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  • Biswajoy Brahmachari added an answer in Gravity
    In general relativity, how is gravitational force replaced by space-time geometry?
    How, in Einstein's theory of gravity, can one replace the concept of force with that of the deformations of space time? Why is the orbit of mercury described better in terms of Einstein's theory in comparison with Newton's theory? A reference link: http://www.einstein-online.info/elementary/generalRT/GeomGravity
    Biswajoy Brahmachari · Vidyasagar Evening College
    Is it impossible to stick to classical notions, without going into quantization ? When gravity is described by a local field theory of the spin group (3,1) is it a classical field theory or a quantum field theory ? Concept of spin is quantum mechanical, so I guess it is a quantum field theory ? When it is a quantum field theory it will describe short distance phenomenon. We cannot then use it to calculate orbits of planets. So let us discuss Einstein's gravity at the classical level and try to understand how to describe gravitational attraction between two bodies without using the concept of force. Consider earth's motion around sun. It is due to a balance of gravitational attraction and centrifugal force away from the sun. If we forget the concept of force, how can we make this balance using Einstein's classical gravity.
  • R or SAS: which one is the best statistical software used in medical field?
    I am on the starting stage to study a software. I know spss only. I want to study a software either R or SAS.Some of them say R is better and others SAS is better. I am totally confused. Which one is best and easily understanding and highly used in medical field?
    Noel Artiles-Leon · University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez
    STATA is the way to go!
  • Do you think that general relativity needs modifications or it is a perfect theory?
    It's been a long journey for researches which tried to unify quantum mechanics with general relativity but with no valuable clear result until now. Do you think that the fault may be in general relativity because not all its assumptions are proved until now?
    Charles Francis · Jesus College, Cambridge
    Mozafar, it is not the views of Hugo which cause a problem, but deliberately ignoring vital words, as when Hilbert talked of a "proper" law or Byers talked of "local" energy conservation, apparently with the specific intent of writing offensive posts, and then the dishonesty and hypocracy of pretending to adopt the moral high ground, while at the same time launching another personal attack.
  • Do you think that Islamic ornamentation is a traditional art, with fixed forms that couldn't change?
    Is it possible to add new elements in order to reach a contemporary Islamic ornamentation?
    Mohammad Firoz Khan · Jamia Millia Islamia
    The exceptional principle distinguishes Muslim art from other art, I do not claim that Muslims never deviated from this principle and therefore as Mughal Art will not be known as a piece of Muslim Art.
  • Lijo Francis added an answer in Energy
    What is the potential of urine as an energy supplier?
    I've found a lot of Sources which say that maybe Urine can (not solve but) ease our energy problems. Like: http://www.collective-evolution.com/2013/12/23/urine-powered-generator-6-hours-of-power-on-1-liter-of-pee/ or http://oilprice.com/Latest-Energy-News/World-News/University-Researchers-Use-Urine-as-a-Source-of-Energy.html What does the scientific community say to this? Thank you.
    Lijo Francis · King Abdullah University of Science and Technology
    I have come across some information about urine therapy! They claim that urine therapy is good to cure many diseases. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urine_therapy http://www.medicinenet.com/urine_therapy/views.htm
  • Lukas Strizik added an answer in Glass Ceramics
    Is there any method to find the refractive index of opaque glass samples?
    During synthesis of glasses I get samples with opaque structure. I need to measure the refractive index of that samples in visible or infrared region. What is the method that can be used to measure the refractive index of the opaque glass samples?
  • Is it permissible to perform regression analysis on weighted datasets?
    When you have population data that enables you to weight your sample data to adjust for recruitment biases, I have noticed that if you run a multivariate regression analysis on the weighted data, it tends to return exaggerated odds ratios compared to the results of the same analysis on the unweighted data. For this reason it strikes me as a possible statistical faux pas.
    Noel Artiles-Leon · University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez
    Be careful! ... if the weights are "population" weights, rescaling them does not make any sense.
