• vg Yugandhar asked a question:
    Requesting for template statement letter for a) future research plans for 5 years and b) future teaching plans for 3 years. Can anyone help please?

    Hello all, I am searching for a template statement letter for - a) future research plans for 5 years and b) future teaching plans for 3 years. There are different types of templates available in web. But I wish to see these templates from the biology field [biotechnology background]. So I am requesting if anybody have these letters, please share with me...Thank you in advance...

  • Zeinab Araghirostami asked a question:
    Are there real world applications of Schur multiplier?

    I am interested in applications of topics specifically coming from Schur multiplier.

    for example, in biology, computer sience and other branch.

  • Matteo Cassotti added an answer:
    How to learn QSAR/QPSAR?

    i want to learn the QSAR/QPSAR from the medicinal chemistry point of view, I have gone through many books on QSAR all have a tough mathematical background and calculation which i found a bit confusing. Can anyone suggest an article/book/video lecture which focuses on the biology and cutting out the unnecessary mathematical part.

    Matteo Cassotti · Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca

    Dear Ramit Singla,

    From my point of view it is impossible to cut the mathematics out of QSAR. However, I would say that there can be two major approaches: statistical and mechanistic.

    In mechanistically-based QSAR, you use theoretical knowledge of the problem to select the relevant molecular descriptors (accounting for molecular properties, structural features and other aspects). So you choose a priori what descriptors (your independent variables) to use in the mathematical models.

    In statistically-based QSAR, you calculate several (sometimes thousands) of molecular descriptors and then you identify the most statistically relevant for the problem by using variable selection techniques. In this case, it is fundamental that you check that the selected descriptors are relevant not only from a statistical viewpoint, but also from a chemical/biological viewpoint.

    For the statistically-based QSAR, you can find some tutorials as well as as references on www.moleculardescriptors.eu, the focus being molecular descriptors (as the name suggests). 

    I hope this can help.

    Matteo

  • John David Sanders added an answer:
    Robotics, Genetics and AI with a touch of Philosophical prediction?
    Would it be reasonable to think that combining Molecular Genetics and Cognitive Robotics will some day (ex. in 10, 50, 100 yrs.) contribute to a successful convergence between man and machine to combat disease and degeneration of humans?
    Many science writers seem to say the merger in not too far away now. Should we believe them?
    John David Sanders · Bluestone Enterprise Ltd , UK

    Cognitive robots (electro-mechanically based) capable of fully  interacting with our environment will be a significantly different architecture from biological systems.  It is possible to have a biological solution and a mechanical/electronic system both of which may be, in some sense, viable (with respect to the environment) but which are mutually incompatible. And still we cannot say  that we will build a cybernetic solution within the next few decades. Convergence (if even possible) need not occur.

    Why do I say this? Because the driving force of their development is not the environment but the minds of people applying modelling, determinism, discrete rules from a basis which is machine dominated. (ie we are trying to simulate living systems)

  • Artur Burzynski added an answer:
    Are any other researchers interested in conducting a collaborative evolution field study in biology majors at research universities?

    I am looking for collaborators to conduct a broad field study of acceptance and rejection of evolution in biology majors that is comparative across regions of the United States and abroad. Please respond if you might be interested. Instrumentation is already prepared/validated and reliability tested.

  • Rogelio Rodríguez-Sotres added an answer:
    Have you come across any protein prediction tool/server which takes input as fasta sequence?
    I am looking for different protein classification problems where machine learning can be or has been implemented. I would like to include them in my own models.
    Rogelio Rodríguez-Sotres · Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

    Probably your requirement for a fasta sequence input can be bypassed using conversion tools, such as:

    http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/sfc/readseq/

    Best wishes,

    Rogelio

  • Andrei Gonzales I. added an answer:
    Where can I find websites to get free scientific publications?

