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  • What is a good reference for designing a task to measure motor learning factors in people with mental retardation?
    Many of these people do not understand the assignment because of mental retardation. Homework should be simple enough to be understood and properly weigh the factors considered. Is there a site or group that may propose certain principles for designing appropriate tasks? I simplify cognition software but I have a little problem in the design of motor tasks for example to assess the impact of feedback or ...
    Narges Vali · Ferdowsi University Of Mashhad

    thanks a lot dear beatrice marianne.

    these are very useful. i will study.

  • Does someone know the most effective dosing regimens for combination therapy with paclitaxel in mice?

    Paclitaxel combination therapy dose regimens? We are planing a combination therapy study using paclitaxel and MTH1 inhibitors.

    Hi Therese Pharm

    I hope that attached paper is help you.

    Best regards

  • Vincent Bloks added an answer in Sulfur Acids:
    Please can you suggest Manual Method to measure total cholesterol level?

    I need to measure the total cholesterol from serum and liver tissue samples. We don't have enough funds to procure kits. While searching by literature, i observed several colorimetric assays to measure total cholesterol, i.e. 

    1. Direct manual determination of serum total cholesterol with a single stable     reagent. Wybenga DR, Pileggi VJ, Dirstine PH, Di Giorgio J.

    2. Colorimetry of serum cholesterol with use of ferric acetate/uranyl acetate and ferrous sulfate/sulfuric acid reagents.Jung DH, Biggs HG, Moorehead WR.

    Please suggest me about the best colorimetric assay to measure total cholesterol. Thanking you in advance for sharing your knowledge.

    Vincent Bloks · Universitair Medisch Centrum Groningen

    Hi Annadurai,

    You can measure  plasma/serum cholesterol with a one single reagent , for liver, you should first make a homogenate, extract the lipids with a B&D extraction ( methanol/chloroform) and resolve them in a triton X-100 2% solution, before you can measure cholesterol.

    Roche, DiaSys and Wako have 1 single stable reagent  kits in there pipelines, i think ,for reasonably prices .

    I assume that you don’t have the chemicals in your question already in the house

    so perhaps a price comparison could be made between "housemade" and commercial available.

    If you need a protocol i am happy to send you the one we use on our lab.

    Good luck

  • Osama Hourani added an answer in ROC Curve:
    How to Find optimal threshould for binary classification from ROC curve?

    In a binary classification problem using MLP outputs, I am interested in finding optimal threshold from the ROC curve. While keeping in mind the fact that TPs are only 400 and FPs are 180000. In the attached images, one can clearly see that finding  optimal value can reduce the FPs by huge number while not effecting the number of TPs. Ay help, Please?

    Osama Hourani · Tarbiat Modares University

    If agree with Osama and Lambert. To find the trade-off between true positives and false positives on the ROC, you can use any one of evolutionary search algorithms like GA, SA etc. and you can make the goal function is f-measure.



    The f -measure factor involves the false positives and the true positives factors. Also I am agree with Lambert the optimal point is relative to our application.


  • Oliver Krohn added an answer in Biotechnology:
    Does anyone know how to find the antigen concentration in a standard diluent?

    I am using 5% HSA (human serum albumine that we make) to make a standard curve for ELISA. I spike it with either SPA or AFP or any other antigen then use the prizm software to find the concentration and to make a standard curve. We usually compare the new standard with the old lot and are trying to make the BioRad within the range, the range that has been puplished by other companies. Is there any way to know my standard concentration other than comparing it with the previous lot or with a standard curve from another company? Also, if my BioRad out of the range (higher or lower) does switching to another range from another company make a difference? 

    Oliver Krohn · Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf

    You may calculate the protein concentration after reading OD with a spectrophotometer at 280 nm. 

  • Disk diffusion technique is still a valid technique for studies of antimicrobial susceptibility?

    I would like to read opinions about this. Because most of the studies use other techniques, using MIC, to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility? Is there a restriction from CLSI to use disk diffusion on this?

    Hi Alfonso

    Because of convenience, efficiency and cost, the disk diffusion method is probably the most widely used method for determining antimicrobial resistance in private veterinary clinics.For more please read at the following links.

    Best regards

  • Lisa Blaschke added an answer in Online Education:
    Is anyone knowledgeable with the concept of Heutagogy and using it in your courses?

