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  • Raveendra Nath Yasarapu added an answer in Climate Change:
    Is it time we shift emphasis from technological solutions to climate change & focus on the 'Human Dimension'?

    Isn't the obvious solution and elephant-in-the-room 'BETTER HUMAN BEINGS'? Shouldn't the focus be on better human beings rather than better technology? Is it not obvious that nature can heal itself, if only left alone, and it is we humans who need regulation? Many natural parks managers do just that; seal off the area from human interference to let nature heal and recover. It is classified as 'Strict Nature Reserve"by IUCN. Complacency and inaction are not advocated here, as many have misunderstood, but the shifting of focus from technology to the human being. As technology is no match for human greed, isn't introspection & restraining ourselves more relevant than developing more technology, which caused the mess in the first place, by making it easy for a few to consume more? Since technology is only a short term quick fix which fails after a short time, isn't the real problem our addiction to material consumption & our lack of understanding about human nature? Isn't developing more technology sustaining the addiction instead of correcting it, leading to more complex problems later on, needing more complex technological quick fixes like higher drug dosages, more ground troops & equipment, (along with their debilitating side effects) in the future? Isn't this the vicious addiction circle we are trapped in? As researchers, do we merely buy more time with technology OR go to the very root of the problem, the human being?

    A lot of hue and cry is made about climate change and the environment in general. Public and private money is poured into research to study its effects on the environment, sustainability etc. Should we study nature or ourselves?

    " Our studies must begin with our selves and not with the heavens. "-Ouspensky

    Human activities have been found to have a direct correlation to climate change and its impact on the environment(I=P x A x T, the Ehrlich and Holdren equation), in spite of what some complacent sections say to protect their own self interests.

    We hardly know about Human nature. We can scarcely predict human behavior. We need to find out why we think like we do and why we do what we do and why, in spite of all knowledge and wisdom, consume more than what we need, in the form of addictions to consumption and imbalance not only ourselves but also the family, society and environment around us..
    Humanity is directly responsible for all the unnatural imbalances occurring on the planet. Yet we refuse to take responsibility and instead focus on climate change, or fool the public exchequer with a 'breakthrough in renewable energy just around the corner'. We scarcely know what drives human beings. If we had known, all the imbalances around us would have had solutions by now, given the amount of money plowed into finding such solutions. Are we blindly groping in the dark of climate change because we don't know the answers to our own nature?
    Is it not high time we focus on what makes us human, correct our consumptive behavior and leave nature to take care of climate change? Why focus effort on 'externals' when the problem is 'internal'- 'me'?
    Aren't we addicts denying our addiction and blaming everything else but ourselves?

    " We are what we Think.

    All that we are arises with our thoughts.

    With our thoughts, we make the world." - Buddha 

    IMHO, We don't need to save the World. It is enough if we save ourselves from ourselves. The need of the hour is not vain glorious interventions, but self-restraint and self-correction!

    The Mind is the Final frontier.

    Raveendra Nath Yasarapu · Technische Universität München

    Obviously! Anything less will be a huge shame!

  • Anne Barrett Clark added an answer in Great Apes:
    Is there any comparative data on testosterone baseline levels in primates or great apes?

    I'm pretty sure humans have less testosterone (and so sexual dimorphism) when compared to other primates, but I cannot find any study on that.


    Anne Barrett Clark · Binghamton University

    Also look at work by Alan Dixson.  There is probably data in his book on Primate Sexuality to answer your question.  For certain, humans actually show MORE sexual dimorphism than the monogamous callitrichid primates.

  • Pejvak Moghimi added an answer in Phylogenetic Tree:
    Is it wrong to use 16s rRNA sequences of strains other than the one you want to include in your phylogenetic tree?

    Hi everyone. I am trying to create a phylogenetic tree, however NCBI lacks 16s rRNA sequences for some of the strains I am looking for although it does provide sequences for the other strains of the same organism. Is it legitimate to stablish my tree based on the sequences of these other strains?

    Thank you.

    Pejvak Moghimi · The University of York

     Dear Mahadev,

    I finally figured out how to do it, though I have to say the database is a bit strange. Thank you so much for your time.

  • Jacopo Serafini added an answer in Plant Modeling:
    Do you know any linearized plant model of wind turbine which is 'initialized'?

    There are plenty plant models of wind turbine in the literature but I am looking for a state space model which is 'initialized' having four matrices (i.e. A, B, C, D) consisting of only constants (no variable in matrices). Preferably, a model consisting of all matrices of 2x2 size.

