ResearchGate Q&A lets scientists and researchers exchange questions and answers relating to their research expertise, including areas such as techniques and methodologies.

Browse by research topic to find out what others in your field are discussing.

Browse Topics

  • Sarwan Kumar Dubey added an answer in Tamil:
    What are the steps taken in your country to control the ragging in the Educational institutions?

    Dear Professor, RG Members, friends,

    Ragging in India is a damaging form of interaction of the seniors in college or school with the juniors, newcomers or first years. it is not an initiation. It involves insults (simple or suggestive sexual, sarcastic and even physical), running errands for seniors, and many other complex activities. Highly reputed Indian colleges have a wistful history of ragging especially Medical colleges. It has become increasingly unpopular due to several complaints of serious injury to the victims and strict laws regarding ragging. Ragging is now defined as an act that violates or is perceived to violate an individual student's dignity.

    Tamil nadir is the first state in India to pass an anti ragging ordinance and later this ordnance was formalised as the Tamil Nadu Prohibition of Ragging Act, 1997. Supreme Court orders a National Anti-Ragging Helpline was launched by the Indian Government.

    Dr. Shanmugasundaram P

    Sarwan Kumar Dubey · Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute

    Government of India has provision of very strict law even than in our country this menace is being in practice under cover and it is really sad every year some talented young brains even die due to this bad practice. Though the very very strict law is there but even then such unfortunate incident occurred. Only students have to refrain himself from this ugly practice.

  • How to find topic a research topic on Digital Image Processing and which area will be better for my Ph.D.?

    Dear Sir / Madam,

    Pls help me in finding a research topic in the field of digital image processing for my Ph.D.

    Amir Nemat · Putra University, Malaysia

    You can read the future work of recent thesis and IEEE papers like 2013 or 2014.  Also, you can send email to the experts in this filed and ask them about state-of-the-arts in image processing.

  • Sanjeev Gupta added an answer in Band Gap:
    How can the absorption coefficient be calculated using Tauc Plot?

    in calculation of Band Gap for semiconductors

    Sanjeev Gupta · Indian Institute of Technology Madras

    Hi ,

    Chithira nair ,

    Actually I want to know the reference of the formula which u given here for absorption Coefficient

  • Abul KALAM Azad added an answer in Solvents:
    Is any solvent available to dissolve PEEK pellets?

    Will the solvents differ based on the molecular weight of PEEK?

    Abul KALAM Azad · Jubail Industrial College

    Dear Fabio Granados-Chinchilla,

    Thank you for ur reply.

    I want to make the virgin PEEK membrane, for that i want to disslove the PEEK.

    but if i dissolve it with sulfuric acid, then it will be the sulfonated PEEK membrane. (SO3H group will be there).

  • Mahfuz Judeh added an answer in Promotion:
    Should academic promotions have a minimum time requirement?

    Full-time academic staff are eligible for promotion if they fulfill all eligibility requirements for promotion. Promotion regulations differ from a university to another. What is the time requirement in your university? What is your opinion about the minimum time requirement?

    Mahfuz Judeh · Applied Science Private University

    Dear Ajay,

    Your comments are highly apprecited.I agree with you that there is a very need of minimizing the human involvement in decision taking as it should limit the corruption, favor, and nepotism up to some extent. Minimizing the human involvement is a nessisity.

  • Bindu John added an answer in NDT:
    How reliable is thermography testing of CFRP adhesion?

    A prerequisite for such an application is that the quality of the
    adhesive bond can be controlled. Various non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques are adequate for the characterization of defects like pores or debonding within adhesive bond.

    Bindu John · Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental Sciences

    I didn't understand your question...what is the meaning of CFRP

  • Is Space-Time a Topological Space?

    We know space-time in General Relativity locally looks like (Topologically is homeomorphic to) Minkowski space-time which its topology may be Zeeman topology, not E^4 (the space R^4 with open balls topology defined by Euclidean metric). On the other hand, most of mathematics and physics text books start Manifold chapters by introducing Topological Manifolds which locally look like E^4 then after, they define extra structures on them and introduce Differentiable Manifolds, Metric, Riemannian and Pseudo Riemannian Manifold.... Hence, it seems by definition, our space-time is not a Topological Manifold! Then on what kind of things we are working?!”

