European Union

European Union

  • Barry Turner added an answer:
    Is someone working on UK's opting out from the Prüm decision?

    Next 1 December 2014 finish the transitional period in respect of certain third pillar measures in the field of police co-operation and judicial co-operation in criminal matters (full ECJ jurisdiction for instance). UK opted out on June 2014, and it is possible to rejoin until 30 September 2015.

    Barry Turner · University of Lincoln

    I am working on the EGLE project for cooperation in expert witness evidence in the EU member states and the organisation to which I belong is an observer to the CEPEJ project on quality of justice in the EU.  I am unclear what full ECJ jurisdiction would mean as it appears contrary to the current projects to harmonise expert evidence and other matters in European jurisdictions. 

  • Shivan A.M Doski added an answer:
    Do you know any studies relating EU funds injection and the construction industry?

    I identify the relationship between the available resources from EU funds and the increase of public and private sectors’ value of fixed assets and in consequence identify the benefits of participation in the European Union structures from construction sector perspective. I want to expand my research outside my national context therefore looking for the evidence of experiences in the other countries when similar funds had been injected to the construction industry. What research methodologies have been used by other scholars to identify the impact of injecting such finding?

    Shivan A.M Doski · University of Duhok

    for example, you can refer to:

    http://www.worldhighways.com/sections/eurofile/news/fiec-head-willemen-welcomes-eu-fund-for-strategic-investments/

  • Walter Demmelhuber added an answer:
    Why can companies limited points of sale according to border lines within the EU?

    Digital content can be purchased nowadays principally in three ways:

    • downloadable files (being e.g. mp3 or executable programs)
    • data carriers like DVD, Blueray, etc. shipped by mail
    • online streaming usually for visual content

    Looking at the post-purchase situation

    • there are no legal constraints to move legally correctly purchased data carriers or downloadable files with you from one country to the next
    • if you sign up for an online streaming service in one country and want to see it e.g. during a trip in another country it is quite typical that the service is not available

    Looking at the pre-purchase situation

    • for downloadable files and streaming, a cross-border purchase usually does not work (I tried e.g. with Amazon Spain to purchase a certain mp3 (spanish film musik) while being in Spain and it did not work with my German account - although other stuff I could purchase - I had to open a Spanish account. From Germany obviously it did not work at all)
    • DVDs and Bluerays (except for English and in my case German) in foreign languages are usually not available locally for purchase. Rarely you find a DVD with Spanish language track here


    The European Commission for the Interior Market and Services is presently investigating this and asking for public and company opinion because it is contrary to the free mobility of services in the EU. The licensing regulations at national level are clearly intended to limit access and make the data content more profitable.

    I personally believe that it also constitutes discrimination because it withholds easy access to multi-language diversity - something the European Commission acknowledges as well.

    I certainly know the case of C-403/08 Karen Murphy but does anybody also hold other legal knowledge or theories?

    Walter Demmelhuber · Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

    Hello Carsten,

    the best example where the EU meddles with private enterprises is in reducing and actually starting in 2016 killing roaming cost for mobile phones.

    Another example would be that grey imports of cars are completely legalized and what a mess the car manufacturers made out of this in the beginning.

    So why should this not apply to digital content?

    Regards, Walter

  • Does anyone know any literature concerning the workings of the GUE-NGL group in the European Parliament before 2008?

    I have evidence to show how they have increased in their representation but I would like literature to demonstrate how this group uses committees and resolutions to attempt to achieve their outcomes.

    Cristina Blanco Sío-López · European University Institute

    Some possibly useful secondary sources:

    http://www.lse.ac.uk/government/research/resgroups/EPRG/pdf/workingPaper7.pdf

    http://mil.sagepub.com/content/33/3/947.full.pdf

    http://www.sponpress.com/books/details/9780415223362/

    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8543.2012.00911_8.x/abstract

    http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13572334.2011.617562#.VJCmNSuG8uc

    2009-2014: http://www.votewatch.eu/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/votewatch_report_voting_behavior_26_january_beta.pdf

    Insstitutional data: 

    http://www.europarl.europa.eu/aboutparliament/en/004a50d310/Composition-of-Parliament.html

  • Tamir Libel added an answer:
    Where can I find the most up-to-date information on current EU Peace Operations (data and stats)?

