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  • Which is the best computer system, including software, currently available for architects?

    There are many types of computers (hardware and and software) in the market currently. This makes the choice of a suitable computer including software, complex. Please can you advise me professionally on the best buy and why?

    Vanessa Meloni Massara · University of São Paulo

    Dear Napoleon,

    I consider  auto cad a great innovation. Without drawing board, ruler T, nankin, tracing paper and easy reproduction by printing.

    Besides allowing constantly changing!

    Best Regards,

  • Wei-Hao Zheng asked a question in Vancomycin:
    Increased or decreased?

    I think deletion of stp1 alone results in decreased susceptibility to vancomycin, not increased, according to the reported results.

  • Andrew Wutke added an answer in Special Relativity:
    Is relative simultaneity a misinterpretation of Special Relativity?

    I really need a lot of feedback on this particular issue.

    I think that relative simultaneity is a computational effect of no consequences to real temporal relations. This is based on my analysis of simultaneous trajectories.

    My claim of apparent nature of relative simultaneity is based on the assertion that relative lengths of rigid objects or points moving at a constant relative distance to each other in a stationary system are not conserved (in general ) in the moving system after Lorentz transformation when expressing multiple points trajectories in terms of common time of the moving system.

    More details in the linked document and relevant draft article available from my RG profile

    Andrew Wutke · Thales Group

    It is always possible to make mistakes but one should learn from them. So please Hugo show my mistakes.

  • Lphannii Ldr'k asked a question in Pulp:
    Anyone can tell me about protion of stuff in pulping process?

    Such as  how many percent of water,chemical,wood??  

    Thank you

    best regrads

  • How important is Biology-based knowledge in Art Education?

    If one asks 10 artists to copy the famous painting using the same material, the 10 copies will most probably differ in at least one scale of analysis or perception. Different copy artists evidently differ in how they perceive originals. They also differ in use of colors. Copy artists also differ in how a paint brush is held, reflected for instance in orientation, strength at the time brushes touch support, or the angle or distance of observation. If one painting requires >1000 brush touches, what is the probability that two artists replicating an original painting produce exactly same series of brush touches? Do differences between originals and replicates exist because of artistic liberty (e.g. differences were wanted), logistic constraints (e.g. availability of material), biological constraints (e.g. arm and hand design holding the brush, eye characteristics influencing perception), or environmental (e.g. light) conditions at the time of creation? Historical data will never be able to identify the exact origin of paint or the exact proportions of the different colors that were applied by the original artist. Scientists or history experts also do not have access to details of biology that influenced how original artists made artistic creations. Moreover, if an artist makes without so-called conscious acts a close match of another painting should the painting be called a replicate, a copy, or an original?

    Barbara Sawicka · University of Life Sciences in Lublin

    Dear Marcel

    Compatibility in arts education for all is of paramount importance, as important as physics, biology and geometry, or theater, painting in the methodology of teaching

  • Alvin Uy added an answer in Bioelectricity:
    What is the importance of studying the non-Ohmic behavior? Does it have any important contributions to modern medicine and technology?

    I am in the process of doing a research with my colleagues regarding the non-Ohmic behavior of ion channels on a bacteria, specifically Staphylococcus Aureus, using simulations with alphahemolysin. I am in need of further background on the importance of these non-Ohmic behaviors.

    Alvin Uy · University of Santo Tomas

    Hi Lucia!

    Thank you for the information you've shared. This will be of great help to our research! Hope to hear from you soon.

  • Jasmin S. Nurkovic asked a question in Journalism:
    Confirmation that you are a reviewer in a journal?

    Do you know how to get a confirmation that you are a reviewer in a journal? Whether there is a special form of confirmation or is it enough to print mail (review request) of editor-in-chief of the journal

  • Joseph L Alvarez added an answer in Mother Tongue:
    How much importance does the mother tongue have in higher education?

    Will teaching and learning in mother tongue positively  affect and add more value to the the higher education system?  Will it help students to understand the subjects clearer and deeper?

    Joseph L Alvarez · Alpha Beta Gamut

    Latin was once the universal teaching language in Europe. It was vital to speak Latin as well as your native tongue. If English is to remain the language of science, then all scientist must have excellent English skills. Equally, written and spoken English must be of high quality, devoid of colloquialisms and poor sentence structure. Scientific English should be treated as Latin was earlier.

