Social Networks

Social Networks

  • Sander L Hitzig added an answer:
    Any suggestions on how to find the following scales in Chinese?

    Seeking the Lubbens Social Network Scale, Katz Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, The DeJong Loneliness Scale, the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire, and the General Health Questionnaire-12. Any suggestions on how to obtain these scales in Chinese would be greatly appreciated.

    Thank you.

    Sander L Hitzig

    Thanks for these suggestions. Greatly appreciated!   I'll look into them.

  • Ekaterina Damer added an answer:
    What are the best crowdsourcing services similar to Amazon Mechanical Turk in Europ?

    I would like to use away to use Amazon Mechanical Turk for my own survey application, but it seems It is not possible for those who are not resident of USA or don't have USA credit card.

    I found some services such as crowdflower,, smartsheet which use mturk as a ground layer and built upon it and also some other similar platforms such as Cloudcrowd or Samesource..

    However, I am not quite sure which one more suits my goal, and what are the limitations for the tasks that we can put on mturk (if there is any limitation)

    I really appreciate all your ideas,

    Ekaterina Damer

    Hi Daniel,
    Prolific works such that you insert a survey link in order to start collecting responses (you can find more info here: We do not provide representative samples as such, but rather randomly chosen sub-samples of all participants that are eligible your study. I'm not entirely sure about the other platforms. Hope this helps :)

  • James Shanahan added an answer:
    Any articles about the relationship between social networking and framework to connected learning? Digital informal learning could become a method?

    I need references or articles about the relationship between social networking and new framework to connected learning.

     Digital informal learning could become a method?

    James Shanahan

    Dear Beatrice I found some articles which I hope will be useful.

    Ala-Mukta, K. Learning in Informal Online Networks and Communities. JRC Scientific and Technical Reports. 1-77.

    Boyd, D.M. & Ellison,N.B. (2008). Social Network Sites: Definition, History and Scholarship. Journal of Computer Medicated Communication. 13, 210-230.

    Dabbagh, N &Kitsantas, A. (2012). Personal Learning Environments, social media, and self-regulated learning: A natural formula for connecting formal and informal learning. Internet and Higher Education.

    Hudley, E. (2012). Social media as an Educational Tool in University Level Geography. Teaching Innovations Project. Vol.2, Iss.1, Article 5. :

    McLoughlin, C. & Lee, M.J.W. (2007). Social software and participatory learning: Pedagogical choices with technology affordances in the Web. 2.0 era. Proceedings ascilite Singapore. 664-675.

    Minocha, Shailey (2009). A case study-based investigation of students’ experiences with social software tools. New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, 15(3), 245–265.

    Pătruţ, B, Pătruţ, A. & Cmeciu, C. Social Media and the New Academic Environment: Pedagogical Challenges. Information Science Reference.

    Williams. R.W. (2012). Digital Immigrant Teacher Perceptions of Social Media as it Influences the Affective and Cognitive Development of Students: A Phenomenological Study. PhD Dissertation. Liberty University, USA.

  • Cynthy Haihambo added an answer:
    Do you consider how the student interacts with his fellows/teachers/parents/friends as part of the student's Learning Styles?

    Studies in Learning Styles are quite different in the way they conceive the scope of Learning Styles. For examples, Coffield et al. (2004) identified 5 families of learning styles:

    • constitutionally-based learning styles and preferences
    • cognitive structure stable
    • stable personality type
    • ‘flexibly' stable personality type
    • learning approaches and strategies.

    In each family, there are many models and inventories to examine student's Learning Styles. Coffield et al. gathered these models which are counted to 71 model. I already studied many of these models but I couldn't find any inventory that consider how the students interact in their social network (real life and online) as part of their learning styles. First, do you know any inventory that include this factor? If not, do you consider this thought worth studying?

    Coffield, F., Moseley, D., Hall, E., & Ecclestone, K. (2004). Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: A systematic and critical review. Trowbridge, Wiltshire: Learning & Skills Research Centre.

