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  • Daniel Garcia asked a question in Bioinformatics:
    How to find transcription factor binding sites?

    I have a gene of interest of which I am trying to get an idea of its regulation.  Not much is published on it so I figured I would do my own bioinformatic search, but I'm not sure where to start.  How can I find out what kinds of transcription factors might bind to the promoter region of my gene of interest?

  • Martha Pantoja added an answer in Marxism:
    Is Marxism relevant in the 21st century?
    Is Karl Marx still relevant? He lived in the 19th century, an era very different from our own, if also one in which many of the features of today's society were beginning to take shape. A consideration of the relevance of Marx's ideas in the early 21st century might start with separating their outdated elements from those capable of development in the present.
    Marxism has found great appeal as a political thought for several class-based revolution and have been the theoretical basis for the policies and politics of several regimes across the world. However, most governments and rulers have interpreted the political writings of Marx in their own way and consequently; several of the policies of these so-called Marxist states are often dramatically different and conflicting from the basis of Marxism.
    Martha Pantoja · Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia

    I was checking The Kapital Book 1, in the preface Federico Engels Who was Marx`s friend for 40 years, did an interesting question ¿ What do with unemployment workers?

  • What Indicators should be used to measure leadership effectiveness in organizations?

    Leadership is one of the essential conditions for organizational success. But research has found that sometimes organizations excel even without top rate leadership if they have  grand culture that sustains a high level of people engagement. For knowing what matters in the organizational success, therefore, it is important to know how far leadership has contributed. That necessitates measuring its effectiveness. What indicators you think can be said to be appropriate in measuring the effectiveness of leadership?  

    S.Ananthan Subramaniam · National Defence University of Malaysia

    Your questions begs a few further questions. Are you purely referring to leadership at the top i.e. the CEO etc. or leadership involving the social capital of the organisation...meaning leadership in the whole of organisation. Please read Prof Day's Leader Capacity in Teams for further understanding  http://www.themedfomscu.org/media/Leadership_Capacity.pdf

    I also agree with Noor Azman's views. But again that is only looking at A individual leaders effectiveness.

  • Saeedreza Emamian added an answer in MOLPRO:
    Can somebody please provide an example IRC calculation in MolPro?

    I've been trying to read through the molpro website and their relevant material for (what i at least think is) intrinsic reaction coordinate calculations but for some reason nothing I read there is settling in.

    If I could just see an example file for running an intrinsic reaction coordinate calculation, I think it'd all make more sense. In terms of the basis I will be using it's DEF2-TZVP but if I can see an example file I think I can adjust parameters just fine. Even if you want to propose alternate software molpro is still greatly preferred in this case thanks to certain limitations involving the computing system I am running calculations on in the time limit I have.

    Also, a small side question. Any rough estimates on the time an IRC calculation needs with 48 cores (2 nodes) for compounds between 10 and 20 atoms numerous? I'd like to give them a generous amount of time to run without having to wait a week for my turn in the queue to come up from long walltimes.

    Saeedreza Emamian · Islamic Azad University of Shahrood

    Dear Skyler,

    I am not familiar with MOLPRO but I can provide an example for running IRC calculation using GAUSSIAN if you are interested in.


  • What property of the material determines the working voltage (working voltage window) of the anode material for Lithium ion batteries?

    I have noticed that TiO2, MnO2 and Si are working with very different end voltages, i.e. Si stops at 0V, TiO2 stops at 1V etc. I understand that the end voltage is to protect the material from structural irreversible change. What I do not understand is when you take TiO2 for example, what properties, in physics terminology, could determines/affects this end voltage of the material?

    prof V.S Muralidharan · Central Electrochemical Research Institute

    i worked on Li cells

    Li CoO2, Li NiO2 and Li MnO2 are good

    substitutions with transition metals are also good

    But the problem is during charge/ discharge Li should not go into non available sites

    Reg the first question

    has the semiconducting property any thing to with the exchange c.d ?

