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  • Hui-jie Zhai added an answer in Pedigree:
    Which pedigree software do you suggest ?

    We are looking to buy new pedigree software for our lab. I have used cyrillic, I found it difficult to convert it to JPEG.

    Hui-jie Zhai

    export your pics into PDF files, then edit pdf with photoshop, and at last save the pics into JEPG  

  • Jean Louis Tholence added an answer in High Temperature Superconductivity:
    Does anyone know about the superconductivity material highest temperature up to now?

    Can any one reply me about thesuper conductivity material highest temperature up to know?

    Jean Louis Tholence

    Same answer as previous ones.

    In Hg cuprate , a small amount of fluor slightly increases Tc under pressure :

    A  high Tc record (166 K +/- 1 K) was achieved by applying pressure (23 GPa) in a fluorinated Hg-1223 sample near the optimum doping level. Our results show that all our samples are at the optimal doping, and that fluorine incorporation decreases the crystallographic $a$-parameter concomitantly increasing the maximum attainable Tc. This effect reveals that the compression of the $a$ axes is one of the keys that controls the Tc of high temperature superconductors.

    Autor(es): Monteverde, M. -  Acha, C. -  Nunez -  Regueiro, M. -  Pavlov, D. A. -  Lokshin, K. A. - Putilin, S. N. -  Antipov, E. V. - 

  • Leonidas A. Papakonstantinidis added an answer in Organization:
    What is the best way for assessment of management support in success of an organization?

    What is the best way for assessment of management support in success of an organization?

    Leonidas A. Papakonstantinidis

    in terms of bargaining, the success of oganizations is depended on "bargaining power" .. see at the "win-win-win papakonstantinidis model"


  • Kishor Easwaran added an answer in Lammps:
    In LAMMPS, Can I use dump molfile command to take output from on system to another?

    I have to equilibrate a system using 3D periodic BCs. Then I have to use the last the frame of the dump file as the input for the second program. Can I use dump molfile command?

    Kishor Easwaran

    Thanks Marcel

  • Audil Khaki added an answer in Quantitative Research:
    Inaccessibility to finance: Impact to the Growth of SMEs. Would you consider it as qualitative? Or a quantitative research?

    It is about the impact of inaccessibility to finance to the growth of SMEs

    Audil Khaki

    Dear Coleen

    I have worked on a theme 'Impact of Access to Finance on Socio-Economic Status'.  I would rather suggest a mixed model - may be conduct focus-group discussions in the beginning in order to pick up and filter the only relevant variables. So many researchers have used so many standard versions of different kinds of variables to study and estimate the impact; however, what fits Johny may not fit John, so you have to be very cautious about developing your own set of variables that would be relevant for the population that you are studying. Further, you may also be able to build some cases based on such interaction - may be a deviant case or something like that in order to show the diversified (and may be unequal) effect of Financial Inclusion Policies and Programmes.

    Having done that, it is always better to measure what you are studying, so you can go ahead with quantitative analysis for the variables you find are relevant for your study.

    Good Luck


  • Heikki Laitinen added an answer in Accident Prevention:
    How does the "Nordic Working Life model" influence accident prevention, safety and welfare at work - if at all?
    A study published in Safety Science (Spangenberg, 2004), compared accident rates for Swedish and Danish concrete workers during the construction of the Oresund Link between Copenhagen and Malmo. The study found that the Lost Time Injury rate for Danish concrete workers was 4.7 times higher compared to their Swedish colleagues. We also find such differences in the national statistics. Why is it so? We also see differences in accident rates between the other Nordic countries. The question is: Why do we see such significant differences between the Nordic countries, concerning the level of workplace safety, under the same Nordic working life model? This question is the influence of the "Nordic Working Life model" on the safety and welfare of workers in the Nordic countries.
    Heikki Laitinen

    Unfortunately we can not trust on accident statistics. National legislations conserning accident notification are largely different. Statistics in some countries are based on accident insurance, in some others a separate notification is needed. For instance in Sweden only about one half of the accidents are reported for statictics.

    Fatal accident rates are the only sensible way to compare different countries. Eurostat publishes standardised fatal accident rates, where also differences in economial structures have been considered. Hämäläinen et all have estimated the accident rates clobally (Hämäläinen P., Takala J. and Saarela K. L. (2006). Global estimates of occupational accidents. Safety Science 44 (2006), p. 137-156.)

