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  • Vu-Anh-Quang Nguyen added an answer in Cognitive Radio:
    Is there any model for cognitive mobile wireless sensor network?

    Now, my work is to find  feasible solutions order to mitigate interference in smart factory deployed many mobile sensor device. In my thinking, I would like to adopt cognitive radio technique into Smart factory. That the reason why,  I wish getting some knowledge relating to the issue?

    Vu-Anh-Quang Nguyen

    I got it .Thank you Mehdi Amiri Nasab. Really appreciated for your advice.

  • Sourav Kanti Jana added an answer in Electrodeposition:
    Is it possible to electrodeposit a layer of carbon on a nonconductive polymer such as PP or PES to make it conductive?

    I want to make a support of PES on which another layer will deposit such as graphene, and I want to do this by electrodeposition. How should I use a system to obtain a porous conductive layer of C on PES?

    Sourav Kanti Jana

    Hi Seyede Farzane Besharat ,

         As per my knowledge, you can't do electrodeposition of your material directly on the non conducting substrate. Direct electrodeposition on non conductive substrate is impossible. 

  • David García de León added an answer in Functional Diversity:
    How do I perform different rarefaction analysis?

    For sequencing data, one can do rarefaction analysis. My question was about different kinds of this analysis.

    When doing a study that gives you nucleotide sequences of a certain functional gene, is it obvious to do this analysis on DNA level? Because what you are trying to figure out is what the minimum diversity in the sample is (based on for example Chao1) and how many additional sequences you still need to obtain the full diversity from the sample.

    When working with a functional gene, you use the protein sequence. Due to degeneration of the code, multiple DNA sequences can give the same protein sequence. When making an OTU table based on proteins, rarefaction analysis can also be done. My question is, is this meaningful? In my opinion, all you get to know is how many of the functional diversity has been sampled, but you will never know how many additional sequences you need from your sample to obtain all this functional diversity right?

    Thanks for the help!

    David García de León

     Yes, I think is meaningful. By rarefying you homogenize sampling effort.

  • José Gabriel Segarra-Moragues added an answer in Geneious:
    Which is better Genemapper or Geneious?

    I have used genemapper to analyze data from my previous lab work . I am having the option of using geneious for my recent SSR genotyping. Please which gives a better result. Should I stick to genemapper or should I switch to geneious? Thank you

    José Gabriel Segarra-Moragues

    Dear Suzzy:

    If I were you I would use Genemarker (from Softgenetics). To me the easiest sofware to use for microsatellite genotyping. It produces genotype tables, allele layouts for individual loci and samples, and the binning process is quite easy, fast and intuitive. Idefinitely  would not use Genemapper.

    Best regards

    José Gabriel

  • Alexander Jarasch added an answer in Protein-Protein Interaction:
    Does anyone have sample input file for finding interaction of protein-peptide in LIGPLOT?

    I m able to plot it but my peptide is getting segregated as shown in the file while when I was surfing through literature I have found people are able to plot intact peptide and getting interactions. So, may be there is some errors in my input file. IF any of you have idea about the input file or what is actual problem. Kindly let me know.


    Alexander Jarasch


    I used PDB entry "1iy8" which is an alcohol deyhodrogenase bound to its cofactor.

    In the crystal structure there are 8 copies in the assymetric unit. So I deleted 7 of them so that you can use it (see attached file).

    The cofactor will be your ligand then.

    Hope that works for you

  • Concepción Cabrillana added an answer in Linguistics:
    Can Greenberg's word order universals be applicable to all kinds of languages?

    In the world, there are roughly 7,000 languages belonging to a hundred different language families. The most popular theoretical assumptions regarding word order were developed by Greenberg in 1963. His word order universals have received great interest from linguists and grammarians alike, who have been trying to account for 'cross-language word order patterns'. My question is (Can we point out that all his word order universals are applicable to all languages in the world taking into consideration that Greenberg proposed his linguistic universal based primarily on a set of 30 languages?

    Concepción Cabrillana

    Not exactly for Classical Latin. See my co-authored chapter: Baños, J. M. & Cabrillana, C. (2009), “Orden de palabras”, in J. M. Baños (coord.), Sintaxis del latín clásico, Madrid, Liceus: 679-707. ISBN: 978-84-9822-844-1. 

  • Johannes Kiefer added an answer in Sauter Mean Diameter:
    How Sauter mean diameter of gasoline injectors are measured ?

    How Sauter mean diameter of gasoline injectors are measured ?

    Johannes Kiefer

    I assume you mean the Sauter mean diameter of the spray. a standard method is phase Doppler anemometry (PDA). Laser diffraction is another option. 

  • Ram Saran Chaurasiya asked a question in Hemagglutination:
    Increase in the absorbance of supernatant in spectrophotometric assay of hemagglutination activity of lectins ?

    i have used crude extracts of plant lectins in PBS buffer for the hemagglutination activity. i have observed an increase in absorbance of supernatant (after agglutination and centrifuge) compared to suparnatant of control (only RBC). what does it indicates ? 

  • Kunuthur Srinivasa Reddy added an answer in Biofertilizers:
    Are there any research paper about the effect of bio fertilizers application on bud success of fruit trees?

    are there any research paper about the effect of biofertilizers application on bud success of fruit trees?

    Kunuthur Srinivasa Reddy

    Dead right means absolutely right. Similarly dead stop signifies absolute stop without any deviation for whatever reason. I very much appreciate the question asked with a crystal clear open mind. Thank you Dr. Ali. 

    As for the issue of response to bio fertilizers, you may get reproducible results under controlled experimental conditions but not under field diverse situations where there are no precise controls. Performance of microbes is conditioned by several factors such as climate, soil moisture and temperature, content and quality of organic matter and the list goes on........So, do not link up microbe performance with 

  • Ruggero Golini added an answer in Regression:
    Can I use regression for the sample n=25?


    I am doing my research about the influence of managers on staff sustainable behaviours. I would like to correlated that when staff perceive the support from managers for sustainability they are likely to perform sustainable behaviours. My sample is now 25. Can I use regression with this size of sample. If not, is there any suggestion how can I achieve it?

    Thank you very much,


    * the sustainable behaviours is measures on the scale of very frequently,frequently, occasionally, rarely and never.

    And the perception on managers support is on strongly agree, agree....strongly disagree scale.

    Ruggero Golini

    Hello, I agree with the others as I also think you should increase your sample size. It also depends on how homogeneous is your sample (size and industry of companies, age of the managers, country where they operate), the more heterogeneous the more cases you need. However, there are several other limitations with your approach that are not going to be solved by getting more data, namely: lack of control variables and, as far as I understand, use of two single item measures on Likert-scale. It's going difficult to establish causality anyway... Given also the newness of the topic, you could consider performing some in-depth case studies.

  • Hans van Leunen added an answer in Physics:
    Is time quantized?
    Each time a new class of lasers was allowed to produce shorter light pulses, people were wondering whether a time quantization would be observed. The smallest possible quantization is Planck's time 10^-44 s. Some nuclear resonances have been reported having an energy width suggesting a Fourier transform limited duration of 10¨-26s.
    Hans van Leunen

    I think Eugene has a point. Physics has no explanation for the fact that it does not turn into complete dynamical chaos. Reality must contain mechanisms that ensure spatial and dynamic coherence. Hilbert spaces do not provide such mechanisms. They are no more and no less than structured storage media for dynamic geometrical data.

  • Magdalena Capo added an answer in Communication Skills:
    How can I assess the pre-verbal communication skills of students with complex communication needs?

    i am looking for evidenced based assessment material. 

    Magdalena Capo

    You can check

    1. PVCS (Pre-Verbal Communication Schedule) by Chris Kiernan and Barbara Reid, 1987. There is no much online. Aamir added the link that I also found, but I am sure you can get from your library.  If you can't find it, there is a book of the same authors and Juliet Goldbart (Foundations of Communication and Language. 1987) where you can find a sample of the PVCS sheet in the appendix).
    2. The Carolina Curriculum for Infants & Toddlers with Special Needs (CCITSN) (http://www.brookespublishing.com/resource-center/screening-and-assessment/the-carolina-curriculum/)
    3. Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (http://www.pearsonclinical.com/childhood/products/100000123/bayley-scales-of-infant-and-toddler-development-third-edition-bayley-iii.html)
    4. Pragmatics Profile of Early Communication skills (Dewart and Summers, 1989) but if you can't access to it because is out of print, I found this one from the same authors: http://complexneeds.org.uk/modules/Module-2.4-Assessment-monitoring-and-evaluation/All/downloads/m08p080c/the_pragmatics_profile.pdf

    Hope it helps!

    Good Luck with your research!

  • Kandarpa Kumar Sarma added an answer in Computer Aided Diagnosis:
    Can we perform a computer aided diagnosis of alzheimer without image dataset?

    Parameters based on which diagnosis can be done

    Kandarpa Kumar Sarma

    It can be done using DAN sequencing and identification of the protein combinations responsible for the disorder. 

  • Seunghye Park asked a question in Aequorin:
    How to measure cellular Ca2+ using aequorin expressing plants and luminometer?

    Dear researchers,

    I am trying to measure change of cellular Ca2+ in aequorin expressing Arabidopsis. The instrument I am using is NightShade (Berthold). I applied 2-10uM coelenterazin hcp to the samples and reconstituted overnight in the dark. First of all, when I measured luminescence, the signal was too weak even if I expose the sample for 30 seconds, and there was almost no difference between treatment and control samples. Even the luminescence does not increase when the reconstituted samples are discharged.

    Moreover, the plant samples emit light (or fluorescence) in the chamber for several minutes once they were exposed to light-even very dim light. So I have to leave the sample in the chamber for 5 minutes before start measuring. Therefore, it seems to be impossible to measure the dynamic change of Ca2+ concentration in the sample.

    I read and compared many references using the similar system, however, I could not find any critical problem in relation to the methods. If there is anyone who have the experience in this experiment, please leave a commnet.

    Thanks in advance,

    Best wishes,

    S. Park

  • Mohsen Shahabi asked a question in SPECT:
    How can i reconstruct a spect simulation output using STIR??

    Hi, everybody

    I simulated a SPECT imaging system using GATEv7.1 and want to reconstruct the output using iterative methods from STIRv3 package. I have the interfile output and saw the results in Imagej without problem, but i want to study the advanced reconstruction methods.

    any help is appreciated


  • Lukasz Derdowski asked a question in Behavioral Research:
    How do we identify a common method variance in behavioral research?

    Hi everyone,

    I've just read a brilliant paper by Podsakoff, et al., 2003 on common method biases and I was wondering if you have any further thoughts on this topic. I am particularly interested in identifying common method biases in organizational setting at the time of restructuring/merging of companies.

    Looking forward to hearing Your ideas! :-)

  • Abd El-monem Abd dEl-hamee Megahed added an answer in Multiobjective Optimization:
    Are there abjective functions with shared variables?

    If a firm has two objective functions.

     1) Minimize (K), where K = A + B, B = M/N

    2) Maximize (L), where L = P - zB

    Here in both objective functions there is a shared variable B, How to find the optimal solutions to these two optimization problems simultaneously?Any suggestions?

    Abd El-monem Abd dEl-hamee Megahed

    You can solve  this problem by methods for solving the multi-objective programming, such as waiting algorithm , epthlon- constraints ,... 

  • Franilyn Sendiong-Dacono added an answer in ASEAN:
    Who would gain the most (or lose the most) from the intra-ASEAN mobility of professionals brought about by ASEAN economic integration?

    Among the anticipated outcomes of ASEAN Integration is intra-regional mobility among professionals. ASEAN professionals may soon be able to practice anywhere within the region. What does the current discourse say on who would stand to gain or lose from this eventuality? We are not referring to countries or nationalities but to sectors or groups with specific descriptors or circumstances. What does the literature say?

    Franilyn Sendiong-Dacono

    A greater intra-regional mobility among professionals would be the most ideal gain that ASEAN Integration would bring in. It will not only strengthen institutional capacities and support ASEAN regions in developing efficient policy instruments for accreditation and licensing of professionals but will create an ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) emphasizing a single market and production base, a highly competitive economic position, equitable economic development and full integration into the global economy.

