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  • Dorian Aur added an answer in Cognitive Systems:
    Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.

    Dorian Aur · Stanford University

    Tausif I’m voting for a Standard Model of Consciousness (SMC) including its definition.

    From a practical point:
    a.Why use a digital computer to simulate/map the whole brain ?
    • Which cannot express all forms of computation;
    • Needs many megawatts to power the system (huge issue);
    • Requires billions of dollars;
    • Cannot generate emotion, consciousness...
    • No reliable model for brain diseases?
    b. Why not shape biological structure to perform all kinds of computations
    • Uses less than 30 watts to perform such computations;
    • Naturally, emotion, consciousness ....are expressed
    • Can be used as a model for therapy for about 600 brain diseases
    • Can be connected to a laptop, iPhone uses digital and biological computation together which can make any digital computer highly interactive
    • Far less amount of funding required

    SMC can be written to highlight the difference between (a) and (b), to pursue (b) instead of (a)

  • What is the treatment plan for an 11- year- old boy who is suspected to have amelogenesis imperfecta?

    An 11- year- old boy presented to the dental clinic with his father, complaining of poor esthetics and delaying of eruption of teeth. Examination revealed a suspicion of amelogenesis imperfecta ( clinically & radiographically). Teeth present: 11, 21, 31, 16, 26, 36, 46, all primary molars and canines and partially erupted 12,22, 42. Patient  has also angle, class III. Outline the treatment plan for such a case.

    Jatinder Dhillon · Maulana Azad Institute of Dental Sciences


    Please upload radiographs if possible. Usually in such cases stainless steel crowns remain the restoration of choice. Such a case will probably require prosthodontic correction to correct bite.

  • Thomas Pleil added an answer in Twitter:
    What is the best way to gather a full Twitter dataset for a specific hashtag in a certain period of time?

    I need all tweets containing a specific hashtag in a certain period of time. I need also all retweets and user profiles related to the gathered tweets. Putting into consideration Twitter API Limitations. 

    Thomas Pleil · Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences

    Sorry, I don't have a complete answer on your question but I just stumbled on a list of tools for Data Collection in Social Media here: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1UaERzROI986HqcwrBDLaqGG8X_lYwctj6ek6ryqDOiQ/edit - hopefully you find something helpful there (or a better experienced researcher in this question ;)

  • Alejandro Israel Barranco added an answer in Images:
    How to measure the real size of an object from an unknown picture?

    What is the approach to measure the real size (length, height and width) of an object from an image while I don't know the focal length or the object distance (I don't know the origin of the image, i.e. any technical details of the lens or the camera)?

    with stereo vision


  • Divaker Choubey added an answer in Autophagy:
    Could anyone tell me which brand of EBSS is the best to induce autophagy?

    i have used a ebss to induce autophagy, but the expression of  lc3 have not incresed.  The EBSS has no calcium, magnesium. so i want to ask   which ebss should be used.  think you!

    Divaker Choubey · University of Cincinnati

    I agree with the previous two responses. Further, I would like to add that optimization of autophagy conditions may be needed for your cell system. I would recommend a time course (e. g., 10, 20, 40, and 60 min). Because the time interval is relatively short for some cell types, the temperature of HBSS need to correct before exposing cells.

  • Syed Muhammad Amir asked a question in Bioenergy:
    Does anybody know about the difference between theoretical, conceptual and technical frameworks in PhD level research?

    To study the impact of bioenergy on livelihood of people, there may be some theoritical frameworks. e.g. Sustainable Livelihood Framework (SLF) used by DFID. I am confuse, what's the main difference between above mentioned types of frameworks? and which one of them in my case, is suitable?

  • Is there any illustration for hand label colour space ?

    Can anyone help me to understand hand label colour space?


  • Can mosquitoes larvae causes myiasis? If yes, which larvae?

    Usually, reports of myiasis is associated to flies. Because of resemblance in biology of fly and mosquito it seems the later could do it too.

    Prof. Shashikant S. Udikeri · Agril. Research Station.Dharwad (Karnataka:India)

    No. Mosquitoes immature stages mostly aquatic. Adult females suck blood and males are rely on nectar. 