    We hve to be carefull also when comparing accident rates of separate companies. Reporting cultures may differ dramatically. A Company with a high rate may be safer than a Company with a low rate.

  • Juriti Rajbangshi asked a question in Gromacs:
    How to calculate RDF for center of mass in GROMACS?

    My simulation system is BMIM PF6 ionic liquid and I want to calculate intermolecular radial distribution function of center of mass for cation head- cation head, anion-anion, tail-tail etc. in GROMACS. So, I am not getting the proper command for g_rdf to calculate these rdfs. If someone will  help me in this regard, I will be very grateful.

  • Matilde Pinto Machado added an answer in Quality of Health Care:
    How do I measure the quality of health care in hospitals?

    Many of the avialble studies on patients satisfaction with health care in hospitals do not reflect the correct picture! mostly overestimate the quality. 

    When we study the health care quality in hospitlas, what dimension should we include? whom to ask {Which sample, what characteristics}? to study QoC in qualitative or Quantitative approach?

    Matilde Pinto Machado

    Hi, I recommend my paper in the Journal of the European Economic Association "Can We Infer Hospital Quality from Medical Graduates’ Residency Choices?" by Matilde P. Machado, Ricardo Mora and Antonio Romero-Medina, Journal of the European Economic Association, 10-6, December 2012, 1400-1424 (a previous version available as CEPR Discussion Paper 6850). It makes a good review of the ways researchers measured quality and offers an alternative.

    Hope it is useful.

    Best regards

    Matilde P. Machado

  • Mikhail Borisover added an answer in Recycling:
    How could we separarte ethanol from dichloromethane from its mixture?

    I have a mixture of ethanol (2%) and dichloromethane (98%) and I want to recover the dichloromethane to recycle it in the process. Please let me know if any effective way is there do separate.

    Thanks & regards

    Mikhail Borisover

    Perhaps, you can try to wash dichloromethane with water (or sulfuric acid, as it is made  for well-known removing ethyl alcohol stabilizing chloroform). Then, dichloromethane may be easily dried and distilled. To reduce dichloromethane solubility in water, perhaps, aqueous salt solution can be used to extract ethyl alcohol. But the safety issue of contact between sulfuric acid and dichloromethane needs to be checked. On the first sight, I do not expect nothing special but yet... No safety problems are expected at all if using aqueous extraction of ethyl alcohol.

  • Tony Talluri added an answer in Impedance Cardiography (ICG):
    Is there any literature on the stroke volume determination during breathing by the method of impedance cardiography?

    There are many articles devoted to the assessment of stroke volume (SV) by the method of impedance cardiography (ICG). There is a description and bioimpedance devices that determine the breathing cycle. But we didn't find studies in which these two characteristics were determined simultaneously.

    Thank you.

    Tony Talluri

    The 2 cycles have significant different timing. Pulsatile flow is  rapid ( avg 70ppm) and  recorded above a  baseline which  varies slowly being its variation   induced by respiratory pattern  (avg 10 cycles/minute) . Some investigators require to hold breathing  for a while to get a clean pulsatile flow signal, but with good amplification it is not quite necessary.

  • Xin Xu asked a question in Dementia:
    Association between public awareness of dementia and prevalence of memory clinic patients?

    Are there any reports concluding that in memory clinics, increasing number of dementia-free (cognitively normal or MCI) patients and decreasing number of dementia patients across the years is directly associated with societal awareness of dementia? If not, in the absence of survey on public awareness, is there a way that we can measure the indirect association retrospectively?

  • Maryam Khanian Najafabadi added an answer in Recommendation Systems:
    How i can exploit interests of user on items (between range of 0 to 1 or more) based on number of clicks?

    for example : user 1 play items 1 to 6 with following number plays respectively: 5, 0 , 3, 3, 6, 1. 

    i want to get interests  of users between range of 0 to 1 based on number plays.

    i do not want to divide number of play for each item to total play numbers of user. 

    Maryam Khanian Najafabadi

    thanks for your answering , but i didn't get how you calculate?

    you dived each one to max (6) .   5 / 6= 0.8333 or 3/6=0.5 ???

  • Nor Amilia added an answer in Social Innovation:
    Any implications in implementing social innovation for entrepreneur?

    What the challenges and future agenda toward implementing social innovation for young entrepreneur ?

