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  • Josef Punčochář added an answer in Educational Policy:
    How would you formulate, or modify, education objectives of your community/country to meet the needs of a plural, multicultural, global society?

    Can we have an education system that prepares young minds to be TOLERANT of other cultures and religions?  Can we have an education system that teaches our young people to ACCEPT DIFFERENCES?  

    When I searched for papers on changes in education policies, this was the best match, but it’s just an abstract.  (I have asked for the full text.)

    • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Neoliberal education policies have altered the operational environments of schools and affected school principals' job descriptions and requirements. As a result of managerialism, decentralisation and marketisation of education, principals are increasingly responsible for profitably, marketing and striving in competition, in addition to their role as pedagogical leaders. In this study, the opinions and views of European principals on the changes in the governing of education, relevance of education, educational transitions and different factors affecting coping with the demands of education are analyzed. The views of the principals do not consistently reflect the structures of the national education systems. Questions related to educational equality highlighted the clearest differences. The more unequal the education system, the more important supporting the students in the weakest positions is to the principals. http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/AnJ24PFrP6GDRGxAxSUJ/full
      Compare 09/2015; DOI:10.1080/03057925.2015.1086631
    Josef Punčochář

    Hi Vasile,

    we need not read our thoughts, it seems we just see reality - I am afraid, as all realistic people.

    Tsunami of intolerance gallops through the world, and we must hope
    that our civilization does not sink that our civilization will not be swept under the level of hatred.

  • Miluska Hyde added an answer in Base Sequence:
    What is the best methodology used for the reconstruction of genetic relationships in species based on the sequences obtained ?

    sequences fish species 

    Miluska Hyde

    I would use MrModeltest to determine the model of evolution and then MrBayes to construct the phylogenetic tree by using Bayesian Inference.

    Some good reading in models of evolution


  • Kamaruzaman Jusoff added an answer in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing:
    Mangrove Mapping?
    Can mangrove cover (extent) and main species composition be mapped with multispectral scanners or must one use hyperspectral techniques? What spatial resolution would be required for global mangrove mapping using satellites?
    Kamaruzaman Jusoff

    Try reading some of my papers involving mangrove species identification & mapping in Malaysia using airborne hyperspectral imaging

  • Beckline Mukete added an answer in Biomass Estimation:
    What is the biomass of the mexican forest?

    Does anyone know where I can get rough biomass estimates for the various types of Mexican forest (dry woodland, pine, tropical moist, etc.)? 

    Beckline Mukete

    Hi Walker,

    I don't know of any comprehensive database as you request but, I do have a couple of papers(see attachments) from Mexico. We have an ongoing biomass project for the Lower Guinea block of the Guineo-Congolian forests of Central Africa.


    + 2 more attachments

  • Lionel Mew added an answer in Emotional Intelligence:
    To what extent is emotional intelligence related to self-efficacy, and what significant effect does it have on learners' achievement?

    Emotional intelligence as a tool for supporting IQ.

    Lionel Mew

    The literature suggests that there is a strong positive relationship between emotional intelligence and self-efficacy.  Emotional intelligence is a predictor of self-efficacy, which itself has a strong relationship with academic achievement.  This is to some extent intuitive, as the qualities of emotional awareness and empathy lead to and may explain self-efficacy.  In response to your tag of emotional intelligence as a tool for supporting IQ, another question is whether IQ is a good predictor of academic performance.  The literature does not support that IQ alone is a strong predictor of academic performance.  Perhaps a more relevant question might be to what extent training and intervention on emotional intelligence has on self-efficacy, and whether there is commensurate improvement in academic performance.

  • Nitesh Tripathi asked a question in Empirical Mode Decomposition:
    Need following IEEE Paper in English language"FPGA Implementation of "Empirical Mode Decomposition"?

    Hello Everyone,

    I need following paper in english language. If any one is able to download in english language please do, its urgent.


  • Hasan Mahadi asked a question in Jaw:
    Does any one tell me regarding the doubling time of JAWS II cells?

    I want to use this cell line for transfection experiment.

  • Yuan-Yeu Yau added an answer in Maize:
    In a cross between Maize GM-6 and C-8 , are both white ?

    when grown under isolation resulted in white types but few cobs were purplish in colour . what would have been a possible reason?

    Yuan-Yeu Yau

    Hi Shabir,

    Were you trying to generate hybrid through making cross between Maize GM-6 and C-8?