    Amir F. Bahrehbakhsh · Payame Noor University

    Thank you all, I think the Claude's answer is the one I need.

  • Avanish Mishra asked a question in Filing:
    Spin Orbit Coupling BY VASP?

    Does Any body Know here how to spin orbital coupling through VASP , I need it its important for me  . Please any body can send me some important file as INCAR KPOINTS and other file needed .

    Please answer if need my mail address .


  • Monica Opole asked a question in Indigenous Knowledge:
    Is there policy in indigenous knowledge?

    Is there any policy on indigenous knowledge?

  • Eric Lord asked a question in Quantum Mechanics:
    Does the current formulation of Quantum Theory provide any real insight into the way Nature operates?

    The preoccupation in Quantum Theory with “measurements” and “observations” suggests that there is something very seriously wrong with present-day formulation of physical theory. There is a vast universe throughout most of which there is nobody “measuring” or “observing” anything. Physics was at one time an investigation of the “real world” in an attempt to understand how it works. Theoretical physics should be about much more than just calculating and getting numbers out. Quantum theory as it’s currently formulated predicts the outcome of experiments but doesn’t provide real understanding of what is going on. As Feyman once said, “"If you think you understand quantum mechanics, you don't understand quantum mechanics”. There’s some future theory awaiting which will, hopefully, provide real understanding of how all forces, gravitation included, work together to produce “reality”. Let’s discuss.

  • How to avoid fiber post debonding?

    Tooth restoration using fiber post systems became a prior treatment when tooth strenghtdening is needed. But only 90% of treatment is successful. The most common failure is POST DEBONDING.

    How to increase cement and intraradicular dentine adhesion? Which cement or bonding system is highly recommended trying to avoid debonding?

    Literature offers to use 10% sodium ascorbate after NaOHCl, avoid one step self-etch bondng systems, avoid extensive root canal preparation, use oval shaped posts... 

    Bindu John · Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental Sciences

    I think the right luting cement should be used.. I would prefer resin cement for luting and the preparation. Of post space should be conservative when compared to conventional postbspace preparation

  • Vikram Zaveri added an answer in Cosmology:
    Can the initial singularity be removed from cosmology models?

    In a rather old paper, Michael Heller argues that in certain cases it is possible to remove the initial singularity from cosmology models. He discusses b-boubdary and noncommutative geometry. So what do yo think?

    Vikram Zaveri · Independent Researcher

    Initial geometrical singularity can be removed by introducing a "Unified field of consciousness" as discussed in following two articles.

  • Manohar Sehgal added an answer in Preparation:
    Any suggestion to deal with copper(I) chloride without using anaerobic condition or chamber?

    Hi there....i'm now deal with copper(I) chloride for metal binding experiment..unfortunately, this copper(i) need anaerobic condition for it preparation because it will oxidize to copper(ii) in the presence of oxygen..isn't any alternative to prepare the copper(i) instead in anaerobic condition?...

    Manohar Sehgal · DAV College Jalandhar

    [A]Fill/ Click
    dealing with copper(I) chloride without using anaerobic condition
    1. Handbook of Water and Wastewater Microbiology
    Duncan Mara, ‎Nigel J. Horan - 2003 - ‎Science
    3.5 Bacterial enumeration The treatment capacity in any anaerobic digester is ... to whether or not: 1. the reactor is overloaded by an excessive feed rate, and/or 2. there are ... strict anaerobic conditions, it will be necessary to use some of the techniques mentioned above to exclude oxygen while handling anaerobic bacteria.
    Handbook of Water and Wastewater Microbiology
    edited by Duncan Mara, Nigel J. Horan[PP-402-403].

  • Please recommend best software for Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) ?

    Please recommend best software for Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) ?