  • What is the role of P-chart as SQC in ensuring the good quality of Pharmaceutical Product?
    Statistical quality control
    Abhay Asthana · Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Mullana
    You got it! Not only product put this as well to control process quality, which would lead to quality end product.
  • This is eye-catching 'Why Most Published Research Findings Are False'. As a researcher, what are your views?
    I don't agree. But what are your views?
    Nageswara Posinasetti · University of Northern Iowa
    I agree with Eddie about the paper finding as it is talking about "controversial" statistical inference. Such researches need to follow the guidelines and also they will be applicable for the selected sample but very difficult to generalize for the total population. So the arguments presented in the paper may be true but that is valid only for a narrow segment of research and not for all the research domains.
  • Hanno Krieger added an answer in SMILE
    What is the difference between smile and laugh?
    .A smiling man or woman wards of misery,depression and cardio-vasclar diseeases.A smile costs one nothing and gets one everything.A chinese proverb has this to say,"A man who can not smile must not open a shop".Smile and laugh are different.It is important that we should not laugh at others,though it is a good idea to laugh at ourselves and laugh with others.
    Hanno Krieger · Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen
    Really interesting difference to Pedros analysis. For me smile is much deeper, it arises after thinking, and laugh is more lusty and spontaneous.
  • In your opinion, what is the better title; Arabic Islamic Architecture or Islamic Architecture?
    I am talking about culture and its reflection on all kinds of human production which presents particularly in architecture.
    Mohammad Firoz Khan · Jamia Millia Islamia
    Islam, a noun, is the religion. Muslim is both a noun and adjective. As a noun it refers to one who follows Islam. When an adjective, it means of or relating to Muslims or Islam. @C. Lewis Kausel The difference between "Muslim" and "Islamic" is not so clear-cut, at least to me. In an article entitled "Islamic Values vs. Muslim Values" Atiq Ebady states: What do I mean by Islamic values and Muslim values? Islamic values are those that are set out in the Quran and the practice of the noble Messenger, Muhammad (S). Muslim values are those that are created as part of the culture of the Muslim communities. I do not know if this distinction--that Islamic pertains to the religion and Muslim (as an adjective) pertains to the culture--is generally made or is specific to Ebady. I look forward to seeing other answers you are given Source: https://in.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20110418210855AAuxVLu What distinction between Islamic and Muslim is made by Atiq Ebady, This is what I have emphasised in my earlier response. Further, in the second link you will find out that Muslim is also used as an adjective in the sense of “pertaining to Muslim (s). See: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/muslim
  • Shiv Prakash added an answer in Cloud Computing
    Do you know any models for optimising supply chain network for multi-location online retailers?
    I am trying to build a conceptual model for the supply chain of online retailers
    Shiv Prakash · Jawaharlal Nehru University
    http://www.4rsystems.com/pdfs/RIS%20News%20May%202012.pdf http://www.onenetwork.com/supply-chain-management-solutions/intelligent-logistics/transportation-planning-optimization/
  • Lijo Francis added an answer in Electrospinning
    Can anyone suggest different applications of electrospun PVDF nanofibers?
    Can anyone suggest different applications of electrospun PVDF nanofibers? I am using them in water separation processes. Suggestions for other applications and references are much appreciated. What about Piezo Electricity of PVDF nanofibers?
    Lijo Francis · King Abdullah University of Science and Technology
    Thank you, Arash and all... Happy Easter!
  • Rohit M Parikh added an answer in Psychotherapy
    Does spirituality or religious beliefs help or hinder the therapeutic process for psychiatric disorders?
    Many individuals who present for treatment of a psychiatric disorder have strong and well-formed spiritual or religious beliefs. Can this characteristic be leveraged to help alleviate symptoms and behaviors, or does it act as a barrier by its rigidity and resistance to new or nonorthodox solutions?