  • Kenneth M Towe added an answer in Global Warming:
    What is the physical evidence of the impact of global warming and climate change on forests?

    There are too many studies have been done so far. The vast majority of these are based on the scenarios. Really need to wait long time that to see the effects of climate change. But we can also predict in shorter by assessing changing of natural ecosystem composition and health. So, is there any strong physical evidence (scientifical study) related this topic?

  • Abbas Rahdar added an answer in Thin Films:
    Which deposition method does the oxide thin film is better? why ?

    Which deposition method does the oxide thin film is better? why ?

    Abbas Rahdar · Zabol University

    Dear  Dr A. Kumar,

    In which of the deposition methods melting and evaporation step is there?and In which of the deposition methods only evaporation step is there?

  • Chris Mcginnis asked a question in Aspirate:
    Zymosan phagocytosis assay (Cell BioLabs) -- Advice?

    I am working on developing a human macrophage differentiation protocol, and purchased the Zymosan phagocytosis assay kit from Cell BioLabs to test the functionality of my final differentiation product. The first attempt, however, went very poorly... completely incoherent data from the plate reader, mostly cellular debris in the wells, etc. I think it is a matter of centrifuging the plates at a lower speed, but I am curious if anyone has any experienced tips about this technique. Please advise, and thank you!

    Product Page: http://www.cellbiolabs.com/phagocytosis-assay-zymosan-substrate

    Current Protocol:

    ~ Preparation: Poly-HEMA Coating (makes 20 wells in a 96-well plate)

    1. Dilute 150mg Poly-HEMA in 1.5mL of 10 mM NaOH 95% EtOH (15 μL 1M NaOH, 60 μL dH2O, 1.425 mL 100% EtOH)
    2. Incubate on orbital shaker O/N @ RT
    3. Add 50 μL to each well of the 96-well plate and swirl thoroughly to ensure the surface is completely coated
    4. Let air-dry O/N in the hood
    5. Aspirate and wash with 100 μL PBS/well prior to use, can store at 4°C for up to 1 week prior to use wrapped in parafilm

    ~ Preparation: Transfer Macrophages to Poly-HEMA-Coated 96-well Plate

    1. Harvest and re-suspend cells to 200K-1M cells/mL in culture medium
    2. Plate 100 μL cell suspension into X wells of the 96-well plate
    3. Incubate @ 37°C, 5% CO2 O/N

    ~ Preparation: Assay Reagents

    1. Dilute blocking reagent 1:100 in 1X PBS/0.1% BSA, permeabilization solution 1:10 in 1X PBS, store @ 4°C
    2. Immediately before use, dilute detection reagent 1:250 in 1X PBS

    ~ Phagocytosis Assay

    1. Add 10 μL Zymosan suspension to each well, mixing well, incubate @ 37°C for 15’ to 2hrs, centrifuge at high speed, aspirate
    2. Outside of the TC room, 200 μL ice cold 1X PBS wash
    3. Fix with 100 μL fixation solution @ RT, 5’, centrifuge, aspirate
    4. 200 μL 1X PBS wash, 2X
    5. Block with 100 μL 1X blocking solution @ RT, 60’ on orbital shaker, centrifuge, aspirate
    6. 200 μL 1X PBS wash, 3X
    7. Permeabilize with 100 μL 1X perm. solution @ RT, 5’, centrifuge, aspirate - 200 μL 1X PBS wash, 2X
    8. Detect Zymosan phagocytosis with 100 μL 1X detection reagent @ RT, 60’ on orbital shaker, centrifuge, aspirate
    9. 200 μL 1X PBS wash, 3X
    10. Add 50 μL detection buffer @ RT, 10’ on orbital shaker
    11. Add 100 μL substrate, incubate @ 37°C, 5’-20’
    12. Add 50 μL stop solution, shake for 30’’
    13. Read absorbance on plate reader @ 405 nm
  • Can anyone help with protein purification with a strep-tag?
    I cloned my interested protein with two strep-tag after into a pCDNA5 expression vector and using 293t cell expression system, transfected with PEI method. After 7 days, harvesting 50 ml supernatant and purified by GE Strep Trap HP 1ml column. The protocol as below

    1. Buffer exchange with Binding buffer( 100mM Tris and 1mM EDTA, PH=8), because the protein is salt sensitive, I didn't use recommended Binding buffer(which is 100mM Tris and 1mM EDTA, 150mM NaCl, PH=8 ), the final volume is 15 ml.

