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  • What are the steps for simulating RBC in a unit cell of Deterministic Lateral Displacement through comsol multiphysics?

    I need someone to help me with the steps I will follow to simulate red blood cell in a unit cell of Deterministic lateral displacement device through comsol multiphysics.

    Ayodeji Oyewole · Obafemi Awolowo University

    I just need blobs that have similar shape not necessary the exact RBC.

  • How do i test the binding affinity of autoreactive antibodies?

    we are using seroconverted sera to stain thymic sections and we want to know which sera to used based on affinity.

  • Saeed Dashtban added an answer in Education:
    Universal Quality Basic Education: where are we lagging behind and what are the ways ahead?

    Quality basic education is the backbone of all social, economical, social, political and scientific development of the countries across the globe. Good educations enable people to deliver the most of their inherent potential both in their own interest and that of the society. However, education sector is grossly as a marginalized in general and in developing countries like India in particular. There are considerable shortfalls in competencies, resources and capacity at all levels and the quality of basic education is noticeably low. The inadequate quality of basic education results in a lack of a stable basis for all round development. One of my senior colleagues, after retirement has recently taken a sincere step to sensitize all concerned for quality basic education in India. He has sent me draft of the mission statement which I would like to share with you all my RG colleagues for your view, comments and suggestions based on your experience and thought.

    Saeed Dashtban · Khorasan Institute of Higher Education

    Quality education is in progress and the progress of the world

  • Colin A Hendrie added an answer in Depression:
    Why are antidepressants used for conditions other than depression?
    SSRIs are prescribed for conditions such as OCD, GAD, and even medical conditions like lower back pain? How do we explain the therapeutic use of antidepressants for diagnoses other than depression? How does the biochemical mechanism of SSRIs make them an effective treatment choice for other conditions?
    Colin A Hendrie · University of Leeds

    Heather - all good points except for maybe the back pain example - all the commonly prescribed antidepressants have significant analgesic properties (which some argue is their main and perhaps only useful action) so this isn't as daft as it sounds


    Dharmshaktu, P., Tayal, V., & Kalra, B. S. (2012). Efficacy of antidepressants as analgesics: a review. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 52(1), 6-17.

  • Ravi Neupane asked a question in Coating:
    Is there any difference in film quality of P3HT:PCBM spin coated on FTO or ITO? Generally, people use ITO as HCE. Is FTO as good as ITO?

    I am curious why most of the people are using ITO coated glass (as transparent electrode) and very few are using FTO coated glass as substrate for spin coating of P3HT:PCBM in OPV. Does ITO give high quality film than FTO?

  • Gisela Wajskop asked a question in Teacher Education:
    What do you think about my findings? Do you have a similar situation in your country?

    How does Teacher Education Programs does to improve literacy?

  • Sunil Patel asked a question in XAMPP:
    How to redirect web page to another system in same network?

    I have some web-based utilities working on windows based xampp server. I have some web-based  utilities running on linux based xampp server. both above said windows and linux based machine are connected in same internal network with definite ip address. I have one external ip which is used by users world wide to interact with my windows based machine. Now the problem is, some utilities which are running on linux based machine are such that it cannot be executed on windows based machine. For to bypass this problem i want to setup a redirect mechanism, for example the main page will reside on windows server and when linux based utility is requested then page will redirect to linux machine. Is it possible?

  • MultiBac protein expression system - Does it really matter which promoter to choose, p10 or polyhedron?

    Hello! I am going to use the Multibac system to express several (two and/or more) proteins in insect cells. This system relies on several vectors - two acceptor and three donor vectors, each of them containing either polh or p10 promoter.

    Has anyone of you experienced that different combinations of these promoters (say, p10 for protein '1', polh for protein '2', and p10 for protein '3') result in different results (expression profiles, successful protein complex formation and so on)? Does it make sense to stick at the beginning to only one of the promoters (e.g. polh) to express all proteins of interest? p10 and polh are both strong and are described to behave in a similar way, but I am still wondering... I would be glad to hear about any experience concerning this matter!

  • Any prognostic value of seasonal variation in requirement for antihypertensive medication?

    Why some patients experience seasonal variation in blood pressure values?

    Any data about prognostic importance of this finding?

    Jacek Lewandowski · Medical University of Warsaw

    Some data showed that temerature and ratio of day/night period might influence BP. Higher temperature: vessel dilatation and sweating.

    Any data on prognostic value of this phenomenon exist.

