Social Networks

Social Networks

  • Dora jimela Kialo added an answer:
    How would you define social media and what tools/platforms/networks/apps/ do you consider social media technologies?

    Most often, I see Kaplan and Haenlein's (2010) definition of social media cited in research articles: “A group of Internet- based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0 and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content” (p. 61).

    With respect to social presence and media richness, applications such as collaborative projects (e.g., Wikipedia) and blogs score lowest, as they are often text-based and hence only allow for a relatively simple exchange. On the next level are content communities (e.g., YouTube) and social networking sites (e.g., Facebook) which, in addition to text-based communication, enable the sharing of pictures, videos, and other forms of media. On the highest level are virtual game and social worlds (e.g., World of Warcraft, Second Life), which try to replicate all dimensions of face-to-face interac- tions in a virtual environment” (p. 63).

    Recently, Carr and Hayes (2015)  published a rather interesting article defining social media in such a way it would stick until 2035:)

    Carr, C.T. & Hayes, R.A. (2015). Social Media: Defining, Developing, and Divining, Atlantic Journal of Communication, 23:1, 46-65, DOI: 10.1080/15456870.2015.972282 

    The definition: "Social media are Internet-based channels that allow users to opportunistically interact and selectively self-present, either in real-time or asynchronously, with both broad and narrow audiences who derive value from user-generated content and the perception of interaction with others” (p. 50).

    Social Medium

    Social network sites (e.g., Facebook, QQ, GoogleC, YouTube, Yelp, Pheed) 
􏰀  Professional network sites (e.g., LinkedIn, IBM’s Beehive) 
􏰀  Chatboards & discussion for a 􏰀  Social/Casual games (e.g., Farmville) 
􏰀  Wiki “Talk” pages 
􏰀  Tinder 
􏰀  Instagram 
􏰀  Wanelo 
􏰀  Yik Yak 

    Not a Social Medium

    􏰀 Online news services (e.g., NYT online, 􏰀 Wikipedia 􏰀 Skype
􏰀 Netflix
􏰀 E-mail 􏰀 Online news 􏰀 SMS/Texts 􏰀 Oovoo 
􏰀 Tumblr 􏰀 Whisper

     I was surprised to see Tumblr on the list of “not a social media”. Should blogs not be included?

    Dora jimela Kialo

    That's right Jeannette. Tumblr is a blog site. where was it referenced?

  • Nick Ward added an answer:
    Corporate social network; what are the negative social effect?

    Hello everyone, i am doing a research on knowledge management and communication in a multinational corporate culture, one side i am very interested in and have been reading on is the implementation social network internally (i.e. Yammer), and the benefits are abundant. but i am also interesting in the other dark side of it; will there be public shaming of fellow colleagues? should be completely formal or allow a sort of relaxed attitude?.

    I am very interested in your opinions, or links to studies on this matter :).


    Nick Ward

    Anecdotal rather than research response.

    Context - We use Yammer in my of place of work - a multinational company of some 14,000 employees. Penetration in terms of %employees active is rather low - thus the utility of a corporate social network is apparently not regarded as that high by many - possibly linked to the fact that sharing of IP on the network is actively discouraged/disallowed. I have however seen and participated in some great conversations that rapidly provided great answers from a broad range of co-workers.

    To the point about shaming of contributors - I have seen ZERO instances in the 18months or so that I have been using the network. This is due in part  to a very different dynamic vs the FB context.

    a) In an FB context everyone is effectively a peer

    b) In the cases of public posts there is a quasi-anonymous element to a poster's identity, or even in some cases total anonymity due to fake accounts.

     In the business context however

    a) Everyone is exactly who they say they are

    b) A publicly known, and very real,  hierarchy exists which can enforce accountability and even hand out punishment (up to and including termination as the saying goes), The hierarchy also allows for appeal following "reckless, foolish, shaming" posts to the poster's superiors.

    As a consequence the discussion remains civil and one remains acutely aware of one's professional responsibilities and the need for professional courtesy.

  • Syed Arabi Idid added an answer:
    What media sources do you trust most to be well informed on political matters?

    Do you trust some specific

    --Newspapers (web based or printed)

    --Radio or TV programs



    --Social networking sites.

    --Other Information Websites.


    Do you prefer a mix of these sources?

