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  • Sanjay Kumar added an answer in Expert Choice:
    Can anyone recommend a good document or website about ahp and expert choice?

    I want to apply this technique for site selection in GIS.

    Sanjay Kumar · IITM, MURTHAL

     Expert choice will depend upon the nature of problem.

  • Titus Sobisch added an answer in Hydrogel:
    How to determine the density and compressibility of colloidal hydrogel particles?

    Are there some simple approaches to determine density and compressibility of colloidal (Chitosan and/or pNIPAM) hydrogel particles?

    Titus Sobisch · LUM GmbH

    You may also try to determine water content and then calculate the hydrogel density

  • What is a good scale for psychological well-being?

    What is good scale for psychological well-being, "except ryff scale"? I use self determination theory for my framework and need some scales which can match with this theory.

    Elham Vaez · Putra University, Malaysia

    thank you all for your kind reply

  • I am currently doing a Master Thesis about Public Private Partnerships for Affordable Housing Provision.Can you recommend case studies/literature?

    I am already familiarized with Wolfgang Amann's work about Austria and CEE countries. But other cases and models, especially with access to relevant data (project stakeholders organization, risk management mitigation measures, tendering schemes,...) would be of great help.

    Wojciech Kębłowski · Free University of Brussels


    I am not sure how relevant this might be for your research, but here's a critical analysis of the case of housing policy in Brussels, where provision of affordable housing is supposed to be realised through PPPs.


  • G. S. Solanki added an answer in Zoo:
    What nutrients do captive chameleons require?

    I am doing an essay on the feeding and nutrition of captive chameleons (in zoos amongst other wildlife institutions), and was wondering if much research has been carried out on specific nutrients, vitamins and minerals which are important to chameleons found in zoos. I've discussed the diets they are typically on, and compared those to wild diets, but have found less information on the nutrition aspect. Any comment would be greatly appreciated.

    G. S. Solanki · Mizoram University

    Normally, chameleons diet consist of insects including ants, and small amphibians. therefore, major constituents of the diet should be protein and minerals.

  • Florina Bunghez added an answer in Spray Drying:
    Any suggestions on how to improve the powder yield of spray dried oil emulsions?

    How can we reduce the loss of oil emulsion samples in a spray drying chamber?

    Florina Bunghez · University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine

    By adjusting the feed flow rate, with the inlet and outlet temperature (try to maintain the outlet temperature above 30 degrees celsius, if you have a feed flow of 11-30 ml/min)

  • Ilya V Kublanov added an answer in BLAST:
    How do you perform reciprocal blast in windows OS?

    Can anyone suggest a protocol for performing a reciprocal blast on Windows OS and then extract the sequences with best hits? I have about 46 multi fasta files with selected genes (say drug resistance genes) from 46 isolates. Now I want to find the common genes that are present in all the isolates based on blast hits.

    Any help will be appreciated.

    Ilya V Kublanov · Winogradsky Institute Of Microbiology

    that`s why I specify this. Using local BLAST in Bioedit you get the protein tags which has BLAST hits. Combine all 46 multifasta files in one. than BLAST it against itself. Choose "tabular" output format. You will get a table with reuslts ans statistics. Play with options to get better results. After you get all proteins tags extract them from the original combined file using "copy sequences to clipboard" option

  • Why do I obtain different readings for the FBG center wavelength?

    Dear all

    I am working on FBG. I connected a simple system includes only FBG and circulator with OSA. Each time I measure the peak of the obtained signal, I obtaine different reading for the peak wavelength. the resolution of osa is 0.01nm. Can anyone explain why this is happens? and its explaination physically please.

    Thank you for attention

    Husam Abduldaem Mohammed · University of Baghdad

    Thank you for your explainations.

  • Jonathan David Moore added an answer in RNA-Seq:
    How can I do clustering with RNA-Seq data ?

    I have Cuffdiff (--no-diff) output tables and I want to perform clustering :

    1) better to use Count or FPKM ?

    2) Are "standard" clustering algorithms appropriate for RNA-Seq data due to its discrete nature?

    3) What sort of normalization (if any) should be done to RNA-Seq data before clustering?

    4) Does the lower variance of long genes need to be accounted for using the output of clustering of RNA-Seq data? i.e. when doing gene set enrichment analysis of the genes in a cluster?

    Thank you

    Jonathan David Moore · The University of Warwick

    Some good answers already, the only thing I would add is that clustering over all genes may fail due to the size of the problem, so you may want to limit the analysis to a subset of genes, for instance the ones which are differentially expressed, e.g. as assessed by DESeq2.