  • Fortunato Lonardo added an answer in Human Genetics:
    What is the name of the syndrome have deafness with thick nail of one hand particularly thumb nail?

    i have family of syndromic deafness with thick nail of one hand and particularity the thumb nail. please anyone suggest me the syndrome name

    Fortunato Lonardo · A.O.R.N. "Gaetano Rummo", Benevento, Italy

    Your patients may have the Oto-palato-digital (OPD) syndrome or Zimmermann-Laband syndrome. You report a syndromic deafness, what other features have patients, in addition to deafness and abnormalities of the nails?

  • Are you aware of any method to block norepinephrine action in WAT?

    I was wondering if you are Aware of a method to specifically block the Action of Norepinephrine in White adipose tissue (dennervation? pharmacological approaches that act locally?)
    Many thanks

    James Preston Campbell · Vanderbilt University

    See if there is an inducible UCP1 promoter given construct available and use shRNA against b3AR? The expression difference in UCP1 between BAT and WAT should give specific knockdown of b3AR in the BAT.

  • Krzysztof Piątek added an answer in Lichens:
    Can anyone identify this lichen species ?

    Location: Ottawa, Canada.

    Krzysztof Piątek · Independent Researcher

    The orange one is probably Xanthoria parietina.

  • Ron Reiserer added an answer in Pluronics:
    Does anyone know if I can use pluronic F127 instead of pluronic F68 (it´s no longer available in my country) to fermentate SF9 insect cells?


    Ron Reiserer · Vanderbilt University

     Pluronic F-127 is about 50% larger than F-68 and will have different solubility and thermal characteristics which will change the shear stress reduction coefficient. 

    Check to see if you can find Poloxamer 188 solution. It's the same as F-68 but may be made by a different manufacturer.  I would recommend trying to stay with the standard if possible. 

    If it's just not possible to stick with the F-68 (or get poloxamer 188), you may be able to use F-127 since it will still reduce the shear up to a certain concentration and temperature and it will provide some adhesion reduction on the cell surface. If you keep the concentration below 0.2% and under 30oC, you should not have any problems. You could also use other Pluronics formulations like F-38 or F108.

    Reviewers may not like it when you go to publish your results and you should try to find some data on shear reduction of each formulation so you can address this.

    Check out this paper --> http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/bp00002a008 It may provide you with the data you need.

  • Ravichandran Panchanathan added an answer in HUVEC:
    Any suggestions for anti-Rap1 antibody?

    I'm doing western-blot to detect small-GTPase Rap1's band in HUVEC lysates.
    For this, I'm using polyclonal-antibody produced in rabbit from Santa-Cruz (sc-65).
    However, this antibody gives multiple (5-8) unspecific bands around 20kDa.
    Does anybody using some other antibody from any other company?

    Any suggestion will be highly grateful.

    Ravichandran Panchanathan · Cincinnati VA Medical Center ,Cincinnati,United States

    Hi you can try the cell Signaling antibody# 4938 this only give two or three bands only above band Rap1A and below band Rap1b.

    use appropriate Positive control to detect the exact size of Rap1 protein, some cell lysate give several non specific bands so u can ignore that. Use 12% gel.


  • Ramon Bartolo added an answer in Emotion:
    Which part of the brain is responsible of emotions and our behaviour in decision-making?

    Do you have any research/papers about this topic?

    Ramon Bartolo · National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)

    The short answer is that there is no specific brain part that is responsible for that function. And there is no easy way to answer your question.

    It is impossible to say that one specific brain area/structure performs a specific function. Such a phrenological view belongs to the past. Now we understand that the brain is a complex network. Of course, as a network, there are nodes that are critical to specific functions and alterations in those regions lead to modifications in the way a decision is made. Nevertheless, these regions do not work by themselves. In the field of decision making, there are several brain regions that show activity related to several aspects, such as outcome, outcome subjective value, target identity, etc. and the areas vary as a function of the type of information used to make decisions.

    To illustrate my point, several regions have been mentioned in previous responses, but in addition to those I can add even more structures in which responses related to decision processes or emotional judgments have been found, such as the amygdala, the ventral striatum, and parietal cortex.

  • How can I do standard free quantitation by HPLC?

    I am getting impurity in our compound but we don't have standard for that impurity. So we have to quantitate that impurity without standard by HPLC, please suggest way of analysis and method to adopt for same.

    Hediye Erdjument-Bromage · Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center

    Thanks for the link Dong.   What you are offering is still a relative quantitation of the impurity, to other species present, during each separation experiment.  However, the impurity may not behave the same as the other species for each of the concentration that we detect, for every experiment.

    So the conclusion that can be made is your assessment of impurity is measured in each chromatograpic separation and provide a "relative concentration" when compared to other impurities/species of interest.  This result still , does not, provide a standardization of the impurity, it assesses its amount relative to other compounds present in the experiment.

