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  • Louis Brassard added an answer in Cognitive Systems:
    Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.

    Louis Brassard


    You get up really early.  I do not oppose your view that objecitivity does not mean relevance and also that the only method so far to know about the patient pain is subject's report.  Sometime the patient cannot provide such a report but actually experience some pain and it would be relevant to have an objective method to measure it without such report. 

    I was speaking of feeling and imagination of the the peoples doing the reports.  

  • Carlos Araújo Queiroz added an answer in Laser Technology:
    Can I drill the hole with diameter 0.6 to 1.0mm through glass which is 3.2 mm thick and soda-lime silcate?

    I want to know whether the glass can be drilled with hole diamter of 0.6 to 1.0mm using laser technology.

    The glass is 3.2 mm thick and soda-lime silicate.

    Carlos Araújo Queiroz

    With current technology diamond drilling is in principle not possible below around 0.75mm for the hole diameter, while a few millimeters would be required for tube drilling with abrasive slurry. About glass microdrilling using laser technology you may want to see:

  • Josef Punčochář added an answer in Science, Technology & Society Studies (STS):
    Is there still a gulf between scientists and ‘intellectuals’? Which of them have more influence on people’s worldviews?

    Traditional intellectuals –thinkers, writers, political and social commentators, and artists- have historically played a major role in the diffusion of the ideas that shape the ways people see the world and their own society and lives

    In the prominent book The Third Culture (1995), John Brockman claimed that these kinds of intellectuals have “become increasingly marginalized”. They are being replaced by scientists who, “through their work and expository writing”, communicate directly with the general public. These “third-culture intellectuals” would be represented by the likes of Paul Davies, Martin Rees, Richard Dawkins, Steve Jones, Daniel C. Dennett, Brian Goodwin, W. Daniel Hillis, Nicholas Humphrey and many others.  

    The culture of traditional intellectuals, says Brockman, “dismisses science”, is “often nonempirical”, uses “its own jargon”, and “is chiefly characterized by comment on comments, the swelling spiral of commentary eventually reaching the point where the real world gets lost”.

    The idea of a Third Culture has its origin in C.P. Snow’s influential “Two Cultures”   essay (1959), in which the British scientist and novelist deplored the “mutual incomprehension” –“sometimes hostility”-- between science and the arts. Scientists shared a “culture” –no matter their political, religious, social class and even disciplinary differences-, with common attitudes, standards, approaches, assumptions and patterns of behavior, At the opposite pole, attitudes were more diverse, but the total incomprehension gave an “unscientific flavor” –often almost “antiscientific”— to the whole “traditional culture”. Moreover, scientists largely overlooked traditional literature, which they perceived as irrelevant to their interests, while most intellectuals were unable to describe something as basic as the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

    Snow saw such disconnection and polarization as a “sheer lose” to society and stressed the need to build bridges between the sides. In a second essay, published in 1963, he suggested that the gap would be closed by a “Third Culture” that would eventually emerge. In his version of this new culture, intellectuals would communicate with scientists.    

    Not long ago, a column in Scientific American stated that Snow’s vision “has gone unrealized” (see Krauss, Lawrence M.: “An Update on C.P. Snow’s ‘Two Cultures’”, August 17, 2009).

    What is your opinion? Is there such a cultural divide? Are intellectuals scientifically illiterate? Do scientists ignore the basics of the humanities? Which of them have more influence on the public? What kind of Third Culture –if any- is emerging?

    + 4 more attachments

    Josef Punčochář

    Fully I agree with Mr. András Bozsik.

    I'm a little puzzled by a listed group of intellectuals (this feeling I have also in real life).

    I do not dare to define precisely who is it an intellectual. But it is absolutely clear to me that many of the listed groups are not intellectuals. Especially with the actors is often assumed that they have the ability of characters they play - and some actors thinks about himself the same :-)

    Intellectual must be able to properly reflect the broad context, draw clear conclusions and to communicate them to people - and his profession is not important.

  • Guy Jakeman added an answer in Rationality:
    How do the economists define self-interest and rationality?

    How do the economists define self-interest and rationality so as to make these concepts different from the animal instincts, beast behaviour, and barbarism? What is that which forms and what is that which does not form the self-interest? Moreover, are these the behavioural guides for all individuals? Are these the collective guides for policy making? 

    Given the propensity for free riding in each economic-beast, does not the collective policy results into a collective free riding of those who make policies over those who do not?

