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  • Bruce Weaver added an answer in SPSS:
    Which test should be performed in SPSS to compare means of different items rather than participants?

    A t-test for independent groups is useful when the researcher's goal is to compare the difference between means of two groups on the same variable.

    What is the way if I want to compare means of different variables from two groups. 

    There are 15 items in my survey, and I want to compare means of these 15 items for the results from 2 different countries. Reason: cross country comparison.

    Bruce Weaver · Lakehead University Thunder Bay Campus

    Waleed, the answers given by Elton and me (Elton's answer appears to have been removed) assumed that you were asking a multivariate question--i.e., that you wanted a single test to compare the two countries on some linear combination of the 15 variables.  But looking at your original post again, I don't really know if you want to ask a multivariate question, or 15 univariate questions.  (See the Huberty & Morris article below for more on the distinction between these two types of questions.) 

    If you really want 15 univariate analyses (unpaired t-tests), do you want to do something to limit the Type I error probability?  If so, the Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate approach might make sense.  You can find SPSS syntax for it by Googling. 


  • Larry Carlson added an answer in Philosophy:
    Can ethics be measured objectively?
    Ethics, ethical committee, ethical approval and other ethical related words are extensively used on Researchgate and other places. How to define and measure ethics in objective bases?
    Larry Carlson · United Tribes Technical College

    Louis: I won't address the question as to whether or not atheism is a religion, as I think that, as a statement, it involves rather unproductive semantic quibbling and is often stated by those adamantly opposed science as being innately materialistic, amoral, etc.

    Of course, science involves belief, but I think that it entails a highly honed method of inquiry, and one that should not be whimsically put on the same level as blind faith, superstition, and myth, simply on the basis that it involves a degree of belief.

    I realize that the thrust of this thread is not whether objective morals exist, but rather whether they can be measured objectively. For some reason, there are those who wish to demonstrate that morals are somehow innately embedded in the human psyche or in nature itself.

    In terms of measurement, you state that the "word objective simply means that it is a system that is transparent and clear." Well, that could be pretty much any list of behavior guidelines. Why then, I wonder, do you say that we come closer to objectifying an ethical code when we have almost universal acceptance of it in a democratic society?  I fail to see what the percentage of acceptance of an issue such as abortion has anything at all to do with whether or not a proposed abortion law, for example, is transparently and clearly written, if that is your drift.

  • Cedric de Leon added an answer in Ethnicity:
    Is parliamentarism suitable under federal system for a country with bitter social cleavages and very recent history of a civil war?

    Burma has adopted a Constitution in 2008, which features fake federal system. It has a long history of ethnic conflict between majority Burman and many other ethnic minority groups. The political system under the current Constitution is 2008 semi-presidentialism (literally, it is not correct to say).

    Cedric de Leon · Providence College

    O'Leary and Lijphart are the deans on this subject of course. I would add, as a mere observer of this area of inquiry, that I find Lijphart's concept of consociationalism (and its critics) a good place to start. It is now an old concept, but it was coined to think through governance issues in deeply divided societies like Northern Ireland and the Netherlands.

  • Is it meaningful to use adjacency matrix as regressors?

    I know we do have a bunch of statistical methods to deal with network data, but I am wondering if it is meaningful that we just use the adjacency matrix as regressors with classical regression method. If it does, how could we interpret it?

    Morton E. O'Kelly · The Ohio State University

    I have been thinking about your question before trying to offer a suggestion. The answer somewhat depends on what you already know or may have tried. Are you familiar with the idea of spatial auto-correlation (i.e. the possibility that errors in the model are similar in areas that are close to each other)?  Assuming yes ... well, there is a variant on that .... namely network auto-correlation ...  where the spatial relationships are defined with respect to a network rather than say euclidean coordinates. Now, for many spatial modelers these are things to be careful with -- and usually indicate that you should make some effort to model the spatial dependence between observations -- and I would suggest this is true whether the dependence is measured by some kind of geometric OR network distance. The idea then of SIMPLY using the weights of the adjacency measures as regressors (if that is what you mean) seems far too simplistic. At the very least you should use some distance weighted combination of the observations from surrounding points (on the network). If you want a challenging example to test your modeling skill, how for example would you write a model for traffic fatalities on a road network?

