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  • Md Arman Chowdhury added an answer in Reinforced Concrete:
    Is there adequate literature on load transfer mechanism of inclined reinforced concrete column between two floor plan?

    I am not getting any literature on this topic. As I want to do research on load transfer mechanism so I need some literature on inclined column research?

    Also I want to know the scope of future research on this topic

    Please help me in this regard

    Md Arman Chowdhury

    Thanks for your answer. Sometimes for architectural consideration, column may be inclined and may be preferred to be made of reinforced concrete. 

    What should be differences if i consider load transfer mechanism of a batter pile to find similarity with inclined RCC column?

  • Prasanna Amarasekara asked a question in Mushroom:
    Please let me know ,In which form fungus absorbe Nitrogen..?If we add urea to the growing medium does it effect badly for the edibility..?

    Please Give the answer related to Oyster mushroom

  • Antonio Costa added an answer in Convergence:
    How do I prevent premature convergence?


    I used ABC algorithm.I know that is good at exploration but poor at exploitation. so I used a method to improve its convergence but it gets stuck in premature convergence ?! which techniques are useful to prevent this problem. and How Can I create a appropriate balance between appropriate and exploration.


    Antonio Costa


    Let me suppose your problem is the opposite! Premature convergence of metaheuristcs may be due to a poor ability in exploration as sometimes they tend to quickly converge to a local optimum. Solution: improve the diversification phase by tuning the control parameters of the algorithm or, alternatively, adopt a different perturbation operator. To overcome the parameter calibration issue, a set of recently developed self-adaptive algorithms can be taken into account.

    On the other hand, in case you want to improve the intensification phase, hybridization through local search techniques can be considered.

    Good luck!

  • Teodora Szasz added an answer in OpenCV:
    matching two images by Hog in opencv?

    hello every one,

    please help me ,

    I want to write program by opencv c++ using Hog algorithm for matching two images. what must be done?

    Teodora Szasz

    Hi Jihad,

    There is a really good tutorial here. I hope this helps you to get started!

  • Robert E Schmidt added an answer in Larval Fish:
    Can anyone help me identify this unknown yolk-sac stage fish larvae from Green Bay, Lake Michigan (keys keep leading me to different families)?

    pre-anal myomere count: 10

    post-anal myomere count: 15

    TL: 4.35mm

    Specimen collected in Lower Green Bay 5/26/15

    Habitat: vegetated, sandy substrate    Depth: 9.5 ft.

    + 3 more attachments

    Robert E Schmidt

    Thanks for the new pictures, very helpful I think..

    Sorry for the long response:

    Percidae- The only one I thought possible was ruffe, but my European colleagues are much more familiar with this species and they are right that your larvae cannot be ruffe. So, Percidae is out.

    Moronidae- The only moronid in range is white bass (M.chryops). Moronids hatch very small and by 4.3 mm should  not have a yolk sac. White bass YS larvae have the head over the yolk sac, not free as in your specimens. Other moronids are out of range and have very similar appearance to white bass. I suggest that your larvae are not Moronidae.

    Centrarchidae- Lepomis would be the only genus that is reasonable, all other centrardhis in range have massive guts. I don't like Lepomis for your specimens because 1. There is no "Lepomis spot" on dorsum of gut. 2. At that size Lepomis have pectoral buds and I don't see that on your pictures. 3. Oil globules in Lepoms are rather small, the globule on your specimens is huge.

    Sciaenidae- Freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens). This species is recorded from Green Bay. If you compare your specimens to Auer, the size is correct for yolk sac larvae, the size and location of the oil globule works. Auer does not give myomere counts for yolk sac larvae but counts from her illustrations are close to yours. So, I vote for freshwater drum. If you have a large series of these larvae you could do the world a favor and publish a detailed description.

    I work in the Hudson River and drum are becoming abundant. If anyone knows of a published description of the larvae other than Auer, please let me know!

  • Lenard Milich added an answer in Livelihoods:
    What indicators should be used to measure adaptation in livelihood ?

    Indicators to be used to measure degree of adaptation and how the degree adaptation vary in different space and time ?

    Lenard Milich
    1. You may also want to think about it in terms of resilience and adaptability. These are risk-management strategies. So in the context of, say, the West African Sahel, what you would want to measure (and this is the critical point - you need a quantitative baseline survey prior to the intervention commencing) is a reduction in stress-related coping mechanisms (such as distress sale of livestock and other productive assets) while concomitantly there are indicators of enhanced household well-being (such as a diversification of food intake - especially high-nutrition items, more food to disadvantaged intra-household members such as women, reduced incidence rates of chronic and acute malnutrition - plus the indicators others suggested).
    2. You can use proxy indicators too - dietary diversity is an indicator of household wealth (refer to the IFAD paper around 15 years ago).
    3. In my opinion, durability of the interventions is a paramount consideration (i.e., "sustainability"), so plan on doing a post-intervention survey to prove the point.
  • Amr Abdulfattah Hassan asked a question in Vicon:
    Is there open source software to do post processing data from Vicon for 3D gait analysis?

    I am looking for easy software may help to analyse data as post processing from Vicon for 3D gait analysis

  • Vyacheslav Lyashenko added an answer in Cement:
    Where can I find a database of images are made under the microscope?

    I'm interested in images of minerals, rocks, soil, cement, polymers ...
    It is desirable that there is a description of such images (under a microscope).

    Vyacheslav Lyashenko

    Thank you. Dear Aurelio.

  • Javier Perez-Hernandez added an answer in Podocytes:
    Do you use 1% insulin-transferrin-selenium solution with human immortalised podocytes culture when they are already differentiated?

    Dear all,

    We are about starting glucose experiments with podocytes and we don't know if we should keep them under starvation of insuline-transferrin-selenium since the beginning of differentiation or just before  starting the experiments (12-24h).

    Thank you very much for any help you can provide!


    Javier Perez-Hernandez

    Thanks a lot Natasha! 

    I will be careful on that.

    Best regards,

  • Marc Tessera added an answer in Cognitive Systems:
    Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.

    Marc Tessera


    1. Your definition of consciousness:

    "Consciousness is a transparent brain representation of the world from a privileged egocentric perspective".

    As you know we have already discussed the definition of consciousness you give above.

    As I found it unclear we finally agreed that it meant that the egocentric perspective is privileged because no one other than the owner of the egocentric space can fully experience its perspectival content and that it just means that the perception of the environment by a given organism is indeed dependent on its perception abilities and in addition that is personal and thus subjective.

    Sorry, but I don't understand how the fact that the perception of the environment by a given organism is dependent on its perception abilities and in addition is personal and thus subjective makes you inferring "that whenever masking is used in priming experiments, it simply prevents the report of a real conscious event".

    Can you elaborate your inference a little bit?

    2. Your interpretation of the data in the SMTT experiment:

    We have also already discussed this question (at lenght!) but never reached an agreement.

    I would be interested in having Joaquin's opinion about it.

  • Gong Zhang added an answer in Genome Sequencing:
    How can I know the number of Fungal Chromosomes from the de novo Genome Sequence?

    We have did Fungal whole Genome sequence and got Genome size 98 Mb with 74X coverage.

    Gong Zhang

    Accurate number of chromosomes cannot be derived directly from de novo sequencing.

  • Sandra Spanoudaki added an answer in RHEED:
    During my thin film growth I tried to obtain the RHEED pattern but I failed. Has anyone faced the same problem?

    I try first at the substrate (Si waffer) and then at my deposited film , but no RHEED. For reference I tilt the sample at -1 degrees and apply rotation to the sample holder.

    Do you have any suggestions? Thank you in advance.

    Sandra Spanoudaki

    I do clean my substrate and I reach up to 1080C, then I cool down. 

    One thing that  I can think is that the sample itself is lower than the level of the sample holder , so that the electron beam doesn´t hit the sample.  

  • Gittan Gröndahl asked a question in Streptococcus equi:
    How can you "nuke" DNA on an endoscope to not get it contaminated witn bacterial DNA, and risk false positive PCR samples from the instrument?

    We use 0,55% ortho-phthalaldehyde (Cidex OPA) soaking for decontamination of endoscopes used for sampling airways of horses with strangles, Streptococcus equi subsp equi, a bacteria which we detect with PCR. The question came up, can we be sure that bacterial DNA is removed/destroyed so that will not contaminate the sample of the next patient?

    Which treatment would you recommend in field practice for an expensive and sensitive equipment as a fiber endoscope?

  • Maria Teresa Cidade added an answer in Polymer Engineering:
    How do I estimate the thermodynamic properties of a mixture of polymer and hydrocarbons?

    For the mixture of hydrocarbons only, we can estimate its bubble temperature or dew temperature of the mixture by using EOS. However, if the polymer exists in the mixtures, how are we going to estimate the thermodynamic properties of the mixture? I cannot find the thermodynamic properties like critical temperature and critical pressure of the polymer which are needed in EOS calculation. The polymer involved is highly reactive polyisobutylene. 

    Maria Teresa Cidade

    Try a mix rule. It gives you an idea

  • Magdalena Bekk added an answer in Tourism:
    Are the "Brand Personality" Scales Reliable Enough?


    I am working on brand personality (BP) topic in tourism and hotel marketing field. However I have a serious question related to the scales that measure BP…

    Aaker (1997) developed BP Scale, as known well. However, some authors have criticized her scale due to the personality traits she used in her scale (although BP is a metaphoric concept). For example, Azoulay and Kapferer (2003) and Geuens et al. (2009) discussed that BP scales must only include the human personality traits. Aaker used some items that reflects the user imagery, identity or image of the brand like “feminine, sophisticated, competent” et al… which are not human personality traits at all. Thus, those authors claim that Aaker’s scale is not applicable for measuring BP, because it measures Brand Identity, Brand Image and BP partly. So, we can think that BP scale of Aaker is not strict for BP measures. But many writers have studied BP based on Aaker’s scale, and this comprehension seems to continue.

    So the question is here: “who is right?”

    Do we have to measure BP by using Human Personality traits strictly? Or is it possible to add items that reflect the brand like Aaker did on her scale?

  • Behzad Heydaryan added an answer in Robotic Dynamics:
    What is uncertainty in kinematics and dynamics of a robot exactly?

    Could you mention some uncertainties in robot dynamics and kinematics?

    Behzad Heydaryan

    Thanks a lot  Mr.Rahman

  • Paul C. Lyons added an answer in Sandstone:
    What kind of a shell fauna would you expect if the red claystone came from a freshwater lake in the Middle Pennsylvanian of eastern North America?

    The basic sequence is  repeating sequence of cobble conglomerate, coarse-grain arkosic dark gray sandstone with planar cross-bedding  that is topped a clay drape with ichnofossils (nsects mainly), and red claystone with  scarce terrestrial Middle Pennsylvanian plant megafossils.

    Paul C. Lyons

    Thank you Joerg, My email address is: paulusgs@aol.com

  • Carl Robinson added an answer in Emerging Markets:
    What are the major factors that influence stock market transition from frontier to emerging market?

    Examples of successful transition from frontier to emerging stock market,

    Carl Robinson

    Thanks.  it would be useful to look at the three examples you mentioned to gain further insight.

  • Tyler Haussener asked a question in Silicon:
    Will the (107) phase always be the maximum peak in XRD of Barium Hexaferrite that has been aligned in a magnetic field?

    I have been studying the alignment of barium hexaferrite (BaM) in a silicone substrate. The BaM is mixed in the silicone, and as the silicone cures the mixture is placed in a strong magnetic field to align the BaM particles.

    In all but one of my samples the (107) peak has been the largest by far. I am trying to figure out what happened in the sample where this is not the case. (In this sample the (008) is maximum) 

    Any insight and help finding papers on this subject is appreciated. 


  • Mohamed El Naschie added an answer in Quantum Entanglement:
    Is a subquantal structure possible which is compatible with relativity and free will?

    Consider the following two statements:

    1) by moving from one frame of coordinates to another one, in relative movement, the wave-function of quantum systems (including entangled systems) transforms as the relativity requires, and in any frame the quantum systems behave according to the wave-function in that frame;

    2) the result appearing in a present measurement of a quantum particle is not influenced by which type of measurement will be chosen in a future measurement of another particle (in particular if the other particle is entangled with the presently measured one).

    By subquantal structure I mean parameters of whatever type that might decide deterministically the results of measurements, in particular of entangled particles. As an example, the parameters can be local or nonlocal hidden parameters.

    So, the question is, can we say that these two principles exclude the possibility of a subquantal structure that would discard the quantum indeterminism? Alternatively, can somebody offer a counter-example or counter-argument?

    Mohamed El Naschie

    Dear Sofia --   1) I THINK YES 

                               2) I THINK NOBLE  laureate   PROF  G 'Thooft  would                                                agree with you position  


  • Daniel Jude Harrison added an answer in Thin Film Coatings:
    Is anyone experienced with the formulation of heat resistant coatings for PET film?

    Looking for a heat resistant coating for thin (4.5 micron) PET film used in a digital printing application. The coating must be less than .5 nm and protect the PET from sticking to a hot printhead (>200C).  Typical formulations are crosslinked silicone-urethane copolymers.  

    Daniel Jude Harrison

    Dear Boris, thanks for your suggestion.  A few more details may help....The CoF of the coated PET film against the print head must be low and relatively invariant with temperature lest the thin film wrinkle as it passes through the printing nip.  Conductive materials may short out the print head and must be avoided.  Additionally,   hard inorganic materials tend to abrade the print head, causing premature wear.  Plasma treatments with perfluoro  materials have not been able to sufficiently reduce CoF to be effective.  More accurately described, the heat resistant coating must also be low in friction, low in abrasiveness and non-conductive.....a very tough set of requirements. 

  • Muhammad Ikhwan Razak added an answer in Speed Control:
    Is it possible for Electronic Speed Controller (ESC) to turn brushless motor clockwise and anti clockwise?

    I am about to use brushless motor for my hovercraft project which include Arduino, GSM Shield and Android apps for system control. Helps will be highly appreciated. Thank you.

    Muhammad Ikhwan Razak

    I'll try my best to understand it properly Mr Ron Reiserer. ESC is a new thing for me and I'm still researching about how to operate. By the way, I appreciate all the response for my question. Thank you so much.

  • Silvana Valtcheva added an answer in Patch-Clamp Electrophysiology:
    How can I dissolve BAPTA in intracellular solution for patch clamp recordings?

    I want to use 10mM BAPTA in k-gluconate-based internal solution for whole-cell patch clamp recordings but I have difficulties to dissolve it.

    I know it is possible to add BAPTA (acid) directly to the internal solution by adjusting the pH (with KOH) or dissolving it in 0.3N sodium bicarbonate before adding it to the internal solution.

    I would be very thankful if you could share your experience!

    Silvana Valtcheva

    Hi Ming, I didn't really fix the problem but just tried to target very good cells so the seal was better but I still had some problems.

  • Deborah Gail Bradley added an answer in Cultural Studies:
    Writing a book on other cultures - what is the biggest challenge? How to overcome it?

    There are many approaches on how to write about other cultures and times. What is your experience on the biggest mistakes you saw? What would you recommend to avoid them?

    Is there some implication for nowadays cultural Exchange and reception of migrants?

    Deborah Gail Bradley

    This is an important question for those of us who work in areas of culture. Similar to George Stoica's response, I recommend working with an author of the culture in question to help you to spot the biases in your writing that you may not realize exist - even after years of study or living in a culture. At a minimum I would recommend having someone of the culture read drafts of your work to help you filter out the cultural biases or misunderstandings that exist in your own thought processes. 

  • Ruveyda Kelleci added an answer in Personality Tests:
    Does anyone know about a good (and recent) article that uses the Occupational Personality Test as a method of data collection?

    Hey everyone

    I am about to do a paper on personality using the OPQ. I have been searching for articles that have used this data collection method but I do not seem to find a good (and recent) one. Anyone who can help? Thanks in advance!

    Ruveyda Kelleci

    Thank you Magdalena! 

  • Avishek Das added an answer in Semiconductor:
    Why is mos2 an n-type semiconductor?

    Why is mos2 an n-type semiconductor? Single layer of mos2

    Avishek Das

    May be. I think please do XPS

  • Avishek Das added an answer in Band Gap:
    Why is the band gap of GR/SnO2 is zero?

    I calculate the band gap after the GR/SnO2 composite, why is zero?I can't explain why, I don't know that calculation is correct, I hope god can give me a reasonable explanation.thanks a lot!!