    I am looking for realiable data and statistics on current EU Peace Operations, specially in subsaharan Africa (EUTM Mali, EUCAP Sahel, EUFOR RCA...). Also about Member States operations in Africa (France's Serval-Barkhane and so on).

    Tamir Libel · Universität Trier

    In case you are interested to compare also the member states' armed forces than the website of the European Defence Agency may be of interest.

  • Ines Ciolli added an answer:
    How do Euro crisis countries experience differentiated integration and to what extent are their policies predetermined by the ECB or troika?

    Hey all,

    I am currently working on two contributions dealing with Euro crisis countries. I have been able to review some literature on the matter at hand, but I was wondering whether there already is academic analysis on the following subjects:

    1. Are Euro crisis countries, which are receiving support under an adjustment programme a sort of "second-class state", causing differentiated integration within the Euro area? One thing I noticed is that some provisions of the Two-pack are being applied differently to programme countries, so I was wondering whether there is further analysis on that subject.

    2. Countries such as Greece and Spain have signed Memoranda of Understanding in dealing with the crisis. In this regard I would like to know whether there is analysis focusing on the political influence, the ECB receives in this setting.

    Ines Ciolli · Sapienza University of Rome

    Giovanni Boggero, Pasquale Annicchino, '‘Who Will Ever Kick Us Out?’: Italy, the Balanced Budget Rule and the Implementation of the Fiscal Compact' (2014) 20 European Public Law, Issue 2, pp. 247–261 ;

    Ain't necessarily so...useful? the balanced bidget rule in Italan constitution, www.associaizonedeicostituzionalisti.it  (or in my site in research gate) ad my paper in reseacrh gate presented in Oslo association of internaitonal constitutional law....

  • Lasha Markozashvili added an answer:
    Does the current crisis negatively affect the democratic quality of the European Union?
    The democratic deficit of the EU has been discussed for about twenty years. Although, latest reforms have strengthened the EU-Parliament, the democratic weaknesses still seem to be relevant in times of crisis. What does the crisis tell us about the democratic functioning of the EU?
  • Lasha Markozashvili added an answer:
    When and how will the given European integration really be ended ?
    Whether reading the old Balassa’s foreseeing model of economic integration, the current stage of the EU would show as already ended, but reality is much different.
  • Is there (or was there) a law requiring the destruction of thistles (e.g. Carduus spp. and Cirsium spp.) in your country (Europe)?

    Dear everyone,

    I’m writing a study about the impact of the law requiring the destruction of thistles on populations of bumblebees in Europe. To do this, I’m looking for information about this law in each country of the European Union. I would be very pleased if you could provide these few information:
    - Is there (or was there) a law on the destruction of thistles (e.g. Carduus spp. and Cirsium spp.) in your country?
    - If so, since when?
    - Does it apply to the whole country or just to a region?
    - Which species are involved?
    - Would you know any studies that have already dealt with the consequences of such a law on biodiversity?

    Many thanks in advance for your help !

    Sarah

    Jesper Erenskjold Moeslund · Aarhus University

    To my knowledge there has never been such a law in Denmark.

