Social Networks

Social Networks

  • Joaquín López added an answer:
    Can social networks rebuild the weakened community ties in post-industrial societies?
    Civil society and third sector are presented as forms of social capital that could rebuild community social ties in the post-industrial society; however, what has changed is the micro-structure of the social relationship, no macro-social expression. Any ideas?
    Joaquín López · Universidad del Azuay (UDA)

    Juan David, I have no idea how start a debate on your question without a previous knowldege on how you define "community social ties". However I believe that no radical changes on capitalism has been done, so it is hard to think on new forms of social ties with the same system undermining communities.

  • Paul M.W. Hackett added an answer:
    Does anyone have experience of Facet Theory?

    I am looking at possible research methods to evaluate qualitative responses from questionnaires and interviews and have run into Facet Theory (Guttman) using mapping sentences and multi-dimensional scaling analysis.

    I have read a little around the subject but I wonder if anyone has used this "in anger" such that they can give me thoughts/feedback?

    I am interested in techniques that might highlight similarity between different user groups based on a series of responses but I would need to know how much data is required to make use of techniques like SSA (smallest space analysis) in a meaningful way as my study is likely to comprise only small numbers (dozens) of responses. 

    Appreciate any thoughts ...? Tools used?

    Paul M.W. Hackett · Emerson College

    I'd be happy to chat by email.

  • Valdis Krebs added an answer:
    What tool can be used for visualization very large networks: 30 K nodes and 300 M vertices?
    Gephi was not able.
    Thanks in advance.
    Valdis Krebs · University of Latvia


    I agree with @Christian_Staudt... why would you want to visualize such a dense network???  You will not learn anything from a hairball diagram.  

    Yet, inside the hairball will be many interesting clusters/communities/sub-networks.  Spend your time extracting those and then almost any visualization tool will be able to map those more reasonable sub-networks.  

    See this blog post for an example of extracting meaning/pattern from a hairball.

    Good Luck!

    P.S.  The lesson I learned if you end up with a hairball graph, you have probably set the bar too low for what a link is!

  • Rami Muhtaseb added an answer:
    Can you suggest me any school/institute which is active in research related to Social Media?

    I am interested to know more about the current research projects related to the role of Social Media in Education,Management,Research,Marketing, etc.

    I also search for the research institutes which are active in this field.

    Rami Muhtaseb · A.M. Qattan Foundation

    Thank you Christoph, very useful resources.

  • Chiung Ching Ho added an answer:
    What Libraries and approaches do you suggest for constructing large social network graphs?

    Hi all, we're considering different libraries and approaches for the construction of large sized graphs (using Twitter data) - upon construction graph algorithms will be evaluated, so the purpose is more for knowledge discovery rather than visualization.

    Currently, it takes 4 hours to generate a graph for a twitter data set that has 21 days worth of twitter data.

    1. Which would you recommend, Node4J or Jung, for this purpose?

    2. Would HaDoop be a good choice to spread the construction task across different machines in order to save time?

    3. How can we store a very large graph in memory , and how can it be made persistent?

    Chiung Ching Ho · Multimedia University

    Thanks Davide. We're looking at adjacency lists or adjacency matrixes to build the graph (but fitting in memory is still a concern). Giraph was a consideration, but we would prefer a non-parallel solution. Cassivary looks promising - thanks for sharing

  • Miray Kas added an answer:
    Where can I find information about using social networks in scientific communication?

    how can searcher use social networks in coopertion and participation.

    Miray Kas · Google Inc, Mountain View, CA, United States

    I have a couple of publications myself that apply social network analysis on scientific communication/collaboration data.

    Let me know if you cannot view them if you think they might be useful for you to read, I can send you the pdfs.

  • James Foley added an answer:
    "Psychological Sociology": Where are people studying the neuroscience or other psychological aspects of sociological concepts?
    There is a field of social psychology, studying the impact of social forces on an individual's social behavior.
    There is a field of social neuroscience, but the "social" focus is again generally on the interaction among individuals.
    Sociology has focused on social entities larger than the individual: whole societies, organizations, hierarchies, polities, cultures, social movements, stratification, social network formation.
    I'm suggesting a different focus: There are so many new understandings, from neurological mirroring, to embodied cognition, that could infuse a field of "Psychological Sociology." Is there such a field hiding in some academic department somewhere? I see threads of such a field of study in some academic papers, in Sociology and in Economics, but not a cohesive systematic approach to the impact of psychological tendencies and processes on social entities.
    James Foley · College of Wooster

    Thank you so much for the thoughts and for the references. 

  • Nadia Diakun-Thibault added an answer:
    What roles can social networks play in achieving the Millennium Development Goals in developing countries?

    What roles can social networks play in achieving the Millennium Development Goals in developing countries?

    Nadia Diakun-Thibault · North Carolina State University

    Education... the availability of and ease of virtual social networking can be an important vector for dissemination of the most rudimentary of skills to the most complex interrelationship. All begins with education.

    Millennium Development goals were news to me (but only because my head is buried in other disciplines! Thank you, Hanno, for the link.). In my view, universal education available to every human being, is a fundamental right. Unleash the capacitance within every person, the rest will follow.

    Looking forward to your paper.

  • András Bozsik added an answer:
    Why do RG participants prefer general or common questions?

    The answer seems to be simple:

    The most characteristic speciality of RG is its scoring system. This scoring system is determined by an algorithm based on some not sufficiently modelled and assessed objectives which oscillate in their impacts. This oscillation means for many of us as an uncountable deformation and the source of uncertainty.

    Participants are “measured” on the basis of up votes granted by peers. The objectivity of this up votes cannot be the subject of this evaluation.

    Where can get a lot of up votes? Where there is a big traffic! Big traffic = a very high audience. Thus, the question should be very general, without needing deep and specialised knowledge and practically no or very little looking for references and other preparations.

    Specialised and strictly scientific threads do not attract many participants and because of economising time and risk many do not comment them. Even there are strictly scientific threads where the answer itself is important and participants do not score at all.

    Thus, because of score number is determining and central this is which motivate participants.

    In addition: participants do not know how the up votes are transformed into RG scores. This is certainly a willingly built up uncertainty into the system which stimulates intensive traffic and participation but not the merit and quality of threads and answers!

    I think the inconvenience of scoring system has a imperfect feedback which pushed RG activity on a not wanted orbit and an originally scientific forum converges towards a Face book like system.

    Addition2: Score collection became an addiction for many of us and valuable time is wasted for often superficial and over-sophisticated chats.

    Your opinions are appreciated!

    András Bozsik · University of Debrecen

    Dear Nelson,

    Thanks for your lines. This is not a pure politeness but because I like your style as it is plus because of your human and humorous side. I like what is useful, interesting and may be a challenge. Painting is a challenge, in addition it is a creative activity too. I am still at the beginning of it and I have to work still a lot. Now, I paint so called studies: flowers, birds, landscapes and simple portraits. I prepare 1, 2-3 small pictures each day. And regarding flowers, they are not too difficult – at my level - to paint. Today 5 minutes ago I finished the portrait of my wife. I feel I am lucky because I look for aquarelle paper because of my increased “production”. The lovely little girl taking your hand – must be your grand daughter? My congratulations! It was a pleasure to change words with you!

  • Miranda Yeoh added an answer:
    How much time are we spending on social networking sites including FB and RG? Does it have negative effect on deeper relationships in our families?
    FB and RG are here to stay, and they are useful for us to interact and learn. But they take up some precious time. Does this have a negative effect on our deeper and more meaningful relationships that we have with our families, relatives and close friends? Any views to share?
    Miranda Yeoh · Kolej Matrikulasi Selangor, MALAYSIA (Selangor Matriculation College)

    Thanks for describing your interesting activities, Andras.  It's great to live in touch with nature.  I have a beautiful field and track to exercise in college.  I'm very thankful.  I do use some FB with good friends and students.  RG is time consuming, but we need to communicate.

  • David Estrella added an answer:
    Is there any research done about the use of social networks in teaching English?

    Is there any research done about the use of social networks in teaching English?

    David Estrella · Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral (ESPOL)

    Thank your for the info Lori.

  • Elisabeth Lex added an answer:
    Does anyone have experience with research on altmetrics - which datasets?

    I would like to get an overview which datasets the community uses when working with altmetrics and whether they are publicly available. Also, are there any "standard" datasets? Do you think such datasets would drive research further?

    Elisabeth Lex · Graz University of Technology

    Thanks for your answers and the pointers.

    Christian, for sure the Bibliometrics 2014 will be a great venue to discuss these ideas! Together with my colleague Peter Kraker I am also organizing a scientific track on Science 2.0 and Open Science at the i-Know conference ( where we aim to discuss these and related topics in more detail. 

    I think one mayor challenge is (this holds for all types of social media research from my point of view) to understand what should we measure (not what can we measure), and also to understand the semantics of what you measure (e.g. what does a retweet really mean?).  Some standards and common agreements could help here.

  • Valdis Krebs added an answer:
    Do you know what tools can be used to deal with multi-layer network, mutiplex network in social networks or complex networks?

    Now, I only know two tools:
    R multiplex network

    I want to study data mining problems of mutiplex network ,for example: search, recommendation, mining communities,evaluation,etc,  hoping to find a basic software toolkit , such as networkx. It can calculate the basic parameters of mutiplex network, and also provide secondary development.

    Does anyone know the other better tools? Especially the Python language tool, thank you!

    Valdis Krebs · University of Latvia

    Here is a picture of a simple multiplex network... 2 networks

    • Network 1 (black links) is the formal hierarchy in an organization
    • Network 2 (grey links) show who goes to whom for advice in decision-making

    We can measure the networks(centrality, clusters, etc) separately or together

  • Elisabeth Lex added an answer:
    What is a reasonable algorithm for community detection in social networks?
    There are a lot of algorithms for community detection in social networks. Have you any idea which one is the best?
    Elisabeth Lex · Graz University of Technology

    I recommend also this comparative analysis of community detection algorithms:

    Also, there are several implementations of community detection algorithms in a range of libraries/tools, e.g, in Gephi

    or in igraph

    or in networkx

    or in the Stanford SNAP library

  • Jetty Ramadevi added an answer:
    Do you think it is correct to apply the SIR "epidemiological" model to estimate the spread of Online Social Networks in a large population?
    Recently, two Princeton researchers have applied a variant of the SIR model [irSIR] to explain / forecast the phenomena of "growth" and "decline" of large online social networks like Facebook, Twitter and MySpace, in the same way as you model the phenomena of "infection" and "cure."
    I wonder if this approach is correct.
    Jetty Ramadevi · University College Dublin

    Interesting, you are right! 

  • Amit Rechavi added an answer:
    Profile Picture

    Is ti necessary to be serious in the profile picture for this social network?

    Amit Rechavi · Ruppin Academic Center

    It is not necessary, but it won't harm you.

    While the opposite might...

  • Shail Patel asked a question:
    How can I generate a tcl file from any graph based file(.gdf, .gexf, .csv etc.)?

    I want around 1000 nodes network (basically social network, not a random network) in ns2. For that I already have .gdf file of the graph. Is there any way by which I can import that file in ns2 and create the graph accordingly?
    Or is that any other tool available by which I can generate a .tcl file from .csv or .gdf?

  • Netra Pal Singh added an answer:
    Social Network Rating of institutions & accreditation

    I see many social network websites are rating academic institutions as is the case of research-gate. In your view there is a need to include this rating as one of the parameter for the process of accreditation with due weight. Since these rating are based on scientific contributions of the academic staff of the institutions. If your answer is yes. please indicate which social network is best for the purpose.

    Netra Pal Singh · Management Development Institute Gurgaon

    Thank you very much for excellent input. There is a possibility that these score will be used in future.

  • Amin heydari alashty added an answer:
    Is there a IR dataset with links between pages?

    do anyone know an IR dataset which it contains below files:

    1. list of documents

    2. list of queries

    3. list of relations between queries and documents

    4. list of links between documents

    most of the datasets in this domain has only first 3 features but i need something which has all 4 together.

    If there is a social network dataset which has some posts about users and links between those users it would be same as the IR dataset.

    Amin heydari alashty · Shiraz University

    thanks for your answers.

    but Georgina, it's may be my fault but i can not find any dataset on stanford which has a set of queries.

    have you had found sth on stanford which has all of the features which i had mentioned?

  • Zeineb Cox added an answer:
    Could someone please tell me the difference between social capital and social networks?
    I am currently researching social entrepreneurship and social entreprise activities by people aged 50 and over in the UK. The literature on social entrepreneurship indicates that social capital is one of many values brought in by social entreprises. However, this seem to be conflated with social networks. Could anyone advise of the differences between social capital and social networks in entrepreneurship?
    Zeineb Cox · University of Surrey

    Many thanks Jan for the detailed information  - so if you are over 50 and thinking of setting a social entreprise you will have all the assistance from me! 


  • William J.R. Longabaugh added an answer:
    What tools do you use to visualize and analyse very large complex networks?
    I'm currently using Gephi to try to visualize a network with 50000 nodes and 84000 edges but it is taking ages just to layout the network.

    Do you have any better suggestions of tools for this?
    William J.R. Longabaugh · Institute for Systems Biology

    If  by "very large" we're talking about the original questioner's target of 50,000 nodes and 84,000 edges, BioFabric (; which I mentioned above) can actually handle that quite well. Note that since BioFabric uses a breadth-first search for layout, a network of that size does not take long to display.