    I need it to design a Model Predictive Control (MPC) based Blade Pitch Angle Controller of Horizontal-Axis, Variable-Speed Wind Turbine.

    Jacopo Serafini · Università Degli Studi Roma Tre

    Since Rotational dynamics may be represented with a single first order equation in omega and pitch dynamics necessarily need a second order equation in theta (you need value of the angle to compute aerodynamic torque), you need a 3x3 first order ODE system. 2x2 is not sufficient for you purposes. 

    About the parameters, such a simple model usually requires very little informations, like moment of inertia, blade chord and radius and wind velocity.

  • Elizabeth Turner asked a question in Dogs:
    Looking for treatments of Right to Left Patent Ductus Arteriosus in dogs

    I am investigating long term treatments in right to left (reversed) PDAs in dogs. I've already found a couple of published articles (Cote et al, 2001; Ferasin et al, 2007; Moore et al, 2001; and a case presentation by Ackerman, 1994.), but am looking to see if there are any more recent treatments that cardiologists have attempted/been successful. Thank you.

  • Behrad Mahboobi added an answer in C++:
    Is there any object oriented graphic library for C++ ?

    I wonder if object oriented concept is nowadays a proper choice for graphic toolbox and library or some other technology is currently replaced so I appreciate if you answer this question first.

    secondly what is the best choice of OOP graphic library for 2D in C++ ?

    my application is to insert , move, delete and re-shape the object in the screen without the need to handle other overlapping object.

    Behrad Mahboobi · Islamic Azad University Science and Research Branch

    Thank you shayne. Is it for 2D graphics too?

  • Kimberly A. Lawless added an answer in Early Childhood:
    What are your favourite apps for early childhood?

    While there's debate about early childhood and use of digital technologies, there's growing interest in identifying apps which are appropriate, including apps which can be repurposed for specific learning experiences.

    For example, there's sites which provide the '15 Must Have iPad apps for Preschool Teachers' - see http://www.earlychildhoodeducationzone.com/best-apps-for-teachers/. What are apps which you would recommend?

    Kimberly A. Lawless · University of Illinois at Chicago

    Apps are endless for this age group and cover a very diverse range of topics and skills - here are four that I like a lot in the domain of math...  Hope it helps!

    Geo Board – This application explores the world of shapes and the possibilities which are presented when given a peg board and a rubber band.  We have had fun creating our names, as well as various shape patterns. This application is aimed for those with some experience in using a tablet device (Little F, age 3, found it hard to use). It does not allow you to save your creations, however a quick screen grab by holding down the power button in the top right hand corner and the home key (on an iPad) will save an image to your camera roll.

    Counting to 10 – Based around the concept of one to one correspondence, this app teaches using little penguins, moles, elephants, manta rays.   It involves a lot of repetition with both visual counting aids, as well as a little narrator counting aloud for you as you go (available for Android as well)!

    Montessori Numbers – Another app based on the foundations of Montessori created by L’Escapadou. This app is a delightful starting spot for introducing numbers, as well as for those moving into the hundreds. It uses tracing numbers, base ten, number stories, and one to one correspondence to help children learn.  There are a number of difficulty levels going up to 999.

    Tam and Tao in Numberland created by Les Trois Elles Interactive – Adorable in every way.  This company create some delightful applications and Numberland is one of them.

  • Bara'ah Al sayed asked a question in Solar Wind:
    How to build a charge controller ? can any one help me with some useful pdf about that ?

    charge controller which used in solar and wind  system to regulate the charging  of battery...

  • Behrad Mahboobi added an answer in Dynamics and Control:
    How might one estimate the uncertainty of the dynamic at work in the dynamic measuring mode?

    Dynamic measurement uncertainty is defined as a factor
    of measurement uncertainty, which is caused by a
    response by the measurement means to the frequency
    (speed) of the measurement of the input variable (input
    signal), which itself depends on the dynamic properties of
    the measurement means and the frequency spectrum of
    the input signal.

    Behrad Mahboobi · Islamic Azad University Science and Research Branch

    Do you mean a closed form estimate or numerical examimation is fine?

  • Simin Salehnezhad added an answer in Elastin:
    Is there anyone who have mooney rivlin constants of collagen and elastin in arteries?

    i m working on mechanical responses of arterial wall,consist of intima, media (collagen and elastin) and adventitia, with effect of blood flow on the wall. i have simulated the artery with ADINA software .

