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  • Ali Esfandiary asked a question in NGS Data Analysis:
    Could anyone suggest me how to start to learn NGS data analysis online without charge?

    I'm going to learn about NGS data analysis, especially transcriptome, and owing to loss of a expert in our country in the field, I need to learn online, free of charge.

  • How can I measure the rate of electron transport in the respiratory electron chain?

    I am interested in measuring the rate of electron transport associated with respiration, can anyone help me?

    Alexander V Panov · Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics

    It is a long story. Unfortunately, for many reasons the experimental mitochondriology (I mean isolated mitochondria) is in a decline. I have attached a PDF version of my book Practical Mitochondriology, which explains many pitfalls in the study of mitochondria and describes methods including measurements of respiration.. The paper version you can order via Amazon.com.

  • Why are people (dis)honest?

    "Rooted in the philosophies of Thomas Hobbes, Adam Smith, and the standard economic model of rational and selfish human behavior (i.e., homo economicus) is the belief that people carry out dishonest acts consciously and deliberatively by trading off the expected external benefits and costs of the dishonest act (Allingham and Sandmo 1972; Becker 1968). According to this perspective, people reach a decision that maximizes their interests and are honest or dishonest only to the extent that the planned trade-off favors a particular action (Hechter 1990; Lewicki 1984).

    From the "The Dishonesty of Honest People" one of the most cited article (see)


    I am interested to know your opinion about

    Noureddine Ouerfelli · University of Tunis El Manar

    The issue has excited some people like the fact of behavioral psychotherapy, it shows that it dabbled and reaches our profound.

  • What do Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions mean?

    I do not understand what dirichlet and neuman boundary condition mean? Additionally, I fail to differentiate between essential and natural boundary condition. What do they mean? How are the former mentioned boundary conditions applied in the latter case?

    Belhamiti Omar · Université Abdelhamid Ibn Badis Mostaganem

    Hi, Vora

    The Dirichlet boundary conditions are conditions on the solution.
    The Neumann boundary conditions are conditions on the derivative of the solution.
    The mixed boundary conditions are a mixture of both.

  • Dr A. Kumar added an answer in Maxwell:
    Does anyone have knowledge on Maxwell wagner relaxation and dipolar relaxation?

    if  the relaxation peaks  start above 105Hz (loss vs frequency plot). can we say that this peaks are related to maxwell or dipoalr relaxation?

    Dr A. Kumar · Harcourt Butler Technological Institute

    Mexwell - Wagner losses, in general, occour at lower frequencies as compared to frequencies at which dipolar type relaxation occurs.This is due to large difference of relaxation times. In Maxwell -Wagner type losses, polarization has a relaxation time is  in milliseconds while for dipolar type polarization it is in microseconds. Loss peak at 0.1MHz, as you asked, is expected from dipolar losses. However, you have to verify that peak position in loss vs frequency curve should shift with temperature in case of dipolar type relaxation.

  • Juehui Shi added an answer in Statistical Programs:
    What is the best statistical program can be used for multivariate analysis?

    There are many statistical programs produced by software companies, enough to one should decide which software program is more fit to present and analyze the data. If we have data on ages of trees, size, growth rate, vitality, and seeds production. What is the best statistical program can be used for multivariate analysis for these parameters?

    Juehui Shi · University at Buffalo, The State University of New York

    To Shuichi, Paul, and Raid,

    Another interesting part is that I happen to have a lot to discuss with the elders, because I think they have a lot of life-time experience we can learn from and respect for, not to mention the knowledge from those senior researchers and scientists. I like their diverse and unique personalities as well.

    Best regards,


  • Alexandr Erzin asked a question in Self-Determination:
    How to measure the perceived freedom and intrinsic motivation by using neuroimaging and neuropsychological tests?

    In particular, I need neuropsychological tests that measure these characteristics of self-determination.

  • Do you know any masterpieces of art which are devoted to anti-war themes?

    One of the main tasks is to cultivate peacemakers. Anti-war arts (painting, sculpture, literature, music, photo) can be helpful in upbringing future generation. Cultivating a culture of peace through awareness of genius message (implicit and explicit) is important in schooling. We are going to research the sources, organize the conference and stage one of the creative works. We will be thankful for every contribution.    