    Rohit Parikh · The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda
    To me spirituality & religions go hand in hand.Religion is process for human being in cultivating in him a culture or belief in the line which his birth which has been nurtured ,observe & practice by his family environment. This religion practice calls firm faith in his belief which in quotes of time & practice .Establishes a divinity withim him ,help him throu his conscious & subconscious mind create a behaviour in the family ,in the society in the environment where he moves. The above also becomes automatically a part of spirituality it mean throu religion ,he has follows spirituality for other with the help of subconscious mind he take a reports to power of prayer ,& meditation calculative his mind & mode in the very higher order to make his life befitting to his birth accordingly to his Action /Karmas. Any type of psy disorder is related to mind also to say a Karmas do not help him to reflect a right course of Action throu is conscious & subconscious mind . It is in this light ,person with spirituality with his control & spiritual mind help the psy disorder person to create a vibratory forces with in the center point of his forehead .Which certainly create a kind of feeling of peace ,in the mind. To me & with my personal with my experience faith healing place & very important movement in the bodly & health disturbance ,Dr s' medicine & antibiotic treatment help to curve relief & pain to the suffers but with the help of medicine .I have experience that I have placed the smile on the patient in their invest psy disorder in Relief after the surgery & including Bypass surgery.
  • Which mathematical techinque is useful in Pattern Recognition ? and why ?
    e.g. Shape recognition, Flower recognition, Plant recognition, Voice recognition, Disease recognition etc.
    Vinay Saxena · Kisan Postgraduate College, Bahraich 271801,UP, India
    Some references are: 1)MATHEMATICAL ASPECTS OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING Advances in Science and Technology in the USSR Design of Optimal Dynamic Analyzers: Mathematical Aspects of Wave Pattern Recognition by V P Belavkin and V P Maslov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 109028 Moscow USSR 2)Review of shape representation andd escription techniques Dengsheng Zhang∗, Guojun Lu ,Gippsland School of Computing and Info. Tech., Monash University, Churchill, Vic 3842, Australia, Pattern Recognition 37 (2004) 1 – 19 3)Moments and Moment Invariants in PatternRecognition Jan Flusser,Tomáš Suk,Barbara Zitová , A John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, Publication       
  • Paul Dessauer added an answer in Neuroimmunology
    Do smokers have adaptive antibodies that non smokers don't have?
    This could be the key that may be required to stop addictive smokers, which can be injected to get them stop. Just as ongoing developments for treatment of cocaine addiction.
    Paul Dessauer · WASUA
    Hi George, I'm not sure I fully understand what you are asking. So called "vaccinations" against cocaine or other drugs do not act on naturally-occurring antibodies for cocaine. We have to first "trick" the immune system... Drug molecules are not recognised by the immune system. Various experimental treatments to "immunise" people against drug use typically work by "teaching" the immune system to identify the target drug molecule as an infectious disease that is already recognised by the immune system. For example, researchers will graft a surface protein from (say) an influenza virus to the cocaine molecule, and then inoculate the person with this hybrid molecule. The immune system "learns" to recognise bits of the cocaine molecule as part of a flu strain, and so responds as though cocaine is a form of flu. Once the response is established, white blood cells mob any cocaine molecules in the bloodstream, preventing the drug from crossing the blood-brain barrier. There is a discussion of one such study here; http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/scicurious-brain/2013/09/09/vaccinating-cocaine-use-away/ . Here is a rodent study re vaccination against nicotine; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0192056100000424 . These techniques are highly experimental, and they typically only produce a protective effect in a percentage of the population, they typically don't completely block the effects of the drug, they just "blunt" it, and the studies I have seen so far only seem to produce an immune response for a few months at most after vaccination. Most importantly, this approach does nothing to address the reasons why someone developed a drug dependency in the first place, and it will not prevent withdrawal symptoms, nor will it reduce the incidence or severity of cravings or the conditioned "cues to relapse" that make maintaining abstinence difficult. Vaccinating someone in a way that blunts the desired effect of the drug MAY be useful in helping someone maintain abstinence, but it may simply encourage the person to take higher (more dangerous) doses of their drug-of-choice to over-ride the immune blockade, or it may encourage the person to simply switch to an alternative drug which they are not vaccinated against. There is a good discussion of the problems inherent in this approach here; http://link.springer.com/article/10.2165/00003495-200363040-00001#page-1 . <<< Although vaccines against drugs of abuse may become a viable treatment option, there are several drawbacks that need to be considered. These include: (i) a lack of protection against a structurally dissimilar drug that produces the same effects as the drug of choice; (ii) a lack of an effect on drug craving that predisposes an addict to relapse; and (iii) tremendous individual variability in antibody formation. Forced or coerced vaccination is not likely to work from a scientific perspective, and also carries serious legal and ethical concerns. >>> Regards, Paul.