    Simin Salehnezhad · University of Isfahan

    Hi Andrea

    thanks for your help. but i need exactly collagen and elastin stress strain curve,i have found some data of specific layer of artery,but i want to simulate the middel layer -media-  a composit of 40 layer of elastin and collagen.

  • David Schipper added an answer in Asymmetric PCR:
    Does Gelstar gel dye bind ssDNA differently from dsDNA?

    I have been attempting asymmetric PCR Lately and have noticed that some of my bands on the gel are showing up in an orange color vs the typical greenish color.  Could Gelstar dye bind ssDNA in a different manor then it does dsDNA resulting in a slightly different florescent emission?  

    I have read that ssDNA travels ~10% faster than dsDNA.  This suggests that the orange bands are ssDNA, but I want to make sure. the green bands I am seeing correspond in size to standard dsDNA PCR lanes with these same primers.  

    Could this perhaps be some other contaminate or perhaps the DNA is taking on a unique confirmation?  

    If anyone has experience with this phenomenon, I would really appreciate your help.   

    David Schipper · University of Notre Dame

    Thank both for your help! 

  • Owen Harney added an answer in Social Intelligence:
    Can anyone recommend some online videos or exercises which can be used to demonstrate key components of collaborative learning?

    Hi all,

    I'm preparing content for a module on collaborative learning. Can anyone recommend any short videos and/or online exercises which relate to, for example, communication, perspective-taking, social intelligence, group dynamics, group problem solving, or other related concepts?

    Thanks in advance,

    Owen Harney · National University of Ireland, Galway

    Glenn, Krishnan, Eser and Tom, many thanks for your replies. I look forward to exploring each of your suggestions.

  • Guillermina Calo added an answer in Flow Cytometry:
    How to remove latex beads adhered to the cell membrane?
    I'm working with DC 2.4 and I'm measuring phagocytosis of fluorescently dyed latex beads by FACS. But, I think that beads adhered to the cell membrane (not ingested) are spoiling my results. So, what should I do to remove those beads?
    Guillermina Calo · University of Buenos Aires

    Thank you Vladimir! That's what I needed!

  • José Eduardo Jorge asked a question in Political Philosophy:
    What is a ‘good citizen’ nowadays?

    It seems that forty or fifty years ago the idea of ​​what was a ‘good citizen’ was clearer than today.

    ‘Good citizens” were individuals who did not pursue only their own interest, but also felt responsible for the fate of the whole society. They followed public affairs, were involved in political campaigns, voted, participated in voluntary organizations and were law-abiding.

    Today few people have confidence in the political system.

    In your opinion, then, what does it mean to be a ‘good citizen’ these days? Does this concept is already part of the past?

  • Naomi Sachs asked a question in Peer Review:
    The option of "maybe" or "don't know" in surveys rather than just "yes" or "no" - Anyone have good references on this question or validated examples?

    I am designing a survey that has several "yes or no" questions. I'm having trouble finding good peer-reviewed articles (or good books) about the current thinking on giving people the option of "maybe" or "don't know" rather than forcing them to choose yes or no. Any and all suggestions are welcome. Thank you!

  • Alieu Mohamed Bah asked a question in Iron Toxicity:
    Can someone help with appropriate methods to measure Iron toxicity in rice in the absence of an AAS?

    Using pot experiment in a screen house rice varieties of rice was grown in soils that are highly toxic in Iron

  • Insaf Ould Brahim asked a question in HTTP:
    Hello Have you this article?


  • Rane L. Curl added an answer in Plagiarism:
    What percentage (maximum) of plagiarism is generally allowed in a review paper?

    I want know about what percentage of plagiarism is allowed to make a review paper acceptable in journals.

    Rane L. Curl · University of Michigan

    I say NONE too, but would like to ask, why the question was asked? Has anyone suggested that some modicum of plagiarism is acceptable?  Or is it an issue of the definition of plagiarism?

  • Marius Murariu added an answer in Polyamides:
    What is the most efficient antioxidant or heat stabilizer for polylactic acid (PLA)/ polyamide 6 blend during extrusion?

    temperature profile is as follows:


    and residence time is about 2 minutes. 

    Marius Murariu · Materia Nova R&D Center & University of Mons

    Dear Catherine,

    Firstly, I will appreciate your important number of questions, which is proving that the ResearchGate website is useful and considered by scientists in finding the good information.

