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  • What diseases can cause such changes in the mandible?

    Dear friends! The jaw belongs to a teenager of 15 years, 15 thousand years Paleolithic. What diseases can cause such changes in the mandible (besides scurvy)? 

    Sergey Mikhailovich Slepchenko · Russian Academy of Sciences

    Dear colleague! Thank you for your comprehensive answer! Could this be a manifestation of general infectious process? Correctly if I put only one diagnosis? Is it possible to distinguish scurvy, rickets, generalized inflammation and symptoms of anemia, having only the jaw? I think having only macroscopic manifestations, it is not possible to put only one diagnosis.

  • Hasan Kahtan added an answer in IT Security:
    What are the arguments both in favor and against this technique when it is applied to security rather than dependability?


    Hasan Kahtan · National University of Malaysia

    The terms “dependability”‎ and “security”‎ have been used interchangeably to describe the properties of secure and trusted software.

    However, the extant literature shows that dependability attributes are considered as the cure for security threats, abnormal behavior and untrustworthy issues in a software system.

    A system is considered dependable when it can be depended on to produce the consequences for which it was designed, with no adverse effect in its intended environment. Dependability comprises several attributes that imply availability, confidentiality, integrity, reliability, safety, and maintainability.

    Methods and tools to attain the dependability attributes have been discussed in details in my previous publications.

    I hope this can help you. Good luck.

  • Naveen Bhatt added an answer in ANSYS:
    Arc length method for non linear buckling (Nonlin.-FEM in ANSYS): Is there any way I can continue the Simulation beyond the critical point?

    I´m doing a non linear Simulation in which I have to deal with non linear buckling.

    Are there methods or altered arc-length algorithms that can cope with the Issue of Stability (see picture)?


    Naveen Bhatt · Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited

    Dear Christoph,

    As the structure is subjected to compressive stresses after a certain load it losses its stiffness, this particular load is critical load and ANSYS provides two ways (eigen value and nonlinear buckling analysis) to simulate this load….Structural instability causes a large deflection of structure for a small increment in load (due to loss of stiffness) and because of this classical nonlinear FE analysis (in ANSYS) aborts at the onset of buckling and you are not able to enter in post buckling regim.

    ANSYS provides some methods to simulate the post buckling behavior

    First one is arc length method (enough details are given how to do in ANSYS help)…..other method is nonlinear stabilization method…both these methods are very capable of capturing the zone when the structure snaps….I have personally used them for simulating the post buckling behavior of a thin cylindrical shell…only problem was after the onset of buckling the material ruptured in actual test (after a small load increment) as the deformations were very large and we stopped the test…. we simulated up to this point only….so I do not know how much these methods are capable to enter very deep in post buckling regim….

    One more suggestion…instead of force control loading, try deformation control loadings slowly…this does not allow structure to deform fast and you may be able to capture the behavior of structure..

    Hope that will help.


  • Russell Cropanzano added an answer in Justice:
    What is the relationship between justice and attitude?
    Any suggested literature?
    Russell Cropanzano · University of Colorado at Boulder

    Hello Elham:

    In my effort to be complete, I apologize for also being a bit redundant with the previous answers. But let me give your question in a try.

    In general, justice perceptions are positively related to attitudes, such as job satisfaction and organizational commitment. To help you focus your hypotheses, I suggest that you first read these general meta-analyses, one of which was recommended above.

    Cohen-Charash, Y., & Spector, P. E. (2001). The role of justice in organizations: A meta-analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86, 278–321.

    Colquitt, J. A., Conlon, D. E., Wesson, M. J., Porter, C. O. L. H., & Ng, K. Y. (2001). Justice at the millennium: A meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 425-445.

    Skitka, L. J., Winquist, J., & Hutchinson, S. (2003). Are outcome fairness and outcome favorability distinguishable psychological constructs? A meta-analytic review. Social Justice Research, 16, 309-341.