    Nevertheless, instruction in the native tongue is important as it is more inclusive. Science education should be easily accessed.

  • Abdur Rahim added an answer in European Law:
    Does the highest court in your country have the possibility to give a preliminary ruling?

    On 1 July 2012, the preliminary reference procedure was introduced at the Supreme Court of the Netherlands. When lower civil courts face controversial points of law, they may refer a question of interpretation to the Supreme Court and request a preliminary ruling. This way, the Supreme Court should be able to provide legal practice with a faster and more specific response to pressing legal questions than through the ‘ordinary’ procedure.

    This preliminary reference procedure is not a modern invention. It was already known in Rome, existed in a specific form in France (référé législatif, where a question of interpretation was referred to the legislator), was used at the Italian Corte Costitutionale and has been a powerful tool for the development of EU law by the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg (see the attached blog and article). Furthermore, Protocol 16 to the ECHR will allow highest courts of states that have ratified this Protocol to refer a question of principle to the European Court of Human Rights for an advisory opinion.

    I wanted to use ResearchGate for a small comparative exercise. Perhaps you would like to answer the following questions. May lower courts in your country refer a question of interpretation to the highest court(s) in your country? Did such an instrument once exist, or is the introduction of such an instrument currently under consideration in your country?

    I am also interested in literature on this subject and in other relevant international examples.

    Your help is greatly appreciated,


    Abdur Rahim · University of Asia Pacific


    In Bangladesh the Constitution is the highest law of the country. Under Article 106 the President of the Country may refer any matter to the Supreme Court for opinion on legal issues.

    Again any subordinate court may refer any critical issue on law and custom to Supreme Court for opinion. Thanks.

  • Do you know any research about criteria for international architectural prizes such as Pritzker?

    Also other prizes , I am looking for researches and not just criteria.Evaluation and assessment methods that they have or new proposed methods.


    Vanessa Meloni Massara · University of São Paulo

    Dear Sajjad,

    These are some prizes and their history and criterias:





    Best Regards,


  • Mohammad Jahedi added an answer in Lubricants:
    How can we increase polyethylene's MFI in an extruder without any lubricant?

    As others may know, polyethylene's MFI, after processing will be decreased. but I want to know that how could we increase polyethylene's MFI during our process.

    Mohammad Jahedi · Shiraz University

    Dear all,

    Actually I found you guys here very interested and expert in polymers and I believe my question has some relevance with the question above. I am a beginner in polymer area so I am sorry if my question may not suit you. My question is as below:

    I have a problem dealing with Melt flow index (MFI) of master-batch. As far as I know, generally we can divide a master-batch content in two broad groups; polymer and solid phase powders. How can we define MFI for a material that is no longer pure polymer? What is the role of solid powders in evolving the flow of polymer (MFI value)? Do we have any parameter to control the MFI value when we are adding for example TiO2 or calcium carbide powders?

    Thank you in advance,


  • Fadhillah abdul rahman asked a question in Abaqus:
    How to Solve Error (Constraint-tie) in ABAQUS? (Elements loacted nearly in a plane)

    I Keep getting this error "The volume of 37485 elements is zero, small, or negative. Check coordinates or node numbering, or modify the mesh seed. In the case of a tetrahedron this error may indicate that all nodes are located very nearly in a plane. The elements have been identified in element set ErrElemVolSmallNegZero.".. It occur after I enter the Constraint-tie for my rebar to the ribbed slab. Warning appear as "For *tie pair (assembly_s_surf-7-assembly_m_surf-7), not all the nodes that have been adjusted were printed. Specify *preprint,model=yes for complete printout.".. Where shall i rectify??

  • Ahmed Abdelraheem Farghaly asked a question in BEAM:
    Deep beam opining?

    in what range the opening affect the deep beam an where I can open in the deep beam without affecting the stability of the beam under vertical loads and wherever the square, or rectangular or circle opening show a good performance with the deep beam efficiency?