    2. loading 15ml sample with a speed of 1ml/min,

    3. elute with 6 ml elution buffer (2.5mM desthiobiotin plus binding buffer)

    4. Run a 12% tris-glycine reducing gel, did WB at the same time.

    My question is

    1. Elution still have a lot of non specific proteins,
    2. WB result shows flow-through does not have target protein, which means all the protein bind to strep-column

    Does anyone know why there are still a lot of non-specific protein? or know a optimal protocol for strep-tag purification?
    Weidong Zhang · Universiteit Utrecht

    Dear Yonghao, so far the strep-tag purification is not working well for me, the elution has contaminations. i tied to wash strep column with 1M Nacl buffer, the contamination can be wash away as well as my target protein. Now i am using his tag or Fc tag for my work. thansk for your following.  

  • Timothy A Ebert added an answer in Statistics:
    How should I handle frequency data in a 5 x 2 factorial designed multiple-choice judgement task with multiple items for each condition?

    Hi everyone, i am new to statistics and would like to consult you about some statistics issues.

    I have a judgement task with multiple-choice questions. The design is a 5x2 factorial design, in this case i have 10 conditions, each condition had 10 questions, we had a total of 100 questions. Each participant Chooses one choice out of 6 options which correspond to 6 categories (i.e., Category A-F).

    In this case, i will collect frequency data, and i think i could use chi square test for the frequency data. I want to know (1) whether any two of the 6 categoies in each condition significantly differ from each other and (2) whether the option A of any 2 conditions differ from each other (in this logic, option B of any 2 conditions and so on so forth).

    I have a few questions, they are:
    1. Since i have 10 items for each condition for each participant, how should i manage the frequency data, like in a tabulated table or in SPSS? Should i just add up the frequency such that if i have 50 participants i would have a total of 50people x 10items = 500 counts for each condition? Would it be inappropriate because each count represents not one person? I wonder whether there are any better way to handle the case.

    2. i think the frequency data in fact can be turned into percentage data. In this case, we will have ratio scale data. then we may be able to use ANOVA to handle the data. But i wonder whether i should do in this way.

    Thanks a lot for comments and advice. 

    Timothy A Ebert · University of Florida

    This seems like a large project for someone new to statistics. I assume that you have at least one college level statistics class, but I think you should consult a statistician at your university. It sounds like the questions were using a Likert scale, so you will want to read about the analysis of Likert scales. Make sure your data conform to the assumptions of the statistical models you are using. Plotting the data often helps. You will need to run univariate statistics for each condition, and then (maybe) some multivariate analysis. Consulting a local statistician will be more efficient than RG for this problem.

  • How can I detect a specific irregular shape by MATLAB?

    I am just beginner of object detection. I would like to detect objects with a specific shape (like a scallop) from static pictures. What is the basic method to implement this? I hope it could be rotation invariant.


  • Can anyone recommend a good working protocol for 3T3-L1 (ATCC) maintenance and expansion?

    I'm looking for a good working protocol for 3T3-L1.

    Bibliography shows several procedures, so I would like to know what's the best one for maintenance and expansion. 

    I have to use these cells for functional assay. I need to have differentiated cells in 35 mm dishes for treatment,s but maybe I should expand and differentiate my cells in a bigger volume.

    Robert J Walter · Cook County Hospital

    These cells should be quite easy to proliferate and maintain. Are you familiar with cell culture technique? If not, you should read up on it in a basic techniques manual or better yet, get some hands-on instruction from a colleague.  You will need to grow and proliferate these cells in culture before using them. The best source of information for specific culture conditions for these particular cells is the ATCC website. That site recommends growing 3T3-L1 cells in DMEM with 10% FBS and it gives further suggestions for trypsinization, culture density, and re-feeding intervals.

  • Maria Filippa Addis added an answer in Protocols:
    Does anyone have an experience in IHC performed in Bouin's fixed tissues?

    I would like to try some IHC experiment in Bouin's fixed tissues and I really appreciate some suggestion on the protocol.