    Guy Jakeman

    @ Yoshinori: On re-reading your first post I think I see a flaw in your logic.

    You start out stating the standard premise that rationality simply means preferences are transitive. That is, if Smith prefers A to B and prefers B to C then Smith must prefer A to C.

    However, then you map a leap of logic to:

    "Rationality in economics is flawed in two aspects. It implies the following two propositions:
    (1) It is always possible to build and keep consistent preference among possible states.
    (2) It is always possible to find the solution (maximal solution) that gives the maximal value of the utility function u."

    You then proceed to show that these propositions are false. However, I fail to see how you can go from the axioms that people acting purposefully with the expectation that their action will improve their situation and the transitivity of preferences to these propositions. As far as I can see it is a complete strawman to even claim that economics makes these propositions w.r.t. the definition of rationality.

    Consequently, any notion that economics claims "complete rationality" or "excessive rationality" is, I think, false.

  • Chuanfu Wang added an answer in ZnO:
    About synthensis ZnO nanoparticles with size below 10nm. Is there a method with ethanol ?

    In many papers, Zinc aceate KOH and methanol was ued for the synthesis ,but I want a method by ethonal .Becuse methonal is dangerous with boiling at 70℃.

    Chuanfu Wang

    To answer this question, you have to find the inherent mechanism that involved in this synthesis strategy, i.e, what kind of roles methanol is playing in this procedure, is there any other chemicals my be used as a subsitute? then you would find whether EtOH is possible or not

  • Abdelbagi Ahmed asked a question in Dreams:
    How can we motivate young people to achieve their dreams in homeland??

    attitudes towards homeland?

  • Sanjeev Gupta asked a question in Calculations:
    Crystallite size calculation by XRD?

    How to calculate crystallite size by xrd ?

  • Burhan Ullah asked a question in Titania:
    What is the impact of hydroxide (-OH) on the reduction of Titania?

    High sintering temperature treatment result the reduction of Ti4+ while low temperature treatment inhibit this process. At low temperature treatment i found the existence of hydroxide (-OH) on the surface of sample, Can any one know the affect of hydroxide (-OH) on the reduction of Titania? Which parameters mainly controlled the reduction of Titania other then temperature?

  • Mehdi Rakhshandehroo added an answer in Green Space:
    Is there any planning design Planning for green space infrastructure within high-rise residential development?

    Am working on my final year development project and am searching for a good case study or planning design that integrates elements of GI within a High rise residential development.

    Attached is my preliminary design. Thanks

    Mehdi Rakhshandehroo

    Dear Peter Naibei, you can read the following book:

    International Guidelines on Urban and Territorial Planning
    First published in Nairobi in 2015 by UN-Habitat
    Copyright © United Nations Human Settlements Programme 2015
    United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat)
    HS Number: HS/059/15E

  • Kathiravan Kathiravan added an answer in Cyanoacrylates:
    How does the deprotonation of carboxylic acid reduces the acceptor strength of cyano- group?

    Dye with cyanoacrylic acid group found a potential anchoring for TiO2. However, if you deprotonate the acceptor strength of CN moiety is decreased. Due to what? 

    Kathiravan Kathiravan

    @ Mauricio Maldonado: Thanks for your answers

  • Roza Vlasova added an answer in Fluency:
    Can someone give me an article about the bias of fluency task (semantic and phonemic) ?

    I'm planning to use a fluency task but I hesistate on which one I can use. We investigate the mental flexibility of bilingual subjects. 

    Roza Vlasova

    And what about free association task or free verbal fluency task? It's common task for executive functions measuring in Russia. 


    It's like semantic fluency, but you can measure number of switchings between semantic categories and number of exemplars in each category.     

  • Mehdi Rakhshandehroo added an answer in Landscape Architecture:
    Life in urban green spaces: what are the goals?

    Many landscape architects develop green spaces in or near urban areas. Two goals of this type project are to increase biodiversity and bioremediation functionality. How are these parameters measured in landscape architecture? Is it best to assess green space biological goals (or habitat restoration for that fact) in terms of guild richness/diversity, trophic species richness/diversity, or functional group richness/diversity? 

    I must ask, are these metrics important in the field of landscape architecture? 