  • Anyone have any insights on Martial Law in the Early Modern World?
    I am researching the topic of martial law in the early modern period, 1550-1700 (as it was utilized upon social undesirables e,g, vagrants, rebels, criminals), primarily with a view to examining its impact upon the British Atlantic Empire (such as Ireland, Scotland, and the American Colonies). I'm looking to answer a number of questions including but limited to the ideology behind it, its role alongside the common law, its importance in our understanding of government in the Early Stuart Period, its operation within different jurisdictions (how can we differentiate the practice of this law from the mainland i.e. England and its superfluous colonies?), and most important of all, can it be taken as a serious catalyst for the 1641 rebellion in Ireland and the constitutional crisis that led to the English Civil War?
    Frank Harris · Farmingdale State College

    I sincerely hope I do not send you off on a wild goose chase and so include the following with that admonition.

    In addition to “martial law” as an on-line search engine term, I suggest that you may want to explore such topics as “march law”, “marches”, “frontier” and couple those with a location such as “Wales”, “Ireland”, “Scotland”, “England” or with a time frame such as “medieval”, “early modern” or combine all three into something like “march law in early modern Ireland”.

    A few things I have looked at follow below; they are or were all available on-line.  Unfortunately, the links do not see to be "live" and so you would need to copy and past them into your search engine.

    1. Wikipedia may have some footnotes and references worth looking at:
      “March law (Anglo-Scottish border)”
    2. March Law (Medieval Ireland)
    3. A short entry on “march law” by Gearóid MacNiocaill is in The Oxford Companion to Irish History. Oxford University Press. 2007. Retrieved           September 17, 2009 from Encyclopedia.com:           http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O245-marchlaw.html
      This may no longer be available.
    4.  There is a mention, perhaps more, in “Richard FitzRalph of Dundalk (c. 1300- 1360) and the New World” by Michael Dunne in Archivium Hibernicum, Vol. 58 (2004), pp. 243-258 (Published by the Catholic Historical Society of Ireland). Accessed 28 October 2012 @ 13:16.
      Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25529639
    5. And another in the Colclough Papers in the 1576 “Instructions for Anthony Colclogh Esquier” given to him and signed by Lord Deputy Sir Henry Sidney as edited in the “Survey of Documents in Private Keeping, Second Series” by John F. Ainsworth and Edward MacLysaght in Analecta Hibernica (1958), No. 20, pp. 1, 3-361, 363-393 (Published by: The Irish Manuscripts Commission Ltd.).  Accessed: 24 October 2012 @ 16:55.
      Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25511870 and also
    6.  David Edwards, “Beyond Reform: Martial Law & the Tudor Reconquest of Ireland” in  History Ireland, Vol. 5, No. 2 (Summer, 1997), pp. 16-21 (Published by Wordwell Ltd.  Accessed: 20 December 2011 @ 11:16
      Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/27724455.
      Also, on-line through Wordwell, at Early Modern History (1500–1700), Features, Issue 2 (Summer 1997), Volume 5

    Checking the references and bibliography, even in Wikipedia, often can lead to more material--after all, abundans cautela non nocet.

  • Venkatesha NJ asked a question in Zeolites:
    Is it possible to create Mesopores in BEA zeolite?

    because i have tried out some reactions, those needs both type of pores.., then only selectivity and conversion was enhanced. while in clays its possible but active sites are not present inside the pore in most cases. but zeolites has active sites in pores itself.

  • Ahmed Abdelraheem Farghaly asked a question in BEAM:
    Deep beam definition?

    What is the basic parameter study in analysis deep beam subjected to vertical load and what is the ratio between depth and span of the deep beam?

  • Can Fisher’s controversial idea of fiducial inference, in the 20th century, be accepted by the statistical community in the 21st century?

    Fisher introduced the concept of fiducial inference in his paper on Inverse probability (1930), as a new mode of reasoning from observation to the hypothetical causes without any a priori probability. Unfortunately as Zabell said in 1992: “Unlike Fisher’s many original and important contributions to statistical methodology and theory, it had never gained widespread acceptance, despite the importance that Fisher himself attached to the idea. Instead, it was the subject of a long, bitter and acrimonious debate within the statistical community, and while Fisher’s impassioned advocacy gave it viability during his own lifetime, it quickly exited the theoretical mainstream after his death”.

    However during the 20th century, Fraser (1961, 1968) proposed a structural approach which follows the fiducial closely, but avoids some of its complications. Similarly Dempster proposed direct probability statements (1963), which may be considered as fiducial statements, and he believed that Fisher’s arguments can be made more consistent through modification into a direct probability argument. And Efron in his lecture on Fisher (1998) said about the fiducial distribution: “May be Fisher’s biggest blunder will become a big hit in the 21st century!”