    Maria Filippa Addis · Porto Conte Ricerche

    Ciao Vanni!

    you can talk to people at the CRO, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico di Aviano, they work on Bouin fixed tissues. Check this paper for some names and addresses: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22648804

    You can look at the papers from Valli de Re here on researchgate: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Valli_De_Re

    You can also contact me directly for e-mail addresses :-)

  • Baazouzi Messaoud asked a question in Friction:
    What's the influence of the dilation angle on the drained bearing capacity of shallow foundation?

    I know, when the dilation angle less than the friction angle, the bearing capacity is lower than the dilation angle = friction angle.
    i want more notions for this case (behavior of the soil) .

  • Where can I find a database for mouse RFLP's?

    I am fine mapping a genetic interval and need to use RFLP's to do so. However, the jax and brigham resources seem to be down. Does anyone know of another online database?

    Semir Bechir Suheil Gaouar · Laboratoir Génétique Moléculaire et Cellulaire USTO et Laboratoire Physiologie, Physiopathologie et Biochimie de la Nutrition, Université Abou Bekr Belkaid Tlemcen, Algérie

    Hi, Dr Colin

    I advise you to look after NCBI database, you can find the complet sequence of genome, after you can use a special softwar to detect all RFLP's for your spesies and for all the enzyme you choose.

  • Is making more than two mismatches in primer (mutated), will make a problem?

    When designing a mutated primer with two or four mismatches, and when its Tm is less or around 70 degrees C, and its GC% is less than 40% (may be 38%). Are all these will affect in succeeding the mutation in gene (in case of using Quick change site- directed mutagenesis kit)?

  • Can pET vector be used to express in human cells?

    Can it be used to express a particular protein in human cells? 

    Keerthivasan Chandradoss Raanin · Institute of Bioinformatics and Applied Biotechnology

    no you cant. 

  • Victoria Rubin added an answer in Social Media:
    Have you seen instances of fabricated, fake or misleading news?

    I'm looking for sources or actual stories (trending or past ones) in which unverified (fake, fabricated or intentionally misleading) news were passed for bona fide reporting. Any topic will be of interest -  from major international events to retracted company statements and doping in sports. I'm curious about cases in both mainstream or social media.

    If you've seen such story developments, I'd appreciate a link and your comment on how you see it relevant, or what you know about it. Do you consider it deception, and if so, and why? If not, what is it then? What impact has the fake news piece had on who in your opinion?

    Thanks so much! VR

    Victoria Rubin · The University of Western Ontario

    Thank you Michael, I haven't seen it put quite that plainly about the Fox news. Thanks for the link. The whole section of Discredited Myths is promising. I also wish that the  AddictingInfo.Org website was a bit more explicit about who they are. "About Us" link seems broken. Do you know who's running it by any chance please? VR

  • Can anyone help me to identify this specimen?

    i collected this specimen(which is attached) from the rocky coast. Not able to identify it clearly. so help me to find wheather its a sea slug or flatworm

    Vinicius Queiroz Araújo · University of São Paulo

    This is certainly a marine flatworm.

    You can see the papers of Leslie Newman and Lester Cannon or the book Marine Flatworms: The World of Polyclads.

    Good Luck!

  • Andrei Moroz added an answer in Chondrogenesis:
    Why are high glucose contents used in a chondrogenic differentiation protocol?

    In comparison to differentiation of MSCs towards adipogenis and osteogenesis,  most literature shows to use  media with a high content of glucose for chondrogenesis. Why is that? 

    Some believe it is due to promote the effect of TGFbeta but could it also be due to  different demands on the cells when grown as a pellet? 

    Andrei Moroz · São Paulo State University

    Thank you for your answer Dr. Johnstone! It is great to have the person who developed this technique to answer our questions!

  • What is the structure of circulating miRNA ?

    In order to grow cells in the presence of a miRNA What is the miRNAs structure should I use, could be the same structure of miRNAs that exists in serum and where can I order it.