  • 454 or Illuminas MiSeq for amplicon sequencing of environmental samples?
    I am going to sequence amplicon data from environmental samples. I have experience of 454 sequencing but would like to know if Illuminas MiSeq would be a better/as good an option, since it is cheaper.

    I will study fungal communities in wood samples and amplify ITS2 (alternatively both ITS1 & ITS2). I want to TAG and multiplex the samples. Would I get long enough reads with MiSeq and would they be of good quality? I would like to hear your experiences of environmental amplicon sequencing with Illumina, pros and cons.
    Miyabi Tanaka · University of California, Los Angeles

    I do not have an experience of 454, but I knew well Miseq amplicon system, I used it for human DNAs. The data is the most accurate in any sequencing data which I have got, much better than Sanger sequences, especially deletion variants or homopolimer regions, over 10000 reads, and get data at once. I submitted samples to the company; I could get the all results 2 days after my submission. Data is easily visualized and analyzed on Base space. The procedure is troublesome but, Illumina technical supporters always assist you, and a little differences of pipetting do not affect at all. I recommend Miseq even the procedure is troublesome, if you have the clear target.

  • To what extent do you think healthcare providers can implement and target diabetes education sessions for children (under 16 years) and their parents?

    I have seen and read interesting diabetes education resources called  KiDS Diabetes Information Pack India which were recently developed by the Public Health Foundation of India (PHFI), HRIDAY (Health Related Information Dissemination Amongst Youth), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Sanofi India Limited. They announced the roll-out of the KiDS (Kids and Diabetes in Schools) ‘School Diabetes Information Pack’ designed for India in public and private schools in Delhi. 

    This is the link for the education pack where they are available in English:


    I personally think these resources should be translated to all languages (e.g. Arabic, French, Portugese, Spanish, Chinese, Turkish, Persian, Italian, etc....), validated, and to be used in daily clinical practice and schools. I think each child together with his/her parents should be active members of diabetes self management thus education is essential for better lifestyle and quality of life.

    Would appreciate your thoughts. 

    Kind regards,


    Joi Farlough-Matthews · Argosy University

    The critical needs for diabetics are insulin and diabetic supplies in the treatment of diabetes. To sustain control over the disease diabetic education must be incorporated in the overall treatment for success.  However, it is noted that less than 20% of global healthcare expenses are attributed to low to middle income countries. There is an urgency to provide education and support to patients , family , caregivers and healthcare providers.

  • Which journals in computer science is free for publish?
    Is there a lists of free journals in computer science?
    Nuha A. S. Alwan · University of Baghdad

    IEEE Transactions on Computers

    Computers and Electrical Engineering (Elsevier)

    Journal of Computational Engineering (Hindawi)

    Computing (Springer)

    Parallel Computing (Elsevier)

  • Ng Kim-Soon added an answer in Cost Management:
    How can I control the cost of managing distribution channels?

    Especially for omni-channel distribution. 

    Ng Kim-Soon · Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

    As operation manager, the role is to look in totality and strategically. At what capacity are we looking at, the resources available, competencies of our people and organization, the resources cost benefits and an assessment of the technology available before going into all the sophisticated tools or adopting any of it. End of the day, is will I get the return of investment.

  • Oscar Gonzalez added an answer in Hummingbirds:
    Does a catalog with the length of hummingbird’s tongues exist?

    Hummingbirds access nectar of flowers that have the corolla longer than their bills, because they can stick their tongues inside them. But what is the limit? Can a hummingbirds access to a nectar’s flower that is twice or more (how much more) the size of its bill? I am deducing the pollination network in a montane forest so it is important for me to know this.

    Oscar Gonzalez · University of Florida

    Thanks! I received a response from Gary Stiles. I will consider filming the hummingbirds to gather this information myself, but in the elfin forest of the Andes I tried to set up feeders and its hard... during the night the sugar solution freezes and the researchers too.

  • Hanna Kalamarz-Kubiak added an answer in Chickens:
    Does anyone know how to avoid variation in the negative control samples used in indirect ELISA ?

    I am doing ELISA to test the immune response in chicken after vaccination with recombinant vaccine.There is quite variation in OD between negative control sera used in each plate and across plates.I need to minimize these variations in order to calculate the cut off value?

