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  • P. Ciren added an answer in ToA:
    How to calculate TOA radiance and Reflectance from VIIRS SDR data?


    Could you please provide me equations and their respective parameters to calculate TOA Radiance and Reflectance from VIIRS SDR data? 

    Thanks in advance!



    P. Ciren · National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    Dear BILAL:

    please check this link, it may have the re-projection tools similar to MPT as you used.




  • Chuangzhong Deng asked a question in Charcoal:
    Is't necessary to use charcoal stripped serum (cFBS) when studying the AR signalling pathway in prostate cancer cells?

    Recently, i'm studying the AR signalling pathway in prostate cancer cells. And i'm wondering if it's necessary to use charcoal stripped serum (cFBS) and DHT to activate the AR.

  • Z.K A asked a question in 31P-NMR:
    Any paper talking about the 31p NMR spectra of Tuberculosis?

    Looking for the peaks of ATP using 31p NMR.

  • Mohammed Al Marjani added an answer in Lactoferrin:
    What is the effect of lactoferrin on MDR bacteria?

    What is the effect of lactoferrin on Multidrug resistant bacteria?

    Mohammed Al Marjani · Al-Mustansiriya University

    Thank you Dear Bhoj , I will assay it  and tell you

  • Israat Ali asked a question in Schiff Bases:
    Can any one tell me about the data available for trinuclear schiff base complexes and how can we synthesize these by using aldehydes?

    i want to prepare tri nuclear schiff base ligand and want to treat it with metal for formation of complexes as the increase in nitrogen base will cause more good results. i have read about the bi nuclear schiff base complex already with metal oxides also.

  • Andrei Rogoza added an answer in Solvents:
    What is the solubility of ZrF4 in organic solvents (like ethanol, DMF, THF, etc)?

    I am looking at determining the water content in ZrF4 salts (both hydrated and anhydrous) using Karl Fischer titration. I was looking at first dissolving the salt in an organic fluid and doing a coulumetric titration. For this I am looking at ethanol, DMF and THF as solvents. Does anybody have an idea of the solubility of ZrF4 in these solvents (i mean in terms of mg/L or such units)?

    Andrei Rogoza · Irkutsk Institute of Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences

    ZrF4 build complexes with o-phenanthroline and α,α'-dipyridyl. Idea to test pyridine and N-methylimidazole seems pretty natural.

  • Is anyone familiar with PSCAD model of the IEEE 39-bus system?


    Dear RG researchers, as I am working on a paper I need a PSCAD-model of the IEEE 39-bus system. I would be really grateful if anybody can help me with this.


    Akbar Amirian.

    Bassam Hemade Ali · Suez Canal University


    I can see you have a several requests on the IEEE 39 bus PSCAD model, unfortunately I have the same problem as well and I wonder if I could get the model for my research?

    thanks, and I am looking forward for your early response.

  • Akira Kanda added an answer in Natural Numbers:
    Is it logical to say: “real number set has more elements than natural number set”, so “real number set is more infinite than natural number set”?

    Why we say mathematically something is more or less, bigger or smaller … than the other (different grade)? One of the main scientific reasons is because of different quantities (not being bijective).

    So, just by different quantities, it is logical to say mathematically “real number set is bigger than natural number set”; “real number set is more infinite than natural number set” ….

    Akira Kanda · University of Toronto


    In the 20th century, break away from the 19th century mathematics took place, to an interesting direction at the start. Then Capitalism took over. For this evil computer technology was much bigger money maker than electrical and mechanical engineering. Mathematics was completely destroyed. Academy it self became the second class business. Now a "researcher" has something to say 30 times a year minimum. My teachers had one thing to say in a few years. 

    Think about it. Probability and statistics became the main issue. In CERN they "verified" the prediction of Higgs particle, which is a "probabilistic prediction"  after two experiments. I wonder what happened to the large number theorem. Of course these two experiments cost already 10 billion dollars. We have a problem. 

  • I have a large data set as output from a pressure sensor with multi- peaks. Can anyone let me know a suitable peak analysis method?

    Right now I'm trying to fit the Igor's multi peak method and trying to program it. The final goal is to automate the analysis (best fitting one).

    Subrata Chakraborty · Dibrugarh University

    try fitting a mixture distribution

  • Isa Faraji asked a question in Comsol:
    Nothing showed in a COMSOL library completed model!!!!?

    When I run dielectrophoretic separation model in COMSOL model library, nothing shoes.Even I changed point to tube in particle trajectory secession ,but still nothing happen .

    I test this model in my friend's computer . It's OK and all particle are showed.

    What is the solution?

  • How can I convert dust flux into dust concentrations?


    I need to convert the estimated vertical sandblasting flux (in microgram/m2/s) in to the surface dust concentrations (in microgram/m3). Can anybody help me please..

    Lakshmi Madhavan Bomidi · Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research

    Hello Naseema,

    I guess you need to divide the estimated vertical sandblasting flux by the wind speed (at the surface) to obtain the corresponding surface dust concentrations. 