  • Bryan English added an answer in Injury Prevention:
    How can I test the proprioception under a dynamic posture condition, like walking or running?

    About proprioception, many researches have reported that it is very important for injury prevention, and they are variety of tests and loads of measure devices and methods. However, all proprioception data in these related papers I read are attained under static posture condition, e.g. sit on a chair, stand without any movement. All these data is very useful for further understanding proprioception, but if I want to know more about how the proprioception work under a dymatc posture condition, for example how the proprioception work for preventing running injuries?

    So I just want to ask how can I get the proprioception data when I am running but sitting on a chair? Is it possible to measure the proprioception under dynamic posture condition as there are too many influence factors, how can I do it?

    Bryan English · Teesside University

    I would look at the agility tests that are performed by many researchers. Running agility drills. Ability to perform hop and hold. Ability to perform running drills still shows proprioception combined with movement.


  • Nathalie Olivi-Tran added an answer in Hydrocarbon:
    Organic rot and hydrocarbons: a way to obtain oil?

    When organic materials are rottening, they produce hydrocarbons. Why not use them? One may crack them like oil.

    Nathalie Olivi-Tran · Université Montpellier 2 Sciences et Techniques


    about the question  of economic potential, it depends on which country you live in. Those which do not have oil in their undergrounds could take advantage of that.

  • Mohit Saraf asked a question in Polyaniline:
    Can anyone tell me a facile but effective method to produce composites of CuO nanoparticles/Polyaniline ?

    I have made CuO nanoparticles and Polyaniline separately.

    Is there any method to prepare their composites now?

  • Sanjay Giri added an answer in Erosion:
    Which model is appropriate to simulate sediment deposit in curved channel?

    Hi, can you suggest a CFD model for hydraulics and sedimentation/erosion in a meandering channel.

    Sanjay Giri · Deltares

    Delft3D morphology is good one...you can get it for free: http://oss.deltares.nl/web/delft3d

  • Guy Olivier added an answer in Work Function:
    How to reproducibly achieve high work- function (~6.4 eV) MoOx thin films by vacuum sublimation?

    I am facing issues getting working fullerene (C60 or C70) solar cells with MoOx as a hole transporting layer. I am using the standard dimple  tantalum boat to resistively heat the material. The layer is deposited at a rate of 0.5A/s. However,  though the film does coat uniformly, the cells are not performing well (Voc:0.5 V, FF:22%, Jsc~0mA).  I suspect the MoOx film does not have the stoichiometry needed to yield a high work function layer required for the schottky cell I am trying to make.

    Guy Olivier · King Abdullah University of Science and Technology

    Dear  Maria,

    Thanks very much for the very useful answer. I am very optimistic that following this advice will help solve the issues I have with the MoOx films. Thanks for the paper as well.

    With regards,

  • Jeroen Ingels added an answer in Plankton:
    Which biotic & abiotic components should I sample/measure in order to elucidate if a system is rather pelagic- or benthic- controlled?

    Benthic realm and its biotic composition is highly important in glacio-marine fjords, specially when considering the cryosphere dynamics and the resulting phenomena (sedimentation, resuspension, freshwater influx, inter alia).
    Also, in Antarctic seasonal bays (i.e. Mackellar Inlet  (King George Island, South Shetlands), where I've sampled macrobenthic communities for previous research (see: http://goo.gl/YOy16D)) pelagic realm also plays a key role in terms of primary production and its consequent influence on higher trophic levels.

    It's certain that analysing the benthic composition is more predictive when trying to speculate future scenarios. I presumably assume that the Mackellar Inlet is mainly a benthic-controlled system. Nevertheless, in order to be sure of this hypothesis I should go further through an integrated analysis of both realms. 

    The protocol that my colleagues usually execute is: macrobenthic survey (van Veen grab 0.05m2), collect plankton with plankton nets, and measure abiotic variables like temperature, pH, conductivity, turbidity and marine currents patterns (speed & direction).

    I'd like to know if there's any specific protocol pointing straightforward to my question. What other measurements should I consider?

    Thanks for the help. Cheers.

    BSc. Bernabé Moreno

    Jeroen Ingels · Plymouth Marine Laboratory

    Plenty of avenues to investigate which such a question: Microbiota, meiofauna, megafauna, sediment traps, video surveys, granulometry, stable isotope analysis or molecular foodweb tracking to assess the nature and strength of  pelagic-benthic link. Spatial and temporal design will be important, the system may shift with seasonal/glacial changes.