    And it was mainly during the 21st century that the statistical community began to recognise its importance. In his 2009 paper, Hannig, extended Fisher’s fiducial argument and obtained a generalised fiducial recipe that greatly expands the applicability of fiducial ideas. In their 2013 paper, Xie and Singh propose a confidence distribution function to estimate a parameter in frequentist inference in the style of a Bayesian posterior. They said that this approach may provide a potential conciliation point for the Bayesian-fiducial-frequentist controversies of the past.

    I already discussed these points with some other researchers and I think that a more general discussion seems to be of interest for Research Gate members.


    Dempster, A.P. (1963). On direct probabilities. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B, 25 (1), 100-110.

    Fisher, R.A. (1930).Inverse probability. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, xxvi, 528-535.

    Fraser, D. (1961). The fiducial method and invariance. Biometrika, 48, 261-280.

    Fraser, D. (1968). The structure of inference. John Wiley & Sons, New York-London-Sidney.

    Hannig, J. (2009). On generalized fiducial inference. Statistica Sinica, 19, 491-544.

    Xie, M., Singh, K. (2013). Confidence distribution, the frequentist distribution estimator of a parameter: A review. International Statistical Review, 81 (1), 3-77.

    Zabell, S.L. (1992). R.A. Fisher and the fiducial argument. Statistical Science, 7 (3), 369-387.

    Daniel Courgeau · Institut national d'études démographiques

    Dear George,

     Thank you for your reference to the psychologist Michael Bradley’s works on inferential statistics, and I entirely agree with him when he writes in 2014: “It is a fallacious and misleading exercise to imply measurement accuracy by assuming set errors rates from the specific statistical samples presented in any particular exploratory study”. This paper however was investigating a part of a widest cleft, as Savage put it in 1961, between frequentists and this cleft was linked to Fisher’s fiducial Inference and other points. For example, Neyman said in 1941: “the theory of fiducial inference is simply non-existent in the same way as, for example, a theory of numbers defined by mutually contradictory definitions” while Fisher accused Neyman to use his own work without reference. But their disagreements were also about refutation and confirmation, which was the topic of Bradley’s work, and about experiments.

    So that if Bradley point of view was interesting, I don’t think that it might answer entirely to my more general question.


    Bradley, M.T., Brand, A. (2014). The Neyman and Pearson versus Fisher controversy is informative in current practice in inferential statistics. Conference paper to the Canadian Psychological Association.

    Neyman, J. (1941). Fiducial Arguments and the theory of confidence intervals. Biometrika, 32, 128-150.

    Savage, L. (1961). The foundations of statistics reconsidered. In Neyman J., ed., Proceedings of the fourth symposium on mathematical statistics and probability, Berkeley, vol. 1, 575-586.

  • Ahmed Ali added an answer in Oocytes:
    What are the major factors affecting the in vitro oocyte development ?

    i am newly started research on in vitro oocyte development and embryo production. so i want to know which factors is related with whole process of successful oocyte development

    Ahmed Ali · Qassim University

    Also, method of ooctye collection, the time from collection to incubation, method of  sperm preparation and source of media used.

    Good luck

  • How to measure Social and Environmental Impact at the base of the pyramid?

    Social impact is measured mainly in terms of outreach levels and beneficiaries. Are there any articles providing the holistic framework towards Social impact Assessment?  

    Vanessa Meloni Massara · University of São Paulo

    Dear   Sandeep,

    I believe these material will help:








  • Hussain Ahmed added an answer in Neuroblastoma:
    Can someone help with coating cover slips for neuroblastoma cells?

    Hello!  What better use for coating  coverslips for neurons- laminin of poly-L-Lysin?

    Thank you.

    Hussain Ahmed · University of Khartoum

    Canda blsam queous medium

  • Could someone suggest a measurement scale of dynamic capabilities?

    I am looking for an author who measured dynamic capabilities as a variable in a quantitative study.

    Mahmoud Zouaoui · University of Manouba, Tunis, Tunisia

     Dear colleague,
    It's really very useful. Thank you very much.

  • How can I determine (calculate) the bifurcation point in the dynamics of a series empirical data?

    Bifurcation point is the point of the phase transition of the system from one state to another. How from empirical data of any magnitude characterizing the state of the aquatic ecosystem to calculate the bifurcation point in the dynamics of this magnitude? I can provide the real empirical data on primary production and destruction of organic matter if someone is interested. 