    Nor Amilia

    Assalamualaikum dan salam sejahtera

    Inovasi Sosial bermaksud solusi baru bagi masalah sosial dengan cara efektif, efisien dan berkelanjutan dengan menghadirkan sebuah nilai-nilai (value) untuk stakeholder dari sektor pribadi/korporasi. Inovasi sosial lebih cenderung kepada pendekatan budaya keusahawan kepada masyarakat. Implikasinya di sini iaitu kegagalan usahawan untuk mencapai objektif tertentu kerana kurangnya kuasa pasaran.

     Terdapat beberapa cabaran dan agenda kearah melaksanakan inovasi sosial untuk usahawan muda. Pertama,  mestilah kurangnya pengetahuan inovasi kepada anak muda menyebabkan mereka tidak berminat dan kurang mengambil perhatian tentang dunia inovasi sosial. Kekangan wang menyebabkan usahawan muda tidak mahu memperkembangkan produk mereka dan hanya meniaga secara kecil-kecilan. Pendedahan yang sedikit tentang inovasi menyebabkan pemikiran mereka terbatas dan terhad kepada perniagaan kecil sahaja. Mereka tidak Nampak jalan untuk membuat inovasi baru. Mereka tidak kreatif dan tidak mempunyai objektif yang tersendiri akibat kekangan masa. Hal ini menyebabkan usahawan mempunya nilai pasaran yang kecil akibat tiada inovasi sosial dalam perniagaan produknya.

  • Venkateswaran Chinnu added an answer in Laser Technology:
    Can I drill the hole with diameter 0.6 to 1.0mm through glass which is 3.2 mm thick and soda-lime silcate?

    I want to know whether the glass can be drilled with hole diamter of 0.6 to 1.0mm using laser technology.

    The glass is 3.2 mm thick and soda-lime silicate.

    Venkateswaran Chinnu

    Try ultra sonic machining. Then it becomes easy.

  • Rajini Antony added an answer in TiO2 Nanotubes:
    Can we make TiO2 nanotubes on Ti Foil by anodization by applying potential below 10V?

    TiO2 nanotubes on Ti Foil by anodization by applying potential below 10V.

    Rajini Antony

    Dear Pavan, If you use aqueous based electrolyte like HF or H2SO4, you may be able to get nanotubes at lower potentials  (10 V) and lower anodization time. A higher potential (30-60 V) is required when you use ethylene glycol, glycerol containing ammonium flouride salt.

  • Yambem Tenjing asked a question in Salts:
    Can anyone identify this species collected from salt marsh?

    Can anyone identify this species collected from salt marsh?

  • Macbeda Michael-Agwuoke added an answer in LCA:
    Is there a method/model to calculate distances in LCA including the empty return travel?

    How can I consider the intermodal exchange in the LCA? Are there any studies about it? Thanks!

    Macbeda Michael-Agwuoke

    Dear #FabioMolinari, using the conversion Tables provided by USEPA as suggested by Claudia, might be of help. But depending on the country where you are undertaking your research, the fuel efficiency of vehicles will affect your result. Therefore, if the authorities will be honest in working with you to ascertain the fuel efficiency of the vehicles in use and the volume of fuel used over a standard period, that will increase the reliability of what ever result you are getting.

  • Ahmet Akar added an answer in 3D Printing:
    Can someone provide help of explanation of my FTIR test for PLA ?

    I bought  commercial white PLA from market to do 3D printing research , to make sure of this material is PLA , I tested it by FTIR attached here but I do not know if it is PLA or not where there is more than two types of PLA ;PLLA , PDLA and  PDLLA . IF the material processed by white  die  and plasticizer , will these materials appear in FTIR test ? 

    + 1 more attachment

    Ahmet Akar

    FTIR spectrum support that the material is ABS. You may try to find its solubility in acetone. ABS is soluble in acetone but not PLA. Density is also good evidence. Density of PLA:  1.2-1.4 and ABS: 1.08.

  • Prashanth Gopala Krishna asked a question in Fusarium:
    Is Fusarium oxysporum more resistant than Candida albicans?

    Is Fusarium oxysporum more resistant than Candida albicans to antibiotics, nanoparticles such as silver, ZnO? If so, what could be the reasons.. Could any one please explain?

  • Shilpi Vats asked a question in Ultrasonic Study:
    After studying multi component systems can we use spectrophotometer to predict the structural changes at the time of interactions?

    my work is on ultrasonic study of biological molecules in which interactions were determined. I want to know what actually structural changes had occur. How may i know

  • Ouamane Abdelmoneim Tarek asked a question in Brand:
    Is there a technical comparison of the reliability and simplicity of the HPLC equipment brands: Agilent, PerkinElmer and Konik ..?