    Another, better alternative will be to spike each experiment with a known internal standard, such as a synthetic, and already quantitated eg. peptides. This will provide, still a more accurate, "Relative Quantitation or Standardization" of the impurity as well as the pure compounds, relative to the added internal standard..

  • Mythili Yenjerla added an answer in SH-SY5Y:
    Does anybody have experience getting a stable cell line from SH-SY5Y cells?

    Dear all
    I want to produce a stable cell line of SH-SY5Y by lentiviral system to express a gene in inducible format (with dox) and assess its neuroprotictive role.
    I have two questions:
    1-as I passaged these cells for 10 times, their morphology became epithelial-like. So how should I manage to get a line?
    2- Have you any other recommendation for selecting a line?

    I attach a picture from cells in a high passage number.
    With great thanks

    Mythili Yenjerla · University of Kansas

    I have the same problem. After transfection and selection with G418 I get mostly epithelial cells but I need neuronal cells.

  • Reza Sadeghikhoo asked a question in Satellite Data:
    I really need a help. Is it possible to access to Geostationary satellite data?
    He every one. I need geostationary data in a particular period. Is it possible to access to this data?
    can anyone introduce any websites to access to them?
    Thank you for your help.
  • Saraswathi Rajakumar asked a question in Glutamine:
    What is the role of L glutamine in cell line media?

    as in media like DMEM and RPMI

  • Federica del Monte added an answer in Langendorff:
    Has anyone experienced Langendorff mouse heart stiffening after less than 5 minutes of perfusion?

    Upon initial perfusion with calcium added tyrode (1mM), the heart beats strongly and appears to be recovering in heart rate, but in less than 5 minutes, it appears the pressure or perfusate is built up within the heart and the heart begins to stiffen. The atria are still contracting but ventricles are rock hard. We have removed the cannula from the perfusion set up and the pressure subsides and the heart begins to beat again but when connected back to the perfusion set up, it stiffens again. the pulmonary artery is exposed and we can see opening of the PA so we know that perfusate has a way of exiting. Has anyone experienced this?

    Federica del Monte · Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

    Hi Grace,

    I agree with what JQ said. However why are you using Tyrode with Ca for 5 min? Are you doing a working heart or isolate cardiomyocytes? The protocols are different

  • What is (are) the difference(s) between public health and community health?
    Some perceive it as the same (semantically) while others view it as different in principle.
    Nader Aghakhani · Urmia University of Medical Sciences

    How can I work with you?

  • Abhijit Sarkar added an answer in Solubility:
    Is Poly Vinyl Alcohol water soluble?

    I tried to dissolve it, but it wasn't. It formed gelatin like material. Instead of forming clear solution, it makes some kind of sticky precipitation. 

    Abhijit Sarkar · Indian Agricultural Research Institute

    Dear Fellows, 

    It is cold water soluble poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) from HiMedia Ltd. I tried a lot to dissolve it in cold water as well as in hot water (90-100 degree Celsius) as per your recommendations. But I failed to dissolve it. Please suggest me alternative solutions of my problem

  • James E. McLean added an answer in IDEA:
    How can we measure student improvement?

    I am currently doing a research related to the way we can support students with lower grades, to help them improve. I think that improvement is also related to motivation. I would like to know how we could measure both, motivation and improvement... Any idea?... Thank you :o)

    James E. McLean · University of Alabama

    The question you ask is not new.  Educational researchers have been trying to measure student improvement for many years with low levels of success.  In fact, many attempts have been made to base teacher pay on student improvement.  The key problem is that all mental measurement is fallible.  That is, measurement error is involved in all mental measurement.  This can be indexed as measurement error  and test reliability.  If the test has 100% test reliability (a reliability index of 1.00), measuring student gains would not be a problem.  When you are working with low achieving children, this problem is compounded by the threat of phenomenal regression to the mean.  This is where low measures tend to increase and high measures tend to decrease upon re-measurement due to measurement error.  The best way to assess this growth is to have pre- and post-measures of the treatment group and of a randomly sampled comparison group.  This is seldom practical.  The most used method is to do pre- and post-measures and examine the gains.  However, this is problematic due to regression to the mean.  Unfortunately, there are no statistical methods that correct this appropriately.  Thus, the best way that is practical is to compare the growth of these students to some standard growth measure.  Good luck!

  • If mindset affects reaction to feedback, could it also affect the delivery of feedback?