     Do you think that this is a new or different word for an older concept (self determined, self-directed or experential learning)? Some of the ideas in the heutagogy literature (e.g. independent learning) are essential to e-learning (i.e. distance education, online education), which has been around for a relatively longer time. Online discussion groups or online meetings for practitioners or learners are mentioned; but these also are techniques that predate the popularity of heutagogy. Do you know examples of course activities that are purely self determined, planned and facilitated by learners? Any experiences, ideas, or opinions surrounding these concepts would be welcome. 

    Lisa Blaschke · Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg

    Hi Emre,

    Stewart and I have been busily populating the Bibblio.org site as a repository for "All Things Heutagogy": http://bibblio.org/u/The%20Heutagogy%20Collection/collections. It contains articles, videos, presentations, and websites around the topic. We will be publicizing and adding to the site this coming Friday, coinciding with World Heutagogy Day (September 26).  Stewart, Chris, and I are also editing a new book on heutagogical practice, which will be published through amazon in November. There is also a few chapters that Stewart and I have authored that will coming out over the next year (through Springer).  Hope this helps!

    Kind regards,


  • Are students grade-seeking or competence-seeking?
    Are the students in your program more concerned with developing professional competence or are they focused on getting the points they need to get a grade? Are we doing all we can to foster self-directed learning or do we reward 'load and dump' behavior with honors at graduation?
    Paul Hubert Vossen · Duale Hochschule Baden-Württemberg Mannheim

    Great story, Mark, thank you so much. I wonder, how many teachers are already aware of there being a third alternative (a real alternative) to standard/norm-based testing and criterion/competence-based testing (where I use testing in a broad sense, i.e. assessment of any type).

  • Manohar Sehgal added an answer in Salts:
    Why salts catch moisture faster than any other materials?

    Those who are dealing with this field or who knows about my question, Please explain it in detail. It's a general question to all.

    Manohar Sehgal · DAV College Jalandhar

    [A] Yes, it needs a detailed, never ending an answer.Though, I try to be brief,yet, it may become a bit lengthy. So pls. wait till I conclude.
    [B]Ideally speaking, all solids{ seven types / 14 Bravais lattices}[ eg: salts, rocks, sand, solid catalysts, clathrates, polymers and all solid allotropic forms of naturally occurring elements(metals/ nonmetals) etc. ---never ending a list--] are porous due to the presence of interstities/ voids/ channels and ,thus, are expected to either ADSORB or ABSORB water.
    [C] Now for a moment, suppose we have so many types of solid crystals with the same unit cell structure[ say FCC]. No doubt, each type of the above named solids will have the same porocity [26 %],but their PORE SIZES WILL BE DIFFERENT. The pore sizes of most of the  salts TALLY well with size of H2O molecules and thus H2O molecules will easily fit in these pores and remain embedded in them. On the contrary, the pore sizes of most other types of solids especially rocks/ catalysts are more comparable to the sizes of gases. So either they are not expected to take moisture or if they do, they do  it to a lesser extent
    [D] Another point:
    The salts possess the two additional characterisics which most of other solids either lack or possess to a very lesser extent as follows:
    [i] The salts can both adsorb water as the LATTICE water as well as form coordinate bonds with water- called COORDINATED water. If we perform TGA of such hydrated salts, the lattice water molecules will leave below 100-120C whie coordinated water molecules would persist and may remain in the crtystal even  up to 180C. I site one common example – the alum.There are 6 H2O which are coordinated to each Al(III) while the remaing are the lattice water.
    [ii] Many a times,the central meta lion of the salt can extend its covalency. Thus, more number of water molecules can get attached with the metal ion without disturbing stability of salt. Such additional water molecule can form addition coordinate bonds because of the availability of vacant orbitals in valence shell of metal ion. Pls. note that in 95% of the of the remaing solids especially sand, rocks, solid catalysts[ metal catalysts do not at all; while their oxide catalysts may possess to a little extent ] do not possess this property. Yes clathrates and some polymer do possess but, again, not to the extent of salts.
    All this leads to very different behavior of salts wrt to their water absorption capacity.

  • Oliver Krohn added an answer in Splines:
    Is it possible to implement cubic spline regression in EXCEL?

    I am doing an Insulin ELISA (Mercodia) and have some problems to analyse the data. It is recommended to use cubic spline regression. Does anybody know how to do it on EXCEL?

    Oliver Krohn · Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf

    Hi Claudia,

    here is another program which adds cubic spline function to MS Excel: http://www.srs1software.com/SRS1CubicSplineForExcel.aspx

  • Is the capacity to learn anything in the classroom dependent on the mother language of the learner and on the culture of the region in which he lives?
    Capacity to learn anything in the classroom Is perhaps region dependent. Perhaps the language in which a learner thinks does have some effect in the process of learning. The culture following which the learner grows up may also have some effect on his learning process. Am I right?

