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  • Eric Smith asked a question in Biomedical Devices:
    Electroceuticals vs. pharmaceuticals in the treatment of the mnetally ill ?

    I am conducting research for a masters paper for POST Command College on future trends in the treatment of the mentally ill through the use of electroceuticals.  Electroceuticals are implantable biomedical devices which promise to give us new methods of treating a wide variety of illnesses, including mental illness. These devices will stimulate nerve signals and offer a non-pharmaceutical alternative to standard drug therapies without the harmful side effects of drugs. Any and all information would be greatly appreciated!  

  • Zeljko Stojanov added an answer in Business Objects:
    Should Strategic Information System Planning be internal or external and what could be benefit or demerit of the your choice?

    Strategic Information System Planning (SISP) can be define as “the process of determining an Organization’s portfolio of computer-based applications that will help it achieve its business objectives” (Newkirk & Lederer, 2007).

    Zeljko Stojanov · University of Novi Sad

    Practically, strategic planning of an information system should be initiated and fully supported by the management of an organization, and should involve relevant employees in the organization. If the organization have expert(s) that are able to manage this planning, external expertise is not necessary. But, if an organization does not have expert(s), it is advisable to cooperate with experts that can help in planning.

    However, some questions should be considered when discussing this issue, like:
    1. Business area in which an organization operates. For example, it is expected that an agricultural company will require external expertise, while IT company will not.
    2. The size of an organization. The question is, if small companies have people and resources for this activities, or they require external experts?

    According to my experience with some small companies, the most important issue is the full dedication of a company management that will recognize the appropriate level of engagement of internal and external expertise. Empirical inquiry with involvement of employees is the right way to check positive/negative effects.

  • Gregory Clarke Daigle added an answer in Educational Games:
    What are good tools to implement educational games in education ?

    Hello every body ...

    can you help me to know more tools to build educational games for millennial learners?

    Gregory Clarke Daigle · University of Minnesota Twin Cities

    A very flexible tool is ZebraZapps:  http://www.zebrazapps.com

    It is cloud based e-learning authoring tool for use on all major browsers including the new MS Edge browser, and also creates native packages for iOS and Android.  It exports SCORM-compliant lessons for LMS and has xAPI for mobile learning assessments.  

    Here are some examples of work done on it:

    Sunny Side Grill - timed procedural game for training


    Scanning to the Front - driver training quiz incorporating video


    Know your planets - sample learning material with traditional quizzes included


    Santa, Can We Talk? - model testing conversational assessment skills


  • Jochen Wilhelm added an answer in Basic Statistical Methods:
    How to report a continuous variable with multiple mode?

    I am enclosing a histogram where variable age has multiple modes. Is there a specific way to report it. 


    Jochen Wilhelm · Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen

    Off-topic: Funnny, I honestly have not seen Alex' post at the time I wrote my answer that seems to be a plagiate of Alex' answer. It is not (I would not have taken the effort to repeat what is already said...). 

  • Teresa Cutright added an answer in Plastics:
    Adsorption test with benzene in water: what type of glassware and cap guarantee no adsorption on the flask surface and no volatilisation?

    The gas chromatograph that I'm using to verify the concentration is reliable. I close the flasks (filled with 100 ml water and 80 microliters of benzene, less headspace is possible) with plastic cup and double parafilm, stir with magnetic stirrer and analyze the concentration:different bottles gives me so different results that the cause can't be volatilisation or adsorption on the plastic cap. Furthermore, when I close another time the bottles and I open them after some hours, I had a big reduction of concentration, but too big and too different to be due to volatilisation. Dirty bottles? This doesn't explane the reduction of the concentration of the second part of the test. Gradient of concentration in the bottles? No, I took a sample after magnetic stirring and another immediately after shaking vigorously the same bottle and the concentration is the same. I can test volatilisation by weighting the bottles, but..what about on the material of the bottle and on the way to close the bottle?

    Teresa Cutright · University of Akron

    Glass is the best bottle type to use to prevent sorption of benzene.  A class cap/lid is also recommended.  