    Cynthy Haihambo

    As long as education is a one way traffic, we know that we have started the journey but we are far from arriving.  But when we start learning from each other in learning settings, irrespective of age, the degrees and title we carry etc, we sure are truly learning! So we need all the bits and pieces from all role players to form the whole we call knowledge. 

  • Marc Arakaki asked a question:
    What examples of "location-based social networks" do you use? and how does it affect your life?

    Farman (2014)    What examples of "location-based social networks" do you use? and how does it affect your life?

  • Valdis Krebs added an answer:
    How can I rank nodes in Social networks ?

    I have a social network of actors and edges and I want to rank the nodes according to their position in the network . I tried the centrality measure based rankings but looking for a better combination of these centrality measures or any new methods /algorithm to rank these nodes according to their importance and position in the networks

    Valdis Krebs

    Which centrality measures did you use?  Why did you not like them?  What are you trying to show?

    One measure I like and often use is how many closed triangles does a node belong to? (A is linked to B is linked to C is linked A).  This tends to find those nodes in the dense core as mentioned by Edgar above. Another is diversity -- how many links to how many different groups does a node have?  These tend to be the boundary spanners.

  • Edgar Reyes Reyes Junior added an answer:
    How can I draw some beautiful social network mapping efficiently?

    Hello, everyone, now I embark on an new research about the relationship on Twitter. However, I was confused how can I map a large amount of links on one map quickly. I have a 250000*250000 0 or 1sparse matrixI which represents the relationship on Twitter. I tried some software like Gephi, but it is too slow to draw the picture on it and it often fail to work. I tried package igraph on R and it runs a whole night and end up with a picture. However, it is very ugly...  Can you give me some advice to deal with it with igraph? or can you recommand some powerful software for me? Thank you very much!

    Edgar Reyes Reyes Junior

    I would use the Netdraw, but after assembly of the network, would select the most central actors to allow a better view. If you are interested in any peripheral region, I recommend using the Zoom tool.

  • Raman Kumar added an answer:
    What is an alternative to a pattern matrix (as in, factor analysis)?

    I am supposed to run an empirical research on the attitude towards social media marketing. 

    The independent variables are: communication, attitude towards social networks in general, average use of SM and the belonging to brand communities as a form of engagement.

    The dependent variable is the attitude towards social media advertising.

    First I have to run the factor analysis and analyze the pattern matrix, if the variables are good go on with a multiple regression, but with a same bundle of items one of the two doesn't work!! Which means, if I do a linear regression of the dependent variable with the four independent i get a pretty decent R2 adjusted value, but with the same factors i can't seem to get a proper pattern matrix. If instead, i leave out a factor I get a perfect pattern matrix, but then the R2 value is inferior than 10%.

    An alternative to the pattern matrix for the factor analysis? 


    Raman Kumar

    Kindly test the collected data for normality and distribution. If results don't  fall in acceptable range then make an attempt to examine outliers ( remove if any).  Then perform Exploratory factor analysis. Hope you may get the expected R-squired value.

  • Irene B. Teich added an answer:
    How do I categorise the information sources in external information search?

    I am searching for articles on external information search (empirical studies) that combine both offline information sources AND online information sources.

    Most articles that I have been reading use traditional marketing channels (e.g. personal vs impersonal) which predate Internet and today's social networking sites.

    I would appreciate anybody's help regarding this matter. Thank you in advance

    Irene B. Teich

    There is another way: Don't do it. Let it be done by an Enterprise Search System. Some of them are listed on my website (see link below).  Don't care about the Geman. The list is important and most of them provide English websites.

  • Behrouz Ahmadi-Nedushan added an answer:
    Which ResearchGate features you find most useful and how could they be further improved?
    Which ResearchGate features are most useful to you and how would you like to improve them?
  • Emad Abu-Shanab added an answer:
    Can you help me understand the response to survey on sharenting behaviour in Ireland?

    A survey conducted by eircom shows that only 14% of parents post images, status updates or blog posts about their child(ren) on social media (vs. 90% in Australia, or 56% in the US, as per other studies).

    Is there something about the Irish culture, or the technical infrastructure, that could explain such low levels?

