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  • Social Marketing and Environmental Awareness

    How could the impact of social marketing on consumer's environmental awareness be measured successfully? Are there any studies that quantify the level of consumers' environmental awareness as a result of social marketing actions?

    Bonnie Renee Aylor · Capella University

    Here's one item that should help: König, Martin. An Investigation on Contemporary Consumer Resistance : How Web 2.0 Makes Consumers Powerful. Hamburg, DEU: Diplomica Verlag, 2012. ProQuest ebrary. Web. 23 September 2014.

  • Beth Stronach asked a question in LacZ:
    Regulation of DD1 (dipt>lacZ, dros>GFP) reporter in Drosophila?

    After making a stock with DD1 and Yolk-G4 together, I found that dipt-lacZ was strongly activated in adult fatbody (female), under unchallenged conditions. Individual stocks were negative, only the combination was positive.  Any thoughts as to why?  

  • Noorminshah Iahad added an answer in Social Media:
    How has social media been incorporated in social studies teaching?

    I'm interested in identifying examples of the ways in which teachers are incorporating social media into social studies classes in secondary schools as well as the obstacles teacher might have encountered in their efforts to bring social media into the learning process.

    Noorminshah Iahad · Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

    Edmodo might be one of a social network platform that you can explore for social media usage in schools.

  • Is B3LYP TZVP level of theory ideal to optimize an organoselenium compound?

    Please suggest a reference.

    Cory Camasta · University of Missouri

    I think you could get away with using a double zeta basis. Some studies have actually shown cc-pVDZ to give results more consistent with empirical observations than any of the higher zeta sets. Triple zeta would be fine, though, to answer your question. If you are looking for a minimum (not a TS), you might try using MP2 instead of B3LYP.

  • Do you know any software to visualize distribution of every aminoacid in a protein 3d structure?

    Good morning, I have started to work with enzymes. For the one I am interested, I want to know the distribution of aminoacids in its terciary structure. Sequence is reported (Uniprot A.N.Q9WYE2) as well as its 3d structure. But do you know any software that allows me visualize, one at time, every aminoacid in its 3d structure, I mean first Tyr, then all Asp, and so on. I will appreciate your help.

  • How does HLA influence the response to hepatitis B vaccine among the different ethnic groups throughout the world?
    Failure of neonatal hepatitis B vaccination: the role of HBV-DNA levels in hepatitis B carrier mothers and HLA antigens in neonates.
    Gasim Ibrahim Gasim · Qassim College of Medicine

    Dear Gautam Ray , thank you for reply. However this raises another question about mapping this effect worldwide or in other words has this relation ever given any concern by reaserchers?

  • Theodore Kapellos added an answer in Immunology:
    Issues with phagocytosis assay
    I am having issues with a phagocytosis inhibition assay. I am using 0.5 micron FITC labeled beads and incubating them with macrophages for 8 hours, with a 30 minute pretreatment with either cytoclasin D or wortmannin before the addition of beads. I am then using flow cytometry to determine how many beads the cells have taken up. However, my problem is that I can not be sure that the beads are actually being taken up, as opposed to just sticking to the cell. How can I determine if they are being taken up, and how can I stop the beads from sticking to the outside of the macrophages?
    Theodore Kapellos · University of Oxford

    Hi all,

    I have a similar issue with Trypan Blue. Is the fluorochrome quenching permanent or does Trypan Blue need to be with the samples for Flow Cytometry? If it needs to remain with the samples during measurement, would a plate reader be a better alternative?

  • Sibel Seda Dazkir added an answer in Likert Scale:
    How best can you analyse likert scale data using SPSS

    Please help me with a step to step approach.

    Sibel Seda Dazkir · Georgia Southern University

    You can maybe use Wilcoxon test and Spearman correlation? 

    With a quick google search, you can find how to run the non-parametric test in spss.

  • Marc Tessera added an answer in Neurophysiology:
    What are the advantages and what are the problems of the hypothesis about “retinoid system”?
    Is the hypothesis about “retinoid system” (by Professor Arnold Trehub), as described in “Consciousness and Cognition” 16 (2007) 310–330 and in the other works of Professor Trehub, a plausible hypothesis? What are its advantages and what are its problems?

    Professor Trehub describes it in the following words:
    “Activation of the brainʼs putative retinoid system has been proposed as the
    neuronal substrate for our basic sense of being centered within a volumetric
    surround –- our minimal phenomenal consciousness (Trehub 2007). Here, the
    assumed properties of the self-locus within the retinoid model are shown to
    explain recent experimental findings relating to the out-of-body-experience. In
    addition, selective excursion of the heuristic self-locus is able to explain many
    important functions of consciousness, including the effective internal
    representation of a 3D space on the basis of 2D perspective depictions. Our
    sense of self-agency is shown to be a natural product of the role of the heuristic self-locus in the retinoid mechanism.” (Abstract, from: Where am I? Redux.)

    For the publications of Professor Trehub see:

    The question has been already discussed on the folowing thread:


    You ask me if 'moral laws' belong to the physical reality.

    My comments:

    1. I don't think that there exist moral "laws" but of course there are moral rules specific to a given human community;
    2. As human minds exist in the physical reality all human thoughts, beliefs, etc. emerging in human minds of course exist in the physical reality and thus also moral rules (why not?)
    3. However I don't believe in "moral laws" which would be inspired by a God.
  • Nuria Margall added an answer in Reference Genes:
    Can I use a reference gene from another species for Real Time PCR for detecting gene copy number?


    I want to know the copy number of gene that I recently cloned from woody species. For this I want to do real time PCR, but a problem is that there is no known reference gene (a known single copy gene) in my species. I was wondering if I can use a reference gene from other species.Thanks!

    Nuria Margall · Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau

    I am not sure if you can use a gene with only one copy cell such as the ß-globin gene or the  ß-actin gene in human cells.

  • Hayley Chan asked a question in Inhibitors:
    PKA inhibitor

    Is there any standard assay for testing whether a commercial PKA inhibitor works or not?

  • Khaled Farouk added an answer in Ethics:
    Is it ethical to get data from a growing child in Class II without treatment and use it for studies?

    I am doing reserch on functional treatment of class II .. my problem is that i don't have control group and i don't have retrospective data

    Khaled Farouk · Al-Azhar University

    The ethical problem is leaving child with class II without treatment taking in consideration that we are in the golden time for the treatment , i need to exclude the changes that occurs normally in growing class II child ( in the control group) from the changes of the functional treatment in the definite time ( 8 months )
    Also i have another ethical problem which is exposing the child to the unnecessary hazards of Xray

  • Leadership and Flow, Balancing Skills and Challenges, Trust and Teams, Transactional Analysis

    Evergreen problems of managing people in organizations

  • Mayte Mota Martinez added an answer in Extraction:
    Does anyone knows efficient extraction techniques for flavour extraction from fresh fruit?

    I have tried using few solvents.

    Mayte Mota Martinez · Technische Universiteit Eindhoven

    What about extraction with supercritical CO2? There is plenty of studies of extraction of different oils using these process.

  • M. Irfan Arshad asked a question in Research Papers:
    Is there research available on latest construction robotics and use of modern ICT technologies in automated construction?

    any new research, research paper pertaining to technologies used in automated building construction.

  • Chandrika Teli-kate added an answer in Surgery:
    Has anybody used sihler's technique to study intramuscular nerve patterns?
    I am planning to do a project based on it. Will it be really useful in clinical surgery?
    Chandrika Teli-kate · ESIC medical college ,Gulbarga ,Karnataka, INDIA


    Sihler's stain takes 3-4 months to get the final intramuscular distribution of nerve. Other factor which you should think is, what method to use to describe the topographic distribution of the nerve as it is a 3 D relationship with muscle which you want to study.Clinical usage will depend on which muscle- nerve you are studying. 

  • Eraldo Banovac added an answer in energy poverty:
    Does anyone know any research groups, institutions or scientists engaged in analyzing energy poverty problems?
    I am intrested in finding the influence of EU energy directives on deepening of the energy poverty situations in new members of EU.
    Eraldo Banovac · Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency

    It could be useful to consider the contents of the paper titled "Researching the Influence of Energy Consumption on Energy Poverty in Eastern and Adriatic Croatia", in which the research is focused on the energy consumption in households. Energy consumption in relation to energy poverty is researched in the paper, which is presented at the 3rd International Scientific Symposium 'Economy of Eastern Croatia – Vision and Growth' in 2014. Furthermore, the energy needs are presented and the energy costs in relation to the available household income are considered in the aforementioned paper. 

  • What if molar is mesial out? Is it called mesial offset or distal offset?
    I used to call a molar that is mesial out as mesial offset but in many manufacturer catalogs tubes to accomplish such movements are called distal offset tubes.
    Ali H Hassan · King Abdulaziz University

    The proper biomechanical term is the Mesiobuccal/Distopalatal rotation. Offset is used to describe the bend we do in the wire or bracket prescription but not to describe molar rotation. This is what I think

  • Saleh Yousefi added an answer in Digitization:
    Can anyone suggest a method to divide a fluvial river in separate sections?

    Actually im working on a Fluvial river morphometeric and morphological changes and relation of this change with marginal land use. I prepared river shape files by digitizing Arial photos in 50 years ago until know (5 periods). I should investigate 6 morphological indexes for any section of my case study and the critical area should be detected. The problem that confused me is, how should I divide my river to sections? I have two approaches. 1- dividing the river by separate meander. 2- dividing river by equal distance sections.

    I attached my study river for more information.


    Saleh Yousefi · Tarbiat Modares University

    Dear Aher

    Thank you so much for your email and useful suggested paper.


  • What will be the probable effect of water and sediment pollution on mangroves?

    Due to rapid pace of industrialization and urbanization, the estuarine water and sediment are getting polluted day by day. As a result, the pollutants are also getting accumulated into the tissues of mangroves. In this scenario, what will be the fate of mangroves in the future? Will they be able to withstand the adverse effect of pollution?

    Taratisio Ndwiga · Moi University

    Sediments have a great capacity to accumulate pollutants in aquatic systems, even when these compounds present low concentrations in the waters, and therefore are regarded as one of the most representative environmental indicators of contamination and can be used to map, trace and monitor anthropogenic sources of contamination and/or anomalies caused by geochemical natural processes. Many scientists have studied mercury contamination in surface sediments of sheltered environments, like estuaries, lagoons and bays. In their studies mercury contamination due to anthropogenic activities was observed. Two of these identified sources were: chloro-alkali factories, in which mercury cathodes were used for chlorine production and factories which processed imported ore containing traces of mercury.
    It is known that the concentration of a contaminant in sediment tends to increase when particle sizes decrease because of enlargement of the surface area per unit. Therefore, an estimation of contaminant immobilization requires information about the grain size distribution and relationship between particle size, mineralogical differences and concentration of the contaminant in the sediment. Normalization is a common approach to compensate for anomalous metal concentrations in sediments and soils caused by grain size and mineralogical differences. In aquatic ecosystems, inorganic mercury enters a complex cycle in which it can be methylated in water and/or in sediments producing methylmercury, the most toxic form of Hg. Methylmercury level in sediments is controlled by competing and simultaneous methylation and demethylation reactions.

  • Idris Hamid Bhat asked a question in Band Gap:
    What is the effect of temperature on direct and indirect band gaps?

    Direct band gaps usually decrease with the increase in the inter-atomic separation within the lattice. What is the behaviour of indirect band gaps at increased temperatures?

    Can anyone help me with explanation in this regard?

  • Haitao Wang added an answer in Waste Water:
    Is it possible to use polyacrylic acid nano CaCO3 nanocomposite for adsorption of dye?

    I have synthesized polyacrylic acid nano CaCO3 nanocomposite. searching for the applications of the same in waste water treatment, specially fo dye removal.

    Haitao Wang · University of Notre Dame

    possible, but you should pay attention to the pH, the lower pH of polyacrylic acid may cause the decomposition of CaCO3, but if you have enough CaCo3, only part of it will be decomposed, or you can adjust the pH to neutral, in this way, actually you are using polyacrylic acid salt.

  • What is the origin and how do we explain the growth of mathematical concepts?

    A.N. Whitehead contended that the science of pure mathematics is the most original creation of the human spirit (Science and the modern world. 1948).

    Number and Geometry appear to be earliest mathematical concepts (see the attached diagram, where N = number, G = geometry). The concept of number has had a huge influence in astronomy, commerce and religion as well as other disciplines.   Geometry has had an enormous influence on agriculture (layout of fields, design of buildings, land surveys, measure, metrics) and philosophy (view of space, dimensionality, permanence vs. impermanence of form, continuity, betweeness, boundedness). Such concepts gradually emerged from a number of cultures in the Middle East, Greece, and in Asia (especially, India and China).  In his history of geometrical methods, J.L. Coolidge, 1940, observed that many mathematicians believed that analytic geometry sprang from the head of Descartes as did Athene from that of Zeus (p. 5).   The attached chart showing the influence of number and geometry on other subjects is incomplete (e.g., physics, chemistry, genetics, engineering, architecture are missing from the chart).


    The concept of a curve has its origin in antiquity and continues to contribute to growth of mathematics.  The attached chart traces the history of the concept of a curve (from R.L. Wilder, AMS talk, 1953).   The story of curvature can be traced back written records in Greece (geometry, Archimedes and others) and in Persia (algebra—Al-Jabr—from treatise by Muhammed ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, 820 A.D., which originally meant restoration and completion).   See, e.g.:


     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_algebra and https://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra/introduction-to- algebra/overview_hist_alg/v/origins-of-algebra



    Geog Cantor is credited with introducing the continuous curve concept.  The attached chart is incomplete and needs many more notes to make it more representative of what has happened since the introduction of geometry and algebra more than 20 centuries ago.   See, e.g.:


    http://www3.villanova.edu/maple/misc/history_of_curvature/k.htm and



    Geng Ouyang · MinNan Normal University

    Dear jean claude,
    Thank you.
    1, some theories were improved or replaced because of the related paradoxes which have been produced by unscientific concepts and logics.
    2, the definition of “scientificity”; I really met following troubles: the “scientificity” of conception? the “scientificity” of number conception and number forms? The “scientificity” of treating theories and techniques of the number forms(such as limit theory)? The “scientificity” of Working train of thought? The “scientificity” of scientific theories?….My studies have proved that “culture” “knowledge” “science” are confused and mixed up in some areas.

    Best Regards

  • Do small enterprises innovate more than their larger counterparts?

    Earlier in the last century, an Austrian economist and political scientist Josef Schumpeter defined innovation as creating "new or improved" goods, services, procedures, methods, processes, business models or markets. Schumpeters conceptualisation was applicable to technology and to management. The range of innovative activities therefore run the gamut from small incremental continuous improvements in our businesses, up to major radical or disruptive innovations.  Schumpeter would tell us that by a process of "creative destruction", the old ways of doing things  (which he terms the incumbency) would give way to the more relevant and valuable technigues, methods, markets, products and services (which he terms the innovating business). Schumpeter in his early writings opined that small businesses were the crucible for innovation. He subsequently moved to adopt a big business position as he opined that small businesses were resource constrained and hence would not be able to innovate to the same extent as larger businesses. However, in his later years he returned to the SME as the main driver of innovation.

    Refer: Schumpeter J, 1934, "The Theory of Economic Development: An inquiry into profits, capital, credit, interest and the business cycle"

    Silburn Clarke · The University of the West Indies at Mona

    Appreciate the nuanced response Arkadiusz,

    I can appreciate that different societies would have inherited or organized their economic production systems differently and that these structures were in a constant ever-changing evolutionary dynamic.

    The impact of this perspective is measured by its immediate influence on policy modification

    Would love to get a copy of the research when the English version is produced


  • Frédéric Pons added an answer in Geoinformatics:
    How can I automatically define bankfull limits from high resolution LiDAR DEM?

    I'm looking for an approach to automatically define the bankfull limits of a river channel  having an High resolution DEM.

    I used the approach proposed by: Williams, Garnett P. "Bank‐full discharge of rivers." Water resources research 14.6 (1978): 1141-1154. as could be found in my paper but I'm looking for other approach coupling also other type of data or approach.


    Frédéric Pons · Cerema (Centre d'études et d'expertise sur les risques, l'environnement, la mobilité et l'aménagement)

    Thank you for this question

    For European flood directive, we developped in France semi-automatic 1D models for extreme event. For this type of event (more than 1000 year return period), the reach and the knowledge of limits between main channel and floodplain don't need to be very accurate. The tool developped is Cartino and available in French with theses links (http://wikhydro.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/index.php/CARTINO_PC, download http://www.cete-mediterranee.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/outils-pour-la-phase-cartographie-r55.html)

    Now, we are looking to work with frequent events before overtopping on dykes, levees or floodplain.

    The first tests are to launch a lot of calculation increasing the discharge to estimate some limits. The procedure can work but the return period is not the same in each rivers. So I try to do some tools near yours and combine geometric analyse with 1D hydraulic models (see pdf File).

    My main difficulties are on rivers with the main channel higher than the floodplain, mainly in mediterranean areas with a lot of morphology due to sedimentation and shape of cones.

    With yours information, I will try to intregrate your promising developments in addition to 1D hydraulic model.

    To compare my results with your developments , I try to download extension but I cannot find on qgis extension the tool described on this paper http://2014.ogrs-community.org/2014_papers/DeRosa_OGRS2014.pdf and I hope you can help me.

    Best regards

  • Amin Moodi added an answer in Data Fusion:
    What kind of sensors does Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) use for it' measurements?

    ACCs can work correctly and precise with measuring data and processing them, what kind of data and how does it get them, (with what kind of sensors), does it use data fusion methods, please link me to some sources to continue my research...

    Thank You


    Amin Moodi · Khorasan Institute of Higher Education

    thank you

    how does these sensors work,

    their efficacy and limits,

    what about sensor fusion???

  • How do I test whether slopes of these two lines are significantly different?

    Hi all, I came across with this problem: how to test whether slopes of these two lines are significantly different? A detailed explanation of scenario is attached. In my opinion,"to test the slopes" means to test the difference between 100 - (var1p / var1b)*100 and 100 - (var2p / var2b)*100 , which is how much variable decreased after treatment. Since var1b, var1p, var2b, var2p come from the same set of subjects, there is some correlation there. So how do I test the slopes? What is the distribution? 

    Thank you all for help!

    Xin Yang · University of Alabama

    Jochen, Thank you very much for advice. Let me explain a little more: 

    Then I am not clear about the variable "Day". Are these simply replicate measurements or do you expect (or do you want to find out if there is) a time-dependency?

    The response for variable1 is the how many minutes that subject spent on bed to get to sleep. So I think it is continuous variable. "DayX" means in day X , the measurement of minutes the subject need to get to sleep. They are the replicates, the difference is only the different days. 

    Are the subjects "after treatment" the same as in "before treatment"?


  • How to calculate the scan rate from XRD data?

    In XRD data, they mention STEPTIME as 19.200001 and STEPSIZE as 0.018827. From this data how can I calculate the scan rate? Please help me.

    Thank you

    Your's sincerely

    Syam Kandula

    F. Caballero-Briones · National Polytechnic Institute-CICATA Altamira

    Step time is in seconds/step, step size is in degree/step, range is in degree, (your 2 theta range) there you can calculate yous scan rate in degree/second

  • Bastian Grewe added an answer in Gene Regulation:
    Is a CMV promoter suitable for use in myeloid cells?
    I've heard that a CMV promoter is not usable in myeloid cells, because of methylation and subsequent silencing. However, I can't find some background on this.

    Can anybody tell me if it is ok to use a CMV promoter in a lentiviral vector for myeloid cells?