  • Bruce Hartley added an answer in De-Broglie Bohm Theory:
    How do you see the non-locality of the wave-function and why it can't be used for the faster than light signaling?

    The wave-function describes a form of quantum energy called the quantum potential which propagates throughout space. Disturbing the quantum potential in one location instantly modifies it throughout the whole space. How you see this aspect related to the velocity of light?

    Bruce Hartley

    Is anyone out there interested in getting back to the original subject of this online Research Gate topic, that is non-locality of the wave function and faster than light signalling.  There are serious papers on this topic so let's get away from this "New Age" claptrap we see in recent posts.

  • Gina Joue asked a question in Log Files:
    Dealing with eye tracking logging asynchrony?

    Has anyone had problems of synchrony between an eye-tracking system and the stimulus delivery software sending log messages to the eye-tracking system logs? And if so, what the possible sources of the problem could be, how to avoid the problem, and how to deal with it?

    We have an MR-compatible eye tracker from MR Technologies hooked onto Arrington Research's ViewPoint EyeTracker software on one PC. On a different but connected PC, Neurobehavioral Systems Presentation software controls stimulus delivery. I have Presentation communicate to the eye tracking software's logs when my video stimulus starts and ends because I was told it was more reliable to manually start the eye tracking system rather than trying to control it through commands triggered from Presentation. As far as I understand, the eye-tracking system logs a line of data every 33ms even when there's tracking loss. I expect that I should have the same number of eye-tracking data lines between my video log markers -- so if my videos are 33 fps, I assume I should have the same number of eye data points as frames for a given video -- is that correct?

    However, the eye-tracking data corresponding to a video is on the order of up to 3 seconds (1-80 data points) longer than the video. For example, for a random video and according to the Presentation log files for some random 2 subjects:

    video X: 102 frames (25fps) = 4.1 sec length of video (according to Presentation log files and video)
    sub1: 182 lines eye data @ 30fps = 6 sec of data marked as recorded during the  length of video
    sub2: 166 lines eye data @ 30fps = 5.5 sec

    I am very hesitant to assume that the "video start" log marker I had Presentation send to the eye-tracker system log files really corresponds to when the video started (and then take only as much eye data as video length, ignoring the "video end" log marker -- or could this be a safe assumption?

    Thanks in advance for any help and explanations!

  • Alexander Siyu Qian asked a question in Peritoneal Macrophages:
    Is it possible to store harvested mouse peritoneal macrophages for long periods of time?

    I follow a common protocol to harvest and culture thioglycollate-elicted mouse peritoneal macrophages. Typically most protocols proceed with plating and culturing right after harvesting. Are there any methods (if even possible) to delay the plating and store the harvested cells for experiments a relatively long period of time (weeks). Thank you!

  • Ewerton Emmanuel da Silva Calixto asked a question in Process Engineering:
    Does anybody know any scientific (or other) studies regarding the teaching of Process Engineering subject in universities around the world?

    I would like to know the different aspects of the content ministered and teaching methodologies, such as the use of process simulators in class and FEL methodology, etc.

  • Groszni Satriadinata asked a question in 3D:
    How do you calculate 3D time history analisys?

    i want to know every single detail of the method 

  • Hidehiko Yamazaki added an answer in Paper Technology:
    How can the cobb of a board with cobb 50 be increased to about 100?

    We have few roll of liner board with grammage 170gr/m2. Due to using for specific application, it is necessary to increase its cobb from 50 to 100. Please guide us if you have any experience for this issue.

    Hidehiko Yamazaki

    Yes, in industry process, if you put paperboard into water (water absorption), you need suitable dryer and a calender for retaining target smoothness.  Problem is that such processes may give less Cobb value.   Some compromise may be needed.

  • Venkata a n ravi kumar Dwarapu asked a question in Target Tracking:
    In the context of target tracking how can one decide whether the received bearing corresponds to a target or clutter?

    In the context of target tracking how can one decide whether the received bearing corresponds to a target or clutter?can any one give an example by taking a set of 100 or so measurements and separating(classifying) the target measurements from clutter.

  • Kaaliarasan A/L Ramachandran asked a question in Work Stress:
    Machinery safety is always important. Thus,what are the factors that effects the factor of safety selection during designing a machine?

    Factor of Safety (FOS) for structural applications is the ratio of the allowable working unit stress, allowable stress or working stress. The term was originated for determining allowable stress. The ultimate strength of a given material divided by an arbitrary factor of safety, dependant on material and the use to which it is to be put, gives the allowable stress.