    If not, it is something about the sample, or about the question, right? Or could there be another reason that I am missing?

    For reference, the question was: ‘Sharents’ are parents who blog, tweet and post pictures online about aspects of their children’s lives. Are you, or do you have the potential, to be a ‘Sharenter’ in the future?

    eircom's report is available here:


    Emad Abu-Shanab

    Can I ask what was the scale of this question. You know that this is a double question. So response might be yes... or yes and I am 80% ... or yes and 50%.. or No at all... So it would help to see the question.

    I would guess that cultural issues related to privacy perceptions are important here...

    More info will help

  • Jarnishs Beltran added an answer:
    How do you work out density of a social network in UCInet?

    social network analysis. is there a way to work this out using the computer program UCInet?

    Jarnishs Beltran


  • Wayne Wright added an answer:
    Is there any practical research on relation of contemporary public spaces and social networks?

    Generally, I am searching for the new realms that Social networks add to contemporary Public spaces.

    Wayne Wright

    Just a few suggestions - some articles I found helpful while undertaking placemaking studies;

    Some interesting reports from an Australian perspective at  including

    The two books "Creative Communities" and "Sustainable Everyday" freely downloaded from here are very good

    Anything by Gilbert Rochecouste is well worth reading/watching

    Similarly, you may want to have a look at any writings/studies by the New Urbanism movement - including Wendy Morris and Paul Murrain.

    Finally, I have attached a couple of articles, including a literature review which may generate some other ideas to pursue.

    I trust these are of use.


    + 1 more attachment

  • Siti Salina Saidin added an answer:
    Can we relate a social cognitive theory with usage of online context or social network?

    technology management people

    Siti Salina Saidin

    Dear Elco Van Burg,

    Looking forward to read ur paper..My email:

    Best regards,


  • Valdis Krebs added an answer:
    There is any theory supporting social networks of entrepreneurship?

    social networks are identified as one of the socio cultural factor by many researcher's but the theoretical linkage of the factor with entrepreneurship was yet to be defined. so please anyone help me in this theory identification

    is there any supporting social networks and entrepreneurship

    Valdis Krebs

    As a practicing entrepreneur, specializing in social and organizational network analysis, who is celebrating 20 years in business this year, I have observed the following network "rules" bring good results. 
    * strong ties are better than weak ties

    * part of your network needs to be diverse, while another part needs to be homophilous

    * structural holes are useful, but know when to close them

    * connect on your similarities and benefit from your differences

    * golden rule of networks is the same as the golden rule of real estate:
       - location, location, location!

     This is actual experience, not theory!

  • Miranda Yeoh added an answer:
    Do you notice that your students spend a lot of time on social networks? What are the effects that you noted on them?
    My students spend a lot of time on FB. When I asked, "Do you get into FB everyday?"; a student responded, "Every hour, madam".
    What are the effects on them that you noted? What is our role as educators, in this matter? (Please share your experiences.)
    Miranda Yeoh

    Thanks dear @Nelson, for very accurate understanding and description of the effects of social media.  You have said most of it, I agree entirely.  Bravo!

    What I have been doing the past year is using Whatsapp group with each of my tutorial classes.  There are 20-25 in a tutorial class.  I answer my students' questions and I encourage them.  Thanks to all of you.

  • Debra Sharon Ferdinand added an answer:
    Are there any written, detailed examples of social network contagion or social amplification in action in terms of stigma?

    I am interested in connecting social network contagion and/or social amplification to a number of actual scenarios: negative and/or positive. I am particularly interested in replication of harmful rumor in proscribed, renewing populations such as neighborhoods and schools. In addition, I would like to see examples of crises caused by such social circumstances.

