Q&A

ResearchGate Q&A lets scientists and researchers exchange questions and answers relating to their research expertise, including areas such as techniques and methodologies.

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  • Aniruddh Siddh asked a question in Jena:
    How to find immediate subclasses,various relationships in ontology ?

    Is there any java api so that we can find various classes like immediate subclasses or super classes of a class. Relation between different classes and their different properties or relationship.

    I know about Apache jena, can anyone provides me some programs to get the required features.Other than jena are there any good api's ?

  • Hyun Ho Han asked a question in Cancer Cell Line:
    Is this a positive tube formation by non-endothelial cell?

    Dear colleagues

    This is a photo of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line grown on plastic ware. 

    The cell line is transformed to express a molecule that are known to be expressed only by endothelial cells. Not everyday but someday the cell line shows this tube-like morphology. Is this a meaningful finding or just a coincidence?

  • Can we model the Vehicle-Bridge Interaction system in STAAD.Pro??

    I am working on the vehicle bridge interaction and using STAAD.Pro. But I have hard time figuring out the vehicle bridge interaction modelling.

    Dia Eddin Nassani · Hasan Kalyoncu University

    you can model it as moving load.

  • Sean su asked a question in Mimics:
    Which Amino Acid can be used as mimicing dephospho-state of Ser?

    as the title saying

  • Avtar Sain added an answer in T4:
    How bad is using 50 microliters of chloroform in 10 mL of phage solution (especially T4)?

    I know I could filter the phage solution but I really want to know what the outcome would be.

    Avtar Sain · VIT University

    you can add till 5% chloroform. it should not affect the phage.

  • Gokul Raja T S asked a question in Circuits:
    I have fabricated a DSSC. how to find the fill factor (FF), Short circuit current (Isc) and Open Circuit Voltage using Electrochemical workstation?

    Using multimeter i measured the output voltage and output current while exposing in sunlight. I cant able to find the fill factor using that. We have an electrochemical workstation with us. How to calculate the fill factor of the solar cell? 

  • Anuj Soni added an answer in Scintillation:
    What is the difference between Radio-luminescence and Scintillation?

    In a first look, both are fluorescence, giving immediate light emission on irradiation.  Mechanism wise both are similar. If both are same then why different terminology? Or is there any technical difference?   

    Anuj Soni · Bhabha Atomic Research Centre

    Thanks to all the experts for giving your replies. 

  • Carolyn Blackburn added an answer in Timing:
    Does anyone know of any recent research on the association between children's involvement in musical activities and their communication development?

    Research has shown that a developing foetus can discriminate sounds in the womb from 22 weeks gestation and that early sound discrimination helps to promote later phonic and vocabulary development. In addition, during early social interaction between caregivers and infants there are noticeable patterns of timing, pulse, voice timbre, and gesture that follow many of the rules of musical performance, including rhythm and timing conceptualised by Malloch and Trevarthen (2009) as ‘communicative musicality’. Given the centrality of communication in children’s learning and development (Blackburn, 2014) and the established links between human communication and music, this project seeks to explore the views, understanding and reported practices of interested stakeholders in young children’s musical interactions in home and out-of-home early years settings.Does anyone know of any research that might help with a project and guide the literature review?

    Carolyn Blackburn · Birmingham City University

    Thank you Jolanthe, do you know if this article has been translated into English at all please, it sounds really interesting?  Best wishes Carolyn

  • What is the appropriate way of performing a multi-temporal land cover change detection analysis?

    I have three different satellite Images from three different time periods, one from Landsat 8 (30 m), another from ASTER (15m) and one from MODIS (250 m). The objective here is to do a multi-temporal land cover change detection analysis study with the help of Digital Image Classification. I plan to first do the Image Classification for the three images separately and then resample the coarser spatial resolution images to the geometry of the finer spatial resolution, i.e., MODIS (250 m) to 15m pixel size and Landsat (30m) to 15m pixel size respectively for the sake of comparison. Finally after resampling with a Nearest Neighbor Interpolation method I would go ahead with the change detection process.

    I am curious to learn whether this is the right approach or are there better means of achieving the desired result?     

    Hein Van Gils · Min of Environment & Tourism, Namibia

    At the spatial resolution of Landsat/Aster please see attached articles. Beyond change detection, both include a forecast based on spatial modelling. I miss a description of your aim beyond the change detection. For my targeted change processes the once in decade image in the same season was sufficient.

    To combine fine spatial resolution imagery with spatial mid-resolution, high temporal MODIS will generally not be a good is idea as Christoph has already explained for technical reasons. Why would you do so anyhow? If you want to follow phenomena with high temporal resolution (e.g. fire) MODIS is great (see attached). For vegetation phenology hyper-temporal SPOT would seem the most suitable.

  • Is any resarcher interested in collaborative research for indendifying factors for sucessfull inclusion of children with ID in mainstream schools?

    There is a great amount of research for barriers to inclusion but also there are factors for successful inclusion of children with intellectual disability. Is any researcher interested in collaborative Research to identify  some of  the factors? (the role of special education teacher, the role of paraprofessionals, the role of  head and school advisors, the role of parents, are some).