  • Ali Hayes asked a question in Caregivers:
    Can you point to any studies/papers re attitudes & responses of caregivers / educators to profanity used by children & young people in their setting?

    I am interested in how the personal views and sensitivity to offence might influence a teacher or care-giver’s response when confronted by perceived problematic language. In addition have said professionals have ever been made aware of establishment policies or received guidance or training in how to manage situations where children and young people in their care use language that might be considered offensive or inappropriate?

  • Simone Stephanie Langner added an answer in Neonicotinoids:
    Bees Drawn to Pesticides?

    A recent study showed that bees prefer foods containing neonicotinoid pesticides! What do you think about this information?


    Simone Stephanie Langner · Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen

    Thank you for posting the link to this very interesting article! It would be interesting to know why the bees preferred the neonicotinoid-containing nectar even though they cannot sense the neonicotinoids...

  • Hussein Elasrag added an answer in International Trade:
    What is the effect of a chosen exchange rate system on bilateral maritime trade flows?

    My thesis is about my trial to analyze the effect of fluctuating exchange rates on bilateral maritime trade flows. I intend to use the gravity model with bilateral trade flow as the dependent variable and GDP between the countries, maritime distance between the countries, exchange rates on a time series between 1970 and current year and dummy variables such as free float, managed float, price and timed effects.

    My question is about how to tackle and start with the current situation?

    Hussein Elasrag · Ministry Of Industry And Foreign Trade

    You can also consider the following thesis


  • Mohamed Farag Mohamed Ibrahim added an answer in Agricultural Biochemistry:
    Sodium carbonate leads jasmonic acid in plants?

    I saw some experiments in which they use sodium carbonate as elicitor against pathogens. I know the principal functions of the salt (1.-it acts modifying the pH. of the medium inhibiting the grow of the pathogen., 2.-acts like a trigger of induced systemic resistance) but specifically: Can (in any way) sodium carbonate lead to the production of jasmonic acid?.  biochemistry is not my area, and I'll be very grateful if you could lead me. Thanks

    Mohamed Farag Mohamed Ibrahim · Ain Shams University

    I think your observations could be explained by that sodium ions led to salinity stress which altering the content of phenolic compounds and their related enzymes such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidases and polyphenol oxidase. these changes at the biochemical level are considered  defensive responses against pathogens.

  • Murugesan Velayutham added an answer in Cytosol:
    Is the intracellular glutathione (GSH) mostly stored in cytosol and its concentration in endosomes/lysosomes much lower than cytosol?

    Can anyone give the answer of this question or any references related? Thanks a lot!

    Murugesan Velayutham · UPMC

    Most of the GSH is stored/synthasized in cytosol. GSH is present in cytosol, endosomes/lysosomes, and mitochondria. The intracellular distribution of GSH in different organelles depends on the cell type.

  • Marcelo Pagnola added an answer in Experimental Physics:
    what is energy?
    Dear Nagesh s k

    If would say, simply, that "Energy is Life ".
    I thing, by this, we cover totally all of the forms of energy, we meet in our world.
    If there were no energy, we imagine, there wouldn't be life, there wouldn't be motion, since "Life is Motion".
    And this is similar to the case between "Light" and "Darkness"


    Panagiotis Stefanides
    Marcelo Pagnola · University of Buenos Aires

    Narayanan, respectfully, you believe in a "energy field theory for the minds" a very difficult kind to scientifically validate
    And, as well you say, it makes no sense to continue this exchange of views on this particular issue, because it would get into a more philosophical concrete level
    Good luck with your "energy field theory for the minds".



  • Jane R Foster added an answer in R Programming:
    Is there a good resource for translating SPSS syntax to R code?

    Like many in my field, I learned statistics while using SPSS heavily.  I am trying to migrate/experiment with R, and my largest hang-up is translating what I get from SPSS to R code.

    For example, in SPSS I like the way frequency tables are generated -- I would love to know the R code that would generate an equivalent of that.  Anyone have any recommendations?