    Regarding the production of PLA/PA6 blends and their adequate thermal stabilization, I will say that is recommended to use some thermal stabilizers already successfully tested with these polymers. Based on my experience following the work with both polymers, I will say that PLA is rather a new polymer as commercial production at larger scale, thus it is not enough studied point of view thermal stabilization. Moreover it is considered that the traditional synergistic systems, such as Irganox® HP 2215 to give only an example (a blend of 57% IRGAFOX 168, 28% IRGANOX 1010 and 15% HP-136/ respectively, an organic phosphite for decomposing the hydroperoxides, a hindered phenolic primary antioxidant and a lactone which acts as radical scavenger) can lead to good stabilization during processing and to required long-term thermal stability. But it seems that you have already used this kind of product, while your melt-compounding conditions are rather reasonable! To summarize, I have tested with PLA the product HP 2215 and following the isothermal tests (TGA method), it is working well…

    On the other hand, as it is described in the literature it could be of interest to test some phosphites (pentaerythritol diphosphite (e.g. Ultranox 626, a high activity phosphite, in fact a secondary antioxidant), TNNP- trisnonylphenyl phosphite, etc.) already tested with PLA and which can have a stabilizing effect, while additionally a chain extension is believed to be the most likely mechanism for the molecular weight stabilization (see details in Cicero, J. A.; Dorgan, J. R.; Dec, S. F.; Knauss, D. M., Phosphite stabilization effects on two-step melt-spun fibers of polylactide. Polymer Degradation and Stability 2002, 78 (1), 95-105).

    Finally, I will say that for instance it is difficult to say what is the most efficient antioxidant/thermal stabilizer for PLA/PA6 blends…but during the time we will receive the best answers. I will point also the importance to find a good compatibilizer, even that this subject is not regarding your question.

    Good luck in your research work and best regards,


  • Philip M. Perrin added an answer in Atlas.ti:
    What qualitative analysis software should I use for process/sequential modeling?

    I am currently using Atlas.ti for analyzing transcribed conversations from which I would like to extract a process or a sequence of events. However, Atlas.ti is more content-oriented and is not really adequate to sequential analyses. Does anyone have any suggestions?

    Thanks in advance!

    Philip M. Perrin · Botanical, Environmental and Conservation Consultants

    I'm sure that there must be package in R to do this....

    These links might get you started:

    Good luck.

  • Alex Ignatov added an answer in Pseudomonas:
    Does anyone have any idea about the pathogens and occurrence of Pith necrosis in potatoes?

    We found potato disease most similar to pith necrosis of tomato in greenhouse(caused by Pseudomonas corrugata and other pseudomonads). Do you know any other cases of such disease on potato in field? 

    Alex Ignatov · Russian Academy of Sciences

    One type of the isolated bacteria gave wilt in 12 h after inoculation and maceration of low 1/3 of stem with black lesions at middle-upper part of stem in 36h. This is a picture made in 48h after inoculation of  tomato cuttings placed into bacterial suspension 10E8 CFU/ml  and kept at 15-20oC.  Bacteria colonies on King's B Agar looked small, transparent, no slime, non-pigmented, not-fluorescent, Gram(-), slow-growing at 24oC.

  • Shahram Mahmoudi added an answer in Antifungal Susceptibility Testing:
    How can I calculate the geometric mean for MICs of antifungal susceptibility tests?

    I have a problem with calculating the GM in SPSS software.

    according to the CLSI document, i used 0.0312- 16 ug/mL of voriconazole and itraconazole for susceptibility testing. Now the MIC of some isolates is more than 16 (>16).

    how can i include these results( I don't know the real MIC values)  in GM calculating order in SPSS software?

    Shahram Mahmoudi · Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    thanks a lot for your kind reply

  • Doaa Ebaid added an answer in MATLAB:
    What is the best alternative to matlab?

    Im looking for a matlab like software which is reliable and fast as matlab.both free and comercial products can be the answer.

    Doaa Ebaid · Alexandria University

    This link may help you 


  • Alaa Eldin Eissa added an answer in Gills:
    What is cause of the shortening lamellar disorder in gills of fish?

    I'm looking for the cause of this disorder.

    Alaa Eldin Eissa · Cairo University

    Shortening of gill filaments has many different infectious and non infectious causes . The genetic disorders could be a real cause of gill deformity in general including shortening. Thermal shock and strong water current at the very young ages of life could be another possible causes. Henniguya myxopsoridial infection is one of the infectious causes. Further, chronic ammonia toxicity (Environmental gill diseases) is a possible cause of shortening and clubbing of gills filaments . Many other chronic infectious and chronic environmental pollutants could be vulnerable causes of such disorders.