    Joseph Karisa Gona · KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme

    This is my e-mail: jgona@kemri-wellcome.org

  • Ru-Jeng Teng added an answer in Fetus:
    What risks abortion can bring to women's life?

    Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by the removal or forcing out from the womb of a fetus or embryo before it is able to survive on its own.

    Ru-Jeng Teng · Medical College of Wisconsin

    Just name a few to the best of my knowledge [1] infertility [2] infection [3] uterine rupture [4] massive bleeding [5] retained fetal tissue [6] adhesion [7] psychological trauma. Hopefully we can avoid it.

  • Eric Lord added an answer in Special Relativity:
    Who rewrote General Relativity?

    Einstein's General Theory of Relativity seems to have “crashed” as a scientific theory in about ~1960, and to have been "rebooted" some time in the early 1960s as "modern GR" with a different set of definitions and rules that differ from those laid out by Einstein.

    I'd like to know who originally made those "redesign" decisions, how the community consensus was reached, and where the changes (and their justifications) are documented.

    Background: Einstein had based his theory on the General Principle of Relativity: the idea that all motion was relative, and that even “absolute” motions such as rotations and accelerations could successfully be “relativised” if bodies showing those relative motions could be associated with suitable gravitational/distortional effects. This was an idea previously proposed by Ernst Mach, and Einstein described his general theory as being the theoretical embodiment of Mach's principle.

    For derivational convenience, Einstein also initially assumed that the theory should reduce to the physics of special relativity over small regions.

    However, the publication of the Harwell group's 1960 paper on centrifuge redshifts (Phys. Rev. Lett. 4, 165 (1960) ) apparently triggered a controversy within the community, and an appreciation that a literal application of the GPoR seemed to lead to results that were geometrically incompatible with special relativity – the consequence of the GPoR being treated as a “law” then seemed to be not only the loss of Einstein's 1905 "Special" theory, but also the loss of the 1916 "General" theory that had been partly built upon it (Schild, Am. J. Phys. 28, 778 (1960) ).

    We were facing the unpalatable prospect of a major rewrite of theoretical physics, and although a rederivation of GR to avoid its dependency on SR had already been suggested by Einstein back in 1950 (SciAm 182, 4, 13-17), we found it easier to modify the rules of general relativity to allow the GPoR to be suspended in cases where it seemed to clash with other parts of the 1916 theory. In effect, we accepted that the original “SR+GPoR” structure was logically inconsistent, but maintained order by redefining SR's position in GR's definitional hierarchy to one in which GR could not disagree with SR “by definition”, and establishing a "failure etiquette" ("If the GPoR conflicts with SR, keep SR and suspend the GPoR").

    This change seems to have happened with minimal recorded public comment or discussion. Although Schild's paper mentions discussions and "a certain lack of unanimity" in the community as to how to proceed (before he presents the "modern GR" position as unavoidable) Schild doesn't indicate who participated in those discussions.

    I'd like to know who was on the committee, who voted for or against the change, and whether any of those concerned published anything on the nature of the 1960 crisis and the chosen response. Does anyone here remember it or have direct personal experience of what happened? Is there any historical record of the episode other than the rather skimpy Schild paper? Did anyone else publish the arguments for modifying Einstein's theory, or the contemporary arguments why GR1916 couldn't continue to be used in its pre-1960 form?

    Any references to additional contemporary material would be very, very welcome.

    Eric Lord · Indian Institute of Science

    Charles ~
    I agree with you entirely when you say "notational changes made toward "coordinate free" notations are unnecessary".


    I learnt relativity theory and differential geometry (very long ago - as a mathematics student, not a physics student) entirely in terms of coordinate-based notation and component-based tensor notation and am only comfortable with that way of thinking. All my published work on those topics has been expressed in that language. I eventually had to learn the language of “coordinate free notation” in order to understand some of the literature. I found it hard and still have to translate into the “old-fashioned” language I use for thinking, in order to understand.

    The only merit I see in the abstract “coordinate-free” language is that it draws attention to the fact that a tensor is not its set of components, it is a physical entity independent of the reference system we use to describe it (eg., a vector in physics is a magnitude and a direction, not a set of numbers). But coordinate-free descriptions of physics are completely useless for calculation of testable effects.

    You may have misuderstood my standpoint because of my repeated insistence that coordinates contain no physics and that predictions deduced from a theory must be expressed in terms of invariants if they are to be physically meaningful.

  • Prachi Pratyasha Jena asked a question in MODIS:
    Is it appropriate to use surface reflectance value in NIR band for flood water deliniation ?

    I am using MODIS surface reflectance product (250m spatial resolution, 8day composite) which comprises two bands: one is visible band and another is NIR Band. Is it appropriate to use NIR band for identification of flooded water as the surface reflectance of water is low in this band. Can anybody say approximate range of reflectance value for flood water.

  • Tausif Alam added an answer in Cognitive Systems:
    Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.

