Q&A

ResearchGate Q&A lets scientists and researchers exchange questions and answers relating to their research expertise, including areas such as techniques and methodologies.

Browse by research topic to find out what others in your field are discussing.

Browse Topics

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
  • Forough Foroughi added an answer in MATLAB:
    How do you implement and evaluate a resource allocation algorithm in MATLAB?

    What is the way to implement and evaluate a resource allocation algorithm in MATLAB? Do you know of any resources to help me?

    Thanks.

    Forough Foroughi · Alzahra University

    Thanks Suman.

  • Arafat Rahman Oany added an answer in Webservers:
    How to create a ss DNA structure having a quadruplex in PDB format ?

    Hello ,

    I want to create a PDB file for a ss DNA molecule having a quadruplex in it. I have checked the web and also here and got to know about a few webservers / softwares which can be used to do the same.

    However I need expert opinion on this and would be highly obliged to know from the experienced users.

    Best,

    Agnivo.

    Arafat Rahman Oany · Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University

    You may try this

    http://accelrys.com/products/discovery-studio/

  • Biswapriya Biswavas Misra added an answer in IDEA:
    As Researchers or Academicians, Do You Agreed “Publish or Perish”?

    As researchers or academicians, do you agreed on the idea “Publish or Perish”?

    Biswapriya Biswavas Misra · University of Florida

    Yes, with slight modification- publish BIG (I do mean, N/S/Cell/PNAS) and not just numbers - or else there are hardly any takers for academia, faculty positions and industry.

  • Kanwal Naqvi added an answer in Knee Osteoarthritis:
    Can I use any established questionnaire for knee osteoarthritis with modification without any legal problem?

    Anybody please suggest can i use any established questionnaire like WOMAC with modification of time frame, addition or deletion of questions according to my population without any problem in publication and with authorities of that questionnaire? Actually it is changed but i am using few of question from there along with their scoring pattern. Will there any problem or anybody who has worked with knee osteoarthritis and developed his own questionnaire guide me?

    Kanwal Naqvi · Quaid-i-Azam University

    Many thanks dear Ralph. Please do me a favor and do you have any document link which is suitable for easy calculation of koos?and plz let me know is it possible to fill out half form (like if I choose to fill woman question completely and few from other part of koos?)but I think in this way there will be inaccuracy in score calculations?

  • How to estimate y+ for K-epsilon turbulence model in openFOAM?

    [This question is a continuation of my previous query]

    Good morning all!

    As I told earlier about my simulation in a wind tunnel. I am expecting separation in the diffuser region, to get expected separation proper meshing is necessary as I got advices from my friends here. For standard k-e turbulence model I learned from the previous replies that it better to use y+>30. I have found these two sites to calculate y+

    http://www.pointwise.com/yplus/

    http://www.cfd-online.com/Tools/yplus.php

    Here is my simulation domain:

    http://i62.tinypic.com/15qra0m.jpg

    Straight section height is 200mm which is 630mm long and a diffuser section with 20deg inclination having a length of 250mm.

    In the above two y+ calculation site, there is a term boundary layer length and reference length, I am confused with these two term because both sites calculates the same but they mention these terms differently. Shall I use this length as 200mm? But in diffuser section these vertical height is a varying height, as it has 20deg slope in bottom wall.

    BR

    MuKuT

  • Sudha Balagopalan added an answer in Game Theory:
    Is there any case study in resource allocation with game theory ?

    there many empirical study on resource allocation with game theory .Is there any paper make a case study on resource allocation with game theory.

    Sudha Balagopalan · Vidya Academy of Science & Technology

    P.J.J. Herings, G. Laan , D. Talman, “The socially stable
    core in structured Transferable utility games”, Games
    and Economic Behavior, Vol. 59/ 1, Pages 85-104 , 2007

    Chris S.K. Yeung, Ada S.Y. Poon, F.F. Wu, “Game
    Theoretical Multi-Agent Modelling of Coalition
    Formation for Multilateral Trades,” IEEE Transactions
    on Power Systems, Vol. 14, No:3, pp.929-934, 1999


    Juan Zolezzi, Hugh Rudnick, “Transmission Cost
    Allocation by Cooperative Game and Coalition
    Formation,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems,
    Vol.17/ 4, pp.1008-15, Nov 2002

  • Is possible to "measure" social or institutional innovations, or technology transfer procesess developed for small agricultural growers?

    Measuring innovation is cristal clear when a patent, an utility model, a plant variety or a new trade mark is developed by researchers. However, when social or institutional innovations are developed, or technology transfer is done with peasants or small farmers, innovation is very difficult to measure.

    Carlos Olguin Palacios · Colegio de Postgraduados

    We have had the support of international agencies to generate research & development programs with peasants on their lands and real social, political conditions. For that, interdisciplinary, transdisciplinary teams were created. What we learned after 20 years is: it is necessary to view an interactive area of teaching-research-transferring as the real context to work. It means a continuum. That idea is supposed to rule our actions but…

    How to measure that in time? Let us see publications on the change for instance of Colocassia sculentum  :taro, coco yam, Malanga going from a wild undomesticated plant to an export crop at least in 5 regions of Mexico. Farmers are now doing drip irrigation in malanga fields at Sinaloa State, exporting production to USA. Our Federal Council that regulate research and associated funds is now opening a program to promote those actions. Papers  for themselves do not change things. Action does change.

  • How can I interpret the quasi-reversible Cyclic Voltammeter peak I have attached below as the cv graph?

    How to interpret quasi-reversible Cyclic Voltammeter peak here i have attached the cv graph? 

    Isaiah Owusu Gyan · University of Idaho

    Hi Dipak

    It will be very helpful if more information is given. From the CV, I am guessing you are using DMF as the 'solvent' and since you did not mention any 'analyte', I presume this is to be taken as a sort of background CV. But then (1) what is the working electrode ? Can we fully ascribe all the peaks in the CV to Faradaic processes due to the medium (DMF) only ? Should we expect solvent breakdown at some potential limits ? Knowledge of what material the WE is, will help interpret the CV. (2) Did you purge or saturate your system with any gas? In organic solvents, especially dissolved O2 can undergo well defined redox reactions (even a series of reactions) involving radical ions.

    Again, at what I think is your initial potential (1.5 V), there seem to be as much as 25 microA of current. This means that, some reaction is going on right at the start. It may be helpful to start at a potential where current is almost zero.

  • Vitaly Voloshin added an answer in Hair:
    Is it true that bald researchers are better researchers?

    Samson's strength was in his hair. What happening with the researchers? Does the bald researchers are more effective researchers? How the presence or absence of hair affects the activity of scientific researchers?

    Vitaly Voloshin · Troy University

    Vladimir, it is a funny question - I would adjust it by replacing "hair" with the "brain" for the complete clarity.

  • Fatty Acid Methyl Ester markers with pyridine as solvent?

    I'm running metabolite profiling experiments on a number of different kinds of samples and using FAME markers for retention indexes. The literature I have read uses chloroform as solvent for the FAME mix. Since my derivatized samples will already contain pyridine as solvent, I would like to use it for the FAME as well. My question is how stable that would be, and could I store the FAMEs in solution with pyridine. Does anyone have experience with this?

    Biswapriya Biswavas Misra · University of Florida

    Pyridine/ chloroform would not make much difference on storage or stability, as long as they are "aprotic" (moisture free, H2O free etc. by passing over dried Na2SO4 etc.) except that in a GC chromatogram they would elute at different times as "solvent peak". FAMEs would go easily in pyridine too as what I do too. If you store FAMEs in -20 C or so, or even 4 C and they carry a hint of moisture and these samples after addition of FAMEs must be analyzed ASAP, as with moisture in there the degradation or stability of derivatization groups (silyl etc. from MeOX, MSTFA, BSA, BSTFA etc.) would be highly affected with loss of information, spectral quality and so on. Post-derivatization storage does not help at all, and there is a great deal of literature available on line on this too. FAMEs in pyridine/ chcl3 is not an issue, possibly. best wishes !

  • Arun Pandian Chandrasekaran asked a question in Books:
    I would appreciate if somebody could recommend me some books to interpret the characterization results?

    I have results for FTIR, SEM, UV and XRD of my sample. As a beginner, I really need of books which helps me to interpret the characterization results. Some basic books to understand the concept of the above methods too. Thanks in advance. 

  • On which basis you do set your priorities?

    You set priorities to determine which tasks, from a set of alternatives, will be done first. You have a long list of things to do. For example, conduct a research, write a textbook, prepare a conference paper, prepare for lecture, and score examinations. You may determine priority based on importance, value of money, urgency, etc.  What is your opinion?

    Ajay Singh · IIT Kharagpur

    Priority setting is an art. It should be done based on the urgency and importance of the task considering the time constraint.

  • Anand Sundaram added an answer in SDS-PAGE:
    Running two SDS-PAGE in the same tank. One is running normally, the other is not. Any ideas?

    Both the gels have 5% stacking and 10% resolving. They are essentially copies of each other and they even have the samples. One of them is running while the other is not. I'm running them at 200V.

    Anand Sundaram · University of Maryland, Baltimore County

    Thank you everyone for your comments. 

    We are using a biorad Mini protean system for the gels. And we cast our own gels. However I do remember that the height of resolving and stacking gels were different. 

  • The DSM-V offers "suicidal behavior disorder" (p. 801) as a "condition for further study" that seems to medicalize suicide attempts. Thoughts?
    The DSM-IV cited suicide as a symptom of some psychiatric disorders. Until now suicidality has not been characterized as a disorder itself (though it could loosely "fit" the disease model, i.e., signs, symptoms,markers, course or process, etc.). Early in the DSM-V's development there were allusions to having suicidality become a new Axis-VI. Given the pervasiveness of suicidal behavior among individuals with serious mental illness that may have been useful. However, I am not sure what utility "suicide behavior disorder" has in terms of diagnosis, treatment, prevention, or research. Does the APA expect researchers or theorists to give this new disorder "further study" or will clinicians take on that task?
    Jennifer Giddens · Tampa Center for Research on Suicidality, Tampa FL

    There are many issues I see in the Suicidal Behaviors Disorder in DSM-5, but I will only focus on a few of them:

    1) The focus is only on suicidal 'behaviors'.  If we took this approach to major depressive disorder, we would eliminate any ideation phenomena as being criteria for the disorder and only concern ourselves with instances where the depression resulted in specific behaviors [such as spending all day in bed] or resulted in the lack of specific behaviors [such as not eating or not bathing].  To limit the focus only on suicidal behaviors is limiting the scope of any research.  Particularly in suicidality, the hope is to prevent people from getting to the point of engaging in suicidal behaviors.  If the focus of the clinician in diagnosis is only on the behaviors, then the diagnosis of a patient that is experiencing suicidality can, by definition, only happen after the events that we hope to prevent!  This is like saying that we are going to try to avoid people being injured in car accidents by waiting until after they have been in an accident to require they wear a seat belt or have air bags installed in their car.  By that point, the person is already injured or dead.  [Due to the criteria for Suicidal Behaviors Disorder, then the patient may already be injured or dead by the time they meet criteria for the disorder.]

    2) The criteria purposely ruled out suicide attempts that occurred while the patient was in an altered mental state.  This is ridiculous!  Alcohol can cause an altered mental state.  Is it important for a clinician to know that their patient with a substance abuse issue consistently makes suicide attempts while under the influence of alcohol?  Wouldn't that bit of information play a factor in any care the clinician gave this patient?  I believe it would and don't understand why these patients are purposely being excluded from the diagnosis.

    3) Similarly, the criteria rules out anyone engaging in suicidal behaviors for religious or political purposes.  First, let's focus on the religious aspect.  If a patient with schizophrenia thinks they are having frequent conversations with god and god is telling them to try to kill themself, [and assuming there are no suicidal behaviors that are not connected to conversations with god, and that the patient does not engage in the suicide attempts while actively experiencing the hallucination, since that might count as an altered mental state] then this patient would not meet criteria for the disorder.  Again, is it important for a clinician to know that a patient they are seeing in an emergency room, who happens to be schizophrenic frequently makes suicide attempts?  Does the  fact that god told them to make the attempt somehow make this information less relevant to the treating clinician?  Second, now let's focus on the political purposes.  There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that some suicide terrorists are actually suicidal before becoming involved in any terrorism.  What if these people are actually being selected because they are suicidal?  A recent paper was published discussing the potential of this scenario.  [ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269694025_Are_Suicide_Terrorists_Suicidal_A_Critical_Assessment_of_the_Evidence  ] Should this group of people that are suicidal not meet criteria for a disorder simply because they happen to have some level of political motivation tied to their suicide attempts?  For some people, having religious or political motivation for suicide attempts increases the likelihood of further behaviors.  Why are these groups being excluded?

    4) I do not believe lumping everyone with suicidality that has made a suicide attempt within the past two years into one diagnostic category will yield any reasonable data.  I believe there are a number of suicidality disorders [just as there are a number of mood disorders].  If we lumped all mood disorders together and attempted to research a mixed sample of people with mood disorders, any results would be murky at best [the negatives would likely outweigh the signal of the positives, similar to how a mixed group of MDD and Bipolar patients would likely not show a statistically significant positive signal in response to an antidepressant].  Only by looking at each specific disorder can we gather information about how to best treat each disorder. 

    Having said all of that, although I understand the issue about stigma related to the diagnosis of a disorder, I have heard from many patients that their suicidality is not understood by their clinicians and, in many cases, not taken seriously.  One patient told me their psychiatrist told them "we don't talk about that here" when they mentioned that  their suicidal ideation had returned [if patient's can't talk to their psychiatrist about this, what other people are they going to talk to about this?].  Many of these patients want treatment that will specifically treat their suicidality [not just antidepressants or CBT, or DBT, or other sometimes ineffective treatments] and are willing to take the risk of a medical label in order to get help with their struggle to keep themself alive.  At the very least, allow these patients the option of getting a label and possibly having treatment options instead of completely dismissing the potential of this being a disorder [or set of disorders] all together.  According to World Health Organization statistics, suicidality was the 15th leading cause of death worldwide in 2012 [ http://www.who.int/mental_health/prevention/suicide/suicideprevent/en/ ].  We will not get anywhere in attempting to 'prevent' these deaths until we start to properly research the phenomenology of suicidality. 

    On a slightly different note, I heard a rumor that part of the reason DSM-5 limited the criteria to only behaviors is because of the concern that also including ideations would open up any practitioner not properly assessing a patient's suicidality to further legal complications if a patient killed themself.  It was assumed to be an undue burden on clinicians that could cause them medico-legal risk.  It sounds like the higher-up powers that be at DSM decided to cover the rear-ends of clinicians instead of doing something meaningful to help patients.

  • Alan Zhong Li added an answer in Curve Fitting:
    How can I get a good contact angle value from the droplet-sample surface image?

    I used Attension Theta to measure the water contact angle of my sample. Due to some problems with curve fitting, the contact angle value could not be given by the software. Now I have the image of droplet-sample surface. Is there any software to calculate the contact angle value from the image? Thank you!

    Alan Zhong Li · Nanyang Technological University

    Many thanks to you all, esp. Dipak Giri. LBADSA is very powerful and my problem has been wonderfully solved!

  • Fumitaka Sato asked a question in EAE:
    Does anti-CD25 antibody treatment affect T cell development?

    I’m preparing for a book chapter on the role of CD4+ T cells in multiple sclerosis (MS). While writing on the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs), I realized my lack of knowledge on T cell development. In a draft of the book chapter, I'm discussing the effects of anti-CD25 (IL-2 receptor α) monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment on human MS and its animal models. In humans, anti-CD25 mAb treatment suppressed MS with reduced number of activated T cells (despite the fact that Tregs also slightly decreased). In contrast, in a mouse model of MS, EAE, anti-CD25 mAb treatment suppressed Treg function, exacerbating EAE. In mice, CD25 has been well known to be expressed on not only regulatory T cells and activated T cells but also immature T cells in the thymus (DN2 and DN3 stages). Interestingly, however, in neither MS nor EAE manuscripts, no researches discussed the potential effects of anti-CD25 mAb on T cells development. So, I’m curious if 1) CD25 is expressed on immature T cells in the thymus in humans and 2) anti-CD25 mAb treatment could affect T cell development in the thymus due to blockade of IL-2 signal via CD25 in humans and mice. I would appreciate it if you could give me your expert opinion.

  • William Forde Thompson added an answer in Syntax:
    Is it possible to test syntactic understanding without requiring semantic knowledge?

    Naive question from a non-linguist. The basic distinction between syntax and semantics is clear; but I'm not sure how one might assess a person's understanding of syntax without requiring some degree of semantic knowledge. Even in jabberwocky sentences (which have English grammar and syntax but with nonsense words), the so-called "nonsense"words do suggest meaning. I'm interested in examples of "syntax without semantics" in both music and language. 

    William Forde Thompson · Macquarie University

    Your point about music underscores just how complicated this question can be. Music syntax refers to the rules that govern regularities in music, and that we internalize over long periods of exposure to a musical style. Syntactic knowledge allows us to recognize, for example, when something unexpected occurs. For example, we expect certain musical events to occur at points of closure. I'm not sure the effect that limiting songs to one octave would have on syntactic structure. The idea of musical semantics is slippery but one can apply concepts from semiotics, whereby musical events have iconic, indexical, and symbolic meaning. But there is less semantic specificity in music than language. 

  • How far are scientists willing to go to publish their rejected articles or scientific reviews?
    I am wondering how many papers are sleeping in a computer file because they were rejected or not completed.
    One would say very few, since a paper "has to be published".
    Asking 9 university-based physicians, 5/9 reported to have 1 to 3 papers into their personal files...that will never be re-submitted!

    Would be glad to hear from a "larger size", do you have unpublished papers?
    Monideepa Bhattacharya Becerra · California State University, San Bernardino

    I've had my share of rejections and while it is sometimes frustrating and easy to file that in the "never resubmit" category-that is wasted time, effort, and research. Even negative results are worth publishing, in my opinion. This is especially true if you have a team of collaborators as they may never want to work with you again if something never gets published. It is valuable to take into account the reviewers' feedback (if any) and revise and re-submit. Sometimes collecting newer data, adding a different perspective, etc. could help. 

  • Brendan O'Sullivan asked a question in Framework:
    Has anyone ever validated a framework with a group of teachers/researchers?

    I have been categorising tasks using a framework that I have designed. I wish to validate it by explaining to a group of teachers how to use it and then seeing how closely their categorisations are to mine. Are there any pitfalls to avoid or things that I should definitely include when conducting this?

  • Yunfu Lin added an answer in Strandings:
    I have a 14 mer primer and a single strand template of DNA nearly 100 bases long. can PCR be done?

    Dear all

    I want to ask i have only one primer and only one DNA template. I want to extend the primer through PCR. DNA template is also single stranded. Is PCR possible , without any complications, as in all literatures people use two primers and a double strand dna template. I dont want multiple products so i want to amplify one single stranded DNA.

    Yunfu Lin · University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

    Do you know the sequence of the template? If yes, it is easy to design a second primer that is the 3'end of your template. When you use this primer together with your original one, you should get specific products instead of multiple products. It is very easy.

  • What are the specific steps use in interpretive phenomenological analysis ?

    Interpretive Phenomenological research data analysis

    Dylan van der Schyff · Simon Fraser University

    Hi Gail, 

    You might explore the work of Jonathan Smith at Birkbeck, London, and Michael Larkin at Birmingham University. http://www.ipa.bbk.ac.uk. Also, Max van Manen and Clark Moustakas. "Qualitative Inquiry And Research Design" by Creswell may also be useful as it situates phenomenology among other qualitative research methods.

  • Victor Rodov added an answer in Geography:
    What is the meaning of orotemperate?

    I need its exact meaning

    Victor Rodov · Agricultural Research Organization ARO

    Have you seen this material?

    http://www.globalbioclimatics.org/book/review.htm

    If it's not clear enough you probably might check with the author and/or publishers:

    http://pendientedemigracion.ucm.es/info/cif/cif.htm

  • Dr A. Kumar added an answer in Argon:
    Any suggestion for rapid cooling of coated wire after passing through molten alloy?

    I am working on coating of different alloys on metallic wire in vacuum condition. I want  rapid cooling of coating with the help of helium /argon gas or electrical driven cooling device . Is anyone of you know about electrical device or any suggestion which can do rapid cooling of the coated wire after passing through molten alloy?  I used Helium/ argon gas for cooling purpose but i did not complete amorphous nature of  coating.

    Dr A. Kumar · Harcourt Butler Technological Institute

    If your alloys to be coated are metallic alloys and you want to make them amorphous then you have to use splat cooling technique which is used to prepare metallic glasses. You can go through the literature on metallic glass preparation

  • Can anyone give a standard protocol for PPO measurement?

    I need to a method for PPO measurement.

    Kamal Eddin Bani-Hani · Hashemite University

    Please see the attached article

  • Mikhail V Khvostov added an answer in Statins:
    Why in animals (agouti yellow mice) HDL and total cholesterol decrease after the treatment (30 d) by anti-cholesterol agent but LDL do not?

     What is the reason? Thanks in advance for your replies.

    Mikhail V Khvostov · Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry

    Thank you!

  • Ebrahim Alwashali added an answer in Biostatistics:
    Can somebody recommend a text book for biostatistics for health sciences that for undergraduates, that is simple, clear and cover important topics?

    Can somebody recommend a text book for biostatistics for health sciences that for undergraduates, that is simple, clear and cover ALL the important topics? Thanks

    Ebrahim Alwashali · Université Ibn Tofail

    Discoverd Statistic with SPSS. For Andy Field 4th édition. 

  • Vinod P G added an answer in ArcGIS:
    Could anyone help me calculate road density using ArcGIS? I am trying polyline density in spatial analyst but the values are too low?

    I am using ArcGIS 10.2 with spatial analyst. WGS_1984_World_Mercator projection, study site is India

    Vinod P G · GeoVin Solutions (P) Ltd.

    Dear Trishna

    For finding the road density. The steps are as follows:-

    Take Spatial Analyst tool from ArcTool Box

    Take Density

    Then Take Line Density

    Input Poly line features ---> Give your road

    In Population field give None

    the resulting output raster will be the road density.


    Vinod

  • Xia Cui asked a question in Footprinting:
    I can not download this paper "Global mapping of protein-DNA interactions in vivo by digital genomic footprinting". Who has it?

    I need it. Thanks!