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  • Antibody sharing among NIH funded labs?

    I am starting a new project, and as a result I am in need of a lot of new antibodies. My PI said he would rather I ask other labs that synthesize their own antibodies for aliquots to use in my experiments instead of purchasing them. I have no idea how to find other labs that synthesize the antibodies I need (pFOXO1, nuclear FOXO1, phospho-beta catenin, total Foxo1, total beta catenin, caspase 1, etc)... Does anyone else know? I did find some hybridoma banks that charge only $35 for antibodies, and that is very useful, but they still do not have the antibodies I need. Is there some sort of antibody sharing database or something? Is there a way to find NIH investigators that make their own antibodies (I was told NIH investigators are required to share things like antibodies with other NIH investigators)?

    Christopher Daniel Duntsch · Hybrid Bioscience, Inc., Synthetic Investments, Inc., The University of Tennessee Health Science Center


    All scientists, independent, or NIH, that are Academic have an ideologic and actual obligation to give whatever you ask for in good faith and for collegiate and collaboration basics in research.


    The PI is not so ethical, and for many reasons will not cooperate stating reasons that are not quite true. In one my postdoc labs, my PI held a ko mouse model for 3 months so he could publish in cell before a completive lab in germany on inside knowledge they were close.

    If the reagent or biomaterial is very novel and in early RD, and discovery science, it may be held for some time in this case. Or transferred with a MTA.

    In most good labs the PI will even pay for the packaging and shipping to you. If someone does help you here, you should acknowledge them in your research documentation and publication.

    Antibodies are tricki, whether abcam, NIH banks, or PI labs. They will vary lot to lot, and you will constantly have issues with positive and negative controls and test variability if the antibody is not well characterized and if you are not given enough to use the same ab for all experiments.

    Do a pub med search for all, review the methods, experiments, data, results, figures, and source of antibodies. Make a list of what you think is working best, contact the corresponding author. He or she will typically forward the email to the senior lab tech and request they assist you.


  • How do I count the total pixel of certain color in an image using 'bwlabel' command of MATLAB?

    I am working on a hyperspectral image and already extract a red color from the RGB image. How do I count the total pixel of the red area using 'bwlabel' command in MATLAB? or any other suggestions?

    Rina Syazwani · Universiti Malaysia Perlis

    I already use the syntax but there's an error while execution.

  • How to perform Genetic Algorithm based multi class Image Classification?

    I want to do a multi class (i.e. Urban, Water, Vegetation, Bare ground) image classification by using Genetic Algorithm (GA). Can anyone please suggest me that how to make a fitness function in matlab for the same, or is there any other tool or matlab code available to perform this classification.

    Tasneem Ahmed · Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

    Thank you so much Bekk..!

  • Philippe Roger Bovy added an answer in Amino Acids:
    What is the minimum distance between two amino acid residues to make interaction?

    hello every one,

    what is the minimum distance between two amino acid residues to form disulfide, hydrogen bond and ionic interaction.

    thank you.

    Philippe Roger Bovy · Université de Caen Basse-Normandie

    Disulfide bond  is covalent (and reversible) and about 2.05 angstrom in length.

  • Tianyuan Xiao asked a question in Materials Studio:
    How control shape of nanocluster using Materials Studio?

    Hi, I would like to build a hexagonal nanocluster using Materials Studio. But in the software, the shape choices are not including hexagonal. Can anyone please help me out with that? Thanks!

  • Arnold Trehub added an answer in Cognitive Systems:
    Is Chalmers' so-called "hard problem" in consciousness real?

    In his 2014 book "Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts" Stanislas Dehaene wrote "Chalmers, a philosopher of the University of Arizona, is famous for introducing a distinction between the easy and the hard problems. The easy problem of consciousness, he argues, consists in explaining the many functions of the brain: how do we recognize a face, a word, or a landscape? How do we extract information form the senses and use it to guide our behavior? How do we generate sentences to describe what we feel?

    “Although all these questions are associated with consciousness,” Chalmers argues, “they all concern the objective mechanisms of the cognitive system, and consequently, we have every reason to expect that continued work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience will answer them. By contrast the hard problem is the “question of how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience … the way things feel for the subject. When we see for example, we experience visual sensations, such as that of vivid blue. Or think of the ineffable sound of a distant oboe, the agony of an intense pain, the sparkle of happiness or the meditative quality of a moment lost in thought … It is these phenomena that poses the real mystery of the mind”."

    Stanislas Dehaene's opinion is "that Chalmers swapped the labels: it is the “easy” problem that is hard, while the “hard” problem just seems hard because it engages ill-defined intuitions. Once our intuition is educated by cognitive neuroscience and computer simulations, Chalmers’ “hard problem” will evaporate".

    Personally, I agree with Stanislas Dehaene's opinion.

    Arnold Trehub · University of Massachusetts Amherst


    Yo told us what to look for but you didn't tell us how we have proof that we found it. That is the example I asked for isn't it? ; )

  • What is the bank to which we can send lichen species for identification?


    This is a new species of lichen found. Will I get the coordinates of a bank to send the specimen?

    Thank you.

    Will K Reeves · Air Force Research Laboratory

    Try Arizona State University

    They have a lichen herbarium


  • Do you know any articles, books or research papers on Semiomarketing?

    I'm interested in fashion semiomarketing, but they could also be about art semiomarketing, or just plain semiomarketing. I'm having a hard time find references.

    Thanks in advance for your help!

    Shian-Loong Bernard Lew · Taylor's University

    A UK edition of Wired magazine featured a main article on neuromarketing-especially on the science of sublimal marketing.

  • Mohammed Nadeem added an answer in Marketing:
    Which metrics to use to measure marketing effectiveness and marketing efficiency?

    Which metrics should we use to measure marketing effectiveness and marketing efficiency?

    Do you agree that marketing performance = marketing effectiveness + marketing efficiency + adaptability ?

    Please list those metrics that you usually use in your MPMS. (marketing performance management system).

    Mohammed Nadeem · National University (California)

    Hi, Kenan:

    For many marketers, more numbers have resulted in more confusion. This 'tyranny of choice'  has resulted in metric fads (chasing fans), or metric overload (report everything, just in case). We need clear, back-to-basics thinking. Marketers must trace a clear 'line of sight' from business strategy to digital metrics. Take cereal. Growth comes from growing the market (eat more corn flakes) or share (eat our corn flakes). Let's say we want to grow the market by persuading people to make chocolate cornflake crispies. That means visits and dwell time on the recipe page has a direct link to growth strategy. So don't ignore digital metrics - or waste resources driving metrics that don't matter, it doesn't have to be complicated. Just take the time to think it (Saha, 2012) through!

    High impact digital marketing! perhaps is the way to go!  Because high-impact digital advertisements, which feature large and often interactive formats, are known for driving consumer response rates higher than those of standard display. In a recent research study by BARON, BROUWER, & GARBAYO,  (2014), for Kellogg Company, shed new light on the role of high-impact advertising within its overall digital portfolio, as guidance for maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency of its marketing investments. Although the incremental lift of branding effectiveness perhaps was not surprising, the results quantified the magnitude of that lift, helping marketers and publishers assess the value of high-impact units. The results also demonstrated that full-screen interactive formats, which often are considered to be interruptive, deliver the highest likeability scores and the deepest brand connection, along with the highest likelihood of retransmission and virality!

    • Saha, S. (2012). Which metrics tell me whether my digital marketing is working?. Marketing (00253650), 23.
    • BARON, S. D., BROUWER, C., & GARBAYO, A. (2014). A Model for Delivering Branding Value Through High-Impact Digital Advertising. Journal Of Advertising Research, 54(3), 286-291.

    Hope this helps!


  • Anil Kumar Pal asked a question in SPR:
    What type of formulation and software are used for simulation of Electric field at gaps among plasmonic nanoparticles present in a thin film?

    I have two or more Ag nanoparticles present at a nanometer gap from each other. When UV-Vis light is incident, SPR is created. I want to do simulation to observe the Local Electric field intensity distribution due to absorption of incident light in UV-Visible region. 

  • K. Prakash Kumar added an answer in Induction Motor:
    How do you size the capacitor rating required for an induction motor?

    How do you size the capacitor rating required for an induction motor?

    K. Prakash Kumar · VIT University

    Find the magnitude of reactive power you have to compensate. It depends on the improvement of power factor that you want. Similar calculations can be referred from any basic book ,dealing with power factor correction.

  • Mary Bresnahan added an answer in Aversive Therapy:
    Do you believe obligation can be benevolent or is the perception of obligation always aversive?
    Kant described benevolence in obligation. Are there any situations in which people might regard being in a situation of obligation to others as benevolent?
    Mary Bresnahan · Michigan State University

    Some people do favors for others because they expect reciprocation.  Once the favor is repaid the obligation is done.  Other people do favors with a happy heart to reinforce their membership in their group.  They get love and inclusion in return and positive face. Like you, in spite of their in-group obligation, they would not open their flat to out-group members.  Often these behaviors are culturally conditioned not just human.  There is permeability in the meaning of morals and morality.  Here across the big pond people are struggling with the meaning of marriage, for example.  Both sides of this argument speak to their supreme stand of morals and morality.  There is no absolute standard except perhaps a legal one (likely ruling of the Supreme Court).  Even with such laws in place, I read that a local bakery has opted not to make cakes for gay weddings.  Morals is not a slam-dunk standard.