    Avishek Das

    I agree with Gustavo. Please send the UV-VIS data and also tell your thickness of the film.

  • Alfredo Pereira Junior added an answer in Psychophysics:
    How do we critically test the inseparability-hypothesis of the extended dual-aspect monism (eDAM) framework?

    Some of the followings are adapted from (Vimal, 2015).

    One of the keys features of the eDAM framework is the doctrine of inseparability for a conscious brain-mind state. This state has inseparable 1pp-mental and 3pp-physical aspects. [1pp: 1st person perspective and 3pp: 3rd person perspective.] This inseparability of aspects addresses the hard problem because it fills the gap between an experience (1pp-mental aspect) and its neural correlates (3pp-physical aspect). If the inseparability principle is rejected, the eDAM framework is rejected and this framework cannot address the hard problem. This is because the gap will be created as the two aspects will then be separable. To solve the hard problem is basically to fill this gap by making the 1pp-mental and 3pp-physical aspects inseparable. In other words, the 1pp-mental aspect of a specific conscious brain-mind state and the 3pp-physical aspect of the same brain-mind state at a specific moment are inseparable.

    In addition to a conscious experience, a conscious function (such as picking up a coffee cup by hand) creates a specific conscious brain-mind state. I am emphasizing about this specific conscious brain-mind state. This conscious brain-mind state has inseparable 1pp-mental aspect (such as functional and experiential sub-aspects of consciousness) and 3pp-physical aspect (its neural correlates). The doctrine of inseparability is for this specific conscious brain-mind state at a specific moment in time. If we separate these tightly linked aspects, then that specific function will never be completed and the related specific experience will never be experienced.

    To appreciate the empirical test for the doctrine of inseparability, consider one worst-case example related to biological function. Some biologists could argue that this function can be separated from its neural correlates because of the lack of 1-1 relationship. Consider the function of ‘hand’ for the function ‘picking up a coffee cup’. Once this function creates a brain-mind state then its 1pp-aspect (‘picking up’ function) and 3pp-aspect (its neural correlates) must remain inseparable until the function is completed. If we disturb this tight link, physically, we will never able to pick up the coffee cup. In other words, the inseparability doctrine is for the brain-mind state and for the critical time interval needed to complete the required function. During this interval, the integrity between 1pp and 3pp aspects must be maintained; otherwise, the function cannot be completed. In other words, a structure such as hand can have many functions, but for a specific function, there is just one specific neural correlate(s) of function (NCF). This specific NCF (3pp-physical aspect) and related function (1pp-mental aspect) must remain inseparable; otherwise, the function will never be completed.

    The doctrine of inseparability (1-1-1 relationship) between structure (3pp-physical aspect), function (functional sub-aspect of 1pp-mental aspect) and experience (experiential sub-aspect of 1pp-mental aspect) can be empirically tested. For this, we propose an fMRI experiment to measure the neural correlate(s) of consciousness (NCC) (or the neural basis representing the 3pp-physical aspect) for a specific color experience and the related specific function. The stimulus can be long wavelength light on a dark background. The specific subjective experience (SE) can be experiencing redness on the dark background. The specific function can be the detection/discrimination of long wavelength light from the dark background. Both function and experience occur simultaneously. They are the sub-aspects of consciousness, which is a part of the 1pp-mental aspect.

    If we change any one aspect/sub-aspect of the triad, we expect that other two aspects/sub-aspect(s) should also change accordingly as per the doctrine of inseparability. For example, one sub-aspect could be experience of one just noticeable difference (JND) from redness, and the other two would then be the above detection/discrimination function sub-aspect and the related NCC as 3pp-physical aspect. However, if these other two aspects/sub-aspect(s) do not change, then aspects are separable. This will then imply that doctrine of inseparability is violated. Therefore, the eDAM framework must be rejected or seriously amended. Thus, this simple experiment might critically test the eDAM framework.

    The Fphysical represents Tononi’s the integrated physical information measure from 3pp, which will not be modified by the eDAM framework. The inseparable Fmental represents the integrated mental information from 1pp. This would be equivalent to Fphysical because the information is precisely the same in both aspects. However, the perspective of ‘looking’ is different (1pp vs. 3pp). The Fmental could be measured in terms of psychophysical measures using psychophysical experimental design as done in for color appearances (Vimal, Pokorny, & Smith, 1987).