    Research by Carol Dweck suggests that fixed mindset individuals react negatively to feedback. With this in mind, if a mentor has a fixed mindset, would this affect their ability to deliver feedback that is active and constructive?  Would they be more likely to respond with what Martin Seligman calls active and destructive; passive and destructive?

    Janet Hanson · Montana State University

    Yes Mark, that is what I thought. The powers that be did the same thing in the US in 2004 with the No Child Left Behind Act.  The NCLB Act of 2004 changed education and the economics of education and government.

    I left public education after that for five years because of it.

    My research is on the very thing you describe. Results show that schools are learning organizations that learn similarly to learning processes in individuals. The organization is the product of reciprocal projections of the individuals and the group.

    In order to create learning in the individuals and in the school collective the following malleable variables must be addressed: 

      (a) internal locus of control over the work environment

      (b) the group must set their own goals (focus)

      (c) that are within the zone of proximal development for that particular group

      (d) support with resources, identification of specific tasks, and opportunity to practice the new learning.

    The difficulties caused by external mandates comes from the requirements of uniformity across diverse groups (each school is different just as each student is different). The external control results in instability within groups and disrupts the process of reciprocal projection, goals setting, and work locus of control thus reducing the openness to change. Then resistance occurs within the group as a protective response to perceived threat.

    What I understand you to say about your project was you created a learning organization environment, with increased safety, and provided a mutually agreed upon focus for your group that was specific to their needs. You also provided tasks, feedback, and opportunities for practice. Well done Mark!

  • R. Douglas Hamelin added an answer in Transgender:
    How can educational system improve educational experiences for transgender students?

           There are transgender students in high schools and colleges. There is limited research about the learning experience of transgender students. There may be discomfort for the transgender students because there may not be sufficient accommodations for the transgender students. Instructors, faculty and staff as well as students may not understand the students’ choices or needs. How does this affect the students’ educational experience? Is there a need in the educational system for improvement when educating transgender students? How can educational system improve educational experiences for transgender students?

    R. Douglas Hamelin · Idaho National Laboratory


    This may sound ignorant, but as a teacher I see no difference in teaching LGBTQ students from straight students.  In my opinion, the biggest part of the problem is that we think because they are making other than traditional choices with their lives, we have to treat (and teach) them differently.  People are people, and the courses we study in school should be forced to differentiate between lifestyle choices.  If I'm teaching math or English or history to a straight student, I will teach math or English or history to an LGBTQ student the same way.  Now, if a sociology program or class wants to implement a unit or even entire course to address LGBTQ issues, great!!  Otherwise, I would teach all students in the same way.  Similar issues exist for religious choices, etc.  I've just found it best to not point out our emphasize the differences and stick to the course material.

  • How can I use Statistical Tests for analysis output some algorithms in MATLAB environment ?


    I wrote some evolutionary algorithms in matlab environment. Now ,I want to use (e.g Mann Whiteny U_Test  and T_Test ...)methods for analysis my output.

    Jj Merelo · University of Granada

    Please don't use Matlab. R is an excellent and free software whose results can not only be used in beautiful tables and graphs, but also inserted in LaTeX documents (which, BTW, you should use instead of Word or somesuch). You can use any of these tests very easily with R.

  • Joseph Gosnell added an answer in Lactoferrin:
    What is the effect of lactoferrin on MDR bacteria?

    What is the effect of lactoferrin on Multidrug resistant bacteria?

    Joseph Gosnell · Liberty University

    I couldn't find a truly recent paper on the subject, but the file below is the results they found when testing lactoferrin against antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the early 2000s.

    Additionally, I found a paper on some of the current therapeutic ideas being tested, just in case you were interested.

    Hope it helps.

  • Muayed Fadhil Abbas added an answer in GM Food:
    Why most of the peoples are against GMOs ? Is it really harmful or it's all myths about GM Food or Gm Crop ? Is there any positive impacts about it?

    Most of the peoples are against Genetically Modified Organisms. There are numerous rumors or myths regarding it. What are your views on it ? Is there any positive impacts of GMO or they have only negative impacts on us ?? What you say  ?

    Muayed Fadhil Abbas · University of Basrah

    The problem with Genetically modified food or crops, is that they are produced using procedures which  are very new indeed. Using plant genetic  engineering,we are   transferring genes from almost any organism to plants, with the view of improving their agricultural value . However, the future impact of such foreign genes on human health is unknown. This also applies to the effects of GMO on the environment. before the era of genetic engineering,we  were familiar with selective breeding and other natural methods of plant and animal improvement. Such methods are safe because they have been around for hundred of years. so the worry about genetically engineered organisms is very justified, because we are really using techniques unknown in history   of agriculture.