    Tausif Alam · University of Wisconsin–Madison

    Radu, perhaps not for science but I'd love to have a few in a salt water tank in my basement - the show will make for the central attraction of parties!  :)

  • K. Prakash Kumar added an answer in Insulation:
    Why in 3-phase transformers thickness of insulation, is design based on voltage(phase) and why not on current or power?

    Why is conductor cross sectional area, used for winding, designed based on phase current rating and why not on some other?

    K. Prakash Kumar · VIT University

    Dear Venkatasathya,

    The cross sectional area of the conductor is decided on the amount of current it has to carry, without heating the conductor beyond a predefined temperature. The heat produced is directly proportional to the resistance and the square of the current. . The rated current depends on the rating of the machine. The only parameter that you can design is the resistance of the coil. Therefore the resistance depends on the current if you consider the thermal limits.

    The thickness of the insulation depends on the voltage that it has to withstand. The dielectric strength of the insulator decides the thickness of the conductor. Thickness of a particular insulation is calculated using the relation

    thickness of insulation = ( voltage it has to withstand)  divided by ( the dielectric strength of the material used for insulation). 

    Hope this is useful to you. 

  • Pankaj Anand asked a question in Silvaco:
    Any body have silvaco devedit tutorials for device simulation ?

    considering the circular body  shape.....

  • Tarang Dave added an answer in Java:
    How do I detect whether any image in the user specified folder is tampered with or not, in java?

    For the above question, how to retrieve the hash for the specified image?

    Tarang Dave · Nirma University

    Can ImageJ help me with this project?

  • What kind of governance model is best for the wastewater management in the case of institutional framework?

    governance model for one country varies with the other, what do you think is good in the context of Nepal's institutional framework in  waste water management

  • Reza Khakvar added an answer in rRNA:
    Does anybody have a FAME profile of Bacillus infantis?

    I have sent the Bacillus infantis (Identified by16S rRNA Sequencing) culture for FAME analysis. They have provided me only FAME profile. How do I identify this?

    Reza Khakvar · University of Tabriz

    Usually we use FAME foro diversity studies among different strains of one bacteria. Also we can use it for identification if we have standard and known isolates of different bacteria and run them in the FAME. A single profile of FAME is useless.

  • Bee Keey Tan added an answer in Design Education:
    How architectural design of an education environment affects on children's behavior?

    Design of an education environment for a children.

    Bee Keey Tan · Deakin University

    Try to have a look at these conference paper 

  • Pankaj Anand added an answer in Microgrids:
    What is constant Power load in DC Microgrid?

    constant Power load (CPL)

    Pankaj Anand · Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University

    that paper helps u..

  • Hsu Mon Pyae Nang added an answer in Transportation:
    Public fitness programs - any new formats that work in your country?

    Mexico seems to have serious problems with obesity, which the government wants to challenge. In Mexico City, they offer passengers a free pubic transportation ticket after doing 10 squats. How is the government or regional bodies deal with fitness problems in your country? What could be done more effectively?

    As an example: Why not let people take a ride on a home bike at the underground station and use the energy for the ticket machine and other appliances?

  • Partha Pratim Dhar added an answer in Leaf:
    Can someone help me with the identification of this phenomena on Pecan leaf?

    A round leaf with an extended part

    Partha Pratim Dhar · King Saud University

    The leaf seems to be of Citrus sp. If yes, these are compound leaflets and the tips are the modified leaflet.

  • Qasem Mousavi added an answer in Termites:
    Could anyone help me with papers related with Termites Cuticular Hydrocarbons?

    How do the termites communicate with each other through Cuticular Hydrocarbons?

    How can we characterize and analyse these Cuticular Hydrocarbons?

    Is it possible to synthesize Cuticular Hydrocarbons?

    Can we add the synthetic Cuticular Hydrocarbons to artificial baits? 

    Qasem Mousavi · University of Tehran

    Hi Kaustubh

    thank you. I'll be in touch if that is ok with you.

    Qasem

  • Are these Clinical Protocol Formats are useful?

    These are the Clinical Protocols Formats to be used with modification if required to conduct Clinical Trials

  • Tejas Shah asked a question in ABI:
    Has anybody worked with (KAPA SybrGreen 2X qPCR Master mix).....is it worth going with KAPA Sybr green?

    At present I am working with ABI...
    at our lab we have ABI Stepone platform!

  • Nguyen Duy Duan added an answer in SAP 2000:
    Which model is better for soil-structure interaction in SAP 2000 joint-springs or Link element?

    Dear all,

    I am modelling a tunnel structure (rectangular) using Soil-Structure Interaction in SAP2000. Which model is better for soil-structure interaction in SAP 2000 joint-springs or Link element? 

    Thank you very much for your helps.

    Nguyen Duy Duan · Konkuk University

    Dear Karthik,

    Thank you very much!

  • Vipul Modak added an answer in Marine Algae:
    Can you help me identify the scientific name of this marine algae?

    This species was collected in Romblon, Philippines.

    Vipul Modak · University of Pune

    Sargassum sp. confirm it looking at the stem and branching pattern...