    (Note:  I'm not asking for the translated R code, more a resource that can serve sort of like a translator....but with syntax/code instead of language). :)

    Jane R Foster · University of Minnesota Twin Cities

    You could use the r function 'hist' to get to this. hist stands for histogram and is part of the basic stats package. Type ? hist to get some info. I know you didn't ask for code, but I could paste a toy code example here if that would be helpful.

  • Artur Braun added an answer in Supercapacitors:
    I am working on supercapacitor electrode material. And want to know about Nyquist plot?

    Frequency behavior of electrode material at each point. How can i find this frequency from Nyquist plot.

    How can i get the knee frequency from knee point?

    If you could reply i will be very thankful to you

    Artur Braun · Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology

    The Nyquist plots can show you nice semicircles the radius' of which correspond to resistivities. If you have very very large radius it means you have a vertical line which means you have a capacity. You may have some 45° degree line in the Nyquist which is usually referred to as Warburg element. The Achsenabschnitt on the real axis gives you for example the electrolyte resistance.

    And: Nyquist plot means plotting ImZ over ReZ. It is a complex number plane.

    If you work on ceramics you can find bulk resistance, grain boundary resistance and all electrode resistance in line in the plot.

    You should also look at the /Z/ vs. phase angle phi representation. It will in the begin cost you a lot of time for getting familiar with the impedance spectra, but it is a good investment.

    Certainly you want to model your spectra with electric circuits.

    You should look into the book

    Impedance Spectroscopy Theory, Experiment, and Applications
    von Evgenij Barsoukov, Ross J. MacDonald

    I was one of the book reviewers.

    If you work on carbon supercaps you want to look into the papers of DeLevi and the pore model transmission line, and in the papers of Artur Braun ....

  • Flávio De Oliveira Pires added an answer in Kinesio Taping:
    Is there a controversy in Kinesio Taping?

    Does anyone know of any good publications about Kinesio Taping (in general and especially in an argueable way)?

    Flávio De Oliveira Pires · Universidade Federal do Maranhão

    Dear Burak ,

    The latest research I had access on Kinesio Taping these and were published by the author Leonardo Oliveira Pena Costa . You can ask the author who is present in researchgate.net articles below to learn more about this technique and get the answers .



  • Tom Masi added an answer in Plasmids:
    How can I troubleshoot for obtaining low concentrations of a plasmid after using ends-free plasmid maxi kit?

    Plasmid DNA extraction after transformation

    Tom Masi · The University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville

    Hi Melissa,

    Your plasmid concentration is going to depend a few things:

    1. Plasmid copy number (high or low)

    2. Strain of cells you are using to amplify the plasmid - you can always transform the plasmid into a different strain to get better growth

    3. Density the bacterial culture is before you start the maxiprep - the higher the density  the more plasmid you should get

    4. Media broth you are growing your cells in - minimal media like LB vs. richer media like Terrific broth

    Hope this is helpful

  • Venkatasubramanian Vidhyasagar asked a question in sgRNA:
    Anyone have faced sequencing problem for pSpCas9(BB)-2A-Puro (PX459) V2.0?


    We have cloned our sgRNA into BbsI site of CRISPR vector pSpCas9(BB)-2A-Puro (PX459) V2.0.  Digestion with Age I and BbsI showed most of clones have insert (no 1 kb band compared with empty vector); however, when we wanted to verify these clones by sequencing using Hu6 promoter, none of them was working, either gave unrelated sequence or totally could not read.

    Anyone faced the same problem?

    Thank you.

  • Kobi Michael added an answer in Turkish Foreign Policy:
    What are the effects of Turkish foreign policy on HAMAS in government in palestine during AKP in government?

    What are the effects of Turkish foreign policy on HAMAS in government in palestine during AKP in government? Turkish Palestinian Relations.

