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  • David M Fresco added an answer in EMDR:
    Is an anti-depressive incompatible with EMDR?

    Does anyone know - based on scientific research or clinical experience - whether EMDR is incompatible with an anti-depressive? An acquaintance, Mrs. C., is on 15 mg Mirtazapine (almost the minimum dosage) to keep her extreme generalized anxiety somewhat between limits. In the past she had suffered a brief psychotic episode. Her therapist (Mrs. C. is still on the waiting-list) claims that being medication-free is an absolute condition for EMDR to be effective. To me the risk seems too big.

    David M Fresco · Kent State University

    The question presupposes that there is something special or different about EMDR.  In fact there is NOTHING special or different in EMDR.  It is nothing more than a form of exposure therapy and the eye-movements add no special value to it. Thus, a more appropriate question is whether ADM is appropriate to administer with exposure therapy.  The answer as with many things is "it depends."  I was involved with a NIMH funded clinical trial where patients received a combination of CBT with and without phenelzine for social phobia.  Combination treatment was better than monotherapy Grillo et al., 2010).  There is also the famous example of combination treatment of CBT with and without imipramine for panic disorder (Barlow et al., 2000; JAMA) where initially combined treatment looked better at the end of acute treatment but the monotherapy arms evidenced superior treatment durability.  The after the fact interpretation of Barlow's trial is that simultaneous combination therapy resulted in less durable treatment gains because the ADM led to ambiguous inhibitory learning during the exposure exercises in CBT.  Thus, the take home message here or for anyone considering EMDR is that it is one of several efficacious exposure therapies and that the eye movements add NOTHING, and I repeat NOTHING above and beyond competently administered exposure therapy.  I find it regrettable that EMDR is somehow seen as something different or possibly better than traditional exposure therapy when the evidence to the contrary is so greatly overwhelming.  

  • Chao Hsu-Wen added an answer in Conducting:
    What is the amount of protein required to perform a Co-IP experiment using cell lysate?

    For those who have conducted Co-IP before, I would like to know the amount of protein required for Co-IP experiment. We will use lysate from cells.

    Chao Hsu-Wen · Academia Sinica


    It's dependent on your immunoprecipitants, so there is no exact answer. However, if the Co-IP is for overexpressed protein, 500 ug will be enough. For endogenouse protein, it is better at least double (1 mg), but it is still dependent on the expression level of the protein you want to detect. So, please check the expression level of your target proteins before you start Co-IP. Moreover, antibody is also critical for Co-IP, you need to check it, too.

  • Does alien plant species can reduce the production of secondary metabolites in non-native areas?

    I would like to know do the exotic or invasion plants can reduce production secondary metabolism or stop it completely in introduction area. I am interested in a particular secondary metabolites in seeds such as tannins 

    B.R. Rajeswara Rao · Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

    It depends on the introduced alien or exotic specie, the local flora and their competitive abilities. If the alien species is invasive it can replace the native species (at least some of the weak ones) in a few years time. If it is highly competitive, rapidly growing, tall, sturdy and smothering; it can compete for natural resources with the native species and affect their morphology, physiology and survival in a highly competitive-stressed condition. Both primary and secondary metabolism of weak species will be affected. On the other hand well-established local trees, shrubs and highly competitive species can affect the physiology of the introduced alien species particularly if the alien species struggles to acclimatize to the new environment. 

  • Any paper, book, or reference about coal Compressive strength ?

    Im looking for literature about that !! 

    Mostafa Eidiani · Khorasan Institute of Higher Education


  • X. Ramón Nóvoa added an answer in Hydroxyapatites:
    Does inductive resistance contribute to polarization resistance?

    Recently I done the EIS in bare Mg alloy and two different concentration of Hydroxyapatite (HA) mixing with Mg substrate. Two Nyquist curves show single capacity loop, and one curve shows one capacity loop and one inductive loop. I use an equivalent circuit with one inductive element and one inductive resistance to do curve fitting for the Nyquist curve with the inductive loop. The attachment contain the Nyquist curves and equivalent circuit.

    When I tried to quantify the polarization resistance, I add Rf and Rct for the curve with single capacity loop. But when I did for the curve with one inductive loop, should I add RL to Rf and RCT?  Does the inductive resistance contributes to the polarization resistance? Or I should just ignore it, only consider Rand RCT?

    And also, could anyone explain to me the physical meaning of inductive loop in EIS regarding to material science and corrosion? 