    For specific information on attitudes, I would also encourage you to explore the research on the target similarity model (also called multifoci justice). According to this work, the source of the justice is somewhat matched to the resulting attitudes. For example, organizational justice is likely to be a better predictor of organizational commitment than it is of supervisor commitment. Conversely, supervisor justice is likely to be a better predictor of supervisor commitment than it is of organizational commitment. Here are some articles that you might enjoy:

    Lavelle, J. J., Brockner, J., Konovsky, M. A., Price, K., Henley, A., Taneja, A., & Vinekar, V. (2009). Commitment, Procedural Fairness, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Multifoci Analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 337-357.

    Lavelle, J. J., Rupp, D. E., & Brockner, J. (2007). Taking a multifoci approach to the study of justice, social exchange, and citizenship behavior: The target similarity model. Journal of Management, 3, 841-866.

    Lavelle, J., Rupp, D., & Manegold, J. G., & Thornton, M. (2015). Multifoci Justice and Target Similarity. In M. Ambrose & R. Cropanzano (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Justice in Work Organizations. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

    Rupp, D. E., Shao, R., Jones, K., & Liao, H. (2014). The utility of a multifoci approach to the study of organizational justice: A meta-analytic investigation into the consideration of normative rules, moral accountability, bandwidth-fidelity, and social exchange. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 123, 159-185.

    Finally, there is also some research suggested that processes and outcomes interact to predict attitudes. According to this work, individuals are tolerant of unfavorable outcomes if the process by which they are assigned is just. Here are some papers on this interaction:

    Brockner, J. (2002). Making sense of procedural fairness: How high procedural fairness can reduce or heighten the influence of outcome favorability. Academy of Management Review, 27, 58-76.

    Brockner, J., & Wiesenfeld, B. M. (1996). An integrative framework for explaining reactions to decisions: Interactive effects of outcomes and procedures. Psychological Bulletin, 120, 189-208.

    This is an exciting area of study, and I hope that you enjoy learning more.

    -- Russell

  • Kay Wong added an answer in Metabolomics:
    Has anyone tried the APGC ion source for metabolomics analysis?

    Dear colleagues,

    The new APGC (Atmospheric pressure gas chromatrography) ion source is a new alternative to the conventional EI (in that it provides soft, APCI-like ionization) for GC-MS.

    I would like to learn more regarding:

    1. Would you mind sharing your experience on the APGC ion source?

    2. For routine metabolomics work, Would you recommend the coupling of a GC to Triple quad MS/MS or QTOF MS/MS?

    3. There is currently no database for APGC spectra searches (e.g. as the conventional NIST database is for EI-based spectra). If I am to use a APGC-Triple quad MS/MS system, would it be a challenge to identify the different metabolites (as the mass accuracy or resolution of Triple quad is low)? Any ideas?

    Thank you very much!

    Kay Wong · The University of Hong Kong

    Dear Carlos,

    Thank you so much for sharing me your experiences. I shall read through your paper to learn more.

    Good luck to your research : )

  • How do I eliminate nonspecific bands in final product?

    I have PRRL-ABCB7, a plasmid (8000 bp) with insert ABCB7 (3000 bp) subculture in top10 cells and purified by Qiagen midi. My work is to cut the insert from plasmid by double digesting it with Age and Mlu I (both from NEB). So Iam digesting 10µg of vector, first with Age in buffer 1.1 and run aliquot in the gel to check complete digestion with AgeI. Then iam purifying the Age digested vector by Ampure magnetic beads and digesting it with Mlu I in buffer 3.1. Running the gel after complete digestion with Mlu. From the gel two separate and clear bands were seen at 8000 bp (plasmid) and 3000 bp (insert), i have cut the band at 8000bp and purified  from gel. But after purification, when I check the final product in gel, along with 8000 bp band I have seen some bands at 7000, 6000 bp. When I am purifying the band from 8000 bp, why I am getting these non specific bands along with my desired product. I have tried so many times with different enzyme concentrations, incubation times, gel extraction kits and running slowly for long time in the gel (low gelling agarose), but nothing works and at the end the product is same. I have attached the pictures. Give me suggestions to eliminate these extra bands ??