  • Oliver Watteler added an answer:
    What could we learn from adoption of single currency in European Union?
    Regional integration.
    Can it be applied to other regional blocs?
    Oliver Watteler · GESIS - Leibniz-Institute for the Social Sciences

    For the European Union it was a major *political* project as well (de Grauwe 2013).* I think the Nobel Prize lecture by Thomas Sargent on "United States then and Europe now" holds valuable insights. He discusses the challenges of monetary and fiscal union:

    http://www.nobelprize.org/mediaplayer/index.php?id=1741

    *) http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-polisci-060911-085923

  • Oliver Watteler added an answer:
    Is anyone conducting research on public opinion on regional integration?
    I would like to know if there are researchers conducting studies on public opinion on regional integration - whether in the European Union or in other regions.
    Oliver Watteler · GESIS - Leibniz-Institute for the Social Sciences

    There is a rich host of studies concerning European integration beginning in the 1950s. The United States Information Agency began asking citizens of the original European Coal and Steel Community in 1952. Based on that experience and some forerunners, the Information Service of the European Commission set up the Eurobarometer survey series in 1973. All surveys are available at GESIS:

    http://www.gesis.org/en/eurobarometer/home

    The European Social Survey (ESS) asks regular questions concerning European integration:

    http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org/

    There are literally hundreds of articles on "public support", "attitudes toward", or "public opinion" concerning European integration. Sara Hobolt's chapter in the 'The Oxford Handbook of the European Union' gives you a good overview of the topic:

    http://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199546282.013.0050

    There are also critical aspects about public opinion toward European integration reflected in the following volume:

    http://press.ecpr.eu/book_details.asp?bookTitleID=87

  • Robert Stephen Higgins added an answer:
    Should the CoE ensure universal human rights become more accessible in accordance with the Vienna Declaration, in the Post 2015 Development Agenda?

    The UN Post 2015 Development Agenda includes fundamental transformative shifts of poverty alleviation and sustainable development for all including vulnerable groups.  Can this be realistically achieved where universal human rights remain accessible unequally, and are not realised generally and globally by all UN member states? Should regional human rights bodies such as the Council of Europe play a greater role in the promotion and protection of universal human rights ? 

    Robert Stephen Higgins · Human Rights League of the Horn of Africa

    Ade,  I perused the referenced web site and first have to tell you that I don't believe "social and economic rights" are true human rights. They can be traced to the proposition that need begets a right to have that need fulfilled by other people. I don't see an implicit link between need and a right. Rather, that link must be put in place by those who want it to exist. In doing so they will refer to their morality (which is chosen), values (also chosen), ability to help, the priority of the matter, and in some cases the danger of helping. The decision to help is optional and optional rights cannot be universal rights which are compelling on everyone.

    The actions and inactions of the government in the reference do transgress real human rights, however. It would be too long to elaborate on this here. Instead, I refer to  my web site www.truehumanrights.com and my book on rights that is available there.

  • Michael Bruter added an answer:
    Where can I find an overview or the data of the voter turnout of Young Europeans (16-29) at European elections (1979-2014)?

    Neither the commission, nor the parliament (or Eurostat) are providing this information in a comprehensive way.

    For the elections of 2004 onwards post-election reports exist (http://www.europarl.europa.eu/pdf/eurobarometre/2014/post/post_ee2014_sociodemographic_annex_en.pdf).

    So I would rather need information for the elections before 2004. Thank your for your support!

    Torben

    Michael Bruter · The London School of Economics and Political Science

    Bear in mind that any such information is always based on survey evaluation and not actual electoral roll data. As a result, different surveys can come up with fairly different estimates of participation by age groups (on some election types, differences can easily reach 10 percentage points). This is especially the case to the extent that turnout is a "socially desirable" behaviour and we do not always agree on the specific extent to which different types of individuals are likely to lie about their vote. This is still the best we can get so it is fine to use it ,but the distinction is important to bear in mind.