    X. Ramón Nóvoa · University of Vigo

    You should read "I. Epelboin, C. Gabrielli, M. Keddam, H. Takenouti, Alternating-current impedance measurements applied to corrosion studies and corrosion-rate detemination, ASTM STP 727, Electrochem. Corros. Testing, F. Mansfeld U. Bertocci,. (1981) 150–166.", Partially available here (https://books.google.es/books?id=HpJAJY57T2cC&pg=PA150&lpg=PA150&dq=Alternating-current+impedance+measurements+applied+to+corrosion+studies+and+corrosion-rate+detemination&source=bl&ots=UN4FOLg5jz&sig=E8ewy33bqfkJCPC8VzsUeqCv6LQ&hl=gl&sa=X&ei=BRgZVZy8KcncUZSthJAD&ved=0CCEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Alternating-current%20impedance%20measurements%20applied%20to%20corrosion%20studies%20and%20corrosion-rate%20detemination&f=false)

  • David Foster added an answer in Solidification:
    What is the best way to inoculate molten agar with S. cerevisiae and other yeasts, minimizing cell death?

    I would like to be able to dilute a yeast cell suspension into melted agar media, that can then be aliquoted into plate wells before solidification.

    Is there an ideal concentration of agar to have in the media for a lower melting point? Or a temperature at which cells should be added?

    I'd think that putting the agar onto ice after inoculation would help to speed up the cooling and solidification.

    David Foster · University of Nottingham

    Thanks for the further suggestions. I've found that 0.5% Agar hardens somewhere around 30-35 and that inoculating at this temp gives a decent recovery. The wild yeast isolates (prefer cooler growth temperatures) showed no recovery at 40C.

  • Mostafa Eidiani added an answer in Research Papers:
    Is there any article/papers which describe incremental clustering?

    Please suggest me article/research papers for the incremental clustering.

    Mostafa Eidiani · Khorasan Institute of Higher Education

    Please see these links:





  • Beena Khade asked a question in Image Processing:
    What are the recent areas in image processing for a Ph.D.?

    I have finished my m. tech and now I am interested in a Ph. D. Can somebody help me to find a research area? or pls u can send me on email if khadebeena@gmail.com

  • Peter T Breuer added an answer in Java:
    Why equals() method must be compatible with compareTo in java ?

    Why equals() method must be compatible with compareTo in java ?

    Peter T Breuer · Birmingham City University

    What? Right with the hash codes. However, if compareTo were not compatible with equals (i.e., "compareTo gives 0 iff equals gives true" is wanted, but not achieved) much more would go wrong with people's programming assumptions than only DB searches!

    Programmers assume "compareTo gives 0 iff equals gives true". It's specified wherever compareTo is documented.

    E.g. http://www.tutorialspoint.com/java/number_compareto.htm

    If the Integer is equal to the argument then 0 is returned.

    (the other possible returns from compareTo are discussed exhaustively in the spec, so that's an "iff" not an "if" in logic).

  • Rajesh K. Parsapur asked a question in Aluminosilicate:
    Does recrystallization process (Zeolitization) of the amorphous aluminosilicates retain the morphology of the parent phase?

    Amorphous phases of aluminosilicates show rich morphologies similar to the zeolites. I'm eager to know whether recrystallizing the amorphous samples retain morphology ? or collapse and reformation in to new stable structures ?

    I'm able to synthesize a laminar or layered form of zeolites using surfactants. I want to zeolitize the obatined phases without losing the layered morphology using available re-crystallization methods. But Is there a technique or a process which helps in maintaining morphology along with Zeolitization.

    Thanks in advance 

  • Differents methods to make blockers like previous step to final hot forging in dies?

    One method for making blockers is using a roll forging machines?. Another methods please?

    Ajeet Babu Kumar Parasumanna · Automotive Research Association of India

    Ok. Reduce roller is used for preparing for con rods and similarly metal gathering machine for valves followed by upsetting machine. 

  • Subhash C. Kundu added an answer in Vision:
    Motivational leadership involves presenting a clear organizational vision and inspiring employees to work towards this vision. What do you think?

    Transformational leadership can be defined as “a motivational leadership style which involves presenting a clear organizational vision and inspiring employees to work towards this vision through establishing connections with employees, understanding employees’ needs, and helping employees reach their potential, contributes to good outcomes for an organisation” (Fitzgerald and Schutte, 2010, p.495).

    My question is how to inspire others? any solid techniques?

    Thank you so much.   

    Subhash C. Kundu · Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology

    Motivational/Transformational leadership creates a culture of motivation, inspiration, and development of employees, so that the leader can gain the confidence and assurance of subordinate managers/employees to achieve mission, vision, and objectives of the organisation, and ultimately achieving overall organisational performance.