    You might want to check some of the contents of Geographical Analysis. Most older papers are available is a free archive. In particular Prof Atsu Okabe ** has a large set of tools to deal with network models and the correct treatment of their implications for spatial prediction.  Simply using connections in OLS is probably not going to be the best way. Please let us know about your next steps and discoveries.

    His recent work is also in the current issue

    ** http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gean.2014.46.issue-4/issuetoc

  • How do you differentiate between Human Capital and Knowledge Management?

    I tried to search, but I couldn't find studies that either argue that these are two extremes or synonyms.

    I would appreciate some insight, and also some articles to study.

    Alejandro R. Silva · University of Buenos Aires

    "Loosely speaking, human capital corresponds to any stock of knowledge or characteristics the worker has (either innate or acquired) that contributes to his or her “productivity”. This definition is broad, and this has both advantages and disadvantages. The advantages are clear: it enables us to think of not only the years of schooling, but also of a variety of other characteristics as part of human capital investments. These include school quality, training, attitudes towards work, etc. Using this type of reasoning, we can make some progress towards understanding some of the differences in earnings across workers that are not accounted by schooling differences alone" (Acemoglu & Autor, 2011)

    I agree with this broad definition and would add to it: KNOWLEDGE is the fifth factor of production, its economic valuation may be done in terms of money as it happens with LAND, LABOUR and CAPITAL.

    Why knowledge a separate factor of production?

    Basically because of its own characteristics: not fungible, intangible, can be used simultaneously in different places, it's accumulative and system generated, it's patentable, non rival and non exclusive in consumption, becomes obsolete with time, and is a continuous process; among others (Silva, 2014)

    But also because it became one of the most important "sources" of value creation during the last decades. In order to understand this process of value or wealth creation by KNOWLEDGE we need to understand its characteristics and behaviour. Biotechnology, Nanotechnology, Information technology, agroceuthicals, bioceuthicals, are all different forms of knowledge. Science technology and techniques may all be conceptualized as Knowledge. The same happens with the abilities and capacities of LABOUR and ENTREPRENEURS.

    Knowledge management is also a broad term, but may be defined as " the systematic management of an organization's knowledge assets for the purpose of creating value and meeting tactical & strategic requirements; it consists of the initiatives, processes, strategies, and systems that sustain and enhance the storage, assessment, sharing, refinement, and creation of knowledge" (http://www.knowledge-management-tools.net/knowledge-management-definition.html#ixzz3H71DVDFf)

    Going back to your question, in my humble opinion the difference would be that Human Capital is only one of the different forms of KNOWLEDGE that are managed by an organization, one of its knowledge assets.


    Daron Acemoglu and David Autor. 2011. "Lectures in Labour Economics" (available at http://economics.mit.edu/files/4689)


    Silva, A. R. 2014. "Innovation, Regulation and Economic Performance: the Impact of ASYNCHRONICITY on the Chain". Second International Workshop for Regulation of Animal Biotechnology: Preparing Markets for New Animal Product Opportunities, At Brasilia, Brazil 

  • Manohar Sehgal added an answer in Ammonia:
    Is it possible to decompose ammonia gas by UV Radiation?

    N1mmonia gas has Lambda Max between 212-215 nm. Is it possible to decompose Ammonia [2NH3 + hv ---> N2 + 3H3] using Ultraviolet radiation? If it is possible, how much (power) watt will be required to decompose one liter of ammonia in one minute? How we can increase the rate of decomposition of ammonia?

    Manohar Sehgal · DAV College Jalandhar

    [A] If heat of formation of NH3(g) is -46.1 kJ {reported}, then its heat of dissociation is +46.1 kJ; heat required to dissociate 22.4 titres of NH3 (g) at NTP.
    [B] And above all, we all follow simple Hess’s Law of constant heat summation- which IMPLIES if 46.1 kJ is stored in one mole of NH3(g) during its formation, the same amount of the heat will be reqired to dissociate it.
    [C] And Still and other point, we are neither dissociating H2(g) norN2(g). We dissociate  NH3(g)  only into H2(g)[ not into two H(g)] and N2(g)[ not two N(g)].
    [D]Finally, without further contesting, I leave it to my young celebrated friends and would, humbly, accept their arguments.Perhaps, we old people belong to an old school of thought viz.a.viz. thermochemistry.Thks.

  • Golam Kibria asked a question in Phenology:
    Whether Terrestrial or Aquatic species will be most Impacted due to Climate Change?