    It can even probably establish a single trading currency in the region and integrate the transitional economies that will not only bring gains to investors, private sectors, government institutions and to the general public consisting of top professionals, semi- to high-skilled and technical laborers. However, Melencio presented his “Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal”... few of the stumbling blocks to the integration are as follows:

    (a) investment capital- considering that majority of investment comes from the big trading players such as China, Japan EU and US but not among ASEAN countries;

    (b) technology – which will require massive investment by the developed capitalist economy to ASEAN; and

    (c) industrial complementation – which is something that has yet to be developed even among ASEAN countries ourselves. We cannot deny the fact that the ASEAN economies have been competing with each other.

    We can also pinpoint the labour concerns such as the increasing migration between ASEAN countries driven by demographic and wage disparities. Medium and low skilled workers more likely to migrate due to high demand of construction, agriculture and domestic workers. Women as a group and those employed in the agriculture industries, manufacturing and food processing sectors are vulnerable to ASEAN integration, as stated in the "ASEAN Community 2015". While the strengthening of the small & medium enterprises (SMEs) might be an alternative to the elite’s domination and monopoly of economic resources in the Philippines, they only account a small percentage compare to Singapore or other progressive countries. This translates into far fewer high-paying jobs on the local level for Filipino employees and exacerbates the huge income disparity across the country.

    Now my take with the question is that who is best prepared for the ASEAN Integration’s AEC? Not just to answer who will greatly benefit or be hardest hit once the agreement take place but have we really settled our differences and similarities as members of this ASEAN Economic Community? Should we take stock of our situation first before we enter into the competitive field of AEC?

    There are few concerns we have to address, we need to understand the challenges and opportunities of the AEC in terms of strengthening regional cooperation mechanisms, facilitating structural change and improving job quality, enhancing skills development, boosting productivity and wages, and managing labour migration. I believe it is our continuous challenge to solve our own problems first (unemployment, poverty, hunger & lack of education) and look at solutions available to us in order that we become a stronger economic force.


    + 2 more attachments

  • Geddada Mohan Narasimha Rao added an answer in Seaweed:
    Can anyone help me identify these seaweeds?

    Help me identify these seaweeds

    + 2 more attachments

    Geddada Mohan Narasimha Rao

    The top one may be  Grateloupia lithophila and middle one Gelidiopsis variabilis and last one Hypnea valentiae

  • Alan Short added an answer in PERMANOVA:
    Has anyone used F-value as a measure of effect size with PerMANOVA?

    I have unequal sample sizes for two treatment types over seven sample years.  I also have data for a few years of a reference site.  I have been using PC-ORD to run bootstrapped PerMANOVA tests for pairwise comparisons of treatment effect and year effect.

    I am using mean F-stat as a measure of effect size (signal to noise).  Has anyone used, or seen, F-value used in this manner?  I prefer PerMANOVA to MRPP, but don't feel the need to go outside of conventional analysis.



    Alan Short

    We did something similar in this paper, albeit less formally.

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: A long-term rangeland monitoring program needs to employ a field survey technique that is practicable, precise, powerful enough to distinguish change, not prone to worker bias, and able to distinguish real change from operator error arising from staff turnover. These criteria were used to evaluate a widely used grassland sampling technique in South Africa – the nearest-plant (with 200 points) method (NP) - against common alternatives, namely: NP excluding forbs (NP-nf), the Plant Number Scale (PNS: a cover-abundance method) and quadrat frequency (QF), using multivariate ordination and permutation tests. Four trained teams surveyed four grasslands using each method. PNS took more than twice as long as the other techniques, which were similarly rapid. Estimates of composition using NP methods were the most precise and PNS was least repeatable, with QF intermediate. Compositional differences between sites were most finely distinguished using NP-nf, followed by NP and QF. PNS was able to detect only marked differences and had the greatest potential for surveyor bias. The NP method, with or without including forbs, is therefore recommended for monitoring the species composition of mesic, dense grassland. Some suggestions for monitoring agencies on how best to use multivariate methods are presented.
      African Journal of Range and Forage Science 01/2016; 33(1). DOI:10.2989/10220119.2015.1088575
  • Olga Kukhar added an answer in Lymphoid Tissue:
    Does probiotic ingestion have an influence on neuronal signals?

    Probiotic microbes inhabit the gut mucosa where they communicate with the GALT (gut associated lymphoid tissue), pyre's patches and influence the secretion of cytokines by immune cells. Do the probiotic microorganisms have influence on neuronal signals in the gut?

    Olga Kukhar

    one link more(IBS) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25083059

  • Hans van Leunen added an answer in Quantum Mechanics:
    Within the framework of quantum mechanics, what accounts for the apparent irreversibility of time?

    Within the framework of quantum mechanics, what accounts for the apparent irreversibility of time?

    Hans van Leunen

    Many lattices exist that have nothing to do with logic systems. The orthomodular lattice (quantum logic) differs on essential points from the lattice of classical logic. I know the work of Piron, Jauch, Emch and Finkelstein and others about the relation between quantum logic and Hilbert spaces. I never found useful applications for their interpretation of the elements of the orthomodular lattice as logic propositions. In contrast the interpretation of these elements as construction elements makes sense. In that respect the quite recent article of John Baez is interesting. It gives an overview of recent developments.

    See: “Division algebras and quantum theory” by John Baez. http://arxiv.org/abs/1101.5690 and http://www.ams.org/journals/bull/1995-32-02/S0273-0979-1995-00593-8/  

  • Miland Joshi added an answer in Phenol:
    If the value of x in equation y= mx+c, comes negative, what does it signifies?

    The equation "y=mx+c" for a standard is y= 0.041x+0.141, R2 = 0.995, got by the linear regression equation. In this eq. when I put the value of Y" i.e. my sample OD at 10µl/ml, 0.039,  to find the value of X ( the amount of phenolic content at particular conc.) , the value comes with negative sign. So my question is what does negative sign signifies? is it correct to neglect the negative sign here and value can be treated as the amount of phenols at particular con.? or, is there any other way to calculate the values of phenols, flavonoids , & FRAP except regression equation?

    Here I am attaching a excel sheet of my data, Please check it and give solution to me.

    Please make this clear to me.


    Miland Joshi

    There are a number of problems here, not the least that you are trying to extrapolate beyond the range of the given values. Any such prediction should be treated with caution.

    Another problem I see is that the concentration figures look as if they should be the explanatory variable, and you shouldn't be trying to predict them from an OD measurement. Where did the pair (10, 0.039) come from -is this an additional suspect measurement? It seems inconsistent with the data on your spreadsheet. which has (10, 0.607).

    Are there scientific reasons to believe that OD should be proportional to the concentration? If so, the intercept can be constrained to be zero.  Otherwise (as Andrew said) you may need a quadratic term in your model. 

    My advice is to consult a statistician, and not try to solve the problem by posting questions on Researchgate. I've seen a number of people do this, and they would be better off talking to someone at their institution first, if that is possible.

  • Dang Vo added an answer in Flow Cytometry:
    What wrong with my flow cytometry results gating with CD11b and CD11c?


       I gating the cells with antibody CD11b ( PE/cy7) and CD11c (PE/Dazzle 594) in flow J, but the results is erratic. Attached please find the picture, someone can help me with it ?? Thanks!

    (I name the PE/Dazzle 594 as PE/Texas Red in Flow J)

    Dang Vo

    Hi Xin,

    I don't use Flow Jo but but I suppose you can change the scale of the axis. The dot-plot presented in logicale allows you to modify the range of the axis value, for example in your dot-plot the value of fluorescence range from 0 - 10^5, when set in "logicale" you can re-adjust the scale the see the values from below 0, for example 10^-1, this will allow you to see the cells that have low fluorescence stuck below your axis, therefore you can present all the cells within the plot area.

  • Robert Schleip added an answer in Sport Biomechanics:
    What is the best protocol for measuring muscle stiffness in physically active population and in athletes?

    In his paper Locatelli (1996) states that he used the stiffness test by Carmelo Bosco (1991). However there is no reference to Bosco's article in Locatelli's  article.

    Locatelli 1996, states that the protocol for measuring muscle stiffness consisted of 5 successive vertical jumps on the conductance mat, subjects were keeping their legs almost straight, bouncing on the balls of their feet and using their arms to help.


    Locatelli E. (1996). The importance of anaerobic glycolysis and stiffness in the sprints (60, 100 and 200 metres). New Studies in Athletics: 11:2-3; 121-125.