  • Should time spent on healthcare be included in healthcare costs?

    Can time taken in obtaining health care be translated into healthcare costs?

    If yes, what are its correlates?

    It is important to spend some amount of time on healthcare so that future morbidity, time and cost of healthcare may be reduced. Should this time be added while calculating cost of healthcare? If not, how can this time be compensated?

    Joaquin Morera · Comunidad de Madrid

    About time in primary care has been a very important discussion in Spain. I am sending you an article I wroteabout (in Spanish). Of course I consider it an important part of health care costs and direct involvement in health outcomes

  • Louis Brassard added an answer in Consciousness:
    How could feelings be unconscious?
    Antonio Damásio (in the book "The Feeling of What Happens", 2000, and other writings) distinguishes feelings from emotions, but argues that both can be unconscious. For him, they are conscious only when referenced to a Self.
    Pereira Jr (2013), using a slightly different definition of terms, argues that feelings are always conscious, while emotions can be unconscious. According to this view, the conscious Self is fundamentally a product of feeling experiences; it does not exist without feeling. Feeling constitutes the subjective side of consciousness, while cognition constitutes the objective side (the informational contents of consciousness). Emotions, as physiological and behavioral processes, can be unconscious, when occurring before or after a (conscious) feeling.
    Pereira Jr., A. (2013) Triple-Aspect Monism: A Framework for the Science of Consciousness In: Pereira Jr A. and Lehmann D (Eds.) The Unity of Mind, Brain and World: Current Perspectives on a Science of Consciousness. Cambridge-UK : Cambridge University Press.

    ''Love is pleasure associated with an external object.''

    This is not true.  

    First we do not love objects but we love other people or our favorite pet animals but we do not love a rock or a TV.  We may find a rock beautiful and enjoy and have pleasure looking at it, and the same with the TV.  We sometime say that we love an object but what we really mean is that we like so much that object that it is almost like loving.  

    Second, when we love someone it is become we have become so intimated with that person that that person is not completely outside anymore but intrinsically part of us. So it is not totally outside but is inside and outside.  It is when our person has partially fused with the other person.  Aristotle spoke of one soul in two bodies.  It is an exageration but it points the way.

    Third, Love is associate with feelings but it is mostly a commitment, it is an act of opening up our being to include (to began the fusing) another being; it is empathy and it is central to our theory of mind which use  our being to impersonated the other and it does that only when the commitment to love.  Love is not something happening to you but a act of openess.

    Derman is a mathematician working for money.  What do you expect from such background.  Mathematics is ground on the object side of our theory of mind and when it is overdeveloped it shutt down the love of it.  Money is the externalization of human will, its objectivization that control people who have their love side shutt dow.  It create societies based of slave master relationship at the global scale of the planet.  It is an zombification of the whole humanity in the name of freedom.

  • How do you measure the economic regulation of a specific sector?

    OECD provides general regulation indexes but they are of little help with measurment of regulation to the specific sector. I am particularly interested in tourism or service-related regulations that refer to businesses (not eg. environmental)

    Javier García-Bernal · University of Zaragoza

    I like response of Peter. Their arguments are ok. However one aspect is always true: The maximum wealth creation level occurs only when transaction costs are 0. Higher competence level in the market, lower transaction costs and then, higher level of wealth creation. Regulation has to pursue competence levels improvements.  In other cases, inefficiency problems will appear and wealth creation will decrease. Excuse my english, it is not very good.

  • Rasheed A. O. Shidi asked a question in Rotation:
    Technically, is Malrotation of the intestines better to correct by open surgery or laparoscopically?

    Normal rotation occurs at 10 to 12 weeks of gestation when the midgut returns to abdominal cavity, accompanied by Duodenal loop that rotates 270 degrees counterclockwise, passing behind the superior mesenteric vessels to lie with Trietz ligament on left of the spine, likewise Cecocolic loop rotates 270 degrees counterclockwise in front of superior mesenteric artery to the Cecum at right lower quadrant

  • When is photocatalytic activity decrease in the decrease of PL peak intensity?

    I am preparing CuO-TiO2 nanocomposite material. I took photoluminescence spectrum of pure TiO2 and CuO-TiO2. The PL peak intensity of CuO-TiO2 nanocomposite is lower than pure TiO2. In general PL intensity decrease means photocatalystic activity high. But my samples are showing lower photocatalystic activity than pure catalyst, why? Please can anybody help me. 

    Johan Rene Gonzalez · Federal University of Pernambuco

    in many case your situation occurs. This review may be bring some clarity of your problem.

  • Ahmed Hadidi added an answer in Weather Radars:
    What are the available methods for precipitation estimation in remote areas?

    The problem is that I have poor quality of TRMM product of 3B42 v7 of the studied rain storm, which is a rare event. (error value equal to the precipitation rate)

    I do have data of 3 'handmade' rain gauges spread over 850 square kilometers. No civil weather RADAR in the study area.

    Is it useful to interpolate GPCP data over the area? what about REF 2.0? anybody have an experiance with them?