    Debra Sharon Ferdinand

    Good question that seldom asked! Given the growth in social networking especially among today's digital natives, I think it is important to address this issue of network contagion or social amplification. Our words and comments whether good or bad can remain in cyberspace infinitely so we need to find how what studies are revealing on the latter. Patricia has given you some very good sources alread, I'd just link to add a couple more:

    Here's the link to a number of related studies in ResearchGate:

     Best regards,


    • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Social media are used as main discussion channels by millions of individuals every day. The content individuals produce in daily social-media-based micro-communications, and the emotions therein expressed, may impact the emotional states of others. A recent experiment performed on Facebook hypothesized that emotions spread online, even in absence of non-verbal cues typical of in-person interactions, and that individuals are more likely to adopt positive or negative emotions if these are over-expressed in their social network. Experiments of this type, however, raise ethical concerns, as they require massive-scale content manipulation with unknown consequences for the individuals therein involved. Here, we study the dynamics of emotional contagion using Twitter. Rather than manipulating content, we devise a null model that discounts some confounding factors (including the effect of emotional contagion). We measure the emotional valence of content the users are exposed to before posting their own tweets. We determine that on average a negative post follows an over-exposure to 4.34% more negative content than baseline, while positive posts occur after an average over-exposure to 4.50% more positive contents. We highlight the presence of a linear relationship between the average emotional valence of the stimuli users are exposed to, and that of the responses they produce. We also identify two different classes of individuals: highly and scarcely susceptible to emotional contagion. Highly susceptible users are significantly less inclined to adopt negative emotions than the scarcely susceptible ones, but equally likely to adopt positive emotions. In general, the likelihood of adopting positive emotions is much greater than that of negative emotions.
  • Oriol Borras-Gene added an answer:
    What is the relationship between MOOC and social networks?

    I'm looking for work on how social networks can be exploited for the purpose of improving MOOC?

    Oriol Borras-Gene

    Social networks become a very useful tool to manage this type of course, encouraging student interaction, essential to the smooth running of the course. On the one hand to answer questions between them and the other to generate content. They are perfect to create learning communities that even last beyond the MOOC space.
    Another advantage are the features of "viral" and openness, allowing to reach more students, including professionals in the field, and share all the achievements and course content, creating a major source of resources open result of the course.

  • Violeta Beleva Guthrie added an answer:
    Random walk betweenness centrality algorithm for a directed weighted graph?

    I am interested in algorithms that do not use shortest paths to estimate node and edge centralities in directed weighted networks.

    I have considered the algorithm by M.E.J. Newman, which was derived from a current flow analogy, therefore it seems to me it would not apply to a directed network: 

    I am also trying out the algorithm by Alahakoon et. al., from  which I can get an approximation of the betweenness centralities for nodes, but the error terms and required run time have been derived for node and not edge betweenness:

    Are there other (random-walk) algorithms can estimate both node and edge betweenness for my type of network?

    Violeta Beleva Guthrie

    Narasim, that's an interesting method, though I am not sure if it is in some way similar to the current flow analogy by Newman. Using diodes to simulate directed links seems to be new in the context of betweenness.

    Asher and Henning, I knew about community finding methods based on high-betweenness edges, but had not thought about going in the opposite direction. Very curious about whether there is an algorithm out there! 

    Also, until recently there were not many and established methods for finding communities in directed networks, but that's another question altogether...

    Many thanks! -V

  • Mehdi Elmoukhliss added an answer:
    What is the best voting method to use in crowdsourcing ?

    Crowds evaluate contributions.

    It seems that "likes" are mainly social grooming stuff, not really good predictor of content quality. At least it shows "popularity", but the link between popularity and quality is not evident.

    Stars and more complex scales seems better (Riedl et al 2010).  But I didn't find literature about new options (e.g. emotional icons).

    Any idea ? I'll give you at least 4 stars ! ;-)


    Mehdi Elmoukhliss

    The question of whether collective intelligence is social or not is really important. Too many scientists consider it just 'aggregating' (mathematically) individual opinions. In the other hand, social influence is strong and not a must at all... I think it shall depend on the nature of the activity taken in charge (routine tasks vs evaluation vs creating vs deciding)...  An interesting topic ! Thank you very much for those elements.


  • Debra Sharon Ferdinand added an answer:
    How I can deduct the membership functions of a linguistic label in a particular environment?

    I am modeling a fuzzy database for a social network and I have identified several linguistic labels for different fuzzy domains, but I need to create the membership functions for each one. By researching articles, I have found a few investigations that provide membership functions for some labels I use, for example the Age of a student, but I need to find a cientific way to do that for each of the designed labels.

    Debra Sharon Ferdinand

    Here's what's available in Research Gate:

    Best regards,


  • Parham Moradi added an answer:
    Which machine learning algorithm is used for friends recommendation in social network?

    Hi, I am working on friends recommendations in social media. What kind of machine learning algorithm can be used to make it. I have number of mutual friends count and number of interest matching count. I don't have labelled data. I have graph feature and interest feature as input. Whether any unsupervised algorithm to be used. Kindly suggest. Thanks in advance.

    Parham Moradi

    In this case, graph clustering methods can be used to group similar peoples into same clusters. The people who are placed in a a same cluster, represents the same interests. The following article applied graph clustering methods for item recommendation and you can adopt its method also for people recommendation.

    An effective trust-based recommendation method using a novel graph clustering algorithm

  • Bodong Chen added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest what type of algorithm is used in social networking(eg:facebook)?

    Algorithm for social networking.

    Bodong Chen

    Do you mean building a social networking site or analyzing social networks?

  • Debra Sharon Ferdinand added an answer:
    Can anyone help how I can do edge anonymization in social networks?

    I have a weighted graph I would like to do anonymization of edges.

    Debra Sharon Ferdinand


    I agree! It's a very good question given the increase in identity theft thru social networks: 

    Here's what available in ResearchGate:

    I extend best wishes for every success with your much needed research.



  • Oscar Tromben added an answer:
    How to download old tweets.
    Can anyone help me find a tool that allows me to download the old tweets in the history of a user. I need to study the content of the tweets of 2011 from a group of users who used a # hashtag.
    Oscar Tromben

    Gregory, thanks I'll try Gnip

  • Djamchid Assadi added an answer:
    Are types of social network (Strong tie and weak tie) a formative construct?

    Particularly within the entrepreneurship research, has there been any studies addressing this? At least, I have not come across any myself. Social network has been a key variable in explaining the performances of entrepreneurs but most seems to have assumed it as a reflective. How should I treat this construct especially in analysis? Any comments to help shed some light please?

    Djamchid Assadi

    Dear Eva

    The Actor-Network Theory (Callon et al. 1986; Callon, 2001; Law and Hassard, 1999; Latour, 2005) also provide a useful tool for analyzing the nature and extent of actors’ involvement in creating and designing a variety of social events. It should be noted that the ANT early roots go back to ethnographic studies that focused on scientific creation within science laboratories (Callon, 1986; Latour, 1987; Law 1987; Law and Hassard, 1999; Latour, 2005).

    ANT seeks to explicate how networks can strengthen “informal affinities” beyond the institutionalized ties in offices, factories, hamlets and parishes.

  • Emmy Adam added an answer:
    Can someone help me find a real social network dataset ?

    I need a large social network dataset with skills, education, location. interests...etc. or at least a similarity matrix of the tags as it is required for our research. I have searched a lot but all I found was edges and nodes for example (A is a friend of B ) .

    Emmy Adam

    Dear Valdis,

    I need a set of 500 000 nodes or above and I'm trying to find a set with attributes that  I can use them as skills. For example, if the set is employees in an organization the attributes that I need could be the areas of their expertise like if they are programmers then perhaps c++ , java ,etc.



  • Lorena Pasarin added an answer:
    What is the role of social networks in the food security and nutrition of low-income families?

    I am researching the food in the context of interpersonal and intergroup relations in low-income families in the city, from the perspective of social network analysis.
    Can anyone provide some literature on this subject?

    Lorena Pasarin

    Thank you for yours contributions!, I find interesting and useful. I will take a look.

  • Erica Salvaj added an answer:
    Are interlocking directorates and ownership ties an antecedent of collusion?

    I'm working on a project on interlocking directorates and ownership networks and collusion. I would like to know business cases in which interlocking directorates or share ownership are used to collude. Also, please let me know about papers or any other document related to this subject.

    Erica Salvaj

    Patrick, thanks a lot for your comment.  I´ll carefully read the paper that you mentioned



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