    We are about to acquire HPLC our laboratory, and we have the proposal of these brands!

  • Naglaa Mohamad added an answer in Synthesis:
    Hello researchers , can any one help me and give me aprocedor of synthesis of 3-oxobutanenitrile ( 1 cyanoacetone) ?

    the proedors and condition of reaction

    Naglaa Mohamad

    thanks alot for all you

  • Chinmay Hemant Joshi asked a question in Spiders:
    Can anyone help me with direct article on sex determination in spiders using flow cytometry?

    Sex determination in spiders using flow cytometry. 

  • Caroline Ritchie added an answer in Hospitality:
    Can someone point me towards graduate Competency Model for Hospitality Education?

    Searching for studies,articles etc.. on the topic of competency needed by industry integrated with the needs of education in hospitality to differentiate 

    Caroline Ritchie


    You might like to look at the following PhD thesis 'A Model of the Drivers for Hospitality Management Curriculum in the United Kingdom' Dr Andy (Andrew) Roberts Cardiff Metropolitan University 2014.


  • Bert Maerten asked a question in Randomized:
    Is it appropriate to use the "Cochrane RoB tool" for assessing the RoB in a systematic review of RCTs and quasi-RCTs?

    I am working on a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and non randomized prospective, controlled trials and was wondering how to assess the risk of bias of the individual studies included.

  • Abdulrazzak Charbaji added an answer in Lambda:
    How to select best wilks lamda values?

    I have a result of stepwise discriminate  (SDA) run by IBM SPSS statistics 20 tool. In this result shows wilks lambda 0.10, 0.09, 0.08, 0.07, 0.06, 0.05, 0.04, 0.3, 0.02 and 0.01. which is the best result among 0.10 to 0.01 and How?  give me good reference.

    Abdulrazzak Charbaji

    Wilks Lambda is the proportion of total variance in the Discriminant Scores that is not  explained by the difference between groups . It is equal to 1-RSQ, i.e.  is   equal              to (  1  -  (canonical Correlation)^2 )   and you better test the significance of this  Wilks Lambda which depends on many things such as strength of association and sample size etc...on sample size 

  • Sebastian Landthaler asked a question in Police:
    IR: Can we explain/suggest with English School that we need a world police opposed to others who are for checks and balance?

    On the basis of the concept/interpretation of (an) International Society (English School of IR). Can we allege reasons for having a (effective or even formal) world police (currently US lead) opposed to other states as a counterweight, acting as checks and balances (like Russia, China). In positive perspective: explaining the factual/current societal roles of states. And/or normatively: suggesting that—in the assumed framework of an International Society—there should be the particular role of a police as well as division of powers.

  • Andrea N. Hahmann added an answer in WRF:
    Are there Any references about the impacts of nudging on WRF model?

    Sensitivity tests, schemes comparison, etc.

    Andrea N. Hahmann

    I am not sure the link has been shared already:




  • Angamuthu Manikandan added an answer in Soil Chemistry:
    When soil solution is concentrated four times, will K-Ca activity ratio in solution change?

    As we know that activity ratio is K /Ca or K /Ca+Mg  is influences soil solution.

    Angamuthu Manikandan

    Thank you Debasis, I had gone through the page

  • Pepijn de Vries added an answer in DIVA GIS:
    How can I solve error reading shape file (.shp) in R?


    I have a shape file (.shp), created from an excel file with place name, address, latitude and longitude. Then made the excel file into a shape file (dots on a map) using DIVA-GIS.

    But when trying to read the shape file in R using readShapePoints() in maptools it gave me this error.

    Error in res[i, ] <- Map$Shapes[[i]]$verts : replacement has length zero

    Tried, to go back and see if there are missing coordinates in the excel file several times, checked for hidden cells, duplicates etc. all seems to be in order.

    Tried to read another shape file, all was perfect.

    Also tried using readShapeSpatial() in maptools, and readOGR() in rgdal, both gave out the same error message.

    Can someone please help. I don't think the problem is with R, but rather the excel file. but just don't know how to find where the problem is.

    If you need for details about the problem please let me know.

    Thank you very much.


    Pepijn de Vries

    Excel will in some cases also save the information of empty cells (for instance, when it previously held information that you later deleted). This may also occur at the end of your table. Maybe this was causing problems?