  • Is the European Union democratic?
    This question is vital for each european citizen. I was one of the two million of signatories of the European Citizens’ Initiative, “One of Us”, which was vetoed by the European Commission illegitimately and anti-democratically.
    (see http://www.europeandignitywatch.org/index.php?id=43&tx_ttnews%5btt_news%5d=443&cHash=d1c5204c3b713d6fbdb9ebbd7ee688f0)
    Alfonso Diestro Fernández · National Distance Education University

    Dear all, 

    I think that the European Union will be truly democratic when the EU belongs to the citizens and not ("only") to the members States. They can easily ignore European initiatives in the cooperation politics areas... Usually, they have never shown sufficient forward-looking vision to go beyond national interests in favour of a greater convergence, such as occurs with common policies. Right now, the austerity's strategy seems to be against civil (and Human) rights in Europe and their welfare state.

    Best regards. 

  • Could you recommend key publications on social network analysis for the study of socio-political relations and democratic decision-making?

    I would also be interested in interrelated network visualisation tools as a point of departure for the analysis of evolving patterns of democratic decision-making. The main case study is the European Union, but it will be enlarged to relations with third countries as part of EU International Relations, thus including a comparative regional integration and global governance perspective.

    Cristina Blanco Sío-López · European University Institute

    Thabk you for this very useful reply, as well as for your advice regarding the introduction to Ucinet. I totally agree on the very promising research potential of modelling evolution patterns. Thanks again.

  • Kevin Stoda added an answer:
    In terms of educational system integration, how does the ASEAN strategy differ from that of the European Union?

    The ASEAN Integration 2015 compels member countries to align and harmonize their educational system with each other.  How will it affect an individual's preferred profession or career?  How much will be the financial burden of a country in relation to its capacity to pay, i.e., cost of schooling per capita?  What would be its expected impact to the culture and social standing of the population?  In what way will an educational system integration empower the people to make them active participants of political processes and governance?

    Kevin Stoda · Salalah College of Technology

    Dear Gerry,

    Would you say that some countries are much further along in following ASEAN guidelines in education than others?  For example, let us say we would or could  compare all the ASEAN countries--which are the most often attempting to follow the guidelines in various fields

  • Cecilia Geron added an answer:
    Who would cooperate in field of tobacco taxation?

    I am interested in excise duty. I did an analysis of tobacco taxation in the European Union. Maybe you are interested in working in this field and write a joint article. I wait for feedback

    Cecilia Geron · University of São Paulo

    I can give a contribution too.

  • Petra Schneider added an answer:
    Does “waste hierarchy” policy really work across EU countries?

    This question derives from following link http://sciencealert.com.au/news/20140509-26134.html  which reveals that 99 percent of Sweden’s waste is now reused ! Ops… in Romania is quite opposite.. 99 percent of waste is disposed in landfills ?! ...The core issue is: how can New Member States face with the same EU requirements as old ones... which have many years of experience in the recycling & treatment sector  supported by a wealthy economy ? 