    Hi for all

    I highly agree with dr. Kamal Eddin Bani-Hani answers

    Have a nice day

  • Abhay Singh Gour added an answer in Body:
    How to change Magnetic flux density ?

    How can I change the magnetic flux density or the field vector through a body which is under the field of a coil excited by a voltage (say 10+cos628t ) ? if I change the shape of the body, will it make any change in the flux ? (lets consider the material of the body is fixed , body is stationary, cylindrical in shape, and inside there is a linearly moving part. .. for example a plunger like structure ). . 

    Abhay Singh Gour · Indian Institute of Science

    Dear Mr. Vipin,

    Reading your query i understand that u have a geometry placed in a magnetic field of a coil excited by some oscillating voltage supply and you want to vary the flux through geometry by some means so that voltage induced on your geometry varies through out the length of geometry.

    Well to this case i think you should use a geometry with varying thickness/ or varying material/ varying reluctance of the geometry  as well its angle with respect to the coil axis.

    I will suggest you to refer reluctance synchronous linear motors as, the movers moves inside an uniform field of sinusoidal excited coil due to difference in the variable reluctance of the mover.

    Hope this will help you.



  • Deutered Lysozyme

    Some one know where buy Deutered Lysozyme or how to get it??

    thanks a lot

  • Hanno Krieger added an answer in Research Papers:
    In your research paper, what information would you present as tables and what information would you describe in your text?

    In your research paper, what information would you present as tables and what information would you describe?  SPSS gives us a lot of data: Reliability and variances, Means and SD's, normality tests, Levene's tests and t-tests and Pearson Correlation Table are some of the usual stuff.  We also need to bear in mind that the journal may only give us 15 pages or 20 pages, and 1 table has to be on a separate page.  What is your view, how would you present your data?

    Hanno Krieger · retired from Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen

    Graphs are able to show functional correlations, and each experienced reader can eluate with one glance, if the proposed fuction is ok or not. Graphs have the big advantage of data compression. So in mots cases I would prefer graphs.

    Sometimes it´s very useful to show "exact" numerical values, so don´t hide them, show your numerical values with error bars in special additional tables.

    If graphs are impossible, just use the table data. My list of priority is:

    - Graphs

    - Graphs with explining table

    - only table.

  • Mostafa Eidiani asked a question in Drives:
    Are all DC drives suitable for operation of BLDC motors?

    Are all DC drives suitable for operation of BLDC motors?

  • S. N. Ojha asked a question in Heat Resistance:
    Can someone suggest a paint having very high heat resistant and whether this is commercially available.

    The paint should have low thermal conductivity and used as building material. 

  • Mostafa Eidiani asked a question in Motor:
    What are the benefits of PMAC motor versus AC Induction motor?

    What are the benefits of PMAC motor versus AC Induction motor?

  • Einar Wilder-Smith asked a question in Neuropathy:
    As a clinician, what is the first test- in your practice setting -that you order to substantiate a suspicion of small fibre neuropathy?

    How to stratify tests showing small fibre neuropathy? 

  • How can I differentiate the N2A ( a Mouse Neuroblastoma) to mature neurons?
    I want to use this as a model for neuronal differentiation. Please suggest some methods.

    Hi Jauhari

    Refer these links...they are free articles, please check them

    Have a nice day...

  • Dr. Nizar Matar added an answer in Teaching:
    Why teachers are reluctant to be creative in their approach to teaching?


    Dr. Nizar Matar · An-Najah National University

    In my opinion,teachers are reluctant to be creative in their approach to teaching for this most probable reason: the lack of the driving force. The driving force is required in many things in life. A man, who wakes up early in the morning to go to the farm, is driven by the force of collecting the crop for food & for gaining money. Many educational places are in a state of stagnation " lessons are the same, rooms are the same, faces are the same, and salaries are the same". Had there been sound incentives, motivations and rewards, then there will be a strong push towards creativity in teaching.

  • Fabio Veronesi added an answer in Big Data:
    Big Data on Solar and Wind for a particular location

    I am looking for a location (or locations) with big amount of data on both solar and wind.
    Do we have a website or a place that I could request the data or just simply available for public to download?

    Fabio Veronesi · ETH Zurich

    The MIDAS dataset has hourly measurement from lots of weather stations across the UK. I am sure they provide hourly wind speed data, I am not completely sure about solar data.