    Ahmed Hadidi · Technische Universität Berlin

    Dear Mr. Caniaux,

    Thanks a lot for this hint. I can understand the spatial shifting between different products.



  • Rubén Barone added an answer in Animal Navigation:
    What journal specializes in how migrating animals navigate?

    What journals deal with migratory bird navigation, salmon migration, etc.?

    Rubén Barone · Independent Researcher

    Hi again.

    Another journal, not entirely devoted to bird migration, but very good, is JOURNAL OF AVIAN BIOLOGY. There are some papers about bird migration in it...

  • ‏What will be unusual manners of rising speed in a communication system ?

    Hi  friends , please check my question. 

    Mehdi Hemmatifard · Khorasan Institute of Higher Education

    Very good question . Okkkkkkkk 

  • Reshi Nawab added an answer in Quantum Entanglement:
    What is the most difficult fundamental concept, formula, fact or theory to understand or accept in physics ?

    Casimir effect, Hawking radiation ,Quantum Entanglement  , Dark Energy, Zero point energy of the Vacuum . .........and so on are all part of what we deal with every day in our physics research......what do you find hardest.....to swallow 

    Reshi Nawab · King Saud University

    #alexander sir , 

    i didn't get your statement !.

  • Hussain Ahmed added an answer in Tissue Microarrays:
    Can anyone suggest a protocol for the extraction of RNA from paraffin block tissues?

    will plse suggest a protocol for extraction RNA from Paraffin blocks tissues?

    Hussain Ahmed · University of Khartoum

    Thank you

  • Dora Adamo Quintela added an answer in Hearing:
    What may be the problems usually faced by children with hearing impairment in integrated school setting?

    Usually children with hearing impairment face many problems after integration to normal school. I would like to know what may be probably the major challenges these children faces in integrated school setting.

    Dora Adamo Quintela · Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educación

    The deaf children in  integrated setting face many difficult. They can be provided by an interpreting in sign language in the classroom, but that is not enough for them. Anyway, they need an extra support with an especial teacher for deaf to ensuring full and  equal access to instruction.

  • Wendel Walter Raymond added an answer in Greece:
    Does anyone have an idea of what this wondrous creature might be?

    Found in a port in Greece

  • What is the distribution of partial sum in Poisson binonomial distribution?

    Binomial Distribution:     C(M,N)  p^L (1-p)^(M-N)

    Poisson's Binomial  Distribution (PBD) : p_i  are different 

    Hyper geometric  :   Prob ( n success in m trials, given N success in M)

                              = C(m,n) C(M-m,N-n)/ C(M,N)

                              = distribution of  partial sum (up to m)

    Q. What is the distribution of partial sum for  PBD ?

    Subrata Chakraborty · Dibrugarh University

    by partial sum do you mean sum of 'm' identical  PBD variables?

  • Mustafa Çiçekler added an answer in Paper:
    Can anyone suggest the simplest method for paper deinking?

    Hello everyone, I need to deink pulp from waste paper.

    Mustafa Çiçekler · Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University

    A part of my study is about OCC. But i am gonna use them for recycle. I heard that some researchers have used OCC for producing fiberboards

  • Shahd Hilal added an answer in Anti-Cancer Drugs:
    What is the ideal passage number for cancer cells?

    I want to know about passage number of cancer cell for treatment. Is there is any idea about this.

    And how many passages would be better for treatment.

    Shahd Hilal · King's College London

    This totally depends on the cell line which you are using. But in general; tumour cells like MDA or DU145 The passage number does not affect the drug treatment or transfection. But the cells behaviour would be affected after certain number or passages, for example MDA cells growing behaviour would change after 10 passages, that's why we do prefer to keep them at passage 8-11. However, What you can do is simply freezing the cells after 4-5 passages and re-use it again later, this will help keeping the same behaviour over time. 

  • Why is MEGA NOT a good program for Phylogenetics?
    After taking a PhD course for Phylogenetics, the teachers do not recommend MEGA at all, the reason is MEGA works like a blackbox and the results sometimes will be wrong...We learn a lot of methods and programs like ML, MP, MrBayes, TNT, RAxML, PAUP, BEAST*......

    I know MEGA is the most handy program for beginners and accepted by a lot for publishing aiming, but I want to know more about the drawbacks of this program and why the experts will not select it?
    Angela Alleyne · University of the West Indies at Cave Hill, Barbados

    I think MEGA 6 has improved on some of the crash problems with 5.  It is also a good and simple tool for teaching undergraduate  and simply getting to know your data.  I agree that it is also useful for GenBank searches.  The algorithm explanation are also useful.  I use MEGA 6 in teaching an undergraduate course in Bioinformatics and have used it in my publication.

  • Does anyone know a buffer solution with pH range ( 1 to 5 ) ?

    i want to know a buffer solution with pH range 1 to 5 or above 5. I need it urgently in my work. and i want to know if using HCl pH 1.2 this consider buffer or not.

    Carlos Enrique Perez Heredia · Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology