ResearchGate Q&A lets scientists and researchers exchange questions and answers relating to their research expertise, including areas such as techniques and methodologies.

Browse by research topic to find out what others in your field are discussing.

Browse Topics

  • Mohamed Amar Naqqiuddin added an answer in Cyanobacteria:
    Can anyone provide the technique of isolation and culture of Arthrospira platensis please?

    I need the technique of isolation and culture of Arthrospira platensis please?

    Mohamed Amar Naqqiuddin · Putra University, Malaysia

    as mentioned for culturing, standard medium you can use Zarrouk media, or you may try our modified Zarrouk media,  one without salinity effects or one treated with salinity. Both produced good results.

    there are other medias, BBM, Jordan media..try search for it.

  • Huma Chaudhry asked a question in Color:
    What is the state-of-the-art method for autdoor luminance correction?

    I have an image whose colors I want to analyse. However, since its an outdoor image, I need to correct the Luminance.

    What are some state-of-the-art methods for doing that?

  • Samuel Chuah added an answer in Reinforced Concrete:
    How do I enhance impermeability of oil palm fibres reinforced concrete?

    Except using polymer SBR and E poxy

    Samuel Chuah · Monash University (Australia)

    2 methods:

    1) Use a superplasticiser. Producing a fluid mix will help improve workability and densify the microstructure

    2) Supplementary cementitious materials like fly ash and silica fume can help as well because the promote the formation of hydration products

  • Rujun Chen added an answer in Applied Geophysics:
    How might I detect city road cavities using geophysical method?

    There are many caves in city's road in China. 277 cavities were found in Beijing from 2007-2009. 80% of caves happened at depth between 0 - 5m. 20% of caves happened at depth between 5 ~ 6 m.

    Many peoples are dead because of road cavity. This tragedy almost happen every day in China. If geophysical methods do good job, this will save a lot of people. 

    Rujun Chen · Central South University

     The near surface resistivity of damaging road may be 10 ~ 100 ohm*meter. Water content of the near surface may be high. A developing cavity may be filled by water or air. The depth of cavity range from 2~20 m according to historical data. Based on above condition and strong electromagnetic interference in city area, how to detect such cavity by geophysical methods? 

  • Sandra Garrido added an answer in Nonverbal Communication:
    Can anyone suggest a newer method to measure someone's ability to read nonverbal cues?

    I have used PONS (Rosenthal 1979) and Mind in Eyes (Baron-Cohen 2001), but these are fairly dated. Are there any new methods to assess someone's ability to read nonverbal cues, emotions, or affect?

    Sandra Garrido · University of Melbourne

    You might try the Penn Emotion Recognition Test: 2D facial emotional stimuli developed by Gur et. al. 2002 J NeuroSci Methods. 115: 137-143, and referenced in Kohler et. al. 2003 Am J Psych 160: 1768-1774. But probably based on similar principles to those you have already used.

  • Robert William Hoppe added an answer in DNA Binding:
    How can I know the binding ratio of specific drug with the DNA? what are the concentrations of each?

    I want to study the affect of the drugs that I synthesized on DNA. but I have problem with preparing the solutions required for interaction. Specially the drug concentration.

    Robert William Hoppe · University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee

    To test the binding stoichiometry of intermolecular interactions you want to use the Job Plot. To test the molecularity of the intermolecular interaction, use the Hill Plot.

  • Christa Van Staden asked a question in Innovation:
    What theories or models have you used to understand the adoption of new innovations - especially in educational settings?

    I would appreciate it if you do have some advice in this regard.

  • Ashutosh Kumar Upadhyay added an answer in Color:
    How to find the difference in RGB channels of an image?

    I've extracted an R G and B channels of the image.

    How to know how different are the R G B values? Like how much colors are different in an image?

    Ashutosh Kumar Upadhyay · Bhabha Atomic Research Centre

    One simple Idea may be - treat a RGB  value as a single number instead of three, and then count the occurrence of each number, now find out only those numbers which have count >0.  There may be better idea than this.

  • Taylor Stevens asked a question in DNA-Binding Proteins:
    I need to choose a DNA binding protein to use for blocking an interaction. Any suggestions?

    I am doing an experiment with a recombinant plasmid in CV-1 cells. I would like to engineer the response element of a small DNA binding protein into this plasmid in order to block an interaction I am investigating. Ideally this protein would have the following properties (in order of priority):

    -it won't recruit other proteins

    -it is already expressed in CV-1 cells

    -its small (<20 kDa)

    -it binds DNA as a monomer

    -its response element is <10 bp

    I can provide more details if needed. Any suggestions or references to relevant information would be greatly appreciated.

  • Mubashir Ahmed Malik added an answer in Student Development:
    How do you manage attendance of students?


    I would like to ask how do you provide attendance to your students. I mean what strategies you use in order to require students to attend classes. If I am not wrong, most of the students are generally not interested in attending classes due to many reasons (like most are just interested in getting grades, or they attend due to friends etc).

    In such cases, how do you make sure that students would attend classes regularly and take interest in classes, despite the fact that classes are interesting and engaging. Are there some "student variables" which are difficult to manage at all costs?

    Mubashir Ahmed Malik · Free Lance

    I manage attendance through surprise tests.

  • Samuel Chuah added an answer in Tracking:
    Can accidents be reduced by creating trains with low friction wheels and rails?

    That way, if the train starts moving while somebody is on one of the rails under it, the wheel that first touches them will push them along the rail instead of cutting them up. If in addition to that, the surface under the tracks is a low friction ultra smooth substance instead of Cement like it is for the ICE train in Germany, the person caught by the train wheel won't lose a lot of blood from being scraped by the ground under the tracks either, giving more time to notify the train company of the problem to stop the train.

    Samuel Chuah · Monash University (Australia)

    A few issues using low friction wheels:

    1) Its going to be really difficult to stop the train

    2) I think the person caught by the train wheel will die regardless of friction

    Recommendation: Use magnetic levitating trains

  • Marković G. Đoko asked a question in Didactics:
    What are, in your opinion, the guidelines for further development didactics, ie. which are the most important issues of modern didactics?

    Didactic has long been constructed as a separate field of study, and today is probably the most advanced pedagogical discipline. However, not only in my opinion, but in opinion of most famous educators in the field of teaching and didactics are expected in the present and near future many fundamental review. Compared to most other inherited or new components of school and many relations that exist within the school system, teaching is essentially little changed, although it is constantly upgraded, refined, modernized, etc.

  • Sandeep Karki added an answer in Bioprinting:
    What does one need to keep in mind while picking out the material for 3D bioprinting?

    Bio-printing as the latest innovation for fabricating the biological construct on a biocompatible scaffold using state-of-art printing technology for generating tissue of three-dimensional spatial arrangement. I would like to know, what sort of material could be employed for undertaking the 3D printing. To be precise, what attributes are needed to look out for in polymers so that it could cut out for the 3D printing technology??? Could I consider polymers like alginate, chitosan etc. derived from marine sources for 3D printing technology?

    Sandeep Karki · Chung-Ang University

    @ Eliad Cohen, Thank you very much for giving your insights. It was really the type of feedback that I was looking at. Your information was really beneficial for getting more ideas. 

  • Vladimir A. Kulchitsky added an answer in Sequoia:
    What is a trigger for opening a sequoia cone?

    Young sequoias are able to grow suc­cess­ful­ly only in mineral soils in full sun­light, free from com­pet­ing veg­e­ta­tion.

    Vladimir A. Kulchitsky · National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

    Thanks Jeffrey and Rainer, call it figuratively - the fire of life.

  • Shilpy Agrawal added an answer in Network Simulator NS-2:
    At which point should I add the codes of fuzzy concepts written in C++ in AODV protocol in NS-2 simulator?

    can any one clear my doubt that at which point we have to add the codes of fuzzy concepts written in C++ in AODV protocol in NS-2 simulator?

    Shilpy Agrawal · Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology

    Thanks Alfonso for your kind reply. I have simulated my work using fuzzy toolbox of MATLAB. Now i want same work to be verified by network simulator i.e. NS-2. Any suggestions u can give that how i can verify my results by NS-2? 

  • Ramya Chandrasekaran added an answer in Drug Delivery Systems:
    Is it possible to conjugate a peptide to gold nanoparticles synthesized by methanolic extract of plant tissue?

    I am working on developing the drug delivery system for which gold nanoparticles synthesized by using methanolic extract of plant tissue need to be conjugated with a synthetic peptide for targeted delivery. Is there any protocol available for the same?

    Ramya Chandrasekaran · Monash University (Australia)

    What is the functional group of your peptide? And what is on the surface of your gold? Usually gold NPs will be coated with surfactants like Citrate, CTAB etc when chemically synthesized. As you have used green chemistry, you need to find out what is surrounding the gold. 

  • D. Kalaivanan asked a question in Acids:
    Is it correct to determine potassium content from sap of the plant?

    Generally potassium in the plant will be determined after digestion with tri acid or di acid or single acid method. Based on the review of literature i came to know that the potassium content of the leaf can also be analysed by directly feeding the sap of the plant in flame photometer. Is it correct method to determine the K content of the plant by directly feeding the sap of the plant in flame photometer? if it is correct how much accuracy will be there and how it can be compared with other methods?

  • Vladimir A. Kulchitsky added an answer in Climate Change:
    Is it time we shift emphasis from technological solutions to climate change & focus on the 'Human Dimension'?

    Is it not obvious that nature can heal itself, if only left alone, and it is we humans who need regulation? Many natural parks managers do just that; seal off the area from human interference to let nature heal and recover. It is classified as 'Strict Nature Reserve"by IUCN. Complacency and inaction are not advocated here, as many have misunderstood, but the shifting of focus from technology to the human being. As technology is no match for human greed, isn't introspection & restraining ourselves more relevant than developing more technology, which caused the mess in the first place, by making it easy for a few to consume more? Since technology is only a short term quick fix which fails after a short time, isn't the real problem our addiction to material consumption & our lack of understanding about human nature? Isn't developing more technology sustaining the addiction instead of correcting it, leading to more complex problems later on, needing more complex technological quick fixes like higher drug dosages, more ground troops & equipment, (along with their debilitating side effects) in the future? Isn't this the vicious addiction circle we are trapped in? As researchers, do we merely buy more time with technology OR go to the very root of the problem, the human being?

    A lot of hue and cry is made about climate change and the environment in general. Public and private money is poured into research to study its effects on the environment, sustainability etc. Should we study nature or ourselves?

    " Our studies must begin with our selves and not with the heavens. "-Ouspensky

    Human activities have been found to have a direct correlation to climate change and its impact on the environment(I=P x A x T, the Ehrlich and Holdren equation), in spite of what some complacent sections say to protect their own self interests.

    We hardly know about Human nature. We can scarcely predict human behavior. We need to find out why we think like we do and why we do what we do and why, in spite of all knowledge and wisdom, consume more than what we need, in the form of addictions to consumption and imbalance not only ourselves but also the family, society and environment around us..
    Humanity is directly responsible for all the unnatural imbalances occurring on the planet. Yet we refuse to take responsibility and instead focus on climate change, or fool the public exchequer with a 'breakthrough in renewable energy just around the corner'. We scarcely know what drives human beings. If we had known, all the imbalances around us would have had solutions by now, given the amount of money plowed into finding such solutions. Are we blindly groping in the dark of climate change because we don't know the answers to our own nature?
    Is it not high time we focus on what makes us human, correct our consumptive behavior and leave nature to take care of climate change? Why focus effort on 'externals' when the problem is 'internal'- 'me'?
    Aren't we addicts denying our addiction and blaming everything else but ourselves?

    " We are what we Think.

    All that we are arises with our thoughts.

    With our thoughts, we make the world." - Buddha 

    IMHO, We don't need to save the World. It is enough if we save ourselves from ourselves. The need of the hour is not vain glorious interventions, but self-restraint and self-correction!

    The Mind is the Final frontier.

    Vladimir A. Kulchitsky · National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

    Dear all. Soon there will be a record of discussion. We pass the equator at 100 pages. So, discussion of interest to many...

  • Biswajit Satapathy added an answer in Feature Selection:
    Is it necessary to do feature selection before classification by SVM algorithm?

    e.g., 100 dimensional features, and 200 observations. Thanks

    Biswajit Satapathy · Ozonetel Systems Pvt. Ltd.

    Its not nessesory of feature selection. But it depends upon your problem.

    Importance points we should know before going for feature selection;

    1) It reduces computaion as well as time coplexity

    2) As SVM is good while discimination or separating the classes, hence feature selection may lead to a advantage to reduce the problem of ambiguty or mis-classification

    3) We should also see wheather we are lossing information, if we are doing feature selection. Sometimes what happens is used to extra manipulate the data by doing feture selection which leads to feature loss. In that case it will miss-lead the system.

  • Nikhil Maroli asked a question in Amino Acids:
    How to connect terminals of amino acids without breaking?

    I want to connect amino acids in cyclic form .when i connect last and first terminals it is breaking during energy minimization .so anyone knows is there any tools or software or how to do it manually -connecting first and last temini's ?

  • Christa Van Staden added an answer in Appropriate Technology:
    How do you feel about lecturers being allowed not to use technology effectively?

    Our students are inhabitants of the technology age, therefore I believe we have to use technology effectively to support teaching and learning. Personally I do not understand how a lecturer can be allowed to print an assignment to mark it using a red pen - if the students have submitted documents created in Word, Excell or Powerpoint. By using track-changes and comments, a track record can be created to support the students in revising their assignments. According to me, this is absolutely needed when we are assessing the chapters submitted by M and D students. I believe the use of technology should be integrated as an essential aspect of the assessment of the work of lecturers. Furthermore, I also believe that such lecturers would not be able to move into the e-learning industry. I would like to hear how you feel about such reluctance to update skills to improve practices.

    Christa Van Staden · University of South Africa

    Dear all, thank you for participating in this discussion. If I am telling you that I am attached to an open and distance e-learning institute, how would that influence your attitude towards my question? Printing out the work of masters and doctoral students to write comments in red pen (which research findings have shown have a positive emotional value attached to it) results in the following: 

    1. assignments have to be posted to students, rather than emailed in a jiffy, so that the student can start working on the revision of the chapter
    2. assignments can get lost - therefore the chapter needs to be photostatted before posting it to the student
    3. assignments can be delayed - due to the South African postal services that have striked for something like two months during 2014, resulting in major problems experienced at our institute due to assignments not received to be assessed, or not delivered to students on time

    The university have made a decision to become an open and distance e-learning institute - therefore, I believe, refusing to use technology to reduce time wasted, reduce costs of printing and photocopying and decrease time between assessment and delivery of the assignment/chapter actually undermines the new journey the university have embarked on to stay relevant in a rapidly changing 21st century.

    Any comments?

  • Ariane Caine asked a question in Cluster:
    How can I solve the following leach error?

    I have succesfully implemented the leach protocol; however, when i decided to run mannasim-rede-hierarquica.tcl the i got the following error.  Can anyone suggest how to solve it?
    num_nodes is set 14
    warning: Please use -channel as shown in tcl/ex/wireless-mitf.tcl

    (_o60 cmd line 1)
    invoked from within
    "_o60 cmd add-app _o80"
    invoked from within
    "catch "$self cmd $args" ret"
    invoked from within
    "if [catch "$self cmd $args" ret] {
    set cls [$self info class]
    global errorInfo
    set savedInfo $errorInfo
    error "error when calling class $cls: $args" $..."
    (procedure "_o60" line 2)
    (SplitObject unknown line 2)
    invoked from within
    "$node_($contador_nodos) add-app $app_($contador_nodos)"
    (procedure "create_cluster_head_node" line 23)
    invoked from within
    ("for" body line 2)
    invoked from within
    "for {set j 0} {$j < $val(n_cluster)} {incr j} {
    (file "mannasim-rede-hierarquica.tcl" line 354)

    Thank you

  • Chuanhua Yin asked a question in Normal Distribution:
    Should all data in different environments be transformed by same method or not?

    If I apply software GS+ to draw soil salinity distribution maps in different environments and analyze their semivariance, should all data in different environments be transformed by same method or not?Because some of data were not normally distributed, some other data normally distributed. Among those data that were not normally distributed, some of them were suitable to Log-transformed, some other suitable to a square root transformation or scale to 0-1 transformation. So what should I do? Using different data transformation method or uniform method? Thank you.

  • Baimba Brima Jimmy asked a question in Economic dispatch:
    Can someone help build a mathematical model for Genetic Algorithm of HYDRO-DIESEL COMBINED ECONOMIC DISPATCH POWER PLANT?.

    Can someone help build a mathematical model for Genetic Algorithm of HYDRO-DIESEL COMBINED ECONOMIC DISPATCH POWER PLANT?

  • Kunal . added an answer in Concrete Design:
    How do metals in cement or in admixtures affects the strength of concrete?

    what is the effect of heavy metals in cement or in materials (used for cement  or fine aggregate replacement) on the strength of mortar and concrete?

    Also if we add additional metals in concrete mix would it affect its strength?


    Kunal . · Thapar University

    Dear Nadia, would you please explain or provide some literature that how it increases the strength. As I have found some literature but no one discuss it. They just say it increased the strength. But, what is the reason & mechanism? I will be thankful to you if you could clear my query.


  • Willey John added an answer in Electrochemistry:
    How to detect the electrochemical surface area of a glassy carbon electrode?
    When I use a 5 mM ferricyanide solution containing 0.1 M KCl to detect the electrochemical surface area of a glassy carbon electrode, the result is different from the experiment conducted in 5 mM ferricyanide-ferrocyanide (equimolar) solution containing 0.1 M KCl. In the former solution the result is 0.066 cm2 and in the latter solution the result is 0.11cm2. The geometric surface area is 0.07 cm2. Randles-Sevcik equation is used to calculate. And the diffusion coefficient is 7.20 ×10-6cm2/s. Variation in peak current for reduction of ferricyanide is plotted against the square root of scan rate. Who can tell me the reasons?
    Willey John · Tokyo Institute of Technology

    Thanks for your kind answer.

  • Napoleon Ono Imaah asked a question in Built Environment:
    What are the brighter sides of darkness to humanity in the built environment?

    All effort is is put into pursuing darkness from lighting up the built environment . Does darkness have any benefits to humankind?

  • Amitava Acharyya added an answer in Yoga:
    How can yoga affect health? Can it deal with some diseases?

    I collect Data about yoga if some one has informations about it

    Amitava Acharyya · The Foundation for Research in Community Health (FRCH), Pune, India

    Yoga is defined as a practice consisting of three components: gentle stretching; exercises for breath control; and meditation as a mind-body intervention. The version used mainly in the West is hatha yoga, which consists of an integration of asana (postures), pranayama (breathing exercise), and meditation. Although yoga has its origins in Indian culture and religion, it can be practised secularly and continue today. It is science ,which connect the mental and physiological health.