  • Reda Zukri asked a question in Capital Markets:
    Can anyone get me understand the financial link between subsidiaries?

    I already started my PhD in Finance. I would appreciate if anyone suggest me articles to read about internal capital market. Also, I would understand the relationship between subsidiaries into business groups.

  • What is your opinion about the surgical synovectomy in rheumatoid arthritis ?

    Is it obsolete today or there is still place for synovectomy in refractory to medications cases ? 

    Panayot Tanchev · Medical University of Sofia

    Yes, I agree the newer biologics seem to be very effective today, but not in 100% of the cases, and on the other hand they are very expensive. I still believe that early synovectomy could be applied in refractory to medications cases in an attempt to avoid rapid destruction of the joints. In stubborn monoarthritis or oligoarthritis it could be not only pain reliever but also curative by elimination of the terrain of rheumatoid process.

  • Neetu Goyal asked a question in Cognitive Radio:
    What is the new research topic in cognitive radio?


    I am persuing Ph.D... My research topic is cognitive radio..suggest any one any topic related to cognitive radio.

  • Pierre Pascal Massonnat added an answer in Clay:
    Is it possible to reduce the volume of a cube of clay?

    if you have a cube of clay, knowing that there is void inside, is it possible to compact it? is it possible with other natural matérial as rock or wood... etc

    and how to do it?

    Pierre Pascal Massonnat · Université de Technologie de Belfort-Montbéliard

    but I mean with a reasonable energy coast... :-)

  • Can anyone explain how I can prepare the silica gel coated TLC glass plates manually?

    I am working on enzymatic interesterification of vegetable oils. Therefore I would like to prepare TLC plate for fatty acid analysis. Even though TLC plates are commercially available, I wish to prepare TLC plates manually by myself with low cost.

    Subajiny Sivakanthan · University of Jaffna

    Thank you very much

  • Is it possible to calculate the site occupancy of a Wyckoff position when three atoms may occupy this position using X´Pert HighScore?

    I can calculate the occupancy preference of two atoms position when two atoms can occupy the Wyckoff position very well. Now, however, I got powders, where three elements can occupy one Wyckoff site. I work with X´Pert HighScore.

    Long Yuan · Jilin University

    It depends on the atom size and coordination. If the atoms are similar in sizes, it will be very difficult to discriminate them each other.

  • Rene Mulder added an answer in Gene:
    SNP analysis of a gene from different populations?


    I am involved in analysing the single nucleotide polymorphism of a certain gene from 4 different geographical populations and so was wondering what percentage/threshold level that I should use to say that a position is really polymorphic for that gene? Please advice or give some references that I can use for my study...

    Appreciate your time and help.


    Rene Mulder · University of Groningen

    Dear David,

    Thanks for your answers. However, I was curious to how you came up with such a threshold? Is this a general rule of tumb? Do you perhaps have some references on this? 

  • Ernesto Savaglio added an answer in Well-Being:
    Is there any example of a participatory exercise carried out to derive a list of poverty, well-being or development dimensions?

    Is anyone aware of a participatory exercise carried out to derive a list of poverty, well-being or (human) development dimensions? Except for the well-known "Voices of the Poor" etc. It can be a national level or regional level.

    Ernesto Savaglio · Università degli Studi G. d'Annunzio Chieti e Pescara

    you can find here


    all that you want except theory,

    best wishes


  • Anandita Basu added an answer in Foam Cells:
    How can I oxidize LDL for effective in vitro foam cell formation in THP1 cells?

    Can anyone help me with a standardized protocol on oxidation of LDL? We have fetched LDL from Sigma-Aldrich. There are varied protocols related to it which has left me confused. If anyone could help.

    Anandita Basu · Tezpur University

    Thank you for your opinion Sir

  • What techniques can be used to train pre-service teachers on the mastery over different teaching skills?

    Command over different teaching skills is an important work for pre-service teachers. I am interested to know the different training tasks/techniques for which we can train pre-service teachers in various teaching skills. 

    Krishnan Umachandran · Professor

    @ Rute

    I translated but could not understand the contents, Can you please explain what is this "TeacherDojo at the starting line" all about..

  • jean-marc Leveratto added an answer in Theatre:
    Is anyone familiar with observing theatre production rehearsals and evaluating impact of a theatre production?

    Can anyone offer any advice or suggest starting points for research on observing production rehearsals, especially if anyone has developed methods or tools for observing the pre-performance process please?