    David Charles Wright-Carr · Universidad de Guanajuato

    This photograph by Spencer Tunick was taken on October 30, 2014 in San Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato, Mexico, in remembrance of the 43 students from a rural teachers' college in Ayotzinapa who "disappeared" on September 26, 2014. It was published today in the daily newspaper La Jornada.



  • Hani Antoun added an answer in Jatropha:
    What is the method for isolating Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) leaf-degrading microorganisms from soil in the laboratory?

    1- Soil is sandy loam.

    2- Jatropha leaves are buried in soil inside leaf bags.

    3- Jatropha leaf litter around Jatropha trees.

  • What is last literature on resource allocation in cloud computing ?

    any literature ,systematic review and survey of resource allocation in cloud computing. 

  • Yusuf K Kemaloğlu added an answer in Tinnitus:
    Please, would you give your experience regarding Patulous (abnormal patency) Eustachian tube, diagnosis & management?

    From time to time, i meet different patients of tinnitus (HF-SNHL, Menier's disease, thyroid dysfunction, vascular) but in other patients no complaint except intermittent tinnitus during breathing (inspiration/expiration) & after excluding other causes of tinnitus, i diagnosed patulous ET. Please, you would give your experience regarding Patulous Eustachian tube, diagnosis & management.  

    Yusuf K Kemaloğlu · Gazi University

    I think there is only one short and easy answer (if he/she is in a real trouble with it, indeed): VT!

    You may put a VT to provide a better comfort if they accept. But, they have to know how to protect the ear with VT in bathroom, and in particular during swimming. This will be new trouble of those subjects!

    And there are some medical recommendations (I have never seen that they work) and more surgical techniques (collagen injection, grafting, paper oatching and endoscopic ligation, etc). 

  • Louis Brassard added an answer in Cognitive Systems:
    Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.


    Absolutely none at that point of the process.  All the philosophy is in the hypothesis.

  • A. Mücke added an answer in Chemical Volcanology:
    Could someone explain to me what might have caused the sudden change of water to red colour in a volcanic crater lake?

    We have been monitoring this crater lake for about five years, it is suspected to be the youngest among a series of volcanoes. We have never encountered this phenomenon. We are yet to send samples for hydrogeochemical analysis but suspect the stirring of the water as a result of a sudden release of trapped gases beneath the lake caused this colour change, since there wasn't any torrential rainfall. Some physical parameters recorded indicate a drop in the pH of water (6.71 from 7.0). Also a slight increase in Temperature 26.3 degrees centigrade. Others include EC= 0.25 and TDS=0.12. Has this phenomenon been observed elsewhere? Lets allay our fears before the chemical results.

    A. Mücke · Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

    I agree completely wit the answers of Ferenc Kristaly

  • Does anyone know the "simple" way to get subcellular protein fractions?

    I am looking for the easiest way to extract subcellular proteins fraction (other than nuclei)

    Steingrimur Stefansson · HeMemics Biotechnologies Inc

    Hi Katarzyna, which subcellular compartment and proteins are you going after?

  • Yu-Kai Huang added an answer in Polarization:
    Why ORR polarization curve goes down so slow? How to improve it?

    The ORR polarization plot in the paper (the one with many colors) is very sharp but that of my catalyst is really smooth. I guessed that it is because all the activity sites in my catalyst have high reaction potential (bad thing for a catalyst). Is it right?

    And how to improve my catalyst?

    Yu-Kai Huang · National Taiwan University

    My catalyst has mesoporous structure. 

  • Mahdi Saemi added an answer in Image Classification:
    Image classification with Sift features and Knn ?

    Can you help me about Image classification using SIFT features?I want to classify images based on SIFT features,
    1) given a training set of images, extract SIFT from them
    2) compute K-Means over the entire set of SIFTs extracted form the training set.
    the "K" parameter (the number of clusters) depends on the number of SIFTs that you have for training, but usually is around 500->8000 (the higher, the better).
    Now you have obtained K cluster centers.
    3) You can compute the descriptor of an image by assigning each SIFT of the image to one of the K clusters. In this way you obtain a histogram of length K.
    4)I have 130 images in training set so my training set 130*K dimensional
    5)ı want to classify my test images ı have 1 images so my sample is 1*k dimensional. I wrote this code knnclassify(sample,training set,group). I want to classify to 7 group. so knnclassify(sample(1*10),trainingset(130*10),group(7*1)).
    the error is : The length of GROUP must equal the number of rows in TRAINING. what can ı do

    Mahdi Saemi · Multimedia University

    you can try the SVM method for classification works better than kNN. Here is the best Library that I have found to use, and the implementation is with PHOW which has the same feature vector as SIFT . Try it out. http://www.vlfeat.org/applications/caltech-101-code.html 

  • Mahmoud Elbaz added an answer in Nanomaterials:
    What is the meaning of saturation that appeared in Mott schottky plot ?