    Robert Schleip

    we used the www.myoton.com   Different than surface EMG of course.

  • Dr. Durga Madhab Mahapatra added an answer in Biofuels:
    Is anybody working on value addition of Protein by-products interested to collaborate in this Edited Book Chapter Invitation (Elsevier)?

    Dear Colleagues..

    I would like to invite you to contribute a book chapters

    1. Value addition of waste derived proteins to biofuels and biochemicals

    2. Rendering industry wastes- transformation to high value products 

    3. Application of waste-derived proteins in animal Feed Industry 

    In: Book entitled “Protein by-products: Transformation from environmental burden into value-added products” 1st edition By ELSEVIER publishers, Editor- GS Dhilon, PhD., P. Biol. (ASPB).

    => The preliminary acceptance is only upon submission of the draft abstract.

    => The book will be possibly published in second quarter of 2016.

    => There is no processing/publication fee

    => There are no page charges for black and white figures and illustrations submissions provided they are sent to Elsevier with the source files. Color illustrations are billed at the current rate.

    => An author guidelines will be sent to all authors after acceptance of the abstracts

    => In consideration of your contribution to this book, Elsevier will provide to all authors an electronic edition of the book, besides giving a 30% discount on all Elsevier Science books for life.

    Please text me within 2 weeks if you are interested.


    GS Dhillon, PhD., P.Biol (ASPB)

    Dr. Durga Madhab Mahapatra

    Dr. Dhillon,

                           I am interested to contribute a chapter on value added proteins from algae grown in domestic wastewater. This also deals with novel way of protein quantification through IR and its future prospects.

                          I have tried  contacting you but the mail has bounced back.

    Kindly suggest how to contact you.

    Dr. Durga

  • Seyed Hadi --- Khatami added an answer in Dissolved Oxygen:
    What is the reason for high concentration of dissolved oxygen in groundwater?

    I have measured DO concentration in field itself, got few samples with more than 15 mg/l. The samples were collected from both bore well and open well. I need to know what could be the reason.

    Seyed Hadi --- Khatami

    Dear Sangunathan Ulaganathan
    What was the temperature? I think surely the measuring is wrong. Maximum DO in near to zero in surface water could be about 14.4 mg/l, therefore the result is not logic

  • Wioleta Kucharska added an answer in Strategic Planning:
    What is the difference between a strategic plan and a strategy?

    There are many different approaches. Is a strategy part of a strategic plan or a strategic plan elaborates a strategy?

    Wioleta Kucharska

    Shortly: your strategy is: what  you want to achieve; strategic plan: how you want to do this.

  • Rahimi Ali added an answer in Children’s Literature:
    Does Mathematics learning Through Children’s literature enhance Math Achievement?

    math literature

    Rahimi Ali

    Hi Marie,

    here are relevant  publications :





  • Hamed Ben Dhia added an answer in Water Resources Management:
    How do I detect underground water location point and quantity availability for agriculture purpose ?

    The agriculture is the main cultivation of my village .The cost of the borewell is around 1 lakh rupess, and formers are getting loans for it.  It is very difficult to predict location of water available in the agriculture land; many times it leads to failure even after several attempts. Because of mansoon and borewell failure, formers having 10 acres of land working as a daily labour for 100 rs per day.  Many formers are migrating to towns, city for labour jobs and this is the worst condition for them. So kindly suggest me the feasible advance technique for the benefit of farmers..

    Hamed Ben Dhia

    I guess only the usual scientifc methods can help you establishing a sustainable way of a better knowledge of the local aquifer and its potential. You have to start with a systematic inventory of the the exsiting wells, their caracterisrics of depths, piezometric level, quality of water, potential of the withdraw. Along with geologic study of the local layers and their characteristics...then draw firts basic maps: depth of water, altitude of the watertable surface, direction of the moving waters...Prediction will depend mainly of the quatity and quality of the data base you have and also it always easier to corelate within sandy aquifers than for those made of limestone and fissurated layers...Geophysics, GIS, Isotopes...may help but with a good field study so to  calibrate and correctly  integrate the new aquired information.

    Good luck without dowsing