    Species (either terrestrial or freshwater or marine), have particular preferences for the kind of environment they would like to live in.  Species may respond to climate change (e.g. rise of temperature) either staying or moving out or dying out. Rise of ambient temperature can cause species shifts or changes in their phenology (lifecycle event). For example, species may move to their preferred environmental conditions resulting in changes in their range. A pattern of range shifts such as polewards and upwards has been documented in a number of species of plants and animals and could be one of the strongest signals of biotic change from global warming. These range shifts may result either an expansion or contraction or even extinction of species from an area.

    Question: Whether terrestrial or aquatic species will be most impacted due to climate change? (Any weblinks or references relevant to this topic would be much appreciated)

  • What theories can be useful to study cross cultural communication in multinational chinese organisations using a multidisciplinary approach ?

    It is envisaged that qualitative interviews will be used in the study. 

    Michael W. Marek · Wayne State College

    I really like the framework for four levels of intercultural awareness in:

    Hanvey, R. G. (1976). An attainable global perspective. Reprinted 2004 by The American Forum for Global Education, New York.

    I used this when I led my study abroad students to Taiwan and China and it clearly did describe the contrast between newcomers and people who have learned to appreciate a culture through living inside it.  I believe that Hanvey called it awareness, but I tend to use the term "intercultural understanding", because I think it is more descriptive of what Hanvey said.

  • Cedric de Leon added an answer in Capitalism:
    Does the success of the labour movement rely only on the efforts of the poor?

    Neo-liberalization and globalization increased production and employment through exploitation and insulated an antagonistic milieu within developing nations. Globalization opened doors for many, but closed for proletarians, and capitalization drastically ruined human nature, but question is: how and when we can see a change of Cowboy capitalization system?

    Cedric de Leon · Providence College

    I don't think so. There's a great new book out called Global Unions, Local Power by Jamie McCallum that shows how the success of transnational organizing depends on several sets of actors, some precarious to be sure, but others middle class like union staff and union members in already developed countries. In fact, what transnational corporations do also has an important impact on the success of organized labor.

  • Andrew Koh added an answer in Internet of Things:
    How can elements of either cooperative and non-cooperative game theory be applied to study either the internet of things or big data?

    How can elements of either cooperative and non-cooperative game theory be applied to study either the internet of things or big data?

    Andrew Koh · University of Leeds

    Hi Shrisha, Hi Gandhi, Hi Shabab many thanks for your insightful thoughts. The references you have provided will be of use to me. I believe that there is much potential for the application of such game-theoretic literature to IoTs and data analysis.

    Thanks again

  • Andrew Koh added an answer in Economic Modeling:
    Can anyone suggest how to construct a simple Cournot Nash duopoly with equal cost resulting in Multiple Nash Equilibria outcome?

    I am writing this because for such a deceptively simple problem, I have been unable to construct an example.

    Two producers compete in the quantity of some homogenous good produced. They face a common market demand

    In such a setting, I wish to show, by means of an example, not a mathematical proof, the existence of multiple Nash Equilibria in pure strategies and continuous payoff spaces.

    Can anyone construct a simple Cournot Nash duopoly with equal cost resulting in Multiple Nash Equilibria outcome but positive prices and profits?

    Andrew Koh · University of Leeds

    Thanks Rob but I have actually been in contact with Prof Osborne before (Osborne and Rubinstein is a must read on game theory basics) The example as he says has "a unique Nash equilibrium".  However I am looking for the case of a NON UNIQUE or Multiple Nash Equilibrium in a Cournot Duopoly. That however seems to be elusive.  Thanks for your help and I do apologise that I was not precise.


  • Emma Landry asked a question in Gold Nanoparticles:
    FDTD-calculated plasmonic response does not match experimental?

    The FDTD simulations of a stellated gold nanoparticle is NOT in agreement with the experimental (by 200-300 nm shift!!). In FDTD, TFSF plane source was used. Orientation effects have been taken into account.  Could this enormous difference be due to JC vs LD, LH, Weaver etc differences in dielectric?? I used JC.

  • Edson Sampaio added an answer in Topology:
    It is true that $F|_L:L\to \mathbb{C}$ has topological degree $r$, such that $|r|≤k$?
    Let $F=g\circ H$, where $H:\mathbb{C}^n\to \mathbb{C}^n$ is a homeomorphism such that $H(tz)=tH(z)$ for $t>0$ and $g$ is a homogeneous polynomial of degree $k$. Let $L$ be a complex line such that $(g|_H(L))^{−1}(0)=0$. It is true that $F|_L:L\to \mathbb{C}$ has topological degree $r$, such that $|r|≤k$?
    For example, this is true when H is $\mathbb{R}$-linear!
    Edson Sampaio · Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará


    Thank you for your attention.

    I have three questions.
    1) Why  $topdeg (F | _L) = topdeg (F | _ {L '}) $?
    2) Why $topdeg (g \ circ id | _ {L '}) \ leq topdeg (g | _ {L'}) $?
    3) Why $topdeg (g | _ {L '}) = algdeg (g) $?

    Again thank you.

  • Ayaz Ullah added an answer in Omnet++:
    Can anybody help me find out how to use and customize OMNET++ tool?

    I want to do aggregation and clustering in wireless sensor networks data.

    I'm the beginner of OMNET++ tool and am struggling hard to install the tool itself. Can anyone guide me for doing so? Thank you.

    Ayaz Ullah · Dongguk University

    On OMNET++ website there is step by step installing guidance.

    There is MIXIM module which is added in OMNET++ used for wireless sensor network.

  • Cedric de Leon added an answer in Racism:
    Where can I find statistics on the internet involving racism among BC youth and it's affect?

    I need to do a report for school involving racism in the Lower Mainland of BC. I am having trouble researching any statistics at all.

    Cedric de Leon · Providence College

    You can look up hate crimes with the BC provincial police, local police, and/or RCMP. You can also check with universities to see if they collect any stats on racial incidents on campus. 

  • Paul R. Yarnold added an answer in SPSS:
    If I want to test for an association between age and cholesterol (both scale data) in spss is chi squared the correct test?

    I think I am correct but have now ended up in a state of utter confusion. Any help is appreciated.



    Paul R. Yarnold · Optimal Data Analysis LLC


  • Michal Ruš added an answer in Lidar:
    Can anyone tell me where I can download the free full waveform experimental LIDAR data?
    I need some full waveform experimental LIDAR data.
    Michal Ruš · University of Vienna

    try here http://gliht.gsfc.nasa.gov/index.php?section=37

  • Can infection with mycobacteria give a false positive SAT for Brucella abortus.

    A patient with a H/O laparoscopic hernioplasty with a mesh was investigated for PUO. His culture is negative for Brucella on three separate occasions but SAT positive for Brucella abortus and negative for melitensis.

    Subsequently, USG showed pus collection in the surgical site which showed AFB. Culture for mycobacteria has been put up to differentiate between MTB and MOTT.

    Can infection with mycobacteria give a false positive SAT for Brucella abortus.

    Ashraf E. Sayour · Animal Health Research Institute

    As Dr. Gamal answered, Brucella is unlikely the cause.  Brucella is not usually pyogenic in nature.  It is not an AFB, but a weak acid fast coccobacillus.  In other words, it resists decolorization by 0.5% acetic acid for 30 seconds in the modified Ziehl Neelsen method using carbol fuchsin of mycobacteria diluted 1/10.  SAT is inconclusive in nature especially at low titers.  CFT is a good confirmatory test for brucellosis.  I think you have to focus on MTB and MOTT.

  • Cedric de Leon added an answer in Organization:
    How trade union assist the organizational goal?

    trade union can be known as an organization/body that can become a threat to the organization and on the other hand it help the organization. 

    Cedric de Leon · Providence College

    Unions can make employment relations more routine and predictable; they can also make it possible for workers to afford the products or services that the organization sells. 

  • Michael Bohl added an answer in Lung Cancer:
    What is the experience with the low-dose lung cancer screening?
    Has there been a huge surge of interest in this concept since the USPTF recommendations broke favoring LDCT screening in the appropriate demographic?

    Is anyone offering this service?
    What do you charge?
    Is anyone doing it for free?
    What has been the response so far?
    Michael Bohl · Radiology Group, PC, SC

    Many facilities are now offering LDCT Lung Screening.  We are as well.  Currently, there is little to no insurance coverage, but that should change soon. LDCT received a Grade B rating from the  United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF).  The USPSTF recommended LDCT lung cancer screening of adults aged 55-80 who have a 30 pack-year smoking history and currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years.  The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) requires commercial insurers to pay USPSTF recommended screening studies which received Grades A or B.  Interestingly, the Medicare Coverage Advisory Committee (MEDCAC) recommended Medicare not cover it.  If CMS adopts MEDCAC's recommendation it would mean commercially insured patients have coverage while Medicare patients don't.  Personally, I expect Medicare to reject MEDCAC's recommendation and cover LDCT. 