  • Bruce Hartley added an answer in Electromagnetic Waves:
    How do you visualize a photon?

    I am writing a paper for a conference titled: The Nature of Light: What are Photons? It would be very helpful to obtain an idea about how this group of scientists visualize a photon propagating in a vacuum. There are no right or wrong answers. You can give either a detailed answer or merely choose one of the following four photon descriptions. A) The Copenhagen interpretation where a packet of energy discontinuously jumps to form waves of probability. B) The de Broglie model where a packet of energy has a pilot wave which steers the packet of energy. C) A distributed electromagnetic wave which propagates in an empty vacuum. The particle property appears because the energy collapses to a point when absorbed. D) A distributed electromagnetic wave propagating like a quantized transverse sound wave in the quantum mechanical medium of highly energetic vacuum (zero point energy). The particle property appears because the energy collapses to a point when absorbed.

    Bruce Hartley

    It is, of course, clear that a single "photon" goes through both slits of a double slit experiment, that is it "splits" in two and then recombines as it is "measured".  The phase difference induced by the different path lengths through the two slits, gives us the interference that we expect.  IF you have a two slit apparatus and shine a laser on only one slit, you do not get the characteristic two slit interference, just a one slit pattern.  Shine the laser on both; two slit interference.  This "measurement" problem may be a consequence of the EM interaction being non-local in the sense that the interactions may not be described by the differential form of the Maxwell equations, but correct if you use the integral form (vector potential).  Look for Terence W Barrett, Electromagnetic Phenomena Not Explained by Maxwell's Equations. in Essays on the Formal Aspects of Electrodynamic Theory, World Scientific, 1993, Ed, Akhlesh Lakhtakia. Penn.State Uni.

  • Sidharta Chatterjee added an answer in Biguanides:
    Dose metformin have no or minimal effect on fasting blood glucose?

    Is the role of Metformin that related to  biguanide class on fasting blood glucose considered as controversial issue ?

    Sidharta Chatterjee

    Dear Dr. Aldallal,

    Thanks for the link. As far as the effects of metformin on fasting blood glucose levels are concerned, most standard textbooks and journal articles indicate that the effect of metformin on fasting blood glucose level is minimal (in both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects). Episodes of hypoglycaemia due to metformin is rare since they do not stimulate pancreatic beta cells. Furthermore, Metformin do not cause glucose output from the liver. However, as I agree with you, patients should be cautious since the precise mechanism by which metformin actually works is still unclear.

    Views expressed in discussion boards are views of individuals which can't be validated or substantiated. Nevertheless, Metformin is not a "magic pill", and it acts by an entirely different mechanism contrary to most other anti-diabetic agents (Sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, etc.). You may search for relevant literature in PubMed on similar topics.

    Furthermore, blood glucose levels are moderated by innumerable physiological factors, and due to interplay of several biochemical/metabolic pathways, substrates, diet, overnight fasting, Dawn effect etc. that should be factored in.

    Best Regards, Sidharta

  • Mark McMenamin added an answer in Evolution:
    Is it mathematically possible for evolution to take place given the Earth's age of 4.54 billion years?
    Is there a mathematical probability explaining the mutation of an amino acid or a single protein polypeptide chain or whatever is the primordial component, to organize itself so as to give the biological and genetic foundation for the diversity of life we have today, given and in consideration of the age of the earth which is about 4.54 billion years old?
    Mark McMenamin

    In reply to Erkki Brändas, I would say that the most difficult (and fastest?) major leap in evolution was the first one, the biopoesis transition from non-life to life. If you add an additional factor, namely, the fact that the primordial or Haldane Soup is loaded with toxic compounds able to poison any synthetic pathway you can imagine, then not only is there insufficient time, it may be mathematically impossible. Vladimir Vernadsky made Oparin furious with his talk of bio-inert matter, inert matter, etc. to illustrate his view that life was as old as matter and energy. Vernadsky thus became the first to stare deeply into this greatest and most gaping chasm in our scientific landscape.

  • Jinhui Tao added an answer in Physical Organic Chemistry:
    What's the solubility of amorphous magnesium carbonate (AMC) with different content of structural water?

    Moreover, will AMC prepared in different pH value have different solubility?

    Hopefully, you could provide journals to support the answer.

    Jinhui Tao

    I suppose you are the student of Dr. Jerry Chan in National Taiwan University, You should read the literatures as follows:


    Bénézeth, Pascale, et al. "Experimental determination of the solubility product of magnesite at 50 to 200 C." Chemical Geology 286.1 (2011): 21-31.