  • Klaus Geiselhart added an answer in Stereotyping:
    Would anyone suggest the empirical research article related to prejudice or stereotyping?

    I am required to present a well qualified article that was published after 2008. Does anyone help me?

    Klaus Geiselhart · Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

    According to my understanding stereotypes and prejudices are deeply entangled with questions of social identity, stigmatisation and discrimination. It is difficult to get an overview about relevant literature. I recommend to search for all these keywords.

  • Sergei A. Ostroumov asked a question in Biota:
    What is known on possibility of summation of anthropogenic effects on biota in especially hazardous ways?

    There are many types of anthropogenic effects on living organisms so that this question makes sense.

  • Nikos Gavalas added an answer in siRNA:
    What is best database for siRNA sequences?

    We are interested in developing method for predicting siRNA, thus we need a large set of siRNA for developing models. I will highly appreciate if you please suggest best database or databases on siRNA. This will help us in creating large dataset that may cover all experimentally characterize siRNA. Please also suggest best (latest) prediction method on siRNA. Do you think their is possibility for developing better prediction method or this field is already saturated. 

    Nikos Gavalas · National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

    Hi Gajendra,

    NCBI Genbank should be fine:

    but how about this one too?


    Hope it helps


  • Alex Ignatov added an answer in Food Processing:
    Does anyone know how big a problem is zebra chips to the potato processing industry?

    I am interested in knowing how big ZEBRA chip problem is in the potato processing industry. And what the current state-of-the-art is with ZC. Zebra chips is a problem seen when potato is heat processed (frying), and it shows as a severe dark brown streaking defect. It is caused by bacteria infection during growth according to the literature. Is there any current method to detect this disease in potato prior to processing?

    Alex Ignatov · Федеральный исследовательский Центр фундаментальных основ биотехнологии (Federal Research Center of Fundamental of Biotechnology)

    Look at these artices:

    http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.3958/059.036.0202 and

    Li, W., J. A. Abad, R. D. French-Monar, J. Rascoe, A. Wen, N. C. Gudmestad, G. A. Secor, l.-M. Lee, Y. Duan, and L. Levy. 2009. Multiplex real-time PCR for detection, identification and quantification of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ in potato plants with zebra chip. J. Microbiol. Methods 78: 59–65. CrossRef, PubMed

  • Bruno Putzeys added an answer in Audio:
    What is the best modulation scheme to use in a filterless class-D amplifier?

    helllo everyone , i was doing my thesis entitled "filterless class-d amplifier", first i used the simple PWM scheme and i found my output glitchy and out of phase from the input audio signal. and when i measured the output frequency it is smaller than the input signals' frequency (<20khz). My goal is to develop a filterless class d amplifier that will amplify the amplitude and still remain the input frequency (which is 20khz).

    Go to http://www.aes.org/e-lib/ and enter "filterless class d"

  • Can the charge state of the electron be changed?

    ABSTRACT Since the discovery of the positive electron (positron) in 1932, physics has ignored the more plausible possibility that charge is not a fixed property of subatomic particles. Instead of looking for the conditions under which this property might be altered, it has become dogma that the same particle with different charge states are distinct entities solely based on the negative energy solutions of the Dirac equation (formulated in 1928)[1] with its strange negative energy sea of electrons construct (with " holes ") in 1930) [2]. It is about time to consider the alternate more logical interpretation – that under certain conditions, an electron can be transformed into a positron. Recent experimental evidence of heat transport along a quantum Hall edge seems to support the formation of a positively charged entity (positron) that can conduct heat in the opposite direction to negative electron flow.[3] A relatively simple experimental test for verifying this new electron behavior is presented in the hope of advancing this line of research.

    A link to the paper on ResearchGate is given below -- a copy of the paper is also attached.

  • Amandeep Kaur asked a question in Pulse:
    Why it is easy to shape analog pulse in time domain than rectangular pulse in optical domain?

    Is the above statement is true?

  • Gopala Rao asked a question in JAIPUR:
    How to calculate sen's slope estimator in R software and write code may you know??????

    I added data of Jaipur.

    will you please write the code/program for that.

    Here, i need to calculate sen's slope value and i already calculated summary of statistics but, this one (slope estimator) problem.

  • Kanouo Sylvestre added an answer in Cameroon:
    Which are the suitable analytical techniques to study amethyst?

