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- How to calculate cutoff value for plate ELISA?
The cutoff value for unknown serum samples in an ELISA plate will be determined by calculating the mean OD plus SD of negative control or by calculating the mean OD of true healthy individuals plus SD of negative control.Following
- Can Quantum 'Mechanical' Description of Physical Reality be considered Completed?
Simplicity is the key to the interpretation of physics. Nothing more simple in the analysis than supposing the existence of some parameter "hidden," invisible and not measurable which is an integral part of a pair of photons and that tells at the time of their creation: "you are oriented east" or "you are oriented to the west. "This analysis requires us to introduce "hidden variables", a process which in physics is debatable, but allows in a very elegant way to explain everything in realistic terms. The pair of photons has its own objective reality that can describe them completely. Part of this reality is unknowable but never mind, the problem is only human, nature is safe.
We have two options: 1) quantum mechanics is inherently probabilistic; 2) quantum mechanics is not inherently probabilistic, but deterministic. The first position is that of the so-called "Copenhagen interpretation", still very accredited by physicists, while the second was that of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) and of the "hidden variables". Subsequently, Bell showed that the hidden variables can not be there. John Bell in 1964 pointed the way for an experimental verification of the existence of hidden variables, but subsequent experiments, especially the French group of Alain Aspect, have shown the full validity of quantum mechanics.
Then, the second theoretical position is no longer sustainable. Instead it is if we consider the fact that the "ontological materiality" turns out to be greater than the "physical". There are no additional variables that may enter into the physic calculation, but there are physical materials that physics fails to consider which have an impact on theorizing. These factors determine the overall behavior of matter which, therefore, appears inherently probabilistic. It can be said that Einstein was right: the hidden variables exist, only that they lurk outside of physics, in ontology.
Many physicists (Einstein leading) have always refused that indetermination be an inherent feature of physical reality. Consequently, they preferred to assume that the description provided by quantum mechanics was simply incomplete. Their reasoning, in practice, consists in saying: even at the microscopic level physical reality continues to be deterministic, only that we can not know the exact values of the state variables and so we are forced to an indeterministic description. To explain this failure many proponents of determinism (starting from Einstein himself) introduced the so-called "hidden variables". At the microscopic level, there would be some factor that is not yet known which would prevent us from a deterministic description. The moment we knew, we could provide a description of these factors completely deterministic
For many years the debate between the advocates of the hidden variables and the promoters of intrinsic indeterminism remained on a purely metaphysical level. In 1964, however, the physicist J.S. Bell derived a famous inequality (Bell's theorem) that allowed to transfer experimentally what until then had been a metaphysical discussion. Such inequality, in practice, led us to expect different experimental results depending on whether had been true the hypothesis of hidden variables (at least limited to the so-called "local theories") or not.
Now, the Heisenberg principle would not only establish our inability to learn at the same time the values of the position and momentum of a particle. These values are established, before a measurement be made, they are absolutely and inherently indeterminate.
Einstein's objections to quantum mechanics made sense because he was perfectly aware that quantum mechanics is incompatible with determinism. However, his views obstinately deterministic and his attempts to defend them (hidden variables) have not stood the test of facts.
The microscopic reality is inherently indeterminate. However, what is surprising is that the macroscopic reality is instead largely deterministic. To explain this apparent contradiction is a fascinating challenge in theoretical physics. An interesting attempt at a solution appears that provided by three Italian physicists G. Ghirardi, A. Rimini and. T. Weber (in Physical Review D 34, 470, 1986).
So, in this context it became obvious that the description of the states of a physical system offered by quantum mechanics was incomplete and that such an incompleteness was responsible for the indeterministic character of the theory. In other words, it has been assumed that quantum mechanics is indeterministic only because our level of knowledge does not put us in a position to "see" some additional variable, able to "complete" the description of the physical system provided by quantum mechanics. According to this conjecture, if we were able to identify these new variables, currently "hidden", we would recuperate a level of description deeper than the quantum level and at that level determinism could be recovered. "
In fact, the enigma of the "hidden variables" was not solved by a logical-deductive approach, as Popper might have wished, or was it only partially.
