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  • Alain Manuel Chaple Gil added an answer in Plagiarism:
    What should the minimum similarity index be, for a review paper?

    The itenticate report sent by springer showed 30 percent similarity index does that comes under plagiarism? How can I minimise such errors?

    Alain Manuel Chaple Gil · Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana

    I think that you have to try to express the idea of other authors but giving your way to write the science, in my humble experience. Regards.

  • Olivia Ho added an answer in Acacia:
    What's this sticking around the Coacervates?!

    Using 2% w/v Gelatin A and Gum acacia, 0.5gm crystalline drug and 1ml 10% tween 80.h20

    So I adjust to ph to 3.8 and subjecting it to ice bath to reduce the temperature to 15C.

    Repeat experiment twice:

    I check the coacervate under microscope and

    1) Replicate 1: I see spicky-like stuff sticking around it, and some floating around the solution.
    2) Replicate 2: No spicky-like stuff. Surrounding clear

    I am guessing spicky-like stuff= probably gelatin+arabic. But why is it appearing so?

    Is it because its been cool down too fast, as compare to replicate 2?

    Olivia Ho · Monash University (Malaysia)

    I use 0.5N and 0.1N HCl..
    Is definitely not my crystalline drug, as I repeated the same procedure with canola oil (instead of crystalline drug) and the same thing happens after 15C.

  • Wiwat Wanicharpichat added an answer in Matrix:
    What is the effect of reordering of vertices of a graph by some permutation on Laplacian matrix?

    i.e if we apply a permutation π ∈ Sn to the ordering {v1,v2,...,vn}, how the laplacian matrix will change.

    Wiwat Wanicharpichat · Naresuan University

    Indeed, graphs G1 and G2 are isomorphic if and only if there exists a permutation matrix P such that L(G1) = PTL(G2)P.

  • Holger Fey added an answer in Endothelial Growth Factors:
    Can anyone suggest how to obtain VEGF Vascular endothelial growth factor for experimental studies?

    planing to initiate study with growth factors. can anyone please guide me how to obtain VEGF for experimental studies

    Holger Fey · University of Illinois at Chicago

    Megha really already gave you the answer. I'm just adding a link to the 1435 products that http://www.biocompare.com/ will find for you when you search for VEGF.

  • Tatfeng Mirabeau added an answer in Antimalarial:
    Is anybody presently working on resistance markers to antimalarials in Plasmodium?

    I am presently undertaking a study on markers of resistance to antimalarials in my locality. I want to exchange some ideas with any researcher who is presently doing or has done work on this. Thanks

    Tatfeng Mirabeau · Niger Delta University

     Hi Johari, can you please correct your email address? I am unable to send a mail to you.


  • Raul Sena Ferreira added an answer in Computational Criminology:
    Where can i find a database about missing person?

    i found some applications and some articles about it, but i haven't found any downloadable version nor API.
    Has USA or any country, a database available with this information?
    Kind Regards

    Raul Sena Ferreira · Federal University of Rio de Janeiro

    Thx for the answer Serena :)

  • Anjali Nilkanthaapa Shete added an answer in Blood Glucose:
    Can the salivary glucose levels be replacement for blood glucose level for monitoring the Diabetes?

    The blood glucose levels we always do for the Diabetes. But can we use commonly the salivary glucose levels instead.

    Anjali Nilkanthaapa Shete · Government medical college (GMC) and Hospital (GMCH)

    Thank you all for giving the information. I am planning to do on saliva for a large sample data and was worried about the technical issues.

  • Stephen Crothers added an answer in General Relativity:
    How is the gravitational potential replaced by the metric tensor in general relativity?

     How could i calculate potential difference between : infinity to a point A , (general relativity formulation). Please explain how to calculate in simple terms...

    Stephen Crothers · Alpha Institute of Advanced Study

    Luiz Botelho,

    No Luiz, it is not I who is ridiculous; you are. Give us all your proof that 'infinity' is a real number. We await your miracle with bated breath.

    Let's recall what Professor Schmidt (Nobel Laureate for physics) claimed on Australian national television, for all to see. Take the infinite sequence 0,1,2,3,4, ... Now multiply each term by 2 to get the infinite sequence 0,2,4,6,8, ... According to Schmidt  the infinite sequence 0,2,4,6,8, ... has multiplied infinity by 2 and so, like his phantasmagorical expanding infinite Big Bang universe, infinity has got bigger. No, that's utter hogwash. Schmidt doesn't know what he is talking about.