    Can we say that structure, function and experience are inseparable for a specific mind-brain-state at specific simultaneous moment? The answer is yes because a specific function and the related specific experience must have its specific NCC (or neural basis representing the 3pp-physical aspect) that must be tightly linked. Otherwise, this specific function will not be completed and the specific experience will never be experienced. Therefore, in this sense the 1pp and 3pp aspects are inseparable.

    The eDAM framework does not claim the inseparability of the mental aspect of one brain-mind state and the physical aspect of different brain-mind states at different moments of time. The ecosystem ecology takes its own time (such as years and generations for some species) to update information. On the contrary, the evolution and the ecosystem ecology make sure that both aspects are inseparable for a conscious brain-mind state once this state is created at that particular temporal moment or within the temporal grain-size. This could be in milliseconds range (such as 50-500 msec).

    If we can provide, a single empirical contradiction for the above kind of inseparability, then the hypothesis of inseparability (and hence the eDAM framework) needs to be either rejected or amended. Until this happens, the doctrine of inseparability cannot be rejected.

    My working hypothesis is that we cannot reject the doctrine of inseparability between the 1pp-mental and 3pp-physical aspect of a conscious brain state empirically, theoretically, qualitatively, or quantitatively. It is one of the underlying principles of the eDAM that addresses the hard problem. If it cannot be rejected, then it is an axiom or a biological law for a conscious brain-mind state. This can also be considered as a critical scientific test for the eDAM framework.

    As per Baars (personal communication with Bernard Baars on 11/20/15), “At this time I’m convinced by the brain imaging evidence that conscious cognition is a biological phenomenon with two  sources of information - our own experiences, and our shared experiences via public phenomena. I would not call that dual-aspect theory, but rather dual-source ‘theory.’ It is a useful working frame for sensible science”.

    Interpreting dual-source theory in terms of the eDAM (from my discussion with Baars (11/19-22/15)), my working hypothesis evolved to be as follows: The information is the same in both two sources (1pp and 3pp) for the same conscious event within the critical spatio-temporal-spectral interval threshold at a conscious state of our mind-brain system. They appear different because perspectives (1pp and 3pp) are different (1pp: 1st person perspective; 3pp: 3rd person perspective). I assume that these two sources are two inseparable aspects of the same conscious state of the same mind-brain system to escape from the association problem of separability.

    I am trying to find a mismatch/separability between 1pp and 3pp sources/aspects for the same conscious event within the critical spatio-temporal-spectral interval threshold (just-noticeable difference: JND) at a conscious state of our mind-brain system. So far, I am unsuccessful.

    One could argue that the identity theory of materialism assumes that 1pp-mental aspect and 3pp-physical aspect are identical and hence predicts inseparability between these aspects. Thus, we cannot reject materialism based on the doctrine of inseparability: this is correct. The materialism is rejected not because of the doctrine of inseparability. It is rejected because of the Kaṇāda-Democritus’ definition of matter that does not even have potential for experiences. This definition unfortunately leads to the serious explanatory gap problem. The alternative definition of matter proposed by Yājñavalkya-Bādarāyaņa-Aristotle includes rūpa/form and has potential for experiences. If this definition is used, the explanatory gap problem will be addressed. However, it would not be materialism anymore; it would be the eDAM framework.

    Previous articles in literature, such as (Atmanspacher, 2012; Bohm & Hiley, 1993; Eddington, 1928; Strawson, 2006), argues for Dual-Aspect Monism (DAM) against materialism as this article does. However, DAM is only the first component of the five-component eDAM framework. Therefore, the previous articles have limited scope and do not address the problems of DAM. Thus, the eDAM framework extends previous frameworks to address their problems.

    The interactive substance dualism, materialism, and idealism have serious problems (Vimal, 2010, 2013). The eDAM has the least number of problems and hence it is the best.