    I'm also interested in a second strand of evaluating the impact of the performance on the audience and whether there are existing tools for this that would allow for other projects to share in their methods? 

    With thanks.  

    jean-marc Leveratto · University of Lorraine

    Sorry for the delay.

    She was free to collect, as an ethnologist filling his notebook,  any data she found valuable but I warn her on the interest of using her own spontaneous affective reactions to identify what was worth recording even if it seemed not related directly with the technical aspects of the process of rehearsal. And I insist on our need to collect « scenes » — on the model given by Goffman, ie , precise descriptions made afterwards of situations of interaction —, typical, from her point of view, of the felicity of a peculiar action or, in the contrary, of a negative experience. Focusing, as I already said, on the tensions, disagreements, and conflicts, even microscopic, proved to be very effective, by bringing me categories of interpretation I could find in reading the accounts of this student.

  • Mikhail Khimchenko added an answer in Biosensors:
    What is the price materials used in prototype of graphene based biosensors detecting nucleic acids?

    I'm searching for prices for materials used in graphene based biosensors detecting nucleic acids or other biological samples (pH, electrolytes,antigens.....) using different detection techniques like electrochemical, flourecence or impedimetric techniques

    Mikhail Khimchenko · Inter Technology Company Ltd

    Dear Mona,

    Look on this site, there is many usefull info about biosensors.


  • Subhojit Sen added an answer in Acrylamide Gel:
    How should i prepare nuclease free water?

    I want to prepare solutions with nuclease free water to run  RNA samples(isolated from Mirvana isolation kit)  on denaturing acrylamide gel. It is given in protocol not to use DEPC treated TBE. So , what is the best way to make nuclease free water in that case?

    Subhojit Sen · Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences

    Add 0.1% DEPC to MilliQ or Double Distilled water - let it sit overnight at 37degC and then Autoclave it. Make sure the glassware used is also rinsed with the same water or treated with Chloroform or Baked in a hot air oven (260degC) for 4hrs. It should be ready for use - both DNase and RNase free. For a detail understanding here is a link. Then you can use this water to make your stock solutions and eventual TBE. Make sure you use DEPC treated water to dilute your stocks as well. 


  • Rahul Soman added an answer in Fixed Cell:
    For live cell fluorescence Microscopy how to mount the cells??

    we are doing bacterial live cell fluorescence imaging with out fixing the cells in glass slides. but the cells where moving in mounted glycerol or PBS when its viewed in different fields (Bright field and fluorescent field). how to rectify the problem with out killing the cells.

    Rahul Soman · National Institute of Technology Calicut

    Delphine Aymoz mam

    Concanavalin A technique my sir also advised to me but I faced some limitation in purchase so i have not tried this technique.. I feel it will work better coz after that i seen various paper saying about the technique...

    Venkata Suresh Reddy Vajrala sir

    I have not tried with any other adhesives coz of lack of availability.. thanks for the reply..

    Murugadas sir,

    wer are using normal glass slides with coverslips (bluestar).. to reduce the purchase we have not gone the one..

    Thanks all for your valuable suggestion...

    I really respect it and thought abt it..

  • Hasan Aldewachi asked a question in Peptide:
    I aim to couple two peptide sequences to gold nanoparticle surface , but i would like to check if there is any interaction between these 2 peptides ?

    is there any software that can predict interaction between two known peptide sequences and what can I do to eliminate or reduce such interactions if it is present?

  • Allan Philippe added an answer in Colloids:
    How do I separate nanoparticles in size range 3 nm from those in 10-30 nm ranges?

    From Colloidal solution how do I separate 3 nm nanoparticles.

  • How to convert digital numbers of consumer grade uav mounted canonS110 camera to reflectance values so as to be able to calculate NDVI and other VI?

    I want to use the Empirical Line Method to convert the DNs to Reflectance values. What Software can I use to do this?Other suggestions are also welcome

    I have two Canon S110 cameras, one is RGB and the other is converted to NGB.

    They are mounted on a fixed wing UAV and the system triggers autonomously.

    I have a field handheld spectrometer and therefore I have designed 3 Pseudo Invariant Frames (PIF), a white, a grey and a black PIF, all do not necessarily have a Lambertian Reflectance.

    Now my problem is, how do I use all this equipment to finally get to the reflectance values because I do not want to simply use raw images to calculate vegetation indices and for image classification.

    Which software can I use to create and extract the assumable linear relationship between DNs and Reflectance values.

    Can someone provide a broad, detailed method on how to do this, including all the software required.