    One of my concerns is that facilities will start performing them, but won't be using a truly low dose technique.  Any facility performing LDCT should use the American Association of Physicists in Medicine's protocols available here:  http://www.aapm.org/pubs/CTProtocols/

  • Nadja Schott asked a question in Spatial Awareness:
    Would you rather recommend a 3D-TV or 3D-projector for experiments on spatial awareness?

    I am looking into a 3D-experiment on spatial awareness. The software we want to use can either be projected using a 3D-TV (active shutter, at least 1920x1080, 65") or a 3D-projector (DLP link, refresh rate min 120z).

    However, the question is, what is the better solution for high qualitative presentation of the stimuli. Does anyone have experience with the different setups? Are  there any studies comparing both projection modes?

    Thanks for the help


  • C.-S. Yu asked a question in Simulation Experiments:
    How to physically realize (or simulate) a squeezed thermal bath?

    Normally, the environment of a quantum system could be supposed to be a thermal state, or a squeezed vacuum state or a squeezed thermal state. Then can these baths be realized or simulated in experiments?

  • Metwally Madkour asked a question in Materials Studio:
    How to build core shell structure using material studio?

    How to build core shell structure using material studio?

  • A teacher can teach mathematics in the context of John Dewey?

    The "Learning by Doing" puts us in an environment where everything is happening, authentically. In this environment it is possible to teach math?

  • Ximena Torres asked a question in Protein Kinases:
    How is the protocol to use KN-62?

    Inhibition of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.

  • Adam Szewczyk added an answer in Climate Change:
    Climate change agreement in the EU. Who's the winner?

    The leaders of the EU agreed on targets for protecting the climate change despite deep divisions among member states. What are your feelings about the outcome of the summit? Is the EU more effective than the U.S. in it's slimate efforts? How about friends from the CEE countries: are you really satisfied with the compromise? What if rest of the world won't follow the EU? Please take into account that prices of the energy in the U.S., China, Russia and India are lower than in the EU.  

    [optional] Feel also free to answer whether it's wise to take such a young kid to such a big event (picture in NY Times)?

    Adam Szewczyk · McMaster University

    Q.  What are your feelings about the outcome of the summit?

    I am surprised that there are some governments taking an effort to reduce global warming.

    Q. Is the EU more effective than the U.S. in it's climate efforts?

    I cannot tell.  I think that it is too early to say.

    Q  What if rest of the world won't follow the EU?

    If the rest of the world will not follow then unfortunately all of us will suffer the consequences.  We will fall asleep and never wake up.

    Q. Please take into account that prices of the energy in the U.S., China, Russia and India are lower than in the EU.

    U.S. has its own reserve and lots of other sources like Canada and Saudi.  China and India has resources from Russia.  Russia is a huge country with vast of resources.   There was not much of capitalism in that country for thousand to years except of dictatorship, anarchy and then communism (DAC).  With capitalism you have a rapid growth and innovation at the price of rapid, wasteful and inefficient consumption of resources.  In (DAC) system, you have a slow growth and innovation with a slow consumption of resources.  It is like a car, if I want to go further and faster then I have to burn more gas.  Thus why European empires are non-existent today.  Russia is still as it was years ago.  China and India resources are in people not oil.

    [optional] Feel also free to answer whether it's wise to take such a young kid to such a big event (picture in NY Times)?

    Yes, it was wise.   Because that decision about climate change agreement was made for him.  The winner is the boy's generation and the looser is old generation who refuse to let go and make a room for younger generation.

  • I have a question in choosing primers for sequencing...which one is preferable using only M13 (-21) or..?

    I have a question in choosing primers for sequencing...which one is preferable .......using only M13 (-21) or sp6 and T7 forward and reverse primers, respectively? As I don't know the orientation of my insert, I'm likely to amplify the complementary to my insert than the insert itself if I use only M13 (-21) which could result in taking complementary sequence for annotation. How can I solve this limitatations in using single (only forward) primer (M13-21)? I think I have to use sp6 and T7 as either of the two surely amplify my insert as the amplification occurs in both orientations. My vector was pGEM-T easy.