    Dear Florin,

    this answer comes from a practitioner, who is working for the implementation of integrated waste management systems in Europe and also worked long time in Romania. The project "Technical Assistance for Preparation of 5 Projects in the Environmental Sector (Integrated Waste Management Systems for the Counties Botosani, Calarasi, Vaslui, Suceava, Olt, Romania), ISPA 2005/RO/16/P/PA/001-04" we prepared from 2008 to 2011 and the project "Technical Assistance for Management and Supervision ISPA Contracts in the Solid Waste Sector in Arges” EuropeAid/122694/D/SER/RO" from 2007 to 2011. Form this activities we have a quite good overview on the waste management situation in Romania, especially as there were three 5-counties projects in parallel (all projects included a survey of the existing situation). As short summary to answer your question I can state the following: for the moment there are not quite good recycling activities in Romania, but they will be very soon. The current financing and implementation period of the EU ends in the end of 2015 (even there is alsready asked a prolonging of time, because the tendering of the works goes slowly), but all waste management investments are designed to be in compliance with the European recycling targets. As usual, things are going a bit more slowly in Romania, but they go forward, and in this regard I can give you an update of the projects mentioned above (this is the project "Technical assistance during implementation of the Integrated Waste Management within 5 Counties (Botosani, Calarasi, Vaslui, Suceava, Olt) which is going from 2011 to 2015, financed by the EU funds through the county councils. The current status is that in Botosani and Suceava the project implementation is nearly finished, the recycling facilities are implemented, the new landfills are built, only some closures of old landfills are not fully ready yet. In Vaslui, Olt and Calarasi the new landfill is under construction, the recycling infrastructure (bins, sorting plant, composting facilities) are under implementation. Also all the waste management facilities in Arges are mostly implemented, I visited some of them this summer, and I was very glad. The Romanian collegues there told me that the infrastructure works very well. This status is true for a lot of counties in Romania. A collegue of mine worked in a parallel project in Mures (he worked before also in Piatra Neamt), there the project was finalised this summer, so we have the overview also for other counties, and we see good progress. Some counties are in delay, like Baia Mare, but in general, there will be a modern infrastructure for integrated waste management implemented in the next years in all the Romania. For "our" counties I can tell you, that even there will maybe be a prolonging of time latest in 2016 all the infrastructure and the accompanying public awareness activities will be implemented. I think, this is a reason to look optimistic in the future. And coming to your question: how can New Member States face with the same EU requirements as old ones ? I think, this is possible because the implemented systems will have the same standard like in the old EU member states, but are adapted to the local requirements. What I can tell you from my experience as a German (in Germany the strategy is "Zero-Waste until 2020") is, that the education of the public to use the waste management infrastructure sufficiently will take longer, but also there I am optimistic, because I worked with very engaged people in the county councils in Romania.

    Best regards,

    Petra

  • Eddie Seva See added an answer:
    Is anyone aware of studies that have addressed the specific issue of knowledge transfer impact on productivity in agricultural in recent times?

    To see trends in world and EU countries in last 40-50 years, money amounts in R&D and knowlegde transfer according agriculture (crop and cereals particularly) and where can be proven positive impact on productivity growth rate. 

    Eddie Seva See · Bicol University

    Magdalena, please try

    http://dirp3.pids.gov.ph/ris/dps/pidsdps1323.pdf or

    http://www.pcaarrd.dost.gov.ph/home/ssentinel/ and search impact assessment, or

    http://www.pcaarrd.dost.gov.ph/home/ssentinel/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2261:pcaarrd-holds-consultation-meeting-with-acpc&catid=50:in-the-news&Itemid=34

  • Pierantonios Papazoglou added an answer:
    Does anyone have an experience in studying the problem of academic mobility in European Union and in CIS?
    I am going to study opportunities of academic mobility implementation in Ukraine.
    Pierantonios Papazoglou · University of Glasgow

    As the Coordinator of the EURAXESS Cyprus Services, I would suggest that you look into the policy documents available on "Mobility" (of researchers), in the Library of the pan-European EURAXESS Network, at: http://ec.europa.eu/euraxess/index.cfm/services/researchPolicies.

    It may not be exactly on Ukraine, but it should provide you with a solid "background" on policies and studies regrading academic and research mobility at the European level.

  • Pierantonios Papazoglou added an answer:
    Are Brokerage and partnering events targeting for EU funding useful?

    One more interesting event connecting actors in business and research in order to establish consortia for EU grat applications has been announced (see below).

    On one hand, it reads very promising for researchrs who would like to enter the EU scene and become part of a consortium. On the other hand, I have my doubts whether  experienced consortia leaders would go there in order to find new partners.

    What do you think? Will someone other than newcomers join this event?

    Here are the data:

    Healthcare Brokerage Event MEDICA 2014

    On the occasion of MEDICA 2014, the global No. 1 meeting place for the medical sector, ZENIT GmbH together with the Healthcare Sector Group of the Enterprise Europe Network will organise the international Brokerage Event. The aim is to assist enterprises, universities and research institutions in finding partners in Europe for product development, manufacturing and licensing agreements, joint ventures or other types of partnership.