  • Amr Hessein asked a question in Hummer's Method:
    What are the appropriate sonication frequency and power need to exfoliate Graphene Oxide?

    I want to exfoliate Graphite oxide prepared with Hummer's method into Graphene oxide using sonication. So, can anyone tell me what are suithe best sonication power and frequency should I use?

    Is bath sonication is better or probe sonication?

  • Prasanna Kumar Reddy asked a question in Mesh:
    Can you suggest a paper on ventral Hernia repair past,present, Future ?

    several innovations have been incorporated in the repair of ventral Hernias-open anatomical/retrorectus,Lap,Robotic,catgut repair to dual mesh, sutres to nonabsorbable tacs to absorbable devices and selfGripping meshes.

  • Sarbesh D. Dangol asked a question in PCR Cloning:
    Have you got the sequence of control PCR fragment that comes up with InsTAclone PCR Cloning Kit - Thermo Fisher Scientific?

    I need sequence of control PCR fragment that comes up with InsTAclone PCR Cloning Kit - Thermo Fisher Scientific (plasmid vector pTZ57R/T). Does anyone have this? (#K1213)

  • Christian Q. Scheckhuber added an answer in Oxidative Stress Biomarkers:
    How can we quantitatively measure hydrogen peroxide inside cells?

    Can anyone suggest some good procedures to measure hydrogen peroxide inside living cells.

    Christian Q. Scheckhuber

    This kit could be interesting for you:


  • Bruce E Oddson added an answer in Parameter Estimation:
    How to deal with bad ex-Gaussian fit to RT distribution for only some conditions and some subjects?

    I used R's retimes::timefit to fit an exponentially modified Gaussian distribution to reaction time data. It estimates ex-Gaussian parameters based on maximum likelihood and gives AIC/BIC/log likelihood of the estimated parameters, but I would also like to check the goodness of fit. Can anyone point me to how to do this? But even if I do have a goodness of fit measure, I can already see that visually plotting observed RT histograms and the distribution curve with the estimated parameters, not all conditions for certain participants have great fit when an ex-Gaussian curve would seem like a good fit (and other times when it's clear from the distribution that an ex-Gaussian curve is not a good description, e.g. bimodal RT distribution). What do you do in these cases when it is only SOME of the conditions for SOME of the participants?

    I have collapsed across different conditions in my data for each participant because keeping all the conditions would result in too few data points for each parameter estimation, so I've run timefit for these different aggregated versions of my data and chose the aggregate version resulting in the lowest overall AIC/BIC. My second question is whether this is kosher? On the other hand, the estimations with the lowest AIC/BIC also seem to have the worst fit through visual inspection. The highest AIC but visually best fit are the estimations collapsed across participant, but I need estimations per participant....Thanks very much in advance for any help!

    Bruce E Oddson

    Dear Gina,

       Ok, that helps. FWIW I don't every use the ex-G in my work and have theoretical issues with it. so better and stronger responses could be had from someone who is a fan!

       1. If hypothetically this appeared to be an issue with fitting data which would reasonably be expected to be described by ex-G distributions, then I would consider two step fitting. Use software that is helpful for looking at mixture distributions and try to locate the normal mode and left sided variance. Then fit the gaussian component in a second step. In fact some of the original work by A. Heathcote and A Brown worked like this. Of course there are some complications in this so some people would use a combination of resampling (bootstrapping) and smoothing to deal with the fact that the third moment (skew) and higher moments are going to be poorly estimated in any reasonable design... Nobody would advocate doing this on an individual basis, but smoothing can go a long way towards taming a heavy tailed distribution.

    2. There are plenty of advocates on ex-G fitting for RTs, so you are in good company. I think that you need to spread your bets a little bit. On one side it can be argued that the participants who do not fit well with the ex-G are probably doing something behaviourally different. They can be pulled from the data, or even contrasted with the rest to see if you can prove it! 

       I don't think I can give a general plan for how to do this and still get published! I think that if you use smoothing and/or resampling you should probably rank people on tau and use spearman correlation instead of pearson's. 

       A different approach is to try to correlate brain on the ex-G parameters plus the fit statistic for each person - this helps you incorporate the variation in approach to the task into your broader analysis. In a similar vein you can use the fit as an inverse weighting parameter for the correlation on ex-G parameter rankings.

    3. Whether or not it is reasonable to collapse is something the reviewers will address. To the extent that the task conditions are similar enough it is ok. But I personally wouldn't be comfortable. It will most likely help fit the data as the problem is most likely a lack of determination in the tau....