  • Jochen Wilhelm added an answer in Real-Time PCR
    Different amplification efficiencies due to different serial dilutions
    I always use 1:32 dilutions of my standard stock for drawing the standard curve; once I got unexpected low efficiency (calculated by ABI 7500 software), and I was wondering whether the calculated efficiency can somehow be influenced by the dilutions. I made a plate with four 1:32 dilutions of the concentrated stock (which makes Ct of ~10), and included three 1:2 serial dilutions of each of the 1:32 dilutions. I see significant difference in calculated efficiency while using different dilution sets for making the curve; Eff varies between 40% and 85%! I am sure about the pipetting and making the dilutions accurately. I have done qPCR using the same primers 6 months ago, and I got efficiency of 94% (using 1:32 dilutions). I have aliquots of diluted PCR product in -20, each time I take one of them out and make the dilutions fresh, and I am still using aliquots from the same stock as of 6 months ago. We always use Roche SYBR Green. Melt curve is perfect and no contamination in water. Any explanation for my observation is welcome :) Tnx.
    Jochen Wilhelm · Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen
    No. Please use a more "common" format, e.g. text (or Excel) for numbers and png, tiff or jpg for pictures. Thanks.
  • Eddie Seva See added an answer in Sample Size
    Do any researchers here know how to measure sample size?
    I learnt that for random sample, we can use sample size calculator for estimations, and power and sample size program for hypothesis testing. What about cluster sampling? How do we measure the sample size?
    Eddie Seva See · Bicol University
    Fatimah, let me add some information about cluster sampling. From what I know, one uses it when the whole population in the area of concern is not known. So one divides the area into a number of clusters distinguished by certain features. From a "population" of clusters, a sample size is computed and randomly selected. The whole sub-populations in the clusters selected shall be the participants in the research. Ed
  • Who knows a protocol that would allow me to construct a vector for the purpose of making a cloning ?
    I plan to clone a bacterial gene. I ordered the plasmid vector pGEX but I just learned that the order will arrive in six months. Who can offer me a protocol so that I can build a cloning vector myself to save time. All i know is that a vector must have a promoter, specific sites for restriction enzymes and antibiotic sequence that would allow me to make a selection.
    Meriem Fassatoui · Faculté des Sciences de Tunis/Institut Pasteur de Tunis
    Thanks. It's better to change the vector as i can see handling is a bit tricky
  • What are some of the barriers towards achieving sustainability?
    Sustainability or the concept of sustainable development has been discussed at large. Yet, are we truly making progress towards achieving sustainability? What are the recurring problems/barriers that are hindering us from the attainment of sustainability goals? Would love to hear your interesting insights.
    Sara Moggi · University of Verona
    In my researches (on SD at universities) I found that first at all is a question of culture. Organization culture that is strictly linked the country culture and social awareness of the own impact on the environment, on the other people and on the organization itself.
  • What is the actual difference between 1st order and higher order logic?