    Syed Arabi Idid

    If you  areideologically committed, you might be selecting those media that would present reports  that would be pleasing for you to read or watch or listen. You would then regard these media as most trusting.  One would therefore not be able to say whether objectively these media are biased or not, based on the trust that the readers had acknowledged them. Given media and audience fragmentation, audience would self select those news or media sources that are in line with their interest and slant. On the  other hand,  less ideologically slanted audience would also welcome news that  are also discrepant with their attitude or thinking in order for them to acknowledge ideas that are different.  Their trust of media would be more general than those  who are firm in their belief on certain issues.  Therefore it is better for you to read with an  open mind various sources.

  • Rebeca SERRANO Barquín added an answer:
    Do you know of any references on social consequences of wind power?

    We are looking for studies that cover positive/negative local social consequences of wind power developments. If you have some good references, we would be grateful to know of them.

    I may add that we have found a huge amount of studies on attitudes on wind power, so we do not need more of those. Rather we look for studies on people's perception of the future, recreation and tourism, social networks, trust, place attachment, place identity etc.

    Rebeca SERRANO Barquín

    Hi Jesper. I have information nonspecific. I hope you find it useful. But is in Spanish.
    Best regards.

  • Ranga Dabarera added an answer:
    In an agent network (or graph) how can I find the most influential node to drive the whole network to a certain direction/opinion or idea?

    This can be seen in many disciplines under different terminology. I need to get get as much ideas as possible. Feel free to let me know how it is handled in realms closer to your research. For instance

    • Sociophysics: Opinion formation on social networks 
    • Marketing: viral marketing 
    • Microfinance : Diffusion models to study the influential individuals, etc...

    In brief the idea is: given a network, if we need to drive an idea, which node (or agent) we should select. All your comments are highly appreciated. Thank you in advance.

    Ranga Dabarera

    Professor Bin Jiang: Thank you very much for the publication professor. Really appreciate your insight in this. 

  • Mian Zhang added an answer:
    What are the differences between social networks and Guanxi?

    There are many papers on Guanxi, a concept embedded in Chinese cultures. Is there any study exploring the similarities and differences between social networks and Guanxi?

    Mian Zhang

    Thanks! I am reading the papers you recommended. I found that Kevin D, Lo's paper contains many insightful points.  I also found that Yang's (2002) paper on resilience of Guanxi inspires my ideas.  

    Wellman et al's paper on using SN to study Guanxi helps me understand how SN scholars view Guanxi. 

  • Miranda Yeoh added an answer:
    Do you notice that your students spend a lot of time on social networks? What are the effects that you noted on them?
    My students spend a lot of time on FB. When I asked, "Do you get into FB everyday?"; a student responded, "Every hour, madam".
    What are the effects on them that you noted? What is our role as educators, in this matter? (Please share your experiences.)
    Miranda Yeoh

    Dear Ljubomir, thanks for the link.  In this age, avoiding cybercrime, avoiding being a victim is utterly essential.  Have a look at this paper that I retrieved.  Thanks.  (I'm busy with writing.  It's also prayer and fasting weeks before Christmas. I will connect with friends by email and on FB.)

  • Heather Douglas added an answer:
    What is the importance of institutions and their network at the community level in the context of social capital?
    I am looking for studies done focusing on how formal and informal institutions at the community level aid towards enhancing efforts towards collective action and hence social capital.
  • Valdis E Krebs added an answer:
    Social network question: Is there a technical term for an ego network in which the central node is removed?

    I've seen networks of this type used to highlight communities within your list of friends on Facebook. It removes yourself from the network, because this node is by default connected to everyone and clutters the visualization.  Looking to see if there is a standard technical term for such a network.

    Valdis E Krebs

    Ego's alter network works in academia.  With business clients I use Ego's "network neighborhood" -- a more common term and because there are both direct and indirect alters.  Here is a picture of Erdøs' famous network neighborhood... with Paul Erdøs removed.

  • Patrick Mauder added an answer:
    Is there a database which collects social media statistics?

    I am looking for a database where social networking sites statistics such as facebook, twitter etc are available for Australian companies. Has anyone an idea whether something like that exists and/or if there is a software which will extract that data? 

    Patrick Mauder

    Thanks Rogier and Eyad, I came accross which also looks good so I'll give a few of them a shot. 

  • Vania Baldi added an answer:
    Any articles about the relationship between social networking and framework to connected learning? Digital informal learning could become a method?

    I need references or articles about the relationship between social networking and new framework to connected learning.

     Digital informal learning could become a method?

    Vania Baldi

    Very useful reflections and responses. I thank all of you.