    Thank you all in advance.                 

    Shahana Begum · Institute of Tropical Medicine


    I agree with Mark Farman.

  • Sadia Zafar added an answer in Docking Software:
    Can anyone help me in binding site identification of GAT1 using GOLD dock software?

    I am attempting to identify the accurate binding pocket for inhibitors in GAT1 using the GOLD software.

    All of the interacting residues got selected within 17 Angstrom. But when I run the docking, I got error:

    Initialization failed of the input ligand file as 0 solvent accessible sites are located in the selected active site of GAT1. Zero H-donor and H-acceptor sites in selected region and the program just moves on without writing output file.

    Sadia Zafar · National University of Science and Technology

    Yes Bartosz Trzaskowski, I got the residues information from the experimental and mutagenesis data.

    These residues of the GABA transporter (GAT1) have shown to be interact with the ligands/inhibitors that I have in my data set  to be docked. 

  • Implementation of Pixel swapping algorithm?

    So far I am able to get the fuzzy member value of different classes for each pixel. I want to  know the steps for producing a hard classified fine resolution image using psa. Do I have to first create a fine resolution grid and then randomly fill those sub pixels based on their fractions and then to maximize the energy function for optimisation ?  I need a basic overview about srm technique and how such objective functions can be programmed. 


    Raja raghudeep Emani · RMSI Pvt. Ltd.

    I am actually struggling in the implementation part for the program. If have some sort of working code that would be a great help.

  • Dr. Maulin P Shah asked a question in Publishing:
    Who is there, who is publishing so many papers in my name without my knowledge and information?

    One of my past lab member (already left) has published so many papers in my name as i have been informed by the journal's administrative management, i also noticed the same and found that i sincerely apologize for the same.

  • Which solvent and what amount of dye do you need to make dye solution?

    Which solvent and what amount of dye can I use to make dye solution? Actually I am trying to make a TiO2 based dssc.

    Amrik Singh · Chaudhary Devi Lal University/Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology

    ethanol is solvent for dye

  • What are the causes leading to higher values of R1?

    I have done SXRD for my sample the value of R1 turn out to be 18% and now am trying to get good quality single crystal but I couldn't

    Lawrence Margulies · University of Guelph

    If you are unfamiliar with the terms used in XRD then that would explain the problem

  • Younes Fathabadi asked a question in Motor:
    Can a VFD be used with any motor or do they have to be of a special design?

    Can a VFD be used with any motor or do they have to be of a special design?

  • K. Sreenivas added an answer in Thermal Evaporation:
    What is the best bench for PVD evaporation system?
    We need a basic bench for PVD evaporation system. Easy to use. Where we can sputter metal (oxidising and non-oxidising) and oxyde or nitride material. We have a limited budget. We must take a decision quickly.
    Can someone suggest a model or a company that fulfills these requirements?
    K. Sreenivas · University of Delhi

    There are many Indian companies designing custom made vacuum and sputtering systems and fit them with imported components (pumps, gauges, sputter sources, etc., and what you need. Fully made imported companies are quite expensive (like Edwards etc.,). But nowadays many Indian companies are designing top class PVD systems and you may consult them. 

    K. Sreenivas

  • Younes Fathabadi asked a question in Motor:
    Can a VFD be used with any motor or do they have to be of a special design?


    Can a VFD be used with any motor or do they have to be of a special design?

  • What are the methods involved to controlled the size of the nano metal oxides in carbon matrix?

    Please share your knowledge to get an idea. 

    Thank you to all.

    Dr. V. Ranjithkumar

    Lawrence Margulies · University of Guelph


  • Anyone familiar with biasing potential for Electrochemical Impedance spectroscopy?

    use gold electrode, and label antibody onto the electrode. I want to see if the antibodies has been succesfully immobilized onto the electrode surface. So I use Randles circuit to measure 4 parameters, Rs, Rct, CPE, Zw. I am really only comparing the charge transfer resistance of my bare gold electrode and the chrage transfer resistance after immobilizing antibody onto the gold electrode. For each measurement, I am using ferri/ferro cyanice with 1:1 ratio.