    Hanna Kalamarz-Kubiak · Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences


    I am perfectly agree with Thomas Mohr. You should use always the same serum for negative control or check your procedure. Moreover, the quality of water which you are used to dissolve antibodies, tracer or buffers is very important.
    Good luck!


  • Genevieve Sew added an answer in Organic:
    Should I use a filtering or non-filtering cod-end for mesozooplankton?

    I am planning to sample for mesozooplankton and I need some advice on whether I should use a filtering or non-filtering cod end. One paper has mentioned that a non-filtering cod end reduces damage to the organisms, however a net fitted with a non-filtering cod end would also be harder to tow.

    Genevieve Sew · National University of Singapore


    Thanks Kam Tang and Patricia. I mainly want to look at biodiversity and abundance and gut pigments of copepods and compare them among 3 sites with varying levels of turbidity. I am currently planning to do vertical tows with a simple plankton net. Perhaps two different types of cod ends? For the biodiversity and abundance I can use a filtering and for the gut pigment I can use a non filtering one so the copepods are not damaged before I filter and freeze them before analysis?  

  • Has anyone used Image J to Track Rat Behavior

    for research purposes

  • Martha Pantoja added an answer in Public Spending:
    Does anyone have information regarding economic growth versus public spending?
    Economic growth, public spending, econometrics, theory.
    Martha Pantoja · Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia

    Public Consumption is very important because promote economic growth. When the government invest in infraestructure  has effects in many economic sectors; there is multiplier effect. Its important to point out "quality" in the spending.

  • What should be the monolayer flake size of graphene for application in electronic devices?

    I am trying to synthesize graphene by the following process-Graphite powder (<100 micrometer size) to Graphene Oxide (via KMnO4,H2SO4,H3PO4 oxidation) to reduced graphene, but should I take powder or flake graphite for producing good quality Graphene Oxide and then graphene? What size of graphite powder particle is good for above process?

    F. Caballero-Briones · National Polytechnic Institute-CICATA Altamira

    In my opinion flakes would produce larger sheet as in powder, graphene sheet are like ann onion, when graphite during oxidation expands and exfoliates, sheet are not uniform in size. On the other hand, when flakes expand larger sheet will form but depending on oxidation-reduction process, they could wrap in theirselves, although this can avoided with proper suspension conditions, ion strenght to give an idea.

  • How do you mount mesenteric arteries on glass cannulas?

    I work with 100 microns mouse mesenteric arteries and am trying to mount them on glass cannulas but my technique is not good. I frequently get the artery damaged or break the cannulas. I am wondering if any one has those demonstration videos or online resource that I can watch to get an idea of how this is done.

    Thank you.

    Patsy Naomi Jackson · Loma Linda University

    I am starting this technique. I have added a few helpful resources and wondered if you had any advice now that you've been working on this for a few months.

    The Jove article Abbas posted is very helpful. I found this one helpful as well: http://www.jove.com/video/3733/mechanical-testing-of-mouse-carotid-arteries-from-newborn-to-adult.

    This youtube video has helpful hints for dissection, but it is long.


    Some helpful tips from the video: do not to use any section of the artery  that looks like a string of sausages because of too much probing with the tweezers; also, use branches off the artery as the grabbing point for tweezers to avoid damaging the section of the artery that you will actually use; apply slight pressure to closed end of artery to open it up for mounting.

  • Do you have any effective example of Amorpha fruticosa eradication in wetlands?

    Dear all,

    I'm currently developing a possible framework for the eradication of Amorpha fruticosa in a natural protected area characterized by wetlands. In doing it, I would try, first of all, to understand the plant autoecology since I noted same areas, in the surrounding of the intervention locations, where A. fruticosa in absent. In my mind, I got the idea that some soil features (or the water level/characteristics) could negatively affect the growth and the spread of plant propagules. I'm just at the starting point of my research, so, if you have some useful reading to suggest me or any other practical advice, I'll be very grateful for your kindness.