    Big Bang creationism with its expanding universe and black hole is not science, because creationism is mysticism, not science. According to the Big Bang cosmologists, the Universe created itself out of nothing. This is the purest form of creationism - the creator created itself! Cosmologists ridicule all other creationisms. They claim that their creation myth is the one and only true creation myth, all others are false prophets!

  • Chenjin lu asked a question in C:
    Solve second order nonlinear diff equations?

    I am working on some model analysis, getting two diff equations and after I convert them into matrix form, I have equations looks like


    where C is a constant and Both [A] and [B] are found out from two diff equations and boundary conditions.

    Now my question is how am I able to find the value of [X], I am thinking using fixed point method, but this is in matrix form, could any one give me any clue or hint?

  • Badrul Haidar added an answer in 5' RACE:
    How effective is clone tech universal genome walker for getting unknown flanking sequence?

    I am trying to get  5'end sequence  of a gene from Jute species ...I tried inverse pcr, 5'RACE , site extension pcr for it . Now I come to hear about this clonetech genome walker..can anyone tell me how effective it is to get the 5' flanking region?

    Badrul Haidar · South Asian University

    Thank you Niklas Schandry...

  • Lindsay Marshall added an answer in Zoology:
    I am analysing the physics behind necking in giraffe and need to access giraffe fighting videos. Do you have access to any material we can analyse?

    If you have access to any films please let me know. Background research on this topic can be seen in Simmons and Scheepers 1996 Am Nat 148:771-

    Lindsay Marshall · Stick Figure Fish Illustration

    Hi Syed, 

    That is very interesting to know! I am a shark biologist and don't know anything about giraffes. It looked pretty aggressive to us, but they do walk off together afterward.

  • Goodwin G. Jinesh added an answer in Agilent:
    Any advice for Site directed mutagenesis problem?

    I am generating a deletion in my target gene of 10 aa. I am using the site-directed mutagenesis approach. I have designed my primers according with the manual of 'quikchange site-directed mutagenesis kit' from Agilent Technologies. However, instead of using Pfu turbo DNA polymerase, I am using KOD high fidelity enzyme. The problem is that I do not get transformed colonies

    I have 5 different set of primers: 

    set I: Tm of both primers is 77.9C/ length both primers 48

    set II: Tm of both primers is 78.7C/ length both primers 45

    set III: Tm of both primers is 74.6C/ length both primers 49

    set IV: Tm of both primers is 71.0C/ length both primers 50

    set V: Tm of both primers is 80.2C/ length both primers 46

    To synthesize my mutant strand I used this reaction parameters:

    50ng of DNA template

    125ng of primers

    0.2mM dNTPs

    2.5mM MgCl2

    1U of KOD polymerase.

    and this is the cycle that I used:

    step 1:95C 30 sec

    step 2:95C 30sec

    step 3: 55C 1min (Also I increased this temperature to 68C and obtained no colonies)

    step 4: 72C 4min

    go to step 2 (x18 times)

    My construct's length is about 6.7 Kbp.

    After mutant strand synthesis I treated with 10U of DpnI (NEB), incubated for 1 hour at 37C. 

    For transformation I used DH5a competent cells (heat shock transformation) and recovery time 1 hour at 37C in LB liquid without selection.

    I was wondering if I can receive any feedback or suggestions. I struggling with this issue and i would like to obtain this mutants as soon as possible.

    I will really appreciate your help. 

    Goodwin G. Jinesh · University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

    I had done transformation with  NZY+ broth  and ordinary LB broth.  NZY+ broth is better. Also you might get few colonies but positive. Like Tom suggested KOD could be a limitation.

  • Lall B. Ramrattan added an answer in Economic Theory:
    Is the term 'economic adaptation' a valid one? What, then, are its components?

    Survival spirit is an instinct. It is neither material nor spiritual. It is natural. Then, what about economic adaptation such as taught by economic theories and learnt in particular material environments!

    Lall B. Ramrattan · University of California, Berkeley

    Dear Mohammad,

    I found this quote from F. Hayek's book, "The Fatal Conceit:"

    "...all evolution, cultural as well as biological,..is a process of continuous adaptation to unforeseeable events, to contingent circumstances which could not have been forecast. This is another reason why evolutionary theory can never put us in the position of rationally predicting and controlling future evolution. All it can do is to show how complex structures carry within themselves a means of correction that leads to further evolutionary developments which are, however, in accordance with their very nature, themselves unavoidably unpredictable."

  • Irena White added an answer in Higher Education Teaching:
    How can the dynamic complexities of the integration of e-learning innovations in higher education teaching practice be demonstrated and explained?

    I am interested in the processes of diffusion and sustainability of innovations and finding the connections between actions that enable and inhibit further adoption beyond the first wave of early adopters of proven elearning innovations in universities?

    Irena White · Flinders University

     Hi Didy - thanks for a great resource. The fishbone diagram of barriers to adoption will be very useful.

  • Bui Tuan Khai asked a question in Reading:
    Cannot execute software in direct log in, but no problem when execute via ssh command?

    Dear all,

    I wrote a C++ software, which is a data readout from a hardware modules to PC via Gigabit Ethernet.

    I have a problem with executing software when direct log in to Linux computer. This is the case:

    - When I log in the computer from another one via the ssh command, I can execute my software successfully: the PC can access to the module and read out data.

    - When I log in the computer directly, I cannot execute my software successfully: PC can access to the module but usually cannot read data out (just a few times, it can read data out).

    This is a strange behavior to me! I discussed with my lab mates, they just have problems if they login with ssh but everything is normal when direct login.

    Of course, I want my software can be executed when directly login or via ssh.

    Is there anybody experienced this problem?

    I wish for sharing experiences and giving suggestions & advises. 

    Thanks a lot.

  • Ingo H Leubner added an answer in Gravitational Physics:
    What could the discovery of the Higgs Boson contribute to our understanding of gravity?
    Today is an important day for science and study of mass. It has been confirmed that a new boson has been observed with mass 125.3 +/- 0.6 GeV, with a 4.9 sigma level of certainty. This confirms the existence with a 99,99997% likelihood.
    Ingo H Leubner · Crystallization Consulting

    Hello Rajan,I am glad to hear about a co-sufferer to posting novel ideas. Rajan, I did not set out to find the 'theory of everything'. I knew from my first Big-Bang-paper that the appearance of gravity as anti-energy should make a significant impact. The connection between energy/mass and anti-energy was at the great list of unknown knowledge. Einstein's model did not lead to anything new. II followed up with much modeling of planetary + solar systems, galactic and other systems.

    Why can the Milky Way have only four major spirals, and where do they come from? In-between I developed the model that led to the study of gravity in the laboratory (based on photon-graviton duality). The modeling of the expansion of the Universe led to a new understanding of the Hubble constant. I hoped that enough of people will read the manuscripts. They are written for beginning physicists. No Lorenz-equations (nothing wrong with them, but sometimes not necessarily needed).

    Where is the end of the Kuiper Belt, and why? Why is it difficult to find the objects of the Oort ‘cloud’? (same reason as galactic spirals). All information has been available for almost a hundred years! Nobody bothered.  

    Hello Barry, I am enjoying your creativity. It is the starting point for progress and a happy life.

    Cheers, Ingo

  • Arpana Mishra added an answer in Flax:
    Can anyone help in getting seeds of linseed/Indian flax?

    Dear friends.... I need your help in getting seeds of the Lin seed/Indian flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) accessions available in india.....or any idea in which institute or research centre they were available....i tried my best from different sources here but didnt get any......??

    Arpana Mishra · Mahatma Gandhi Chitrakoot Gramoday Vishwavidyalaya

    You can get these seeds through your agricultural department.

  • Gui-Bo Yang added an answer in DAPI:
    Why GFP florescence disappears when I add DAPI staining?

    When I try to use DAPI staining in protoplasts expressing GFP fused protein, i find the GFP florescence is lost.

    I did incubate the protoplasts with DAPI, and the protoplasts were presenting GFP florescence before i added the DAPI.

    any ideas what could be the problem?

    Gui-Bo Yang · Chinese Center For Disease Control And Prevention

    You may want to check whether the protein is still in the protoplasts after your staining with DAPI by immunostaining of GFP or the fused protein to sort out the problem first.

  • Suresh Vatsyayann added an answer in Masculinity:
    Myth or Science “Bald is Better”?

    recent study showed that observers believe a male’s shaved head indicates greater masculinity, dominance, and leadership potential than longer or thinning hair. Thinning hair was perceived as the least powerful look, and other studies have agreed that male-pattern baldness (where some hair remains) is not considered advantageous. Men who have shaved their heads report it can give them a business advantage whether or not it makes them look older (which is debatable). Sources: J. Misener, “Men With Shaved Heads Appear More Dominant, Study Finds,” The Huffington Post (October 1, 2012),But why is this?

    Suresh Vatsyayann · Royal New Zealand College of General Practitioners

    Hi John

    Good on your faith and belief.

    In my experience people within the ;last 10 years have become more of sycophants than before and have learnt how to play with people's hidden desires (praise).

    You want to test people who love you more than before, then ask them you need $10,000 in an emergency situation ...let us know of any good results.

    What I am trying to bring home to people like us is that so long you have anything to give others, they would stay around you, others did not even bother to care about Aristotle, Jesus, Galileo, etc. untill long time after they were dead.

    I pray, hope and wish your understanding becomes true.

    Any way; I have been bearded, and bald for almost all of my life and had 1.5 million consults with people in my work life until powerful people illegally and unethically took me out of the system to realise some truth about the ultimate. However, that is my experience, a single person who is still trying to keep my baldness and beard.

    AN example of "tongue out of cheek."


  • Kheng Ka Tan added an answer in Bismuth:
    How do I set a turbulent prandtl number(for example 4.22 instead of the default 0.85)) in Fluent?

    In Fluent, the default turbulent prandtl is 0.85 for conventional fluid (air and water et al.), but for heavy metal (lead bismuth eutectic et al.), its turbulent prandtl is larger than 1.0. So I want to set it 4.22 instead of 0.85. But I don't know how to do it? Use UDF?  Please help me!

    Kheng Ka Tan · HELP University College

    You can simply change the Prandtl number by inputting the properties of the fluid, the kinematic viscosity and thermal diffusion coefficient, conductivity, heat capacity andf the density.   FLUENT will calculate the Prandtl number accordingly.  kk

  • Rahimi Ali added an answer in Philosophy:
    Is it possible that the 21th century will be remembered as the century of the GAP?
    Now that everyone is protecting their own niche and the connections are not existing, what will be the new god strong enough to see the unity of all that has been created?
    With ideas, construction and consummation of ideas and that which has been produced, is this the vicious circle of the century in which we are captured as icons in an old church? And where are the bridges?
    Rahimi Ali · Bangkok University

    Rita ,my poems are  available at poemhunter  ,  I really appreciate your inspirational feedback.


  • Qiuping Zhang added an answer in CD4:
    Can anti human-CD4 antibody be coated on a 96 plate for capture CD4 cell?

    I want to separate CD4 cell with CD4 antibody from human whole blood. Does antibody bind to normal tissue culture 96 or 48 well plate? Or is there any special plates?

    PS: I had tried to coat CD4 antibody to elisa plate and succeed proved. But when whole blood was put into 96 well, it"s failed to capture cell.Where is wrong?

    THANKS !

    Qiuping Zhang · Sun Yat-Sen University


    thousands  of samples is a huge amount of work.I'll try PBMCs.

  • Katherine Pearl Sarabia asked a question in Phage:
    What is a cost-effective and fast protocol for isolation and purification of bacteriophages from environmental sources?

    Pelzek et al. (2008) entitled Isolation of Bacteriophages from Environmental Sources, and Creation and Functional Screening of Phage DNA Libraries describes protocols for the isolation of phages from environmental samples however, it requires numerous materials and follows many steps. I am requesting for an alternative protocol which optimizes them.

  • Lall B. Ramrattan added an answer in Econometric Methods:
    Is it viable to use 3SLS to study effect of capital flows on Exchange Market Pressure?

    To make it clearer, my study is on the effect of capital flows on Exchange Market Pressure (EMP) of the emerging markets.
    I introduce two other endogenous variable, i.e. credit growth and asset inflation, as these are the most affected domestic variables during episodes of large capital inflows to emerging countries.
    There are many related studies which employ VAR. But I intend to adopt 3sls to disentangle the direct effect and indirect effect (via domestic credit or asset price channel) of capital flows on EMP.
    I have some doubts about the choice of my econometric method. I am actually inspired by a study of Jean Imbs in which 3sls is used to separate direct and indirect impact of trade on business synchronization. There is quite a number of literature on business synchronization which adopt 3sls but very limited for the study of capital flow and EMP. VAR is the common method instead.

    I'm not sure whether my empirical model is viable, hope I can get some advice and opinion here. Thanks in advance!

    Lall B. Ramrattan · University of California, Berkeley

    I have had some reflective thoughts on this matter. 

    The Nobel laureate, Lawrence Klein, thought that autoregression, ARIMA, and VAR were resting on the naive concepts of either today’s outcomes were based on yesterday’s outcomes, or that their changes are related. To disregard the system of models is to throw away information particularly about agents’ behavior in the economy. Klein preferred the large-scale system because it has more informational content. The system models can be easily adapted to predict complex situations such as the OPEC and the Iranian crises of the 1970s. Klein thought VAR was promising but found the use of only endogenous variables bothersome and, on the identification side, he noticed that not all the terms in the vector autoregression are used, and some zeros are, on a judgmental basis, placed here and there until the model is fine-tuned.