    I did a CV, and it shows the oxidation peak of ferri/ferro cyanide was at 0.25V. My question is. should I apply 0.25 V as my DC bias potential? Lets say I use 1mL ferri/ferro cyanide solution.

    If that is the potential I should apply, wouldn't all the ferri/ferro cyanide solution become oxidized in a very short time period, lets say 3 seconds. but the whole EIS measurement will take about 4 minutes to scan between 10kHz to 0.1 Hz.. so what am I measuring in the 3 min and 57 seconds after the ferri/ferro cyanide has been already oxidied.

    Nan Li, Ph.D · University of Toronto

    Hi David

    Thank you so much!,if we use the half wave potential, how do you describe the charge transfer resistance from ferri/ferro cyanide? how is the charge transfer resistance being measured?

  • Apurva Kumar asked a question in Insulin Resistance:
    Free fatty acids/triglyceride levels in CNS in insulin resistance?

    Insulin resistance is known to be associated with higher levels of circulating free fatty acids. Are higher levels of circulating free fatty acids known to be associated with increased levels of ffa of TGs in the milieu of central nervous system, particularly in neurons?


  • Jenny Gatz added an answer in Rhabdomyolysis:
    Is somebody familiar with exertional rhabdomyolysis in athletes?

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis in athlete’s  and acute dehydration?

    Jenny Gatz · Stony Brook University

    You would need to look at other conditions in addition to acute dehydration. Exertional rhabdomyolysis has been measured in marathoners and ultra runners and usually resolves unless there is a combination of heat stress, NSAIDS, illness etc., that may lead to muscle proteins increase in concentration in the blood but acute renal failure is rare. 

  • Zhuang Ma asked a question in Outsourcing:
    What are the differences between Business Process Outsourcing and Servitization, from the manufacturers' perspective? Any recommended literature?

    In servitization, manufacturers seem to add services to their existing products for competitive advantages. When certain services may exceed manufacturers' reach, they outsource from service suppliers.

    In BPO, firms (including manufacturers) are outsourcing non-core business processes for cost reduction, market advantage etc.

    But there are some differences between these two kinds of outsourcing, I suppose: in the former situation, manufacturers are adding customer-oriented services, while in the latter, manufacturers are end-users of services. 

    Is my understanding correct? 

  • Mehdi Kargar added an answer in Penetration Testing:
    What is penetration testing? How it is implemented in information security?
    I need information on penetration testing to find out the vulnerabilities in the network.
    Mehdi Kargar · Khorasan Institute of Higher Education

    The action is to find security holes in a company or an organization to protect and secure sensitive information

  • Rajasekarababu Kb added an answer in ANSYS CFX:
    How do I mix fluid between two domains?

    As attached files, I don't know how to mixture fluid between rotating domain and stationary domain. 

    Any recommendation.

    Rajasekarababu Kb · VIT University

     Use CFX and select boundary condition by using mouse and check with coordinates, Make sure about our boundaries.. And use check ur boll-en operation in ur cad diagram. i already send one PDF and video tutorial check it . Thank you

  • Abeyou Wale Worqlul added an answer in Topography:
    What is the typical 'Topographic Wetness Index' range of values?

    I wonder what are the typical TWI values for different kinds of topography.

    I received a negative values (similarly as on GIS SE) and I'm not sure how I should interpret them.

    Could you suggest any articles which helps to understand distribution of TWI values?