    Mehdi Rakhshandehroo

    The increase of the spare time, of urban resident’s and pressure of work and study enhances their demand for open green space. Generally, the determining of necessary work time and to have more time make the leisure activities, which help people engage in self-creation activity and relaxation of body and soul, possible. People’s desire for fresh air, natural views and natural attractions, which reflects people’s natural perception; the latter reflects their social behavior. During the long historical time period, human has used a kind of ability to appreciate nature, to get the flavor of life and formed some psychological processes dependency on nature.

  • S.s. Das asked a question in Saudi Arabia:
    Why does Saudi Arabia not accept refugee? What is its approach regarding refugees?

    What is your opinion? 

  • Gayathri Purushothaman asked a question in Expression:
    Membrane protein expression in E.coli will be on membrane region or cytoplasmic region of the bacteria???????

    I am trying to express a mammalian membrane protein in E.coli, The sequence is optimized and inserted into a pMAL based bacterial vectorsystem .Since it is a membrane protein ,If it is express in the bacterial system , would it express in membrane region (since it is a membrane protein) or in the cytoplasmic region ( Fusion protein MBP will express in the cytoplasm) ????

  • Navjot Kaur added an answer in Plant Pathology:
    What is jornal do you follow in plant pathology field?

    what is jornal do you follow in plant pathology field? , and what is the best journal for publish paper ?

    Navjot Kaur

    Plant Disease, Phytopathology and Molecular Plant-microbe interactions are the good ones.

  • Amir Abidov asked a question in Visualization:
    Can you recommend me crystal structure simulator freeware?

    I need crystal structure simulator freeware for visualizing crystals. Please recommend me one

  • Mehdi Rakhshandehroo added an answer in Urban Design:
    Can anyone provide information on green urban design standard of the dry and hot region?

    Standard:1 How to determine buildings density? 2 Street gird. 3 Whats the relation between buildings density and urban open space and urban ventilation. 3 Form of architecture.

    Mehdi Rakhshandehroo

    Dear Jiaran Hou, you can refer to the following book:

    International Guidelines on Urban and Territorial Planning
    First published in Nairobi in 2015 by UN-Habitat
    Copyright © United Nations Human Settlements Programme 2015
    United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat)
    HS Number: HS/059/15E

  • Alaaeldin Elsisi added an answer in Fibre:
    How can I apply pretension in ANSYS for two glued parts?

    Hi there,

    I am facing a problem regarding the pretension loading. I need to apply axially uniform pretension load in the fibre prior matrix cure ( composite materials) and then releasing the pretension in the fibre after the matrix has been cured. I am trying the pretension section element but this method is correct if the two parts ( fibre and matrix) are not bonded to each other. I think pretension section is only work for bolted joints due to the non welded parts (non bonded) existence. If I apply the pretension section, the load will distributed non uniformly due to bonding between fibre and matrix after curing. The problem is very similar to prestressed concert simulation. 

    Thank you  

    Alaaeldin Elsisi

    Thank you, definitely you will need multi load cell. The prestress effect load like each other loads you will need to apply it in a load step and then remove it later.

  • Gladys Miryam Lopez added an answer in SDS-PAGE:
    SDS PAGE light band, how to solve it?

    Hi guys, my SDS PAGE result is very light, cannot differentiate different MW compared to standard, my loading sample concentration is around 1.5ug/ul. What can be the problem and how to solve it?


    Gladys Miryam Lopez

    Try to concentrate the sample witn amicon or similar

  • Amal Elsonbaty added an answer in Graphene Oxide:
    Why are temperatures between 95 and 100 degrees centigrade optimum for reduced graphene oxide synthesis by Hydrazine from Grephene oxide?

    In most papers 95 to 100 degree centigrade is used to synthesize RGO. Why arent temperatures above 100 degree like 150,200,250 used to synthesize graphene?

    Amal Elsonbaty

    Dear Subanta Majumdar

    What do you mean by adding hydrazine hydrate in small small amount in 20 min interval. Do you mean adding 1 ml hydrazine each 20 min or what, please can you help me??


  • César Augusto Martinez added an answer in Regression Analysis:
    How can I calculate or estimate the interactions of several variables to predict an outcome?

    Sometimes there are lots of variables which are related to predict an outcome and can be considered confounders of each other. So, regression analysis usually help adjust for these variables. 

    The situation will be complicated if 2 or 3 outcomes are related with other and happen together frequently. In this case, how can we accurately and scientifically estimate the interaction of independent and dependent variables?