    Jose Anselmo Coelho Lima Junior · Newcastle University

    Circulating miRNAs have been shown to be carried within extracellular vesicles (exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies) or bound to HDL particles and Argonaute protein. If you are trying to evaluate the effects of a specific miRNA in cultured cells, you could perhaps use miRNA mimics. Some options for commercially available miRNA mimics: http://www.exiqon.com/mirna-mimics http://www.lifetechnologies.com/uk/en/home/life-science/epigenetics-noncoding-rna-research/mirna-profiling-/mirvana-mimics-inhibitors.html. I hope this could help.  

  • Alessandra Casu asked a question in Mining:
    How can I delete this publication?

    This is not mine: actually, it was signed by ANNA RITA Casu, while my name is ALESSANDRA

  • Mai H. El-Naggar added an answer in Docking:
    How can a TarFisDock file submission problem in Reverse docking be solved?

    I have a problem in submitting my Mol2 file to TarFisDock. After browsing, selecting my file and choosing the target proteins, when I clicked submit, I got the following reply:
    “You have submitted a valid Mol2 file!FTP connection has failed!”
    After keeping trying to submit it, I got the following reply:
    “You have submitted a valid Mol2 file!You have already submitted 5 jobs today, please submit new jobs the other day!”. Although, I have not received any job ID to my e-mail.
    Please, how can I solve this problem?
    It is worth to be noted that TarFisDock forum is useless, how can one get support for using it.
    Thank you.

    Mai H. El-Naggar · Sohag University

    Thank you so much Danish Jasnaik

  • Ozgun Erdogan added an answer in Inhibitors:
    Can anyone help with H3K4 2me WB?

    Dear all I am desperately trying to show an increase of h3K4 2me in my protein samples after incubation with an LSD1 inhibitor. I am working with AML cell and my results are variable all the time. Any suggestion/tips troubleshooting.

    Ozgun Erdogan · University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

    I just dilute my 4x loading buffer stock (+BME) 1:3 in water to make it 1x. Good luck!

  • William M. Janousek added an answer in Telemetry:
    Brand recommendations for small vhf telemetry equipment?

    I am looking to buy some vhf transmitters to place on passarine birds. Multiple companies sell a suitable product, but there are no reviews on the quality of the different brands. Does anyone have any recommendations from their own work? (2g max, 3 month life, > 1Km transmission distance)

    William M. Janousek · University of Montana

    I've worked with Lotek before several times and have always been pleased with the equipment and customer service (repairing transmitters or receiver equipment). Their Biotracker scanning receiver is super compact and great in the field if you're chasing birds around like I was.


  • Gokhan Kirlik added an answer in GAMS:
    How can I write multi-objective with GAMS?

    Dear friends
    I am trying to do multi-objective optimization with the weighted sum -method
    ,but I could not able to find Pareto set solution between two conflict objective,
    from my point of view,maybe there are two problem :
    the first one is incorrect parameters
    the second one is wrong code about multi-objective optimization
    about the second issue I am not sure that I have write correct code for multi -objective
    ,below is some part of my code I am appreciate for any help from you
    objective1.. z1=e=1-d1("k1","j1")+1-d2("k1","j2");
    objective2.. z2=e=c("j1","l1")*dem("l1")*x("j1","l1")+ c("j1","l2")*dem("l2")*x("j1","l2")+f("k1","j1")*y("k1","j1")+c("j2","l1")*dem("l1")*x("j2","l1")+ c("j2","l2")*dem("l2")*x("j2","l2")+f("k1","j2")*y("k1","j2");
    objective3.. z3=e=0.1*z1-0.9*z2;

    models multiplierCCR_model1/objective3,objective2,objective1,const1,const2,const21,const22,const23,const25,const51,const52,const3,const4,const5,const61,const7,const8,const9,const10, const512, const513, const514/ ;

    Solve MultiplierCCR_model1 using MINLP Maximizing z1;
    Solve MultiplierCCR_model1 using MINLP Minimizing z2;
    Solve MultiplierCCR_model1 using MINLP Maximizing z3;

    actually I have done three objective,including two conflict objective and composite one in one model,but I define three SOLVE function at the end of my programme.
    I have used the weighted sum method for composting objective

    Gokhan Kirlik · University of Maryland Medical Center


  • David Fields asked a question in Capital:
    From a Marxist perspective, how is the increasing presence of interest bearing capital distinct from other social forms credit?

    What significant role does this play in real as opposed to fictitious accumulation of capital?