    Analysts of modern co-integration of time series data are also grateful for Klein’s early work on the great ratios in economics. The ratios include the savings-income ratio, the capital-output ratio, labor’s share of income, income velocity of circulation, and capital-labor ratio. Without any differentiation, such ratios display remarkable stability over time. In this sense, Klein is said to have founded the I(0) stationary co-integration series. When combining stationary series, usually the higher order of series that are integrated dominates.

  • Nizar Baidoun added an answer in Two Way:
    Hi, i am using two way clustering and would like to know is there a criteria for "ratio of sizes"?

    i am using two way clustering and would like to know is there a criteria for "ratio of sizes"

    Thank you in advance


    Nizar Baidoun · University of Portsmouth

    Thank you for sharing

  • Luis Cumbal added an answer in Activated Sludge:
    Is Activated Sludge a good option to treat Hospital Wastewater with a high BOD, TDS, TSS and TKN level?

    The levels of the parameters I mentioned are compared with USEPA standards. Can Active Sludge be used or do you advise some other treatment systems?  

    Luis Cumbal · Escuela Politécnica del Ejército

    As it has been said for others activated sludge requires trained staff, a high construction cost and relatively high O&M cost. If you cannot get stable electric input and funds for construction, you should go for wastewater stabilisation and polishing ponds. However this treatment strategy needs a lot of land and mild temperatures. In a hospital of Ecuador located in a region of elevated temperature this solution works well.

    Is Activated Sludge a good option to treat Hospital Wastewater with a high BOD, TDS, TSS and TKN level? - ResearchGate. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/post/Is_Activated_Sludge_a_good_option_to_treat_Hospital_Wastewater_with_a_high_BOD_TDS_TSS_and_TKN_level [accessed Jul 27, 2015].

  • Paritosh Gogna added an answer in Shoulder Joint:
    Does a small right shoulder joint effusion after SAD and SSP Tear repair done 2 weeks require further surgery after the patient fell two level high?

    Hi All,

    I observed this 55 yrs old male fell from a two level double decker bus over ten steps spiralling face foward.

    His head and operated shoulder hit the steps and the handle bar and he was sent to ED in neck brace.

    He had 2 weeks earlier underwent a Subacromial Decompression (SAD) with intra-operation of supraspinatus (SSP) tear repair.

    The ED found during the right shoulder X-Ray, that there is subtle inferior subluxation of the right humeral head which may "suggest a small right shoulder joint effusion".

    Except for head and body bumps, bruises and degenerative spine, hips, neck and age-old head involition, his right shoulder is more pronounced with pain.

    Nothing was done to the body except given pain-killers and for the shoulder, the orthopedic surgeon sent his MO not to assess the pain but to STO only with no further instruction but to return in 6 months time for "pain assessment".

    Question -

    1) What is the likeable treatment given such scenario?

    2) Is another shoulder repair required to normalise the ailing shoulder?

    3) Else, what is the "gold standard" for the "small" right shoulder joint effusion treatment.

    Appreciate any feedback - Thanks - Mariam

    Paritosh Gogna · Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak

    A little sublication after surgery should not be a matter of concern...what all is required clinical assessment of the operated shoulder to assess for Supraspinatus....and that would be around 6 weeks from surgery...All u need to do is wait and watch

  • Jerry Rhee added an answer in Humanities:
    How do I trace the origin of a concept?

    I want to trace the origin(s) of a certain concept within Education. My concept stems possibly from the 1970'ties. I do the tracing by following texts dealing with the concept and the texts' literary sources back in time. 

    It would be great to see examples of this kind of research and especially how the research is made methodologically. Technically I use a combination of NVivo and a simple app for drawing lines between entities (in this case authors and concepts).

    Does anyone have any thoughts on this?

    Jerry Rhee

    Who came up with the scientific method?

  • P..s Venkataramu added an answer in Economic dispatch:
    How can I scale the thermal coefficients of the quadratic cost function for simulation of economic dispatch in microgrid?

    Most of the thermal parameters of the quadratic cost function that can be found correspond to generation units with a maximum capacity of tens to hundreds of MW. In order to develop economic dispatch simulations with thermal generators of different capacities in the range of tens of KW up to MW suitable for microgrid applications, I would like to know if there is a procedure to scale the original thermal coefficients to the desired new low capacities.

    P..s Venkataramu · REVA UNIVERSITY

    For simulation it is ok to use P.U. system but it is advisable to get the values if possible from the manufacturers to have a real feel of the parameters used in the simulation.