    Kobi Michael · Ariel University

    dear fatima, it looks we are going into a political argument which i am not sure is part of the interest of this web's reader. i will be more than happy to continue this discussion via our personal mails. but if you are really interesting about what the gazans could have done, what do you think about the option of leaving in peace with israel? israel disegaged from the gaza strip till the last inch and to the recognized international borders, left all the agricultural facilities for the palestinians and asked nothing for return. hamas who killed their own brothers from the fatah, took over the rule in gaza throwned out the pa and instead of taking care for hteir own people they prefered destroying all the agricultural facilities and greenhouses and use them as military training zones. instead of devoting efforts and resources in improving quality of life they prefered investing their resources in smuggling and manufcturing weapon and instead of normlizing relations with israel (even without recognizing it and with no peace agreement), they prefered terrorizing civilians in israel.

    btw, before going into further arguments regarding human rights i warmly recommend you to read hamas convention and to have some idea about their thoughts and aspirations regarding israel.

  • Xuan Zhou asked a question in Nano:
    Anyone fabricates Al/SiO2 core/shell nanoparticles?

    I need Al nano particles with SiO2 as protective layer, ideally. Is there any commercial ones available, or anyone fabricates similar things in lab ?

  • Tausif Alam added an answer in Cognitive Systems:
    Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.

    Tausif Alam · University of Wisconsin–Madison


    Yes, brain uses active suppression of all sorts of signals in the business it conducts in the processes of daily living as well as under unusual set of conditions - for example, prolonged exposure to low temperature causes diminished blood circulation into peripheral organs while trying to preserve itself and the core of the body (heart, lungs, liver etc). This is a rather mundane but useful example where signals for cold exposure from skin do not cease but are selectively ignored because the little man in brain has decided that stakes are too high and core functions trumps all else. This process more than likely, does not involve your perspectival view or the representation of the outside world in specific set of neurons or needs invocation of  Z plane residents. Evolutionarily inherited functions matter and continue their business according to a preprogrammed plan even as the person passes out, giving a temporary leave to your retinoid system, assuming help is found soon to revive the almost popsicle. 

    As you can see, active suppression of certain functions is not unique to waving triangles. The point is that what you call the little man, has concluded based on its analysis, that it isn't what it really is and will stay the course until exhausted. [Which reminds me that if your theory is near correct, you should recruit George W. Bush in your study; his retinoid system must have a robust capacity to hold on to hallucinations!  ;) ]

  • Philip R Newman added an answer in Young Adults:
    Is there an effective tool for establishing the presence of parental alienation in adolescents and young adults?

    Are there any psychometric instruments, or is there a taxonomy, which would establish the presence of parental alienation in a young person?

    Is there any effective research available which provides a route to rehabilitating a young person who is the victim of parental alienation?

    Are there any associated variables, such as the existence of personality disorder in the alienating parent, which help establish a diagnosis of parental alienation?

    Philip R Newman · Independent Researcher

    This is a complex and controversial topic for which there is very little agreement on solid research instruments. There are legal definitions used in custody battles, but they vary from one jurisdiction to another. There are clinical definitions, but there is much fighting about what the symptoms are, what the causes are, what the etiology is, what the best treatment is and, of course, what treatment(s) are best. You should try googling this topic to discover the range of uses and controversies.

  • Winfried Nischkauer added an answer in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy :
    Can anyone help with a diminished signal along the way in LOD/LOQ for W with FAAS?

    LOD/LOQ for W with FAAS. I ran 9 replicates of a series of standards. Result: a diminished signal along the way. Why is this happening?

    I waited 2h for the lamp to stabilize, before starting measurements. The lamp (Unicam) is antique but it is in good conditions, I suppose. It looks like new!

    I'm using a range of standards from 50 to 300 ppm. The sensitivity is approximately 9 ppm. I followed the cookbook indications for all parameters since optical until flame...

    What should I do to obtain a constant signal?


    Winfried Nischkauer · Vienna University of Technology

    Dear Ms. Rocha,

    Try diluting your calibration-standards with the same medium as used in the commercial standard-solution.

    I suppose, the commercial W-standard-solution contains nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid.

    When diluting only with water, maybe you produce instable solutions (e.g., slow precipitation of tungsten/iron or sorbtion to vial or tube walls).

    Also, before putting those new standard solutions, try rinsing your tubes/nebulizer for some time with a higher concentrated acid-solution.

    This should remove already adsorbed analytes from your sample introduction system.