       Again for what it is worth, seperating people depending on answers does not always make sense. They are doing the same task in both cases, unless you think that they are in fact working in a multi-dimensional space. (Could be!). 

       If you decide to go ahead with your ex-G plan - good luck! It is not unreasonable.

    If you are looking for alternatives, it is hard to really provide guidance other than to say that RT modelling has a lot of options for you. I mentioned Weibull curves in a survival analysis as something more stable and better estimated. Alternately you could identify the quantiles of interest. For example p5 (the 5% point) is a good proxy for the minimum, p50 for the mode, and p90 for the tail. These points are considerably more stable but I am guessing that you may not have enough repetitions and will have to be more judicious in your choice. Just remember that it may solve what you wanted out of the ex-G and requires no fitting at all.

    Hope this helps!

  • Om Prakash asked a question in Performance Measurement:
    Hi All, I am working with Person re-identification. In literature, performance is plotted as Rank Score Vs. Recognition Rate. What is Rank Score?

    Please suggest, what rank score?

    Thanks a lot!

  • Cynthia George added an answer in Questionnaire:
    Do younger pupils tend to answer more positively when asked to fill a questionnaire? Any relative literature?

    In my questionnaire survey, pupils aged 8 tended to answer more positively in most of the questions than pupils aged 12. It explored pupils' views on the value of discourse and the use of the Interactive Whiteboard during Maths, as learning strengtheners.

    Cynthia George

    I'm not aware of any studies that really look at this. I do work with middle and high school data sets and have not noticed this trend for anrything I have dealt with either.

  • David Arbon added an answer in Suction:
    What suction pressure do practitioners actually use when performing endotracheal suctioning in their intensive care setting?

    As is apparent from my research interest, I have found that some intensive care units are using levels of vacuum pressure far above that recommended in best practice guidelines. In my setting the suction is taken directly from a central supply that may generate, on a quiet evening with theatres closed, some minus 80kPa of occlusion pressure but generally over 70kPa. More than a little different to the recommended occlusion pressure of some 16 to 20 kPa (120 to 150mm Hg) set using an attached suction regulator, you would agree.

    But how widespread is this practice? And, how will it affect my results if I wish to compare studies involving this cohort of patients with those in Intensive Care Units where the procedure is performed in accordance with recommendations. 

    David Arbon

    Thanks Paul

    Our P160s have a 2mm suction / instrument channel if I recall and the T 180 has 3mm ?  About the same as a 10 (3.3mm OD) or 12(4mmOD) French catheter in aspiration power do you think?

    How much driving force do you use /Vacuum? If I may ask.

  • Lijun Zhao added an answer in Support Vector Machine:
    How can I compare the classification performance of support vector machine and neural network?

    I want to compare neural network with Support vector machine whether which one is better for classification. Please tell me about the parameters, on which i can compare both.

    Lijun Zhao

    There is a reference for you about the comparison of SVM and ANN. Hope that it hleps.

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: This article presents a sufficient comparison of two types of advanced non-parametric classifiers implemented in remote sensing for land cover classification. A SPOT-5 HRG image of Yanqing County, Beijing, China, was used, in which agriculture and forest dominate land use. Artificial neural networks (ANNs), including the adaptive backpropagation (ABP) algorithm, Levenberg–Marquardt (LM) algorithm, Quasi-Newton (QN) algorithm and radial basis function (RBF) were carefully tested. The LM–ANN and RBF–ANN, which outperform the other two, were selected to make a detailed comparison with support vector machines (SVMs). The experiments show that those well-trained ANNs and SVMs have no significant difference in classification accuracy, but the SVM usually performs slightly better. Analysis of the effect of the training set size highlights that the SVM classifier has great tolerance on a small training set and avoids the problem of insufficient training of ANN classifiers. The testing also illustrates that the ANNs and SVMs can vary greatly with regard to training time. The LM–ANN can converge very quickly but not in a stable manner. By contrast, the training of RBF–ANN and SVM classifiers is fast and can be repeatable.
      International Journal of Remote Sensing 05/2012; 33(10-10):3301-3320. DOI:10.1080/01431161.2011.568531
  • Lei Ray Zhong asked a question in Synaptic Physiology:
    Can anyone help to explain how strontium works to isolate miniature synaptic events?

    Try to understand the mechanism of strontium-mEPSC or mIPSC. Potentially be useful in my experimental design. Thank you.