  • Monica Opole added an answer in Local Knowledge:
    Is indigenous knowledge retrogressive and anti-development?
    There are notions in certain quarters that indigenous knowledge cannot serve any useful purpose for human progress at this time. Those who seek to valorise this form of knowledge are tagged as backward! However, the rise of post modernism is one of the best things that have ever happened to local knowledge. So, if local knowledge truly has a significant role in sustainable rural development, how can we make it happen?
    Monica Opole · Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Products and by-products

    My lifetime experiences have taught me and  made me discover that there is a "school culture" that when attended one is assumed to be educated, and that there exists " an  indigenous- community based  village culture". In the field of knowledge know-how one is educated first by the community on relevant survival skills,  communal etiquite and domestic etiqute/ manners as part of normal survival knowledge and that not all knowledge is useful sustainable survival knowledge. Yet even now most developed communal cultural knowledge  are currently classified as ignorance.

  • Are you interested in joining a multinational study on side effects and purity of supplements for pregnant women?

    We have the opportunity to analyze supplements in the form of pills, powder etc, not only for declared supplement values, a but also for other substances. We have temporary hight-tech equipment to do it. As You know in many countries dietary supplements are OTC preparations not controlled by pharmacologic authorities, or at least not much. we would like to start a multinational study on side effects and purity of supplements for pregnant women.

    Please write me if You are interested in. At the beginning we need supplements in small amounts but as many as are available on Yours country market. If You would like to come deeper into research pls feel free to contact us.

    Farhad Samadian · Yasouj University

    Yes, I would like to contribute in this context 

  • Swapnil Anil Savale asked a question in Tauopathies:
    Tau Hyperphosphorylation and Insolubility, if caused by a bacterial infection, would it lead to neurodegeneration?

    In a research paper, a bacterial exotoxin is found to cause Tau Hyperphosphorylation and insolubility, both of which are the hallmarks of Alzheimers Disease.

    [Ochoa CD, Alexeyev M, Pastukh V, Balczon R, Stevens T (2012) Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin Y is a promiscuous cyclase that increases endothelial Tau phophorylation and permeabiilty: Evidence for an infectious endothelial tauopathy. J Biol Chem. 287: 25407–25418]

  • When Blood Brain Barrier formation start in prenatal stage of mouse?

    Would anybody please help me explaining the details about the development of blood brain barrier in prenatal stage in mouse?

  • Why do moving black particles appear in culture of cancer cell after the 3rd subculture?

    I have been work with cancer cell line. As I subculture it more than 3 times moving black particles appear in it, and while adding trypsin it takes a longer time to detach. Sometimes it does not detach and cell line undergoes apoptosis.

    Please help me.

    Thanks in advance

    Muralidharan Jayaraman · University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

    These black dots that keep moving are primitive archea bacteria. I have successfully eradicated them with BM cyclin from Roche. Good luck!

  • Environmental, economic and social impacts and the relevant strategies?

    I am going to prepare a research proposal on environmental, economic and social impacts of the dryness of Urmia Lake (located on North West Iran, on West Azerbaijan). The Lake has been almost completely dried out due to irregular and improper management of the Responsible Organizations (e.g., extra dam construction, water over use in the area, etc.). I was wondering if anyone has sources about studying the impacts and aftermaths of the Lake fully desiccation. Have you articles or research works relating to similar subject? What types of strategies can be proposed in this regard?

    Ali Mohammad Khorshiddoust · University of Tabriz

    Thanks dear Michal.

    I will look for the works about Lake George, hoping to find good piece of material relating to its dryness impacts.

  • How can I fit the Bergman equation to the Modulus spectrum and what is the difference between KWW and Bergman fit?

    I want to extract the parameters like w max,Mmax and Beta  and I would like to know which type of relaxation (Debye or Non-Debye) it is?

    If anyone knows to please let me know. Thank you

    Gyorgy Banhegyi · Bay Zoltán Nonprofit Ltd. for Applied Research

    First I would like to understand the question. The Watts-Williams equation is the so-called stretched exponential which has an analytical expression in the time domain but does not have an analytical Foureier transfrom to the frequency domain, see e.g. http://journals.aps.org/prb/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevB.44.7306 or n.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stretched_exponential_function. In order to fit the frequency domain spectrum you have to assume a certain beta and tau(zero) value (the limiting moduli can be well assessed from the frequency domain data) than you have to perform the Fourier transform. Novoconrol offers softare for such purposes (http://www.novocontrol.de/html/winfit.htm). Other references:



    The so-called Hamon transformation alsow works for a rough estimation



    By the Bruggeman equation you mean the effective medium approach of heterogeneous media? It has nothong to do with the form of relaxation. Please explain your question.