    Nanomaterials  almost don't exhibit linear plot in mott schottky. Sometimes, positive-negative slopes appeared.!( is this P-n junction?! ) Moreover, linear or straight line followd by saturation!

    Mahmoud Elbaz · Sohag University

    Dr Shankar, i used simple mott shottky equation 

    Nd = 2/ (e ε εo) [d (1/C2)/dV]-1 for calculating the donor density and to know type of doping p or n 

  • Is individual authenticity lost in education?
    We propose to have a child centred approach for much of our education. However, methods remain similar to over 100 years ago. We still seem to value outcome over the individual.
    David William Stewart · Walden University


    First of all thanks for your endorsement of my earlier comments. Coming from you this was high praise indeed. I clearly have a very long way to go in my writing and research ability and contributions. 

    Having said this, I want to compliment your posting here in regards to the concepts of core common ground education.  Your observations are insightful.  Unfortunately I worry about practicality. Why?  Well to put a point on it, I live in Texas, USA. I am a "Native born Texan", which is somewhat akin to proudly stating the same for one's birth status in any country - regrettably, for those born in Texas, our pride - and politics - more or less requires our announcement as to our Texas roots over and above our national affiliation. :) - Yes, I jest, but perhaps not too much on this point.  

    I know this is not a suitable place for political commentary - and I will refrain. I would be remiss, however, to ignore the realities of the education system in the states today. In order to understand American education one has to examine the roots. Early settlement of America resulted from emigration from England - primarily- later France (mainly in Canada), Holland, and so on.  "England" of course includes Ireland, Scotland, Wales, etc.  Naturally education in America followed traditional teaching methods.  Unfortunately the design of American education and education systems  also considered the issues of - to be polite - "the minority question'.  We enjoy some of the greatest social and legal freedoms of any society on Earth. However as I am sure you know, we have literally thousands of school districts - all of which are at the mercy of local political control.  Changes are being made, and maybe one day we will see some consolidation of these many school districts into some kind of a national educational protocol.  As a consequence, I admire your perceptive analysis, but fear practical implementation.



  • Mahboobeh Parsapoor added an answer in ANFIS:
    Can anybody provide info regarding CANFIS usage?

    Can anybody provide info regarding CANFIS usage?

  • Hassan Mohamed added an answer in Spray Drying:
    Would dodecane be a suitable organic solvent to spray dry with beta carotene? If not what is commercially used as the organic solvent?

    Beta carotene melting point 180 degrees celsius.

    Dodecane boiling point 220.

    Hassan Mohamed · Swansea University

    saraniya bharanthi , I know dodecane has optimum extraction of the algae biomass , but is it commercially used as a solvent for spray drying . And if so , wouldn't the temperature of the hot nitrogen cause the beta carotene to melt?

  • Ali Abbas asked a question in Linguistics:
    What is the meaning of presuppositions analysis theory in linguistics?

    presuppositions analysis theory in linguistics

  • Ljubomir Jacić added an answer in Invention:
    Is forbidden knowledge a myth or a fact?

    For an example:

    "Suppressed Inventions & other Discoveries" - True Stories of Suppression By Jonathan Eisen

    To compile this book, editor Jonathan Eisen traveled the world in search of documented stories of scientific cover-ups, covert operations, and programs of deliberate misinformation, all designed to hide controversial inventions and discoveries, such as anti-gravity devices, limitless energy sources, results of cancer and AIDS research, and more. 40 photos. 30 illustrations. 

    Ljubomir Jacić · Technical College Požarevac

    Dear @Amir, we do about facts, of course.The attached review brings such facts!