As already said, “in 1964 the issue was a crucial turning point: J. Bell showed that for a large family of theories and hidden variables, the so-called local theories, it is impossible to reproduce with media operations on hidden variables all the predictions of quantum mechanics. "" the result of Bell had the great merit of showing on the experimental ground the theme of possible deterministic completions of quantum mechanics, and a great interest aroused for the realization of experiments sensitive to discrepancies between the predictions of quantum mechanics and that of the local theories of hidden variables . "(Enrico Beltrametti)
In 1981, Alain Aspect was able to realize the first of a series of experiments of high quality. In practice, the experiment showed that Einstein had been wrong in suggesting the idea of hidden variables.
As for Popper, we could say that he lost a game: the one with LQ,
Criticism of Popper was wrong from a logical point of view, but in many ways it had some basis. Popper did not want to admit a weakness of logic explicit in theory LQ. For Popper's logic was to remain an ‘a priori’ science, having as main feature the absolute independence from any content. Therefore, he refused to consider the possibility of choosing logics different from the logic, most suitable than this to the empirical character of particular situations.
Already in the Logic of Scientific Discovery, which was finished in 1934, then prior to the writing of Birkhoff and von Neumann, Popper anticipated: "... replacing the word" true with "the word" likely "and the word" false with "the word" unlikely ", nothing is gained.
However Popper earned another no less important point. The revolutionary discovery of Bell and Aspect was not from a pure inductivism, but from experiments carried out in the light of a theory already formulated ‘a priori’, then from a hypothesis to be subjected to strict scrutiny, identifying the elements and data that could refute it. At least on this ground, Popper took an important rematch.
At the time of the article in Einstein's death, the controversy was still strong and "philosophical" issues had a great weight, so much so that an American physicist was the victim of McCarthyism and lost his job for supporting a deterministic model with hidden variables. Today we tend to minimize the importance of our imperfect knowledge on the subject; theories are used as they are reaping the fruits without worrying about a coherent understanding of the underlying laws. Most physicists do not interpret more the principle of indeterminism in a metaphysical way. It is considered as a simple impossibility of knowing at the same time position and momentum of the particles in a system still felt completely deterministic. After all, beyond the supposed wave-particle duality, also in the macroscopic world there is a kind of uncertainty: for example, I can not measure my speed with accuracy higher than my reaction time to press the button on the timer.
Is your post a question, or a review of the history of the EPR problem? This history is known to everybody. It's difficult to search such a long text, for finding what you ask in fact.
Now, to quantum mechanics (QM): NO! It is not complete. It has problems with itself.
Going rigorously with the QM formalism, though considering the evolution of the wave-function according to different frames of coordinates in relative movement, we come to contradictions. We either come to conclusions incompatible with the expression of the wave-function (Hardy's paradox), or to the conclusion that there exists influence from future exerted on past measurements ("The free will theorem" of Conway and Kochen), or we need to admit the existence of preferred frames while the relativity says that there are no such frames.
Thus, even if we admit that the microscopic world is not deterministic, there are still problems. A famous champion in these issues is Prof. A. Suarez whose articles can be seen in arXiv:quant-ph. He devoted many years to analyze whether there can exist preferred frames, or alternatively, influence from future. His analysis was implemented in many experiments of Prof. N. Gisin. But, no preferred frames, neither influence from future, were detected.
Though, the last word wasn't said yet, since Gisin's experiments were based on quite restrictive theoretical assumptions.
Therefore, the QM cannot be complete given that it has such problems. But, the completion of QM doesn't seem to stand in adding hidden variables. QM works with complex amplitudes which interfere, not with positive probabilities. As to arguments against moving frames, e.g. "the Schrodinger eq. is non-relativistic", they don't avoid the problems, because we can write the wave-function in different frames, and all are valid.
I modestly invite you to read my last article "Contextual Experiments, Influence from Future, and the Wave-Function “Collapse” " available on the RG at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sofia_Wechsler .
Best wishes and regards, (and if my answer is not enough clear, please don't hesitate to ask me),
- Could you please suggest a suitable moderating variable(s)?
I selected this title "A Study on the Factors Effecting Employees Job satisfaction" for my PhD study.
The IVs of the title are the factors of job satisfaction which are: Work its self, pay, supervision, promotion opportunities, and co-workers. the DV of that title is Employees job satisfaction.
However, it is needed to add a moderating variable(s) in the titles but I could not find yet a suitable moderating variable in that relationship. therefore, could you please suggest a suitable moderating variable for this title?
In my opinion, you should look better at dynamic relationships (curvilinear) among your chosen variables. You should also include job performance in your research. Moderators are interesting to be studied under the linear relationship paradigm, they will explain the intervention effects but causality cannot be inferred, so instead of helping you, they might get you into more confuse results. Also literature in the field is very confusing.
Good luck with research,
- Does anyone have any research knowledge about the differentiation of students' self-efficacy?
Based on the findings of my validation study, I worded a so-called differentiation hypothesis, i.e. student teachers enter the program with a global, undifferentiated sense of teacher efficacy, having teacher experiences a further diffferentiation takes place to a more differentiated sense of teacher efficacy. Does anyone have any research knowledge about the differentiation of student teacher efficacy or about the differentiation of students' self-efficacy in general?
Answer to Nikolaos Pellas.
Thank you for sending me the titles of your articles regarding computer self-efficacy.Following
- How we can increase the hardness of hydroxyapatite?
How to increase the hardness of HApFollowing
- What is the difference between the terms 'a theory' and 'a theoretical framework' in research?
Sometimes, we used to say that "this research is based on this theory or theoretical framework". How can we differentiate these two from research point of view?
Only the word/concept theory should be used, since the adjectivization through theoretical in countless examples - theoretical framework, theoretical structures, theoretical system, etc. - eludes the substantive meaning of theory: a rational conceptualization of phenomenon either physical, biological, sociological or from any other scientific domain. The use of the adjective theoretical with words as framework, system, structures, networks and several others that we now find spreading throughout scientific literature assigns a contextual value to theory. However, theory is not a context but a conceptual text aiming to explain, understand and conceptualize objects, subjects, phenomena. I wonder if the abuse of these compound forms with theoretical plus something doesn't mean at the end a completely lack of theory and theorization in favour of description, composition and narrative.Following
- In municipal wastewater treatment, there is currently a clear delimitation between secondary and tertiary treatment?
What basic treatment operations can be considered in each one?
Traditionally, primary and secondary biologic treatment included normally separation of settable solids and reduction of suspended solids and organic load, measured through Biochemical Oxygen Demand, BOD (and Chemical Oxygen Demand, COD), and tertiary treatment included mainly removal of nutrients and sometimes filtration and disinfection. With the development of the treatment processes what are the current trends?
Subhash C. Kundu · 76.25 · 4.7 · Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology
We commend Mr. Subash C Kundu, with appreciation to give a vivid presentation of all processes.
To just mention the processes used in out natural remediation wwt plant .. we follow it in following steps..allowing a HRT- 8 to 10 days..
1. Pre- process,2, Primary 3. Secondary 4. Tertiary and finally 5. Finishing and polishing to get the best quality processed water..Following
- Can anyone identify this? Aborted foetus?
Apparently washed up on a beach in Iluka, NSW, Australia.
Hello Jann, I think people need more information on this tantalising find - like scale, measurements, texture of surface. Best wishes, JulianFollowing
- How might one formally define the Euclidean closure of a relation?
We have already had the reflexive closure (and the transitive closure, the symmetric closure, the reflexive and transitive closure, etc.) of a relation. But how to formally define the Euclidean closure of a relation?
See Jezek et al 's long study on relations.
How do you want to define it?Following
- Can someone point me to studies about the effects of biopics in audiences?
I was looking to see if any literature is available on the effects of biopics (biographical films) and their effects on audiences considering their literacy and educational backgrounds?Following
- The O.N.U. has no reason to exist if at this particular time, (a mass exodus from the South to the North of the world and dead), can not mobilize?
What is your opinion?Following
- Are there any published experimental methods to study the effect of different intercultural communication styles?
I am planning to conduct some experiments to study the effect of different types of conflict communication styles in an intercultural setting. I will have participants engage in a real or simulated dyad, in which the interaction partner uses different communication styles, to see the effect on the participant. Has something like this been done before?Following
- Grid size and sampling design in a spatial capture/recapture study?
I plan on using fecal samples to identify individuals within the study area. Within each grid cell I was planning on rather opportunistically hiking in good habitat, along animal paths, etc. As long as the effort is even across grid cells I am hoping that capture/recapture models will be effective? Concerning grid size, I know that probability of recapture is important, so is basing the cell size on the species' typical home range size appropriate? Thanks.Following
- What is the reason of testicular descending in scrotal species(such as cow...);on the other hand, testes in the abdominal testes is remind internal?
What is evolution phenomenones during life?
as you know, every species has a normal fertlization, then I think the types of evof testes position is not an evolution advantages but it might a physiological advantage. For example the roosbut ters have not spermaticcord (to regulate of testes temperatue) but their feature is that they have spermatogenesis in their bodies temperatueFollowing
- This plant is Nopalea dejecta but i am confuse not clear found in india so please help conformation and provide the litareture ?
This plant is Nopalea dejecta but i am confuse not clear found in india so please help conformation and provide the litareture?Following
- [Global Warming] Mitigation and Adaptation: which is more important ?
Most climate issues' stakeholders do not deny that, we need to develop a "integrated series" of mixed policy, both to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (mitigation strategy), but also to deal with the consequences of global warming (adaptation strategy). The biggest divide is over which strategy should be paid more attention to.
My dear peers, what do you think about it ? Any contribution is greatly appreciated.Following
- How can I generate samples efficiently from probability boxes?
I search solution of the following problem. I have a probability box as initial data and I need to generate samples from it: no exact distribution is given; all that is known is imprecise probabilities - we have only the domain (probability box) for cumulative distribution function (cdf) F(x), the domain that gives us ranges of possible values of function F for all possible arguments x. (For references on probability boxes, see, for example, publications list on https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Probability_box). The research is published how to handle with probability boxes, but I don't know publications how to efficiently generate samples from such boxes.
Are there any ideas or publications how to do this efficiently in computational sense? I suppose that all possible distributions from probability box are equally possible (fiducial distribution of possible cfds is uniform in Fisher's sense).
thank you very much for your reasonable comments and listed papers.
I think that Zhang's papers are what I need.
My problem to be studied is similar to risk assessment: I need to estimate if uncertainty propagation tool for metrological software is reliable or not. The traditional approach is to use Monte-Carlo technique to model initial data uncertainty, propagate samples through data processing program and estimate uncertainty characteristics for final results of computations. All uncertainties are traditionally supposed to be uniformly or normally distributed (such assumptions are often placed in guides and recommendations) inside known bounds. This is not acceptable, I think. That's why I want to apply probability boxes as uncertainty models to validate tested software.
I have asked for methods to sample real-valued quantities from p-boxes, not intervals (as it is proposed in Zhang's papers), because the software to be validated cannot process intervals, only real numbers as initial data and bounds on its uncertainty absolute values (maybe separately for systematic component of uncertainty and for its random component).
I think, the better formulation of my question may be the following one: how to propagate efficiently p-box through the data processing software (that has been already compiled) if it can deal with only real numbers. It seems to me, that two-step Monte-Carlo simulations can be applied: firstly, interval Monte-Carlo technique can be used (from Zhang's papers) and after that traditional Monte-Carlo approach can be used to propagate each sampled interval. The only thing is how to organize this scheme efficiently.
With best regards, Konstantin.Following
- Is there a software that can help predict mutations in a protein?
There are various viruses. Most of them undergo mutations and so resistance develops. Is there a way to predict these mutations and reduce them. Also is there a software which can predict mutations in receptor or enzymtic proteinsFollowing
- Is 'information' definable as a scientifically valid and unified term?
In our Age of Information the physical Theory of Information by SHANNON is to narrow - he excluded "psychological considerations". But today the importance of this term is too great - we need a unified definition for a l l sciences !
My results see at http://www.plbg.at, but they are only my ideas. They try to find a valid and acceptable abstraction over all sciences.
– it seems that you read the SS posts here not attentively enough. Though I have glanced through the thread and see that practically all SS posts here are downvoted; when the posts don’t contain some content that can be downvated by some real reasons. It seems that for people, who attend the thread, some downvoter by some reson placed signs that these posts can be read not attentively. Though that isn’t an unoque case in the RG.
But for you I pointed, besides the posts, the links, where the “The Information as Absolute” conception is presented more in detail. Did you read the links?
“...Any [human] is nothing else than an informational system/structure...”. in the post in question means nothing more, then a human consciousness is – as everything other in our Universe and outside – some informational structure. Just because of that all/ everything is/are some informational patterns that in depth are based on the same [informational] Logos rules/possibilities, the consciousness is capable adequately understand – what happens in the external world.
So – don’t worry, here is no any “desperate position”, that is only rigorously proven fact…
- Can anyone help with grammaticality judgments in English?
This is for native speakers of English. How do you find the following sentences? Are they grammatical? Please provide me with the meaning if possible. (Please note the indexation between the pronouns and the nouns.) Thanks in advance!
(1) a. This is the type of story about Obama_i that people who hear think he_i will be angry about.
(1) b. This is the type of story about Obama_i that people who tell him_i to ignore end up talking about.
(2) a. Which picture of John_i did he_i like and Mary dislike?
(2) b. Which picture of John_i did Mary like and he_i dislike? (Citko 2005)
(3) a. Criticize himself, John will but Mary won’t.
(3) b. Criticize himself, Mary will but John won’t.
(4) a. It is only himself_i that [John_i has to blame and Mary will gloat over].
(4) b. It is only himself_i that [Mary has to blame and John_i will gloat over].
(5) a. It is only himself_i that people who know think John_i should blame.
(5) b. It is only themselves_i that people_i who blame will realize John has conned.
(6) a. She is the kind of mother_i that teachers who have to send her_i child home to always end up despising.
(6) b. She is the kind of mother_i that teachers who meet have no problem sending her_i child home to.
(7) a. Which picture of himself_i does John_i like and Mary dislike?
(7) b. Which picture of himself_i did Mary paint and John _i sell?
(8) a. How many portraits of herself_i did the woman_i who commissioned end up asking that artist to take back?
(8) b. How many portraits of himself_i did the woman_i who commissioned end up asking that artist to take back?
(9) a. Over himself, John pulled a blanket and Mary threw a rug.
(9) b. Over himself, Mary pulled a blanket and John threw a rug.
(10) a. Which picture of John_j did he_j like and Mary dislike?
(10) b. Which picture of John_j did Mary like and he_j dislike?
(11) a. This is the type of story about Obama_i that people who hear think he_i will be angry about.
(11) b. This is the type of story about Obama_i that people who tell him_i to ignore always end up talking about.
Hello Marion and Adrian,
Interesting conversation. I need to say that the purpose of my study is to learn more about linguistic competence, particularly syntactic competence. I work in the framework of Generative Syntax. We syntacticians have theories about languages and we believe that there are linguistic universals shared by all natural languages. When I construct these examples, I have a theory in mind about how syntax works in the brain and about what syntactic universals about these constructions are. The best way to test these theories is to ask for native speakers' judgments. An unacceptable sentence indicates something about the Language Faculty (LF) as much as an acceptable sentence does.
There are two schools of thoughts: prescriptivism and descriptivism. The former describes language as it should be and puts rules on what is linguistically acceptable and what is not. The latter just describes the language the way it is used by native speakers without imposing rules of appropriateness. In my study, I follow the latter because in my opinion it is the best way to understand the language faculty shared by all people.
- What does a replicon assay mean?
what does a replicon assay mean?Following
- How is it possible to implant panic in a serious game?
We are designing a serious fire game with 22 participants. I was wondering how it is possible to implant panic in this scenario? Are there any studies done on this topic that you may know?
- Is there Twinspan analysis in R?
Is there Twinspan (two way indicator species analysis) in R? I found cluster::diana
DIvisive ANAlysis Clustering in R, a divisive hierarchical clustering method. Is it the same - under special conditions - as Twinspan?
Hi, but as I understand, CAP (Community Analysis Package version 5.0, http://www.pisces-conservation.com/index.html?softcap.html$softwaremenu.html) is software package, not R library. Or is this CAP available also as an R packages?
There are several standalone software programs running Twinspan - e.g. WinTWINS, JUICE, CAP, PC-ORD, but as I know, it's not available in R. I tried to port it into R (see package twinspanR, https://davidzeleny.wordpress.com/2015/05/10/twinspan-in-r/), but it's just beta version of R package, and works only under Windows. As far as I know, there is no other implementation of TWINSPAN in R so far - but I will be happy to know if I am wrong...
- What are the analytical methods for determining unknown trace impurities in organic solvent?
If i wanted to quantitatively determine all impurities in an organic solvent, what current effective methods and protocols I can use?.
More specifically for a p-xylene stock.
I am expecting trace sulfur compounds (<0.003% on label) water, and p-xylene oxidation derivatives.
1. You want to determine "all impurities" - it is impossible. First of all you must set "detection limits" according to your problem.
2. Soft physical method to remove max of the main component.
3. Chromatography + MS ( Marion G Ceruti) but you need "global values" (e.g., total sulfur); there are a lot of standard methods for determining these parameters in each branch of human activities (food, medicine,...).
Gegards, Joseph DubrovkinFollowing
- What techniques do European companies use to take lipids apart?
How are the lipids separated from fat? How do the techniques differ from North American techniques? Specifically, taking apart animal fat and isolating compounds from it, and what costs are associated with it? Any information or any advice on where I can find this information would be extremely helpful!
The phenol-chloroform extraction procedure followed by drying under nitrogen/water bath yields pure lipidFollowing
- Can anyone recommend papers or books on the NonLinearities in Resistive String DAC's arising due to gradient mismatches, resistor mismatches?
Gradient related Mismatches, Resistor & Capacitor Mismatches resulting in Non Linearities in Resistive String DAC's to do an Efficient Layout for an 8bit multi level String RDAC segmented into 3(MSB) + 5(LSB) with reference voltages of Vref(MSB)=0.75V, Vref(LSB)= 100mV.
Thank You Sir but I would be more thankful to someone if any more IEEE or other papers or Books relevant to the topic are posted.Following
- How to gather orthologs FASTA sequences from Ensembl including their GeneIDs and gene names?
I need to do a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Ciona intestinalis gene CNKSR1/2/3, for which I need orthologs and paralogs. The bulk of my data I aim to collect from the 78 orthologs listed on Ensembl's profile of the gene. When I export these peptide sequences in FASTA, only the accessions are included in the sequence headers.
Is there a way to export the amino acid FASTA sequences of these orthologs in bulk to include GeneIDs and/or Gene names in their headers? Would save a lot of time and effort.
Thanks guys, OrthoDB is very handy
I have a quick follow up questions if that's okay;
Many of the orthologs listed are uncharacterised proteins, should these be included in the analysis?Following
- Where can I find a standard fingerprint database?
hello every one, as i have started my research on bio-metrics, and i am focusing on fingerprints, i need standard database for my experiments. i need the FVC 2000 or 2002 or 2004 entire database. IF any one has it please do share it.
try contact with
Sebastião José Dias Sobrinho (Coronel Dias)
fones: 55 31.9107.3143 (TIM)
- How to calculate the Hyperfine splitting and quadrupole splitting from Mossbauer spectroscopy?
I have room temperature Mossbauer spectroscopy of ferrite sample with zero applied magnetic field. How to find out the hyperfine and quadrupole splitting from this data?Following