    During my recent field survey in the Adamawa Region of Cameroon, I saw amethyst associated to very fine-grained primary gold. I would like to understand the genetic history of this deposits by studying the amethyst crystals. Which analytical techniques are suitable? I was thinking to analyze trace elementary composition in those crystals, determine fluid/melt and mineral inclusion, and use oxygene thermometric analysis. Are those analytical techniques suitable.

    Kanouo Sylvestre · Institut of Mines and Petroleum Industries, University of Maroua

    Dear Professor DILL

    Good morning and Thanks for this contribution.

    The samples are already in my laboratory. I am still seeking for laboratories facilities and research collaboration to analyze those amethysts and to publish a co-authorship paper. I would be happy to have this collaboration.


    Dr. KANOUO Sylvestre Nguo

    Institute of Mines and Petroleum Industries

    University of Maroua Cameroon.

  • Flávio Reis added an answer in Wistar Rats:
    Why diabetic rats reduce in weight?

    Wistar rats when induced with STZ reduce in weight, I have to kkep up the animal with diabetes for 4weeks. Can anyone explain how the weight reduces?

    Flávio Reis · University of Coimbra

    A major explanation, among other also possible, is the drastic reduction of insulin, which is a trophic factor for all tissues of the body.  In advances stages of T2DM the same occur and, once again, among other factos related to evolution of disease, is insulinopenia appearance.

  • Pooja D. Sharma added an answer in Nanocomposites:
    How do I detect arsenic in carbonate buffer?

     I am trying to detect arsenic using MnOx/Au nanocomposite by LSVAS using following parameters. Vdeposition = -0.7 V Stripping V= -0.6 to 0.3 V scan rate = 100mV/sec Electrolyte: Carbonate buffer (pH = 10) But I am not getting results specific to As in stripping scan (results attached). Also I am not seeing any peaks specific to As (III) oxidn/reduction in CV as well. Kindly suggest.

    Pooja D. Sharma · Central Scientific Instruments Organization

    Thanks abdoul, I will take your suggestion and will add KCl before Arsenic detection.

    I tried both SWASV and DPASV, but I am not getting results. What do you mean by going in cathodic direction in CV?

    Also, I am working in stirring condition under nitrogen environment.]

    I will let you know what i get after Kcl addition.


  • How do I prepare samples for antioxidant assay in bacteria?

    for antioxidant work most of samples are measured in mg or ug.  for this I need to prepare sample in powder form but in my case preparing sample in powder form  that too in bacteria is quite difficult task. so, I have planned to do in broth. if I use broth how should I measure the volume of the samples? please suggest me with good ideas

    B.R. Rajeswara Rao · Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

    Ms. Jennifer

    Check the following publications for possible leads.

    Good luck

  • What is the future of wireless health and connected health?

    As care moves from the clinical setting to the retail or home setting, how is coexistence affected? How are the coexistence issues similar or dissimilar between those settings? In light of the ongoing healthcare transformation, how can medical devices be future-proofed? What is the next on the horizon for wireless test beds in the clinical and non-clinical settings? How can relevant stakeholders develop a learning environment for wireless medical technologies so that information can be shared while balancing proprietary interests? What are some strategies to evaluate, catalog, and disseminate knowledge related to intelligent information of medical devices into wireless systems in various settings?

    Carsten Kettner · Beilstein-Institut

    I do not know what the future here will be but I do know what could be done using the digital techniques already available. For example, I think of a tighter connection between physicians regarding the exchange of indications and medical therapies. In particular, it should become visible which drugs are applied to a patient to detect antagonistic or potentiating effects at very early stages. I know that this is one of the basic ideas for the German health insurance card. However, many of these implementations are not transparent to the patient. In addition, the data stored on the insurance card are supposed to be stored by the same company that also holds data on people's creditibility! Such data do not belong in private hands.

    All in all, it is extemely important to avoid additional burden to both the patients and the physicians when interconnecting diverse institutions. Last but not least, there are many potential tools available, wireless or not, but there are also many interested parties in this game that hope to make much money from new implementations. This money is mostly drawn from the physicians' budgets. In conclusion, I am more than doubtful that these wireless toys can be introduced cost-effectively in the health care system.

  • J. V. Katandukila asked a question in Penis:
    Does anyone know chemical(s)for digesting muscles of the penis of rodent without affecting a baculum?

    I am examining the penile morphology of rodent species from fresh specimen but I have no idea on chemical which I can use to clean the penis muscles and expose penile bony (baculum)