    Yes, I know. They say, the 2nd order logic is more expressive, but it is really hard to me to see why. If we have a domain X, why can't we define the domain X' = X u 2^X and for elements of x in X' define predicates: SET(x) ELEMENT(x) BELONGS_TO(x, y) - undefined (or false) when ELEMENT(y) etc. Now, we can express sentences about subsets of X in the 1st-order logic! Similarly we can define FUNCTION(x), etc. and... we can express all 2nd-order sentences in the 1st order logic! I'm obviously overlooking something, but what actually? Where have I made a mistake?
    Peter Breuer · University of Birmingham
    @Bartlomiej 1st order logic with quantification over sets of things is all that is used in set theory. Propositions are just sets (in the standard interpretation). So your sense of "[in]equivalent" must not be the model-theoretic one! 1st order suffices to say everything, always, about 2nd order statements in a *given* domain (for sanity's sake, I'm going to steer clear of discussing classes, models of set theory, etc, and if you keep that sort of thing well out of it, much becomes clearer!). Think about Goedel numbering and you'll see another such reduction. So I suspect you are talking about proof-theoretic equivalence? But then how would you compare? 2nd order theories have more things that can be said, so of course there are things that cannot be proved (even not said) by a 1st order logic. You'll have to be very precise what you are talking about there! Do you mean that there are sets of things wich you might think could be described by a first order statement, but which in fact are only describable by some second order statement? Yes, but that second order statement is still only a first order statement when you consider it over the right domain. Given some domain D, if you take as objects all the sets of things in D *described* by 1st order formulae with quantification over D, that forms a domain P. If you take all the sets of things in P *described *by 1st order formulae with quantification over P, you have the (sets satisfying the) second order formulae over D (note that I do not take *all* sets in a more-or-less-standard set theory as the domain, just the ones that correspond to predicates, of which there are countably many). Do that in a categoric setting and you get a somewhat fuller class of things to talk about, but it's not essentially different. So I don't know where your idea that things _are_ essentially different between the two kinds of logic comes from. If you look in wikipedia ("second order logic") you will see the statement: "Second-order logic with Henkin [i.e., one of the 'standard'] semantics is not more expressive than first-order logic. Henkin semantics are commonly used in the study of second-order arithmetic." The codecils there are really over nuances and which set theory do we believe is the right one. Don't go there! Believe that enough things exist and you can always point to one that you do not have :-).
  • Would you let stereotype affects your relationship or your decision?
    Stereotyping refers to judging a person or group of persons because of the actions or behaviors of others; it is the act of expecting persons to act in a certain way. Although there are positive and negative stereotypes, a majority of them are negative in nature.
    Hatem Maraqah · Hebron University
    I agree with Lijo
  • Didn’t computer science violate the basic scientific process?
    Please let me summarize my understanding of the process (or steps) for scientific and technological progress. Step-1: The purpose of scientific research is to discover new facts for expanding the boundaries of human knowledge. Step-2: The purpose of engineering research is to choose and rely on a “set of necessary facts” to invent useful new things or innovate improvements for existing useful things. The technology progress is nothing but making such useful inventions and innovations by relying on the facts discovered in scientific research. It is a well established fact that every technological invention or innovation must rely on certain essential scientific facts. No useful thing can be invented or innovated successfully by relying on facts having errors (e.g. erroneous axioms by assuming to be facts). That is, no invention or innovation could work as expected if there are errors in the “set of necessary facts” (on which the researcher relied for the invention or innovation). All the inventions and innovations mankind is enjoying today in the 21st century are empirical evidence and/or testament to the extremely high degree of accuracy of countless facts. I can prove that software researchers violated basic scientific process by skipping the step-1 and defined nature and essential properties of many kinds of components for software products (without any basis in reality or facts). Then again, software engineering paradigm defined many kinds of CBSDs (Component Based Design for Software Products), where each kind of CBSD is nothing but using a kind of so-called component for software. My understanding of the scientific process is that mankind can’t define or dictate the nature or essential characteristics of any kind of physical