    This international Healthcare Brokerage Event at MEDICA fair has a tradition of more than 15 years now. In 2013 the brokerage event had more than 240 participants from about 30 countries with more than 800 meetings.

    Pierantonios Papazoglou · University of Glasgow

    As a National Contact Point for FP7 and now Horizon 2020, I would say that - if properly organised (e.g. pre-scheduled meetings, short presentations, "speed-dates", academia-private sector interaction, etc) -  then such Brokerage events are quite useful and could be fruitful in terms of creating partnerships for potential submissions to EU grants. For networking of the sort (that is; with the scope of creating potential consortia for EU proposals), it is also very good to consider the COST actions (http://www.cost.eu). 

  • Magali Gravier added an answer:
    What would happen if the UK left the EU?
    I know this is an incredibly complex and multifaceted issue. At this moment I am looking for ideas on how to approach this question.
    Magali Gravier · Copenhagen Business School

    Regarding the impact of a BREXIT on the UK and the likelihood of it, it seems to me that we first need to grasp a bigger/broader picture: the UK, as a state, is in a very difficult and challenging phase of its history. In other words, I would not separate this from next week’s referendum on the Scottish independence. Indeed, taken together, both issues show that the UK as a political unit is undergoing a phase of extreme turbulence where its identity and cohesion is challenged internally (who wants to “play” the UK “game”?) and externally (with whom does the UK want to “play” a “bigger game”?). Although it is difficult to say how the SCOTIND (;-) ) referendum will impact on the BREXIT issue, this is certainly a part of the equation. As Renan wrote in Qu’est-ce qu’une nation? a nation is a daily plebiscite. This daily plebiscite is put in question at the moment in the UK. The capacity of UK people and decision makers to renew the plebiscite of the UK as a political entity (internally) and of the UK as part of a bigger political entity (externally – with the EU) is a very important step in order to prevent SCOTIND and BREXIT. Failure to do so could lead to a collapse internally (SCOTIND) and externally (BREXIT). Impacts would be difficult to assess because there would be direct and indirect (domino) effects. Banks are starting to elaborate scenarios of relocation outside of the City (Dublin? Paris?) to remain in the EU and why, by the same token, set foot in the Eurozone. What would a UK-minus-Scotland-and-outside-of-the-EU with a very much reduced financial sector look like? What kind of deal would the UK be able to maintain with the EU? With whom would it play? The EFTA again? If the UK chooses to stay in the EU, on which basis would it do so? Here to, the plebiscite needs to be renegotiated. The present “deal” doesn’t seem satisfactory anymore. So stay and continue without changing stuff could be just like postponing the divorce without having a serious talk about mariage. In other words, should the UK wish to remain a member state of the EU, on which grounds would it do this? You can’t just through a potential divorce at the head of your spouse and end up saying “Well, I’ve thought about it, and, uh, nope, I prefer not to divorce, come on, honey, let’s forget about it and stay together.” That can’t be a sustainable strategy.
    It is also important to realize that the EU would be impacted by the BREXIT. I am very fond of using the concept of empire to analyse the EU. Empires expand and shrink. Up to now, the only experience of losing territory was when Greenland left the EU in 1985. BREXIT would be a phase of territorial shrinkage for the EU. BREXIT could be a blow to the EU like the loss of Egypt was to the Byzantine Empire. I.e. losing a territory of significant importance (Egypt “fed” the empire with wheat; the UK brings significant financial and industrial wealth in the EU). Both units survived the separation. They were impacted by it, but they survived it. But the question is the same as for the UK. If the UK decides to stay, what will the EU do? Accepting the threat of a divorce and a change of mind, because “Nope, the UK prefers not to divorce.” can’t be enough. The EU should engage in serious talks with the UK about the basis for a renewed relationship and commitment.

  • Amir Ahmadi added an answer:
    To what extent has regional integration in the European Union been driven by political agency?

    Using a neo-functionalist perspective.