  • Arpit Arvind Khandelwal asked a question in Signaling:
    In a photoconductor, is there any relation between the frequency of the input optical signal and frequency of the generated electrical signal?

    What are the effects of the frequency of the incident optical signal on the characteristics of a photo-conductor?

  • I need an specific antibody for human cells.
    I'm working with human stem cell grafts using mice as acceptor animals. Does anybody know a good antibody that works well in paraffin embedded tissue? The anti-human nuclei (MAB1281) that Millipore sells is not good in my opinion. Does anybody have experience using anti-NCAM in an adult human brain?
    Christopher Daniel Duntsch · Hybrid Bioscience, Inc., Synthetic Investments, Inc., The University of Tennessee Health Science Center

    As discussed

  • Syed Rizvi asked a question in Running:
    To determine the Kováts retention index of an unknown compound, is that necessary to run smaller alkane standards than the unknown compound??

    suppose if my unknown compound is ethanol than should I run C1 to C5 standard otherwise how to choose standard range.

  • Anandkumar Veerapillai asked a question in Microwind:
    I need to model MEMRISTOR in microwind; can anyone tell me a equivalent circuit of memristor which we can implement in microwind?

    I need to model MEMRISTOR in microwind; can anyone tell me a equivalent circuit of memristor which we can implement in microwind?

  • Ahmed Dhamad asked a question in Web:
    Does someone know a web sit(s) by which we can check the biological conferences in the USA?

    Hello there...

    Does someone know a web sit(s) by which we can check the biological conferences (specially not expensive ones) in the USA ? Thanks in advance. 

  • Andreas Leineweber added an answer in TOPAS:
    How to interpret the results of microstrain calculation from TOPAS software?

    I have performed XRD of CeO2 and used TOPAS for calculation of microstrain. I followed the procedure exactly mentioned in the TOPAS manual but could draw conclusion from the study

    Andreas Leineweber · Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg

    Carful with the numbers, they contain a factor! The numbers from the Strain_G and Strain_L commands contain from my present knowledge still the infamous 180°/pi factor. Use the e0_from_Strain reporting command.

  • Craig Dremann added an answer in Weed Biology:
    Do we have enough information on the eradication of weeds like Eupatorium, Lantana etc. ?

    Can anyone suggest any experimental design for the eradication of weeds?

    Craig Dremann · The Reveg Edge

    Dear Soni,  Thanks for your reply.  I am going to suggest another perspective on these weeds--From a California perspective on how we must look at the 1,000+ introduced exotic plant species that cover 99.99% of our State from sea level to 1,000 meters elevation.  

    Obviously when weeds are that thick and covering 100s of thousands of square miles, eradication is nearly an impossible goal.  What we must do is substitute a native plant from the original under story, to take the place of the weed(s).  

    It is like a chess game, and you have to do at least two things, get your native players on the board, and find out what the strengths of your weeds are compared to your native players.  For agriculture areas, means you have to sow natives with the crops, to suppress the weeds for example.

    In wildlands, each terrestrial plant gives off in their roots, stems and leaves, herbicide-like chemicals called allelochemicals that suppress other plants, and sometimes with perennial plants, the leaves and stem chemicals will suppress their own seedlings, so that the adult plants do not get crowded out.  

    You can find the native under story plant that can substitute for the weed(s) by doing very small scale tests, by planting seedlings of the weeds with different densities of seedlings of the native plants, and see who wins.  Or look at the edge of the weed infestations, and see where the native understory is still intact and keeping the weeds in check, like in a game of chess. 

    Is there any money from your institution, to investigate the conversion of these weed areas, by using local native understory plants as substitutes for the weeds ?

  • Sajid Hussain asked a question in Raw Materials:
    How to construct price index of raw material for cross section data?

    i have different items in raw material. i need price of raw material for my translog cost function. please guide me.

  • Are 1 and 3 cestode eggs in the feces of American mink (Neovison vison)?

    Samples are from western Russia


    1. ø = 0,0216 mm
    2. 0,024-0,0144 mm
    3. ø = 0,0216 mm
    Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales · Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira

    Dear Egor

    I recommend you to use the service of Diagnostic Assistance of the CDC for Parasites. This is very useful. I have used it before, being a good help.