    With best regards,
    Winfried Nischkauer

  • Kenneth M Towe added an answer in Marine Biology:
    Could climate change ever “wipe us out”?
    Regional temperature fluctuations have contributed to the deaths of millions of people and the demise of civilizations, as in the cases of the Irish Potato Famine and the Vikings’ departure from Greenland.
  • Artur Braun added an answer in Metallic Alloys:
    Isn't there any method that maintains constant temperature in metal alloy by joule(ohmic) heating?

    When I induced current, temperature of alloy increase continually

    Isn't there any method that maintains constant temperature in metal alloy when joule(ohmic) heating?

    Artur Braun · Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology

    You should search for studies on thermal desorption spectroscopy TDS. These are the people who have to maintain temperature very well.

    There was a group during my time at IGV in Jülich who invented ammethodology to control the sample temperature electronically without any kybernetic feedback tricks.

    Too bad I forgot about the technique.

    Thing is that you have to be able to get around Gibb's phenomenon . Their method did not yield an overshooting of the temperature, but it approached the goal temperature very smoothly.

    But: I think theoretically it is not possible to have absolute temperature control.

  • Prosper Adogu added an answer in Nutritional Status:
    I found that Population 2 has lower stunting values, but higher thinness and overweight values than population 1. So, Which population is better?

    Dear all,
         I have studied two populations of school boys (8-16 yrs age). The indices of malnutrition were calculated according to the classification of World Health Organization (WHO, 1995). Results shows that Population 2 has lower stunting values, but higher thinness and overweight values in comparison to population 1.

    So, Which population has better nutritional status?

    Can anybody answer the cause of this type of prevalence .

    Is there any similar publication?

    Prosper Adogu · Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka

    I mean ........nutritional status than the other

  • Michel Velázquez-Mariño added an answer in Support Vector Machine:
    How do we select the support vector from input and output data for SVM ?

    I would like to know the selection procedure of support vector from input and output data. I appreciate for detail procedure of support vector machine (SVM) analysis.

  • Roberto Cabeza asked a question in Amyloid:
    What are the pros and cons of PIB vs. florbetapir amyloid PET?

    in the context of MCI and Alzherimer research...

  • Clay Trauernicht added an answer in Survival Analysis:
    Surivival analysis in SAS with multiple observations of the explanatory variable in each subject?

    I have a data set with multiple subjects, each with multiple observations through time of a lab value I want to use as an explanatory value in a survival analysis. Is there a way to use all of the data in SAS rather than just the first observations? It would be ideal if the function could be done in Enterprise Guide.

    Clay Trauernicht · University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa

    not sure I understand completely - and not familiar with SAS.  The problem with repeated measures over time for of any response (growth, survival) is that its considered pseudo-replication.  However, you can include repeated measures if you parameterize a random effects model (ie, generalized linear mixed model) and include the unique ID code for your individuals as the random effect.

  • Santiago Velasquez added an answer in Instructional Design:
    Does negative scoring benefit the student?

    In negative scoring, for example, after the the total score for the student's submission is tallied, penalities are then applied by deducting marks for language mechanics. Does this method benefit the student or should these penalities be included in the rubric in tallying the students total score instead of after? Your comments would be greatly appreciated.

    Santiago Velasquez · University of Tolima

    At first and before i share my answer with you I would like to tell you about some questions that are going round my mind in relation to your question: How is education perceived in your local culture? how valuable is one or another way of marking? what is the purpose of evaluation in your class (formative or summative)?

    Having said this, let me also say that I think the aim of education is to provide the students with lots of opportunities similar to the ones they will have to face in real life.

    Therefore, I would use other mechanisms, other startegies, other students, other type of activities that promote learning from the mistakes without having an impact on the students. The final mark would be, then,  the result of how much headway each student made, how persisten each student was during the term, how few errors she/he made every new time, how much fun we all had in class while learning, etc. 

  • Patricio De Souza added an answer in Isotope Analysis:
    Can I use isotopes analysis to know the kind of molluscan used for prehistoric shell´s beads?

    (terrestrial v/s marine)

    Patricio De Souza · Universidad Católica del Norte (Chile)

    Thanks André, your comments are very useful to my research problem...good article too...