  • Debra Sharon Ferdinand added an answer:
    What is the role of social networks interaction on learning progress?
    As everybody probably already knows, social interaction according to" Vygotsky" may improve learning ability, however, there are still many steps toward this phenomenon to be adapted with new emerging tools including social networks. Which aspect of web 2.0 tools is the most important part to be evolved in this way?
    Debra Sharon Ferdinand

    Social Media can enhance student engagement and make learning more motivating. Here's a conference paper that attempted to use Facebook to address student learning regarding "English" writing and speaking:

    Best regards,


  • Godwin Polendey added an answer:
    What examples of "location-based social networks" do you use? and how does it affect your life?

    Farman (2014)    What examples of "location-based social networks" do you use? and how does it affect your life?

    Godwin Polendey

    I rarely use location-based social networks but if anything the closest I would use is Instagram. Instagram allows you to tag the location where the photo was taken. It doesn't affect my life in any way but for some people might find it important to know. For example, say I posted a photo food. Others might be interested to know where they can buy this food so having the location tagged makes it easier for them follow locate the place.

  • Andrew T. Carswell added an answer:
    Is the social network in affluent urban affordable housing units better for low income citizens/families?

    Looking at relocating low income individuals/families as the intervention, instead of revitilizing low income neighborhoods where they reside.

    Andrew T. Carswell


    A good question and I liked Dr. Kumar's response as well.  You probably need to read quite a bit from Robert Putnam on some of the benefits of social seems like the obvious starting point.  James DeFillipis wrote a good piece in Housing Policy Debate called the "Myth of Social Capital in Community Development", in which he lays out a great argument about how social capital seems to be fairly unconnected to economic gains (he says lots of other things too).  For example, Putnam hailed the high social capital in North and South Dakota in the early 2000s (before the oil boom in those two states), and its connection to low crime rates.  That's great, but there's also the issue that the Dakotas had two of the worst economies in the US at that time.  This can be related to the neighborhood level as well.

  • Tanager Tanager added an answer:
    Anyone know of any research on bilingualism on Twitter?

    I'm looking for research on how Twitter users negotiate which language to use when tweeting. Does their choice of language depend on the topic of the tweet? Does it depend on their audience? 

    Tanager Tanager

    There is some ongoing research about codeswtiching and bilingualism on Twitter in the Phillipines -

    And I have done research on language use on twitter in Berlin, Germany. However, without a qualitative study into the factors behind people's language choices, I can only make educated guesses into this choice. I would agree that it is audience dependent. As all Tweets are public, it is difficult to determine who one's intended audience might be. 

  • Wilkinson Daniel Wong Gonzales added an answer:
    Do you consider how the student interacts with his fellows/teachers/parents/friends as part of the student's Learning Styles?

    Studies in Learning Styles are quite different in the way they conceive the scope of Learning Styles. For examples, Coffield et al. (2004) identified 5 families of learning styles:

    • constitutionally-based learning styles and preferences
    • cognitive structure stable
    • stable personality type
    • ‘flexibly' stable personality type
    • learning approaches and strategies.

    In each family, there are many models and inventories to examine student's Learning Styles. Coffield et al. gathered these models which are counted to 71 model. I already studied many of these models but I couldn't find any inventory that consider how the students interact in their social network (real life and online) as part of their learning styles. First, do you know any inventory that include this factor? If not, do you consider this thought worth studying?

    Coffield, F., Moseley, D., Hall, E., & Ecclestone, K. (2004). Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: A systematic and critical review. Trowbridge, Wiltshire: Learning & Skills Research Centre.

    Wilkinson Daniel Wong Gonzales

    You could try Neo et al's study, which has a survey on Cooperative Learning.

  • Sander L Hitzig added an answer:
    Any suggestions on how to find the following scales in Chinese?

    Seeking the Lubbens Social Network Scale, Katz Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, The DeJong Loneliness Scale, the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire, and the General Health Questionnaire-12. Any suggestions on how to obtain these scales in Chinese would be greatly appreciated.

    Thank you.

    Sander L Hitzig

    Thanks for these suggestions. Greatly appreciated!   I'll look into them.

  • Ekaterina Damer added an answer:
    What are the best crowdsourcing services similar to Amazon Mechanical Turk in Europ?

    I would like to use away to use Amazon Mechanical Turk for my own survey application, but it seems It is not possible for those who are not resident of USA or don't have USA credit card.

    I found some services such as crowdflower,, smartsheet which use mturk as a ground layer and built upon it and also some other similar platforms such as Cloudcrowd or Samesource..

    However, I am not quite sure which one more suits my goal, and what are the limitations for the tasks that we can put on mturk (if there is any limitation)

    I really appreciate all your ideas,

    Ekaterina Damer

    Hi Daniel,
    Prolific works such that you insert a survey link in order to start collecting responses (you can find more info here: We do not provide representative samples as such, but rather randomly chosen sub-samples of all participants that are eligible your study. I'm not entirely sure about the other platforms. Hope this helps :)

  • Valdis E Krebs added an answer:
    How can I rank nodes in Social networks ?

    I have a social network of actors and edges and I want to rank the nodes according to their position in the network . I tried the centrality measure based rankings but looking for a better combination of these centrality measures or any new methods /algorithm to rank these nodes according to their importance and position in the networks

    Valdis E Krebs

    Which centrality measures did you use?  Why did you not like them?  What are you trying to show?

    One measure I like and often use is how many closed triangles does a node belong to? (A is linked to B is linked to C is linked A).  This tends to find those nodes in the dense core as mentioned by Edgar above. Another is diversity -- how many links to how many different groups does a node have?  These tend to be the boundary spanners.

  • Edgar Reyes Reyes Junior added an answer:
    How can I draw some beautiful social network mapping efficiently?

    Hello, everyone, now I embark on an new research about the relationship on Twitter. However, I was confused how can I map a large amount of links on one map quickly. I have a 250000*250000 0 or 1sparse matrixI which represents the relationship on Twitter. I tried some software like Gephi, but it is too slow to draw the picture on it and it often fail to work. I tried package igraph on R and it runs a whole night and end up with a picture. However, it is very ugly...  Can you give me some advice to deal with it with igraph? or can you recommand some powerful software for me? Thank you very much!

    Edgar Reyes Reyes Junior

    I would use the Netdraw, but after assembly of the network, would select the most central actors to allow a better view. If you are interested in any peripheral region, I recommend using the Zoom tool.

  • Raman Kumar added an answer:
    What is an alternative to a pattern matrix (as in, factor analysis)?

    I am supposed to run an empirical research on the attitude towards social media marketing. 

    The independent variables are: communication, attitude towards social networks in general, average use of SM and the belonging to brand communities as a form of engagement.

    The dependent variable is the attitude towards social media advertising.

    First I have to run the factor analysis and analyze the pattern matrix, if the variables are good go on with a multiple regression, but with a same bundle of items one of the two doesn't work!! Which means, if I do a linear regression of the dependent variable with the four independent i get a pretty decent R2 adjusted value, but with the same factors i can't seem to get a proper pattern matrix. If instead, i leave out a factor I get a perfect pattern matrix, but then the R2 value is inferior than 10%.

    An alternative to the pattern matrix for the factor analysis? 


    Raman Kumar

    Kindly test the collected data for normality and distribution. If results don't  fall in acceptable range then make an attempt to examine outliers ( remove if any).  Then perform Exploratory factor analysis. Hope you may get the expected R-squired value.

  • Irene B. Teich added an answer:
    How do I categorise the information sources in external information search?

    I am searching for articles on external information search (empirical studies) that combine both offline information sources AND online information sources.

    Most articles that I have been reading use traditional marketing channels (e.g. personal vs impersonal) which predate Internet and today's social networking sites.

    I would appreciate anybody's help regarding this matter. Thank you in advance

    Irene B. Teich

    There is another way: Don't do it. Let it be done by an Enterprise Search System. Some of them are listed on my website (see link below).  Don't care about the Geman. The list is important and most of them provide English websites.

  • Behrouz Ahmadi-Nedushan added an answer:
    Which ResearchGate features you find most useful and how could they be further improved?
    Which ResearchGate features are most useful to you and how would you like to improve them?
  • Emad Abu-Shanab added an answer:
    Can you help me understand the response to survey on sharenting behaviour in Ireland?

    A survey conducted by eircom shows that only 14% of parents post images, status updates or blog posts about their child(ren) on social media (vs. 90% in Australia, or 56% in the US, as per other studies).

    Is there something about the Irish culture, or the technical infrastructure, that could explain such low levels?

    If not, it is something about the sample, or about the question, right? Or could there be another reason that I am missing?