  • Ethné Swartz added an answer:
    Is anyone aware of published survey studies in which respondents were recruited via Facebook?
    I am not referring to surveys done ON Facebook, but rather cases where researchers have posted a link, on Facebook, to an online survey hosted on a different, secure site. This could be considered a snowball sampling method, as the researcher could get respondents through referrals (by asking his/her Facebook “friends” to share the link to the survey). This way of recruiting respondents would appear to have many advantages (as long as a random sample was not being sought). If the site hosting the survey was secure, and the survey itself was anonymous, there would be no privacy concerns. I'm sure there are disadvantages as well though, that go beyond the non-randomness of such a sample. Can anyone provide references to published studies that have used this type of method?
    Ethné Swartz · Fairleigh Dickinson University

    You should look at the following:

    Gregori, A. and Baltar, F. (2013), "Ready to complete the survey on Facebook: Web 2.0 as a research tool in business studies", International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 55, No. 1, pp, 131 - 148.

    Alicia is absolutely correct about identifying your target well - perhaps using specific groups or nodes on Facebook.  Good luck with your work.

  • Amer A. Al-Atwi asked a question:
    Does anyone know the difference between Round Robin Design and Social Network Analysis?

    I need to know the main difference between round robin design and social network analysis and when to use each one of them?

  • Ian Kennedy added an answer:
    Is ResearchGate time consuming for you?
    How much time do you spend in ResearchGate every day? Is it important for you to spend much time in ResearchGate?
    Ian Kennedy · Independent Researcher

    Yes. I log in all day.

  • Tina Hohmann added an answer:
    Best scientific social networks
    What are your favorite scientific social networks?
    How often do you do you log on to ReserchGate?
    Are specialized social networks better for your research than Twitter?
    Do you use Facebook to connect with peers?
    Tina Hohmann · Technische Universität München

    Hi, just to add: I have quite a few former colleagues from the arts that use facebook for dissemination as it offers more tools for other media than text. Also, I think linkedin really is more for professional contacts in the business sector. I use it, as said before, as a dynamic address book to keep in contact with friends and former colleagues and to see their current place of work.

  • Ronald A. Yaros added an answer:
    What is the role of social networks interaction on learning progress?
    As everybody probably already knows, social interaction according to" Vygotsky" may improve learning ability, however, there are still many steps toward this phenomenon to be adapted with new emerging tools including social networks. Which aspect of web 2.0 tools is the most important part to be evolved in this way?
  • Andreas Witt added an answer:
    How can I collect data from federated/distributed online social networks?
    One of the main reasons to use federated social network sites is the privacy and data distribution. What are some methods to collect all these data in order to do some analysis on them? Something like a web crawler for DOSNs.
    Andreas Witt · Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg
    Hi Mostafa,

    the possibilities depend on the social network. All social networks offer different APIs. Facebook's graph API offers a wide range of possibilities to collect and analyze nearly any datasets of a facebook user and the API is easy to use.

    Other social networks like XING also offer an API with a wide range of data sets, but it's more difficult to develop an publish an API extension.

    Independent of a social network you'll choose you need the permission of an user when using an API as Ra'ed already mentioned.
  • I am looking for good scales to measure (1) feelings of social connectedness and (2) contentment. Does anyone know any I should look at?
    These would be used in a survey study, perhaps as pre- and post-measures and should hopefully be sensitive to changes due to an intervention.
    Unlike libido seksual this libido at person and at society inseparably. It provides a strong psychic bond between people and allows to ignore acts of individual deaths, when we are talking about the psyche of the society in the historical process.
    Desexualization of libido carried by adding to the sexual libido of the death instinct.
  • Miranda Yeoh added an answer:
    In what ways has interaction on social media been somewhat surprising. What did you learn or experience on RG, LI or FB that you didn't quite expect?
    What did you learn that surprised you? What did you learn that you didn't expect?
    In what ways has interaction on social media been somewhat surprising. What did you learn or experience on RG, LI or FB that you didn't quite expect?
    Miranda Yeoh · Kolej Matrikulasi Selangor, MALAYSIA (Selangor Matriculation College)
    Thanks Prof Kamal. I consider myself blessed to have good, kind friends like you and many others on RG. Because of you all, I have learnt such a lot. And because of the generosity of some of you, I don't even need a research grant to do some fine research. VIVA my dear friends!
  • Vitaly Voloshin added an answer:
    Is there any graph theory model that tackles players' (nodes) knowledge about the network structure?
    I am thinking about a project about common knowledge of rationality. Graph theory could model the connected relationship of nodes(players). Is there any model or branch of maths that could model players' knowledge about the social network structure?
    Vitaly Voloshin · Troy University
    Then you can even invent a new math tool! Good luck!

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