    All the best

    Giovanni Ask

    Giovanni Bacaro · National Research Council

    Dear Zsolt, the area is more or less 20 hectares. Amorpha covers a belt wide 30 meters (more or less) starting from the water to the inner part of the wetland. I'm a little afraid in using chemical products (such as glyphosate) considering such a proximity with water.... 

  • What is the role of anions in Lead precursor for the deposition of Lead sulfide by electrodeposition(ED)??

    What is the role of NO3,Cl-,SO4- ,acetate ions in deposition of PbS by ED methed.How these ions effect the quality of film formation??

    F. Caballero-Briones · National Polytechnic Institute-CICATA Altamira

    The counterions affect the solvation sphere of your cation. Therefore if using a cosmotropic or chaotropic ion would lead to more/less organized solvation sphere and therefore a variation of the overpotential needed to discharge the ion and also steric effects that would affect morphology/structure. On the other side, depending on the reduction potentials, nitrate ions would oxidize the film between other effects.

  • Anil Sharma added an answer in Density:
    How can I improve the efficiency of the BSA (15%) gradient centrifugation to purify adult DRG neurons?

    I have been using the BSA (15%) gradient centrifugation to purify DRG neurons but a I have had lower density than I expected (50% to 60% of the initial neuron density). Any advice?. 

    Anil Sharma · Karolinska Institutet

    Hey Nese,

    Would you mind sharing your percoll gradient protocol? I have heard it can be better for downstream FACS analysis, which I am interested in trying in the future.

    I am using a BSA gradient (15% BSA in DMEM +10% FBS, spun 10 minutes at 1,000 RPM (from memory, about 200 RCF). I get enough neurons for my needs, but they are almost all large neurons and I am worried that they are not representative of the population as a whole.

  • Ellie Major asked a question in Man:
    Solution ratio question.

    I need to create a solution of 10ml's with a ratio of 3:5:2 substance a:substance b:substance c. Can someone tell me how man ml's of each substance I will need and perhaps the math you used?

  • Vahid Rakhshan added an answer in Patient Rights:
    Who owns patients' health information?

    According to the Freedom of Information Act, American patients can access their health information upon their request. I wonder if there is a global consensus over this issue? Do other countries have a similar legislation?

    In my country, doctors can refuse to show the patients their own information. They believe and say that the doctor and not the patient owns the patient's information. Is it legal? Is it ethical?

    Thanks a lot dear Peter Kovac, Julian Cockbain, Luis Jiménez-Trevino, Vera Barretto Aguiar, Thomas Ehling, Poloko Kebaabetswe.

    Dear Poloko, you mean both practices are exercised in your country and hospitals/doctors are free to choose? Or are the hospitals/doctors under some law enforcement and 'must' do one of the two?

    Dear Vera, could you please elaborate on your comment?

  • Do you know an expert in learning analytics?

    I would like to know who can give a great speech about learning analytics in the contexts of k-12 school or higher education. I am preparing an international forum about learning analytics in Seoul, South Korea. Could you recommend an expert whom I can invite for the forum?    

    Christa Jacenyik-Trawoger · Macquarie University

    I heard an excellent keynote by Dr. Simon Buckingham Shum 2-3 years ago.  (https://www.linkedin.com/in/simon)

  • Martha Pantoja added an answer in Economics:
    Are Rostow’s 5 Stages of growth still ideal for today’s economies? Must an economy follow these 5 stages to achieve sustainable economic growth?

    Can technology transfer or technology acquisition enable an economy skip early stages stipulated by Rostow and still achieve sustainable growth?