beings (e.g. animals, trees or ideal physical functional components) and mankind can’t define or dictate the nature or essential aspects of any physical phenomenon (e.g. achieving controlled powered flight or achieving ideal CBD for physical products). The existing Geocentric-paradigm of software engineering evolved by relying on this huge bug (by erroneously assuming the bug is a fact) for over 45 years: Any kind of software parts either having certain useful properties (e.g. reusable or standardized) or conforming to a so-called component model is a kind of component for software (i.e. software-components). Using each kind of these so-called software components is a kind of CBSD (Component-Based Software Design). This resulted in many kinds of so-called software components and so-called CBSDs. In the context of physical products, there is no ambiguity in the questions “what are components?” and “what are not components?” (e.g. ingredient parts such as lead and acid in lead-acid batteries; steel, cement, metal-alloys, plastic or silicon in semiconductor chips). It is a huge error to assume any other kind of useful parts are components for software, since no other kind of physical parts except a very special kind of parts having certain essential characteristics can be physical components. It is possible to discover essential characteristics uniquely and universally shared by each and every known physical functional component. Once the essential characteristics are discovered it is possible to invent real software-components, which are equivalent to the physical functional components by having the essential characteristics. I believe it is absolutely essential to discover essential characteristics uniquely and universally shared by ideal physical functional components. For example: Basic sciences can’t be real science if the best researchers in the field don’t know the nature and essential characteristics of basic building blocks. If no zoologist in the world can name essential characteristics of animals, then zoology can’t be a real science. If no botanist in the world can name essential characteristics of trees, then botany can’t be a real science. The same logic applies to software engineering and computer science. Until software researchers discover essential characteristics and innate nature of basic building blocks such as real-components and CBD, software engineering and computer science can’t be real-engineering and real science respectively: http://real-software-components.com/forum_blogs/year2014/Messy-State-of-CBSD.html The objective of my research is to invent real-software-components, enabling tools and mechanisms for achieving real CBD for software (i.e. high degree of modularity): http://real-software-components.com/forum_blogs/year2014/Vision-Goals.html. If scientists are willing to analyze all the available facts, valid observations and known concepts of CBD (Component Based Design) of any complex one-of-a-kind product such as an experimental jet-fighter or spacecraft, it is not hard to prove that the essential purpose of components is achieving the highest degree of modularity: http://real-software-components.com/technologies/CBD-facts-rules.html & http://www.researchgate.net/publication/260795179_New_kind_of_Software_components_for_achieving_superior_modularity?ev=prf_pub
    Raju Chiluvuri · SPPS Systems Pvt Ltd
    Mr. Kimmitt, If scientists make a mistake in concepts in the basic theoretical foundation, it would have far reaching implications, for example, the error ripples across all the concepts derived by relying on the erroneous concept. The famous example is geocentric-model. This error prevented scientific progress for centuries (until error is fixed). It is hard to predict what we can invent, when we are going on the right tracks. Even greatest minds Kepler & Galileo (who opened the door of truth: Heliocentrism, by exposing flawed Geocentrism) didn’t imagine Gravity or laws of motion; otherwise must have speculated the reason for the planets circling the Sun might be Attraction. But we can be sure that, it is impossible to discover Gravity or laws of motion without exposing the error. Based on my passionate research spanning more than 12 years in this narrow area (multiple US patents granted to me is a proof and I provided comprehensive information openly in my website is another proof), I believe, it is possible to invent real-CBSD for software that can be even superior to the CBD of physical components. I feel, even that is just a beginning, if we can put the scientific progress in right tracks by exposing the errors. You said: I don't see why software has to relate to physical reality. There is no reason, if it doesn’t add any value or don’t lead to any useful inventions. It may lead to nothing or may lead to scientific revolution. Until we explore the possibility to gain knowledge, how do we know if it has any use? The purpose of basic scientific research is to acquire knowledge, irrespective of any tangible benefits. But if you want to see benefits, let me provide a benefit: Today, no single GUI component of size City_LandMarks is created as a replaceable class in this example: http://real-software-components.com/CBD/City_GIS.html. Assume a large application has 600 such components, where each can be implemented as replaceable components. If a component is implemented as replaceable components, its application code is implemented in a set of exclusive files, the components can be refined and tested individually (by changing the code in the exclusive files). Today the code base for each component spread across multiple non-exclusive files, where the non-exclusive files comprise code base for multiple such components. If you need to add a new component City_Ambulence, you are forced to add application code to multiple non-exclusive files. For example, if you implemented the City_Ambulence as an independent application, to assemble the component, today you are forced to rip-apart code sections and include in multiple non-exclusive files ( - a pure waste of time. The only result is creating spaghetti code). You need to redesign this spaghetti code of this component 100 times throughout the life of the application. You have to navigate through all the spaghetti code, whenever need to add even a simple feature. To test it, you need to test the whole application (since you can’t test it individually outside, as you can do with physical functional components such as CD-player or auto-battery). This is true for all of the 600 components, if each is not implemented as replaceable components as shown in the example: http://real-software-components.com/CBD/City_GIS.html Discovery of essential characteristics could allow us to implement 90% of custom application code as such replaceable components. Regards, Raju
  • Nasser Abdellatif added an answer in NGOs
    Is managing a development NGO any different from managing other types of organizations? If so, why, and how?
    The debate about NGO management has run for many years. Some people argue that effective management is generic (allowing of course for the fact that no two organisations in any field are exactly the same), and that many NGOs do not succeed because they do not pay proper attention to the fundamentals. Others say that because NGOs claim to be driven by a specific, different set of values, generic management from business and government does not apply, and that they need their own different, value driven management principles. Or maybe these two positions are both too simplistic - and the truth is, NGOs need a combination of both ... It's easy to have opinions about this, but does anyone have research that moves these debates forward?
    Nasser Abdellatif · Applied Science Private University
    There are millions of NGOs around the world and they do vary in size, goals, administrative systems and many other features. Painting the all is the same brush is not fair. However, when it comes to good management I believe that the same principles apply to all organizations. Of course some NGOs do have large numbers of volunteers and those have their own principles of management.
  • Yasir Y Elamin asked a question in Cancer Genetics
    I have ba3 cells transduced with a mutant gebe, can I silence this gene using siRNA/shRNA? many thanks
    Baf3 cells were transduced with a mutant gene, now I want to silence this gene, does it make sense to silence a transduced gene or do I have to look for a cell line that naturally has the mutation
  • What cable do you use between Blazer from Boston Scientific and Dr.Osypka generator ? How do you pin the cable ? Thank you.
    We use Blazer for atrial flutter ablation.
  • Mohammad Firoz Khan added an answer in Biology
    Why do science students get taught so little about the scientific method
    Both at school and university in science the student is taught a lot about biology, physics or chemistry but very little about the different (good and bad) ways of doing science. Why is it so late in a person's scientific life are they told about things like inductive reasoning and the better ideas of Karl Popper (falsificationism) ? I found out about these things while reading "What is this thing called science" by Alan Chalmers.
    Mohammad Firoz Khan · Jamia Millia Islamia
    Perhaps, like experiment about grammar, when it was supposed that it would be mastered by students when they would read and write. May be it is supposed that they would learn scientific method when they would go through others researches. It is why research students are more dependent on their supervisor than on themselves.
  • What are the possibilities of reviving smut resistance in a sugarcane variety, that was once resistant but has lost it?
    An Elite variety of sugarcane HSF-240, that developed through selection from local sugarcane fuzz and was well adopted for diseases and insect pests resistance as well as salt, drought, heat and cold tolerance and supported the sugar industry for almost a decade (2002-2012). The variety has now lost its resistance against whip smut (Ustilago scitaminea). What are the possibilities of bringing this variety back in action?
    Khaled Khaled · Sugar Crops Research Institute
    We in sugar crops research institute welcome all interested sugar crops (sugarcane, sugar beet, sweet sorghum and natural sweeteners like stevia and chicory)