  • Rita De Vuyst added an answer in De-Broglie Bohm Theory:
    How do you see the non-locality of the wave-function and why it can't be used for the faster than light signaling?

    The wave-function describes a form of quantum energy called the quantum potential which propagates throughout space. Disturbing the quantum potential in one location instantly modifies it throughout the whole space. How you see this aspect related to the velocity of light?

    Rita De Vuyst · Afkikker/Klimop

    We understand each other, but we look from another corner. We don't only use our logic thinking but always the intuition is coming in. Also by intuition we understand the things.

    The old paradigm of science ‘objectivity’ is not accepted anymore by scientists in the first place. So the real science is not objective.

    Christian I understand very good, you see the things from both sides, but it is hard to defend it because of supervision.

    Claiming objectivity is dangerous because it closes the doors for religion and art.

    Quantum physics has opened the gate to subjectivity because  consciousness is part of it, so objectivity doesn't exist anymore. 

    More and more life itself is coming in the middle which everyone can accept. From the beauty of the cell, the organs, the organism, the society we can open the dialogue much easier. Any way that radicalism must vanish, and from the side of science and from the side of religion or we end up in degradation which probably is already a fact.

    Why not follow the way of Pauli and Bohm, In fact, synchronicity, which I know very well, and for sure I can tell more if someone should follow, is the core of the reality. Indeed it is not reproducible and that is just how nature is, everything happens just once, all the rest is misunderstanding.

    The other knowledge concerning art has also a scientific side, musicians and artists are sometimes very intelligent and have seen the shortcomings of science and made an oeuvre out of inspiration and brains. Well, it is my commission to bring that to the order. The science of art is something every scientist is afraid of. But how it comes that on each university there is a history of art, a department of literature and musicology. There is not even a link between musicology and the science of music, because music reach much further and here science has to stop. 

    Yes Francis I used the word understanding because in my world it is entangled with experience; understanding plus experience is one. It is nearly a crime to put nature under the microscope without any feeling of the magic of life.

    I am not anti-science we need it much more than is given to us; communication between folk and science is quasi zero, the media doesn't give any information. 

    We see the causality in the entanglement because without causality the logic disappears. But by accepting the implicate order of Bohm which has a link to god, everyone can be satisfied.

  • Snigdhadev Das added an answer in Enzyme Induction:
    In the absence of glucose, what among lactose and arabinose, when both are present in the growth medium, is more likely to be utilized by E. coli?

    In the absence of glucose as the carbon source, lac operon ‘opens’ when lactose is the sole source of carbon and ara operon ‘opens’ when arabinose is the sole carbon source. Now, let us consider the situation when the medium contains both lactose and arabinose but no glucose. In this case which operon will be opened? Since the condition for activation of both of the operon is met, both operons should open. However, following the logic of enzyme induction, it is also plausible that the operons will open in a sequential manner. So, which operon will open and how is it determined?

    Snigdhadev Das · Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata

    Isn't the Aidelberg 2014 paper and McGinnis 1969 paper contradicting each other on this matter of lactose and arabinose utilization? While the Aidelberg paper states that lactose is preferred over L-arabinose, the McGinnis paper states that L-arabinose represses utilization of lactose.

  • Somnath Kumar asked a question in Calcium:
    How to determine the amount of calcium addition needed Oxide inclusion modificatio?

    How to determine the amount of calcium addition needed for liquid calcium aluminate? Is there any thumb rule for CaSi addition?

  • Josphat Phiri asked a question in Graphene Oxide:
    How can you measure the specific Surface area by BET of Graphene or graphene oxide sheets suspended in a liquid?

    I have graphene and graphene oxide sheets suspended in a liquid. I want to measure the specific surface surface area using the BET, can you please advice me how it can be done? I did AFM and it confirmed the single sheets where exfoliated.I would appreciate your input. Thanks

  • Achille Broggi asked a question in Neutrophil Activation:
    I want to perform some assay to activate neutrophils via Integrin stimulation but I can't find commercial poly-RGD anywhere. Is it sold as poly RGD?

    Does anyone who used poly RGD know where to find any? Should I ask Sigma or similar distributor to make a custom long polypeptide? Will coating the plate with RGD instead of poly RGD work in term of neutrophil Activation?