  • Jan Plock added an answer in Cancer Research:
    How to choose the right cell line for breast cancer research?

    Has anybody looked at the allred score of MCF-7 and T47D cell lines? i understand that one is PR positive and the other negative. What is the stauts of expression of ER relatively in these two cell lines?

    Jan Plock · University of Zurich

    We just reviewed breast cancer cell lines in research and individual cell line properties: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2015/120949/tab1/

    Please check it out. 

  • Ghose Bishwajit added an answer in Food Security:
    What are the implications of achieving self-sufficiency in grain on food security at national level in the developing world context?

    There are voices both against and in favor of focusing on self-sufficiency to promote food security. Many agri-based/developing and transition economies (China) have, at most time, maintained a high degree of grain self-sufficiency which has proven to be beneficial during price shocks at global market. Yet, the theory remains inconclusive whether a country should opt for achieving self-sufficiency. Is there any particular trade-offs between self-sufficiency and food security especially when various socioeconomic and environmental factors are taken into account. 

    Thanks in advance for sharing your valuable opinions

    Ghose Bishwajit · Huazhong University of Science and Technology

    Dear Dr Swaminathan, the points you made are quite reasonable, the channel connecting foodbaskets on two ends are in fact unidirectional, inflow of aids to poor countries comes at very high hidden costs also. Lastly, self-sufficiency in food is not an end in itself, but a strong point of departure to ensure basic food and health security for citizens which will set the conditions to step up the ladder and expand the spectrum of development opportunities.  

  • Mario Radovan asked a question in Communication:
    Is it possible not to communicate?

    Some thinkers discovered that *it is not possible not to communicate*. They seem rather impressed with their discovery, but this is simply a matter of *definition*. If you call "communication" everything that one says and does, or does not say or do (being silent and still, included), then it is really not possible not to communicate. In that case, whatever a person does or does not do she communicates, by definition. But such position is a matter of choice and definition, not of a discovery. The fatal problem with this definition is that when *everything* is X, then X loses a specific meaning and becomes nothing. If everything is communication, then to communicate means nothing, or it simply means to exist.

  • Chaya Ravi Gobbiner added an answer in ZnO:
    Why do I see interference fringes in transmittance spectra of ZnO?

    I am getting interference fringes in transmittance spectra of ZnO. Could anyone please explain me what is the reason for that? and What does it indicates? 

    Chaya Ravi Gobbiner · Manipal University

    Thank you suresh sir and Mohand sir

  • Roberto Braga added an answer in PZT:
    Is the nonlinearity of a PZT applied to interferometry still a problem?

    When we use a PZT to provide phase-shifting in interferometric applications we have to be aware of its nonlinearities. Today we have new PZTs, and I would like to know if we still face the nonlinearities compromising the results.

    Roberto Braga · Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA)

    Dear Ajeet Kumar, thanks about the information. I will check it out. If you have some publication to recommend, please, feel free.


  • How to inculcate among students ( present generation) the benefits of slowing down?

    I see a connect between pace at which technology changes and attention span of students. To our benefits, we introduce disruptive technologies, the trigger being to be on top (completion). Besides, we also advocate that one needs to continuously change to meet the emerging requirements! Are we not racing against time for no goal? With these kind of inputs how do we expect younger generation to pause and evaluate present? I believe there is a need to slow down, how do we do it?

    Geetha pm · Manipal University

    Thank You, I agree with you that it has to be experienced. In my earlier tenure as a facilitator (for behavior), we used to design programmes (experiential learning format), where in I have witnessed this as a possibility. That was predominantly andragogy.

    My challenge, right now, is multifold- first to convince the need of slowing down ( am glad you agreed), secondly to find one hour amidst the course plan, which is hectic and exhausting, both for faculty and students! Even to teach core and supportive subjects, I use different methods, just to get them involved. At times, I feel it is my need rather than theirs!

    Despite the challenges, your response is quite encouraging, I think I will have to find a way of doing it, thanks

  • Ta Minh Thanh added an answer in Elliptic Curves:
    Does someone know where I can find elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) code in C (I cannot find it by Google)?

    I want to use ECC in my research.

    Ta Minh Thanh · Le Quy Don Technical University

    Thanks Mr. Szabolcs Tengely. Nice implementation.