    Please check this link: http://www.cdc.gov/dpdx/contact.html

    There, is also the information required to send the images for diagnosis.

    Finally, please if you consider this answer appropriate, please upvote it using the green up arrow click. Thanks.

  • Ewen A Griffiths added an answer in Survey:
    Do you use prophylactic antibiotics in laparoscopic cholecystectomy?

    The West Midlands Surgical Research Collaborative (http://wmresearch.org.uk/)is in early stages of planning a randomised control trial of perioperative antibiotics based on data from the CholeS Study. To determine if this is feasible, we would appreciate if you had 2 minutes to fill out a survey which can be found at – Antibiotic Survey (this link may not work from hospital computers).


    We would be very grateful for your comments.

    All the best

    Ewen Griffiths on behalf of the WMRC

    Ewen A Griffiths · University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust

    Thanks Awais - can I ask what evidence you use to justify your approach?


  • Can anyone help to identify this structure found in a processed ostrich skin with SEM?

    This structure was found within a small skin lesion on the skin / leather.  We suspect some sort of parasite is involved in causing the lesions

    Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales · Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira

    Dear Anel

    I recommend you to use the service of Diagnostic Assistance of the CDC for Parasites. This is very useful. I have used it before, being a good help.

    Please check this link: http://www.cdc.gov/dpdx/contact.html

    There, is also the information required to send the images for diagnosis.

    Finally, please if you consider this answer appropriate, please upvote it using the green up arrow click. Thanks.

  • What is "optics balata" ? In reference to microsopy in botany.

    I am editing a manuscript on botany where it is stated that plant samples are fixed in paraffin, sectioned, stained, and then pressurized with optics balata. I cannot find this term in a Google search and botany is not my field. Can anyone enlighten me as to whether this is a valid term? Or is there something more common to suggest as a replacement?

  • Is there a solid counter-argument against Dingle's old objection to Relativity Theory?
    Herbert Dingle's argument is as follows (1950):

    According to the theory, if you have two exactly similar clocks, A and B, and one is moving with respect to the other, they must work at different rates,i.e. one works more slowly than the other. But the theory also requires that you cannot distinguish which clock is the 'moving' one; it is equally true to say that A rests while B moves and that B rests while A moves. The question therefore arises: how does one determine, 3 consistently with the theory, which clock works the more slowly? Unless the question is answerable, the theory unavoidably requires that A works more slowly than B and B more slowly than A - which it requires no super- intelligence to see is impossible. Now, clearly, a theory that requires an impossibility cannot be true, and scientific integrity requires, therefore, either that the question just posed shall be answered, or else that the theory shall be acknowledged to be false.
    Charles Francis · Jesus College, Cambridge

    Zhililiang, The apparatus of the MM experiment is reference matter.

  • How can we generate global mass matrix output in abaqus?
    I have tried using so many things but it is not working. I have tried using matrix generate, element matrix output etc.
    Maryam Hosseini · Purdue University

    Thanks, I figured it out a day after I posted the question. The only tips is that you need to define it as a separate step.

  • Gyan Chandra Chauthwani asked a question in MATLAB:
    How to change the time span time steps in ODE45 in MATLAB?

    Actually I have tried so many options for changing the time steps in ODE45. For example I have changed from tspan [t0 tf] to tspan[t0,t1,t2,t3.....,tf].

    Bot nothong worked MATLAB does it its own way for deciding the time steps.

    This takes too much time for the solution as it is not in control.

    Can any one please tell me the solution for this problem?

    Also we can not write the results of ODE45 in to a file directly, is there any way for doing it ?

    Thanks in advance...

  • Will K Reeves added an answer in CGI:
    What is the difference in the creation of a phylogenetic tree with/without the outgroup ?

    HI everyone, 

    I'm trying to build a phylogenic tree for the insulin protein throught various species.

    In order to do this I'm using a website that allow the creation of tree. Here is the link to the page of the website I use : 
    But the arrangement of the phylogenic tree resulting is not the same if I take, or not, the outgroup (take a look at the pictures attached).

    I know the calculus is not the same and that it use Markov Chains but nothing more.

    So can anyone explain to me why the results are different?
    Thank you for your help.

    Will K Reeves · Air Force Research Laboratory

    Basically the out group will "root" the tree.  The outgroup should have the basal characters that diverge in your tree and without that the tree only shows similarity between groups but not which ones are most derived.