    How can we find that " which independent variable is the strongest predictor of each outcome?

    thanks for your comments in advance

    César Augusto Martinez

    Several tests and methods to identify and break multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation are problems when variables are closely correlated. This is a general way.

  • Philip Kum-Nji added an answer in Infants:
    What are the best visual attention-grabbers for infants aged 5-9 months?

    I need some small, dynamic and attractive stimuli to bring attention to the center of the screen for a preferential looking/ eyetracking study. Does anyone know what works the best, including sounds etc.? I have seen others use small colourful GIFs (e.g. a wiggling animal character, or spinning toy) - any tried and tested ones that are available would be great!

    Philip Kum-Nji

    Try using a very bright (preferably red) object.  Infants even newborns prefer looking at very bright objects. 

  • Ming Gao added an answer in Patch-Clamp Electrophysiology:
    How can I dissolve BAPTA in intracellular solution for patch clamp recordings?

    I want to use 10mM BAPTA in k-gluconate-based internal solution for whole-cell patch clamp recordings but I have difficulties to dissolve it.

    I know it is possible to add BAPTA (acid) directly to the internal solution by adjusting the pH (with KOH) or dissolving it in 0.3N sodium bicarbonate before adding it to the internal solution.

    I would be very thankful if you could share your experience!

    Ming Gao

    Hello Silvana, I had the same problem with gigaseals, It is very difficult. Did you fix the problems? If yes, can you give me some tips. Thanks.

  • Marković G. Đoko added an answer in Didactics:
    Which are, in your opinion, the most important issues of modern didactics?

    Didactic has long been constructed as a separate field of study, and today is probably the most advanced pedagogical discipline. However, not only in my opinion, but in opinion of most famous educators in the field of teaching and didactics are expected in the present and near future many fundamental review. Compared to most other inherited or new components of school and many relations that exist within the school system, teaching is essentially little changed, although it is constantly upgraded, refined, modernized, etc.

    Marković G. Đoko

    "Most of the teaching methods rely on the teacher that explain the scientific material, and the student's role is to listen to the teacher. This method has many disadvantages. In my opinion, there should be interaction between the student and professor during the lecture, like the dialogue, try to match during the lecture between what students learn with practice in which the student lives, need to use diversity of teaching methods. As well as the possibility of asking questions with simple answers from the teacher relating about the subject at the beginning of his explanation to flatten the student's attention." -  Qasim Mohammed Hussein

  • Irmawati Norazman added an answer in Transfer Learning:
    What are the factors which facilitate transfer of learning?

    What are the factors which facilitate transfer of learning?

    Irmawati Norazman


    The most cited model of the learning transfer field are Baldwin and Ford as well as Holton, et.al. . These two models had been used for empirical study for employee development. Baldwin and Ford emphasized 3 main factors while Holton, et.al. focused on 16 factors of learning/training transfer.

  • Sudip Mukherjee added an answer in Silver Nanoparticles:
    In synthesizing silver nanoparticles the uv-vis absorption maximum formed at 404, is it a clear indication of formation of nano silver particles?

    previously ,the absorption maximum of synthesized nano silver is formed at 430nm. but when maintain ph =8 or 9 , the absorption is shifted to 404nm .please give me your valuable suggestion

    + 1 more attachment

    Sudip Mukherjee

    In higher pH your AgNPs may get aggregation it seems. You check the size and morphology and zeta potential by TEM and DLS.

  • Ali Ameen Abd Ali added an answer in Igor Pro:
    Does any one know how to normalise the spectra using Igor Pro?

    Hi there, I want to know if there is a function in Igor Pro by which I can normalise the spectra to unity for instance. Otherwise, I am able to do this in excel which gives also a nice output. thanks in advance. 

    Ali Ameen Abd Ali

    Thanks Jeffery.

  • Turlough F. Guerin added an answer in Corporate Governance:
    Have any researchers in the sphere of corporate governance know of a credible "wiki" or similar list of terms commonly used (in corporate governance)?

    Here are two, but I am interested in others that perhaps not readily discoverable via search engines: 



    Turlough F. Guerin

    Thanks Aileen and Rozalia

  • Mohamed Alkhatim Alsammani asked a question in Paired T-Test:
    Can anyone tell us aproperiate statistical site to calculate the p value for paired t test from the mean and standard deviation

    Paired t test from mean and standard deviation