    Please, see summary of Rostow's 5 Stages below:

    Below is a detailed outline of Rostow's 5 Stages:
    • Traditional society
    o characterized by subsistence agriculture or hunting & gathering; almost wholly a "primary" sector economy
    o limited technology;
    o A static or 'rigid' society: lack of class or individual economic mobility, with stability prioritized and change seen negatively
    • Pre-conditions to "take-off"
    o external demand for raw materials initiates economic change;
    o development of more productive, commercial agriculture & cash crops not consumed by producers and/or largely exported
    o widespread and enhanced investment in changes to the physical environment to expand production (i.e. irrigation, canals, ports)
    o increasing spread of technology & advances in existing technologies
    o changing social structure, with previous social equilibrium now in flux
    o individual social mobility begins
    o development of national identity and shared economic interests
    • Take off
    o Urbanization increases, Industrialization proceeds, Technological break through occurs
    o the "secondary" (goods-producing) sector expands and ratio of secondary vs. primary sectors in the economy shifts quickly towards secondary
    o textiles & apparel are usually the first "take-off" industry, as happened in Great Britain's classic "Industrial Revolution"
    • Drive to maturity
    o diversification of the industrial base; multiple industries expand & new ones take root quickly
    o manufacturing shifts from investment-driven (capital goods) towards consumer durables & domestic consumption
    o rapid development of transportation infrastructure
    o large-scale investment in social infrastructure (schools, universities, hospitals, etc.)
    • Age of mass consumption
    o the industrial base dominates the economy; the primary sector is of greatly diminished weight in economy & society
    o widespread and normative consumption of high-value consumer goods (e.g. automobiles)
    o consumers typically (if not universally), have disposable income, beyond all basic needs, for additional goods

    Martha Pantoja · Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia

    Nowadays is very difficult to demonstrate If one country follow Rostow Stages It will achieve sustainable economic growth. I think many developed countries not follow ed Rostow Stages. It`s interesting because most of them are small, they don`t have  natural resources and weather conditions are bad.

  • Does anybody have a good protocol for getting good immunostaining on adult mouse DRG?

    I am having some problems with a subset of antibodies on adult mouse DRG. These antibodies work great on embryonic tissue, but on adult tissue they are failing.

    The only methodological changes between embryonic tissue and adult is a shorter (1-2 hours tried) fixation time (4% PFA in PBS) for isolated adult DRG compared with 3-4 hours for an E16.5 embryo.

    I am using indirect immunofluorescence staining.

    I am having issues with antibodies against proteins located in the nucleus, as well as those in the cytosol.

    Any help would be appreciated before I start an intensive empirical investigation on the best immunostaining protocol for this tissue.

  • Walter Wittich added an answer in eye health:
    What are some design principles to guide the design of visual displays to reduce eye strain?

    In designing educational software, I'm concerned about eye health.  What colors are best for backgrounds, and how can we optimize contrast and brightness?

    Walter Wittich · Agence de la Santé et des Services Sociaux

    Pretend that you are designing for individuals with partial visual impairment.  You can use some of the guidelines found here:


  • Cuong Tran added an answer in EViews:
    How do I perform sequential test for type of linearity?

    Dear everyone,

    In the paper I attached below, there is a  sequential test for type of linearity, table 5.

    The purpose of this test to find out LSTAR or ESTAR. However, I cannot perform this test.

    Anybody please help me to do it, I prefer to R programme or Eview software.

    Thank you very much.

    Cuong Tran · University of Economics Ho Chi Minh City

    Dear Michael Ellington,

    Thank you very much for your help. It is very useful for me. However, I am a newbie in this method, therefore I need time to understand it.

    Are you still use this email: m.t.ellington@liverpool.ac.uk. I hope you can help me more.

    Thank you and best regards!

  • Vinícius Pedrazzi added an answer in Teamwork:
    How to build a teamwork culture in universities?

    Building a conductive environment to teamwork in universities is a process requiring a plan and specific activities to support the teamwork solidarity.

    Vinícius Pedrazzi · University of São Paulo

    The very definition of the question, it may be a simple and straightforward answer: teamwork requires determination, solidarity, altruism and voluntarism. And it is cultural. And so that good results are achieved, the goals should be and wishes of all attributes, so that they become habits (good habits) and the group is culturally solid enough to achieve sustainability.

  • Ellie Major asked a question in Expeditions:
    Is it plausable that more frequent application of latisse (bimatoprost) would yield faster results?

    If you moved the application dose of latisse from once every night to three times per day, is it likely that the results would be expedited?