179.

  • Is there a way to remove NBT/BCIP residues from glass slides?

    I am doing ISH in cryosections, and when I develop the staining in drops, or sometimes in a container, some NBT/BCIP residues stick to the slide, and make it harder to get a good picture of the staining, due to the background colouring. Is there a way to wash away the residues, or to prevent them from forming? 

    I have already tried to extend greatly the number and duration of washes I do post-probe labelling, in order to remove all antibody leftover.

    Thank you for the help

    Gonçalo Pinheiro · University of Lisbon

    Thank you all for the help. As for the antibody concentration, I'm not sure if that's the main reason, because it only happens on some of the slides (and usually those more staining, so there should be less free antibody to get "stuck" to the slide). Either way, I use anti-Dig Fab antibodies from Roche, at a working dilution of 1:1000 (I don't remember their stock concentration, so I can't tell you their working concentration).

    As for blocking, I use 2% blocking solution and 20% sheep serum, in TBST (same thing as MABT).

    NBT/BCIP I use 5uL of NBT and 3,5uL of BCIP per mL of NTMT. I think that is close to what is advised for the desired coloration, as suggested by Roche.

    Ayan, I am not sure if we have Glacial Acetic Acid, but if not I will try to find some and get back to you as soon as I have a result. As for the pH, I have to shamefully admit that I've lost the good habit of checking the NTMT's pH levels. I do make it fresh, yes, but since our water never lasts a lot of time, whenever I used to measure the pH values of NTMT they would not deviate greatly from what was expected, and therefore I gruadually lost the habit of checking it. But that happened while I was doing whole mount ISH, and I haven't checked since I started doing ISH in cryosections, they might be more sensible, so I will do that.

    Again, thank you all for the help. If you think that any of the concentrations of the other components I'm using is off, please let me know!

  • Yuan-Yeu Yau added an answer in Plant Genetics:
    What is proper method of crushing the leaf tissue during gDNA isolation?

    should I grind it in only one direction i.e. clockwise or anticlockwise?

    Yuan-Yeu Yau · Northeastern State University


    The most important thing for grinding is that you make sure to break the tissues thoroughly no matter what grinding direction you use.

  • Sridhar Vadahanambi added an answer in 3D Printing:
    Trying to imagine what 3D Printing methodology can be used for graphene/bucky paper?

    Just a thought....Can we convert graphene/bucky paper to photocurable slurry format so that we can use lasers for 3D Printing ?

    Sridhar Vadahanambi · Global Core Research Center for Ships and Offshore Plants,

    some papers on 3D printed graphene ex:10.1002/adma.201405046...

    and this start-up which showed feasibility of 3D printed graphene in battery.. http://www.graphene3dlab.com/s/home.asp

  • Michael L Sinnott added an answer in Nucleation:
    Is there an online measurement technique for quantifying the concentration of sucrose crystals?

    I am currently trying to find a practical technique of determining the concentration of sugar crystals  that are formed from a pure aqueous sucrose solution. A cylindrical glass continuous nucleation set-up is being used  to produce the crystals, the supersaturated sucrose solution enters the nucleation set-up where tiny crystals are produced in abundance, thereafter the mixture of crystals and solution is emptied into a collection container. Thus far, visual inspection has been used to qualitatively assess the concentration of crystals, ideally a trend of some variable over time would be the way to go. Also, it has been advised that a non-intrusive measurement technique be used due to subtleties involved in crystallization.

    Michael L Sinnott · University of Huddersfield

    What about ordinary turbidometry at several wavelengths? Would need calibrating though (the standard assay for lysozyme is still turbidometry of suspensions of cells of Micrococcus lysodeikticus)

  • Abdelhay Ali asked a question in Constellations:
    Is there optimum value of Modulation Constellation Size?

    optimum value of Modulation Constellation Size, so that energy consumption is minimized

  • Mohammed Nadeem added an answer in Market Research:
    Are there any marketing researchers who may suggest relevant scales (and tried and tested measures) in comparative advertising?

    A survey questionnaire will investigate the respondents' attitudes on comparative adverts...

    Mohammed Nadeem · National University (California)

    Hi, Mark:

    Perhaps it depends on the goal, positioning---for example!  Meaning, when marketplace dynamics prompt a familiar brand to change its positioning, consumers often meet such attempts with resistance. In a recent research study (Jewell & Saenger, 2014) demonstrated how familiar brands can incorporate new attribute (scales!) information into the brand's position via comparative advertising in order to broaden the brand's marketplace positioning. Study 1 shows how the use and nature of comparative advertising affects the ability of a familiar brand to broaden its positioning. Studies 2a and 2b demonstrate that a comparative advertising strategy that incorporates a specific sequencing of dissociative and associative comparative advertisements best broadens brand positioning!

    • Jewell, R. D., & Saenger, C. (2014). Associative and dissociative comparative advertising strategies in broadening brand positioning. Journal Of Business Research, 67(7), 1559-1566.

    Hope this helps!


  • Christopher Schulz added an answer in Graph Drawing:
    Which software application is best for plotting scientific graphs?
    To plot quality graphs that can be used for academic and research publication purposes, which software application will you recommend?
    Christopher Schulz · Southeastern Louisiana University

    R is easily has the best free, open-source tools for plotting almost anything imaginable, and if a library to meet your specific needs isn't available, you can create your own. I can't find a pay for license software package that compares either, unless you are plotting simple graphs and don't care to spend 1-2 days to learn how to do so in R.

  • Timothy Bahry asked a question in Writing:
    What could make China more accepting of left-handedness?

    China so much believes in correcting left-handedness that I'm wondering they would rather allow left-handers to mirror write with their left hand than allow them to write normally with their left hand. The problem of it being easier to teach when students just copy the storkes of the teacher can be solved by having new left-handed kids who have not yet started learning to write go into separate classes from right-handed people and copy the teacher who is mirror writing with their left hand. It's not that hard for people to train themselves to be really good at reading mirror writing. The issue of mirror writing being harder to read than normal writing can also be solved by having half of all writing be mirror writing by having half the copies of each book get produced in mirror after a certain distant future date after the first new left-handers to be taught mirror writing have already finished school as described in http://how-to-speed-up-research.wikia.com/wiki/Stop_discrimination_against_left-handedness#Mirror_writing.

  • Is there any difference between to hear and to listen from the perception verbs in term of semantics?

    Is there any difference between to hear and to listen from the perception verbs in term of semantics?

    Glenn Bingham · Rowan University


    The imperative test was a great idea. But it brought to mind a phrasal verb that seems to merge with "listen." 

    "Hear me out!" means "Listen to me (to the end of my thoughts)," so the particle "out" shifts the meaning a bit. So there is a clear difference between "hear" and "listen," but distinguishing "hear out" from "listen" is more difficult.