  • Mycoplasma in lentiviral packaging cell line?

    our packaging cell line was infected with mycoplasma, and virus-containing media also contains mycoplasma. It is recommended to discard it, but is there any other way?
    we ve thought to centrifuge media and to remove supernatant, and to add mq-water to lyse mycoplasma. They should "explode", but after that how to check mycoplasma by pcr if dna will remain there?

    Muralidharan Jayaraman · University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

    I had better results with BM cyclin from Roche than Plasmocin. But maintaining in Plasmocin will help during clearing other cell lines in the same incubator. Other precautionery measure is to use Aquagaurd from Promocell to keep your culture clean. Good luck!

  • Hema Latha asked a question in Packages:
    How to convert the proteins given in units into microgram or milligram for the assay?

    To perform the assays, how can the concentration of protein can be found out if the label on the protein package displays units/mg solid. 

  • How should we interpret the wavefunction of the universe?

    In an old paper at IJTP, Wim B. Drees argues against Hawking-Hartle's interpretation that wavefunction of the universe implies the probability for the universe to appear from nothing. What do you think?

    Vikram Zaveri · Independent Researcher

    I think the mathematical accuracy of a physical model is inversely proportional to the number of bodies contained in the model. This is the reason why hydrogen atom model with two bodies and Newtonian gravity model with two body has maximum accuracy. Models of heavier atoms and multibody gravitational systems are less accurate. This is also one of the principle reason for failure of general relativity at Planck energy. From this point of view the wave function of the universe cannot provide a very reliable mathematical model.

  • What is the classification of lightweight structures?

    For example, In America or In Europe, the structure mass is less than ....... kg (or ton), it called lightweight structure.

    Seyed Amin Mousavi · University of Tehran

    As far as I know, there is no specific weight below which, the structure can be called lightweight. This is a qualitative concept. 

  • Eric Lord added an answer in Electromagnetism:
    What is the significance of the Poynting vector in a static electromagnetic field?
    In an electromagnetic field the flow of energy is given by the Poynting vector. For an electromagnetic wave, this vector is in the direction of propagation and accounts for radiation pressure. However, in a static electromagnetic field the Poynting vector can of course be non-zero. It's not easy to understand how there can be a 'flow' of energy in a static situation. Please discuss.
    Eric Lord · Indian Institute of Science

    Rajat ~

    Thanks for your answer. What you say is very like the conclusion I eventually arrived at: If E and B are static nothing is happening (nothing 'flows') until an object is placed in the field. Then a force will be exerted on the object - analogous to radiation pressure. I'm surprised that I know of no experimental attempt to test this. Your analogy with the static E-field is an interesting one. We have divE = ρ − charge is the source of E.  The static Maxwells equations imply divP = −E.j; the 'source' of the Poynting vector is provided by the currents j required to set up the static field.

  • Who are the stakeholders engaging in disaster risk reduction process? What are the roles they play? And how effective their roles are?

    Academia provides scientific knowledge; governments provide regulations, enforcement, and financial support; organizations bring parties together, advocate and promote participation, etc.; and private sectors innovation and technical support.

    Jayaraman V · Indian Space Research Organization


    thanks. Small correction though. The question was posed by Majeed. I only answered his question. Hope Majeed is reading your answer too

  • Subodh K Sharma added an answer in Scattering:
    Why do elastic electron-electron interactions IN low scattering angle, while electron-nucleus interactions IN higher-angle scattering in TEM ?

    Why do elastic electron-electron interactions usually result in a relatively low scattering angle, while elastic electron-nucleus interactions cause higher-angle scattering in TEM ?

    Subodh K Sharma · S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences

    The large angle scattering in case of electron nucleus scattering is perhaps the result of presence of significant multiple scattering from constituent protons and neutrons.