  • Behnam Ordoubadi added an answer in Ground Motion:
    Which software can normalize ground motion records by pgv (peak ground velocity) as mentioned in FEMA P695?

    I tried to normalized ground motion records by pgv (peak ground velocity) as mentioned in FEMA P695. Does anyone know which software does this normalization?

    Behnam Ordoubadi · Khaje Nasir Toosi University of Technology

    My pleasure if It was any help to you. If you found that software I would really appreciate if you introduce it. That would be useful. 

    Good luck 

  • Leah Wood added an answer in Inclusive Education:
    Was wondering if there has been research exploring how the philosophy of inclusive education is introduced in the teacher education curriculum?

    I am very much inclined towards inclusivity in education and want to explore some recent research questions on inclusive education in my current Master's programme at the University of Hong Kong. Any suggestions/ideas/comments are most welcome!

    Thank you.

    Leah Wood · California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

    Here's a book recommendation that has a lot of good research and suggested practices: Handbook of Effective Inclusive Schools: Research and Practice
    by James McLeskey (Editor), Nancy L. Waldron (Editor), Fred Spooner (Editor), Bob Algozzine (Editor). Hope this helps!

  • Filomena Rocha added an answer in Fabaceae:
    Can anyone help me identify the species to which these seeds belong?

    I only have seeds, herbaceous layer was completely dry.

    Family: Fabaceae

    Seed length – 0.61 cm

    Seed width – 0.48 cm

    At the place of collection, herbaceous vegetation was completely dry. In the middle of herbaceous vegetation, I identified some plants of the family Fabaceae. Most of the pods were already open and without seeds. I collected some seeds for species identification, in July, in Barca de Alva, Portugal.

    This photography was takenwith magnifying glass (200 x).

    I inserted two more photos to help identify.

    Filomena Rocha · Instituto Nacional de Recursos Biológicos, I.P.

    Thank you Dr. José Luis Fernández-Alonso, for your reply. I agree with you, the seed belongs to the genus Lathyrus. But this picture does not show the hilum, I inserted two more photos to help in identification.

  • Where is Megasoma mars distributed?

    We have collected male and female Megasoma mars in Paraguay, however, scarce information from the web suggests a different distribution range. I would appreciate any information regarding this species as well as sources of information to contrast. Both specimens were found dead in forest islets and with almost five years apart when found them. I also attached two pictures in case this might be a case of wrong identification.

    Karim Musálem-Castillejos · Centro de Investigación del Chaco Americano, Paraguay

    I have contacted a researcher specialist about this issue, and has very kindly helped me. He has indeed corrected the identification to Megasoma janus janus, and has provided with a picture for M. mars to notice the differences (mostly in the horns). M. janus is indeed distributed in Southern Brazil and Paraguay. 

  • Fabian Benz added an answer in Tumors:
    What is the most fatal type of cancer?

    some tumors are considered more aggressive than others and not resopnding to chemotherapy, according to the international statistics: which is the most agressive type of tumor with lowest expectancy of life? 

  • Alexandr Erzin asked a question in Neurocognition:
    How proactivity is related to neurocognitive functions?

    How proactivity and proactive coping are related to neurocognitive functions (memory, intellect, attention) in patients with stroke, tumor, brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases? Because when these brain lesions neurocognitive function is impaired, it is possible to suppose that proactivity will be reduced?

  • Unsuccessful GO prep by Tours' method, possible reasons?

    I tried to prepare GO by using the tours method, however, XRD analysis shows no presence of GO.

    I've attached both the method used and XRD results, would like to hear back from people who have successfully prepared GO using this method.

    Thank you.

    Søren Vermehren Petersen · University of Copenhagen

    Addition of permanganate is added at 0 C because you want to avoid over heating and is originaly mostly for safety reasons, but S. Eigler have shown that a higher quality GO can be obtained by keeping the temperature at zero during the entire oxidation. The color should change when the permanganate have reacted. 

  • Belhamiti Omar added an answer in Gauss:
    Is there any method better than Gauss Quadrature for numerical integration?

    For FEA, I am using GQ for calculation of the energy for each element though I am wondering if there is any other method which supersedes GQ?

    Belhamiti Omar · Université Abdelhamid Ibn Badis Mostaganem

    Hi, Karakus, I think that the Simpson method is better than Gauss Quadrature for numerical integration.