    Furthermore, as per Occam’s razor principle, the eDAM framework (that has 1 free parameter) is more parsimonious than triple aspect frameworks (that has 3 free parameters) (Cacha & Poznanski, 2014; Pereira Jr., 2013). It would be hard to select between the eDAM and the reflexive monism (Velmans, 2008)  because both have one free parameter. They address the brain-mind problem in a little different manner. However, the reflexive monism is currently limited to human observers for conscious states, whereas the eDAM encompasses both living and non-living systems at all states. Perhaps, further research is needed to investigate which has more problems when one tries to enlarge the scope to include other areas, such as cosmology, physics, chemistry, biology, sociology, law, economics, war-peace, international problems and relationship, personal relationship, health, and religions. Perhaps each framework explains different features of consciousness. Therefore, all frameworks are useful and complementary to each other.


    Atmanspacher, H. (2012). Dual-Aspect Monism à la Pauli and Jung. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 19(9-10), 96-120.

    Bohm, D., & Hiley, B. J. (1993). The Undivided Universe: An Ontological Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. London: Routledge.

    Cacha, L. A., & Poznanski, R. R. (2014). Genomic instantiation of consciousness in neurons through a biophoton field theory. J Integr Neurosci, 13 (3), 1-40.

    Eddington, A. S. (1928). The Nature of the Physical World. New York, USA: The MacMillan Company.

    Pereira Jr., A. (2013). Triple-Aspect Monism: A Conceptual Framework for the Science of Human Consciousness. In A. Pereira Jr. & D. Lehmann (Eds.), The Unity of Mind, Brain and World: Current Perspectives on a Science of Consciousness (pp. 299-337). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

    Strawson, G. (2006). Realistic Monism: Why Physicalism Entails Panpsychism. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 13(10-11), 3-31; also see commentaries pp 34-280 (Reprinted in A. Freeman (ed.) Consciousness and Its Place in Nature, Exeter: Imprint Academic, 2006).

    Velmans, M. (2008). Reflexive Monism. J Consciousness Stud, 15(2), 5-50.

    Vimal, R. L. P. (2010). On the Quest of Defining Consciousness. Mind Matter, 8(1), 93-121.

    Vimal, R. L. P. (2013). Emergence in Dual-Aspect Monism. In A. Pereira Jr. & D. Lehmann (Eds.), The Unity of Mind, Brain and World: Current Perspectives on a Science of Consciousness (pp. 149-181). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

    Vimal, R. L. P. (2015). Biological Naturalism in Extended Dual-Aspect Monism and Conscious Robots. Vision Research Institute: Living Vision and Consciousness Research DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.2326.6008, 7(3), 1-23.

    Vimal, R. L. P., Pokorny, J. M., & Smith, V. C. (1987). Appearance of steadily viewed light. Vision Res., 27(8), 1309-1318.

    Alfredo Pereira Junior

    Dear Ram, I agree that both aspects are aspects of the same reality, but if inseparability cannot be rejected then it is a philosophical dogma instead of a philosophical hypothesis!

    Let me explain my position. There are at least three possibilities:

    a) Isomorphism of brain and conscious activity: in this case there is inseparability and also evidence for identity;

    b) Homeomorphism of brain and conscious activity: in this case there is inseparability, but not identity. This would be evidence for multi-aspect Monisms;

    c) Absence of Homeomorphism: in this case there is separability and evidence for Dualism.

    The absence of homeomorphism is not impossible. The existence of iso or homeomorphism (and then inseparability) is a conclusion that we arrive from the analysis of scientific results.

    Let me give an example from another area of scientific investigation. Mandel raised the hypothesis of units of heredity (genes) without any knowledge about the structure of the cell. Some years after his death, other scientistss discovered that the generic material has a physical existence in the nucleus of the cell, and later it was discovered that this material is the DNA, which is translated by means of the RNA, etc. 

    The same kind of corroboration occurs in consciousness research. William James and other psychologists have long argued for the mental function of (conscious) attention, without any knowledge of how it is implemented in the brain. One century later, M. Posner and colleagues discovered that there is a brain network that implements attention functions. This discovery implies a homeomorphism between conscious function and brain function. However, if no correlate of conscious attention was found, it could be argued that the conscious function does not depend on brain activity (as proposed by separability/Dualist hypotheses).

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    Niraj Kumar Jha

    Hello Ujjwal,

    Thanks for your information.



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