    For reference, the question was: ‘Sharents’ are parents who blog, tweet and post pictures online about aspects of their children’s lives. Are you, or do you have the potential, to be a ‘Sharenter’ in the future?

    eircom's report is available here:


    Emad Abu-Shanab

    Can I ask what was the scale of this question. You know that this is a double question. So response might be yes... or yes and I am 80% ... or yes and 50%.. or No at all... So it would help to see the question.

    I would guess that cultural issues related to privacy perceptions are important here...

    More info will help

  • Jarnishs Beltran added an answer:
    How do you work out density of a social network in UCInet?

    social network analysis. is there a way to work this out using the computer program UCInet?

    Jarnishs Beltran


  • Closed account added an answer:
    Is there any practical research on relation of contemporary public spaces and social networks?

    Generally, I am searching for the new realms that Social networks add to contemporary Public spaces.


    Just a few suggestions - some articles I found helpful while undertaking placemaking studies;

    Some interesting reports from an Australian perspective at  including

    The two books "Creative Communities" and "Sustainable Everyday" freely downloaded from here are very good

    Anything by Gilbert Rochecouste is well worth reading/watching

    Similarly, you may want to have a look at any writings/studies by the New Urbanism movement - including Wendy Morris and Paul Murrain.

    Finally, I have attached a couple of articles, including a literature review which may generate some other ideas to pursue.

    I trust these are of use.


  • Siti Salina Saidin added an answer:
    Can we relate a social cognitive theory with usage of online context or social network?

    technology management people

    Siti Salina Saidin

    Dear Elco Van Burg,

    Looking forward to read ur paper..My email:

    Best regards,


  • Valdis E Krebs added an answer:
    There is any theory supporting social networks of entrepreneurship?

    social networks are identified as one of the socio cultural factor by many researcher's but the theoretical linkage of the factor with entrepreneurship was yet to be defined. so please anyone help me in this theory identification

    is there any supporting social networks and entrepreneurship

    Valdis E Krebs

    As a practicing entrepreneur, specializing in social and organizational network analysis, who is celebrating 20 years in business this year, I have observed the following network "rules" bring good results. 
    * strong ties are better than weak ties

    * part of your network needs to be diverse, while another part needs to be homophilous

    * structural holes are useful, but know when to close them

    * connect on your similarities and benefit from your differences

    * golden rule of networks is the same as the golden rule of real estate:
       - location, location, location!

     This is actual experience, not theory!

  • Debra Sharon Ferdinand added an answer:
    Are there any written, detailed examples of social network contagion or social amplification in action in terms of stigma?

    I am interested in connecting social network contagion and/or social amplification to a number of actual scenarios: negative and/or positive. I am particularly interested in replication of harmful rumor in proscribed, renewing populations such as neighborhoods and schools. In addition, I would like to see examples of crises caused by such social circumstances.

    Debra Sharon Ferdinand

    Good question that seldom asked! Given the growth in social networking especially among today's digital natives, I think it is important to address this issue of network contagion or social amplification. Our words and comments whether good or bad can remain in cyberspace infinitely so we need to find how what studies are revealing on the latter. Patricia has given you some very good sources alread, I'd just link to add a couple more:

    Here's the link to a number of related studies in ResearchGate:

     Best regards,


    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Social media are used as main discussion channels by millions of individuals every day. The content individuals produce in daily social-media-based micro-communications, and the emotions therein expressed, may impact the emotional states of others. A recent experiment performed on Facebook hypothesized that emotions spread online, even in absence of non-verbal cues typical of in-person interactions, and that individuals are more likely to adopt positive or negative emotions if these are over-expressed in their social network. Experiments of this type, however, raise ethical concerns, as they require massive-scale content manipulation with unknown consequences for the individuals therein involved. Here, we study the dynamics of emotional contagion using Twitter. Rather than manipulating content, we devise a null model that discounts some confounding factors (including the effect of emotional contagion). We measure the emotional valence of content the users are exposed to before posting their own tweets. We determine that on average a negative post follows an over-exposure to 4.34% more negative content than baseline, while positive posts occur after an average over-exposure to 4.50% more positive contents. We highlight the presence of a linear relationship between the average emotional valence of the stimuli users are exposed to, and that of the responses they produce. We also identify two different classes of individuals: highly and scarcely susceptible to emotional contagion. Highly susceptible users are significantly less inclined to adopt negative emotions than the scarcely susceptible ones, but equally likely to adopt positive emotions. In general, the likelihood of adopting positive emotions is much greater than that of negative emotions.
      PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(11). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0142390

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