    Amir Ahmadi · University of Guilan
    •  This question could lead us to broader challenge about regionalism and the factor of political agency in regional complexes in the third world. Are there any kind of political agency exist for facilitate regional integration? Comparative study of these regional schemes shed a light to that issue. 
    • • The point is that it varies from one region to another. Even all developing countries regional projects are not the same. But something which is similar in majority of those cases is the complex of political institutions and weak political culture which weaken process of regionalism. It means that both states and their nations even social norms are different from each other. 
    • • It is also important to forget the step by step process of broader regional integration. Especially the case of Middle East which depict existing challenges for regionalism proves this disability for analysis. Modeling a European type as a desired one at the time which even states of Middle East are in danger of collapse derails us from political realities in world politics
  • Elisabetta Croci Angelini added an answer:
    how do you process Eu Silc data when connecting people?
    In the P-files all over 16 members of a household are interviewed, but I do not know a simple method to connect children (any age) to their parents when available.
    Elisabetta Croci Angelini · University of Macerata

    I use a small R programme, but there should be an easier way

  • Arvydas Guogis added an answer:
    Why is the labour market in the European Union open to globalization while social security still suffers from a lack of resources?
    The labour market in Europe is becoming flexible and open, but social security is still closed in national boundaries. Less-developed countries are suffering because of emigration of the labour force and losing employees to more-developed countries. Rising costs for social security per capita in less-developed countries undermine the national business. At the same time social security in less-developed countries suffers because of a lack of resources. How can this dangerous vicious cycle be changed?
    Arvydas Guogis · Mykolas Romeris University

    Dear Phil Barbonis,

    It is written in my question explanation to which countries I refer. To be more precise, I refer to less developed new EU Eastern European countries, which have big emigration, but low social security benefits and services.

  • Francesca Cansani added an answer:
    Is multiculturalism failing in Europe?
    What are your views on the issue of multiculturalism in Europe? Some voices are suggesting that it has failed.
  • Ben I Mcneil added an answer:
    What would help you to collaborate and if agencies wish to increase collaboration, what types of collaborative funding might be most helpful?
    The EU has put together some impressive collaborative scientific research programs but these EU programs end without the ability to renew after 5 years. In the U.S. collaborative research projects have largely been renewable. However, we are now seeing with programs such as the Protein Structure Initiative decisions by the National Institute of Health to discontinue programs regardless of their level of merit. What makes the most sense for science and promoting collaboration among research groups to address larger and high impact problems. Should collaborative programs be discontinued or continued based upon metrics of value or should they just end based upon politics. What would be especially useful for grants to improve collaborative research?
  • André Cordeiro added an answer:
    Is it right to say that "voluntary departure" in the meaning given by directive 2008/115 and "voluntary return" have got the same meaning?
    According to art. 3.8 of the directive 2008/115 "voluntary departure" means compliance with the obligation to return within the time-limit fixed for that purpose in the return decision. Is it right to use this notion interchangeably with the notion "voluntary return"?
    André Cordeiro · Ministry of Foreign Affairs
    I don't think so, you depart from one place but that does not necessarily mean you return to the place wher you come from. Of course, within EU law, one goes with the other, but I would add that, for instance, in case of asylum request, the "retun" is probably to the State where the visa was issued or where the person got in the EU and not her/his countri of origin. In the case of asylum que "voluntary" aspect would need an extra reflexetion, but that is a different debate
  • Alejandro R. Silva added an answer:
    Is anyone here doing research on government elites? Particularly in developing countries? Thanks.
    I am currently finalizing a 3-year project on a series of 94 in-depth interviews with political elites and administrative elites in the Netherlands, European Union, and United States. I want to expand this research to Asia and Africa as well.
    Alejandro R. Silva · University of Buenos Aires
    Jorge Schvartzer, a deceased Argentine researcher from the University of Buenos Aires made thorough studies about Argentine and Mexican business elites. He won a Guggenheim Scholarship in 2006.

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