    Abeyou Wale Worqlul · Cornell University

    Hi Mateusz: 

    Topographic Wetness Index is calculated as 

    TI= ln(up-slope contributing area/ tan(of slope angle))

    The up-slope area is the flow accumulation map, you can calculate this map using ArcGIS hydrology tool or ILWIS DEM-hydroprocessing tool. If you use ArcGIS you have to add 1 since the border pixels have zero flow accumulation value. But in ILWIS you can use them directly. If you don't add 1 value the watershed divide will have undefined values. The other thing that you have to consider is the slope: if the slope is zero then tan of zero will be zero and you will end up again undefined pixel. So, for a pixel value of zero you have to substiture a smaller value. This can be a general TI equation:

    TI= if(Slope>0, Flow accumlation * pixel Size^2/tan(PI*slope in degree/180) ,  Flow accumlation * pixel Size^2/tan(PI*0.000002/180))

    The IT value would range from 2 to 30 approximately. 

    I hope this helps 

  • Shahana Begum added an answer in Kidney Cells:
    I need a lamb kidney cell culture complete protocol (from lamb kidney cell collection to culture). Can you help me please?

    To cell culture molecular biologist.

    Shahana Begum · Institute of Tropical Medicine

    Hi Madurima,

    Thanks a lot. What's age of lamb's should be preferable for successful cell culture???


  • How to Review Benefit - Impacts Generated by International Marketing?

    I want to Review/ Evaluate Benefit - Impacts Generated by International Marketing, to collect primary data and develop a model on this topic please suggest me which should be the input variables and what should be output variables that can measure benefit-impacts provided by international marketing. Also please suggest me any structure of the model if you can. Kindly. 

  • Raenu Kolandaisamy added an answer in VANET:
    What are new research topics in the field of VANETs security?
    See above
    Raenu Kolandaisamy · UCSI University

    What are new research topics in the field of VANET and MANET?

  • Anyone familiar with this type of cyanobacteria?

    Collected on the building walls, diameter around 2 to 9 microns. both have a same size with different pigmentation and cell structure

  • Rajasekarababu Kb added an answer in Wind Turbines:
    Cost for setting up a HAWT scaled model in an University?

    What will be the approximate cost for setting up a HAWT scaled model in an University?My research is on Energy harvesting from wind turbines.For this work,I am going to install a scaled down model of HAWT in my university.Can anyone come forward for an approximate cost of setting it up??

    Rajasekarababu Kb · VIT University

    nearly 400$ for scaled model.. if you want to manufacture ur own means its comes around 1000$..

  • Can neuron like cell lines be used to study neurodegeneration?

    Could anybody suggest me references showing research on neuron like cell types except N2A and PC12?

    Thank you

  • What is it called if an absolute cocycle is taken modulo relative coboundaries?

    Suppose X is a simplicial complex and A its subcomplex. So, we can consider relative cocycles, in particular, relative coboundaries in dimension 2, for concreteness. Also, we can consider absolute cocycles in dimension 2, i.e. such that are not obliged to vanish on A.

    And if we factor the space of these absolute cocycles by the space of those relative coboundaries - what is the generally accepted name for the resulting space?

    James F Peters · University of Manitoba

    This is a good question with more than one possible answer.

    Absolute cocycles are considered in

    C. Pagliantini, Relative (continuous) bounded cohomology and simplical volume of hyperbolic manifolds with geodesic boundary, Ph.D. thesis, Universita degli study di Pisa:


    See Section 4.4.2, starting on page 99, on simplical volume.    See Section 1.3, starting on page 22, on coboundary maps considered in the context of sub complexes and bounded cohomology.

  • Joanna Kwiatek asked a question in Parking:
    Does anyone have Overton E. "The probable origin and physiological significance of cellular osmotic properties." ?

    Hi, I'm looking for the translation of the very old paper:

    Overton E. The probable origin and physiological significance of cellular osmotic properties. Vierteljahrschrift der Naturforschende Gesselschaft (Zurich) 44, 88–135 (1899). Trans. Park, R. B. in Biological Membrane Structure (eds Branton, D. & Park, R. B.) 45–52 (Little, Brown & Co., Boston, 1968).

    Does anyone have it? I will appreciate sending pdf. THANK YOU!!! Joanna