  • PRITAM KUMAR PANDA added an answer in Mac OS X:
    How to run a command in Mac Os X for auto dock vina?

    Could any one tell me the procedure or command lines to run auto dock vina in Mac OS X terminal.

    PRITAM KUMAR PANDA · Padmashree Dr. D.Y. Patil University

    Yes sir I got it .Could you help in getting the software list of molecular modelling and drug designing for mac os X.and all all other softwares that are freely available for mac.


    Pritam Kumar Panda

  • Mostafa Eidiani asked a question in Motor:
    How do PMAC motors different from AC Induction motors?

    How do PMAC motors different from AC Induction motors?

  • Paul Hubert Vossen added an answer in Free Software:
    What is the implication of free software to your research? What is the frequency of R being used, compared to SPSS?

    Today, Saturday, September 20th, is software freedom day.  What is the implication of free software to your research? How can we overcome the difficulty of using freeware, so that our research is able to progress? What, do you think, is the frequency of freeware like R or PSPP being used as compared to SPSS?  Do you have research papers (softcopies) using freeware like R to share here with us?  https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html

    Paul Hubert Vossen · Duale Hochschule Baden-Württemberg Mannheim

    Unfortunately, paying for software doesn't guarantee it is working properly and satisfyingly.

    Once ~ long time ago, for sure ~ I thought this issue would evaporate in the course of time. That turned out to be a dream, or should I say a nightmare:

    • It's partly true for established software applications and packages, and we users paid and pay a lot, so that developers could and can learn from their failures.
    • However, it is still not true for newer software, because software managers and developers still think and work in much the same way: develop, sell, ask users, improve, sell, ask users, ... forever.

    Thus, we pay in order that development industry learns. Instead, they should pay us, isn't it?

    It happened to me again this year, when I tried to figure out what is the best private cloud solution for backup, synchronisation and sharing ~ not for fun, but for my daily work as a teacher and researcher! It was a small disaster if looked upon from a purely economic perspective (loss of time and money).

    Frankly, however, this 'philosophy' is pervasive in economic life (business): car manufacturers have done it for ages, medical profession is doing it for ages, cell phone industry is doing it for decades ... There should be awarded a price for the most productive Test Rabbit of the Year, or so, don't you think so?

  • Shi ji added an answer in DNA Cloning:
    Does anyone have experience cloning 10kb fragment?
    I want to clone 10kb fragment to complete the complementation on fungi, could someone advise me how can I clone long fragment because I did before cloning 4kb fragment with classic methods. I do not know if this will work with 10kb?
    Ayat Al-laaeiby
    Shi ji · Chinese Academy of Sciences

     if you know the sequence of the 10kb fragment, you can choose the restricted sites in the middle position, for example 4kb and 6kb ,then use overlap PCR ,The overlabed district should be 100bp or more ,after PCR, use ligase link the two fragments and clone the 10k to vector. 

  • Why Mung dahl is recommended to patients?

    Mung dahl is easily digestible with minimum anti-nutrients such as phytates, oligosaccharides, trypsin inhibitors, tannins etc. The cooked dahl can be digested easily even by the infants and patients. It is a rich source of most of the essential amino acids except methionine and tryptophan. Mung is also very rich in folic acid or vitamin B9, essential for pregnant women and infants/children for the development of neural tube and brain. Mung sprouts are rich source of vitamin C or ascorbic acid, which is an anti-oxidant and helps in protecting against cancer.

    Hi Rajendra

    Really I can't say if the attached links are good/bad because the subject does not fit with my interest field, please check them.
    With my best regards

  • Mostafa Eidiani asked a question in PMSM:
    What’s the difference between PMDC, PMAC, BLAC, PMSM and BLDC?

    What’s the difference between PMDC, PMAC, BLAC, PMSM and BLDC? From the point of view: Efficiency, Torque, Vibration, Cost and others

  • Any good books on exercise for cardiovascular disease?

    I would like to get a book on the subject of cardiac diseases, inlcuding physiopathology, exercise mechanisms on symptoms and pronostic, and cor components of cardiac rehabilitation. Any up to date books recommended?

  • Ahmad Hassanat added an answer in Biometrics:
    What are the feature vector for hand vein extraction?

    I need to know what are used as feature vectot in extraction of dorsal hand vein biometrics

    Ahmad Hassanat · Mu’tah University

    I am sorry I do not have any soft copy of the requested paper. you may ask your librarian who may provide.