    Please I need links like http://gen.lib.rus.ec/ or http://www.freefullpdf.com/; I´m from Bolivia and sometimes it is too expensive buy scientific papers, usually it is not one or three, also for the students could have access without having a account where you have to be endorsed for a institution to get it (like on reserchgate). Also publications in other fields such as art, music, etc. Thank you for answers

    Andrei Gonzales I. · Universidad Mayor de San Andres

    Going back all contributions Here I put a list:

    http://libgen.org/
    http://www.freefullpdf.com/#gsc.tab=0
    http://scholar.google.es/
    http://sci-hub.org/
    http://www.elsevier.es/
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed
    http://bookzz.org/
    https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/
    http://arxiv.org/
    http://www.oalib.com/
    http://essay.se/
    http://www.freemedicaljournals.com/
    http://rutracker.org./forum/index.php
    https://github.com/SciTorrent
    http://www.redalyc.org/
    http://www.ibimapublishing.com/journals/CHEM/chem.html
    http://www.niscair.res.in/
    http://avaxhm.com/ebooks
    http://www.hrpub.org/journals/journal_subject.php
    http://www.scirp.org/journal/ojpc/
    http://odajournal.com/
    http://www.niscair.res.in/
    http://www.oalib.com/
    https://doaj.org/
    http://en.bookfi.org/
    http://bookinist.net/
    http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=es
    http://www.ommegaonline.com/
    http://www.plosone.org/
    http://elifesciences.org/
    http://highwire.stanford.edu/lists/devecon.dtl
    http://www.emeraldinsight.com/
    http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/
    http://avxhome.se/ebooks
    http://www.journalhome.org/
    http://www.mdpi.com/
    http://openaccess.mpg.de/2365/en
    http://www.intechopen.com/
    https://ideas.repec.org/
    http://www.abcdfree.com/

    If you have some other links comment.
    Thank you everyone for all contributions !!!

  • Angélica Simone added an answer:
    Is it worth publishing with Lambert Academic publishers?
    My inbox has repeatedly been spammed from lambert Academic publishers. Is it worth publishing with this publisher. Do they have any authenticity. There is a lot of bad stuff written about this. Still, people publish their thesis with them. How one could publish your results in the form of book when its already published in the form of research articles. Are they peer reviewed....Suggestions welcome

    http://chrisnf.blogspot.ca/2010/06/lambert-academic-publishing-continues.html
    Angélica Simone · University of São Paulo

    I receive the same e-mail today, tks for the informations!!

  • Jaza Muhamad added an answer:
    Contaminants in DNA?
    Low 260/280 in DNA isolated from liver tissue with Qiagen DNeasy. I am isolating total DNA from liver tissue for downstream use in exomic sequencing. I need a final quantity of 3.6 micrograms at a concentration of 60ng/ul. My yield looks high but my nanodrop OD looks bad. With other samples i have gotten 260/280 of 1.9-2 but now its lower, at 1.6. The minimum ratio needed for this application is 1.80. I think this is protein contamination, though I am not sure. The 260/230 is also <1, which I've read may be due to contamination with salts. I added RNAse to this purification, though it didn't seem any different from the identical one without RNAse. Should I perform the elution again? Should I add more proteinase K? Digest for a longer period of time? I have plenty of yield so I could do part/all of it again, but don't want to waste a lot of spin columns. I also thought that perhaps my elution was too concentrated as I used only 100uL instead of the suggested 200uL to elute so I added another 100uL of the AE (elution buffer) to my final sample to see if that helped and it didn't seem to.

     Secondary measure of nucleic acid purity is 260/230: ratio of samples absorbance at 260 and 230 nm. The 260/230 values for “pure” nucleic acid are often higher than the respective 260/280 values and they are commonly in the range of 1.8-2.2, If the ratio is appreciably lower, this may indicate the presence of co-purified contaminants. 

  • Manish Bhattacharjee added an answer:
    What is the significance of 50% in biology ?

    I was wondering that why is 50% considered so important in biology, as there are inumerable examples in experimental biology where we consider the 50% of something, starting from half life of biomolecules to tm value for primers, IC50, LD50, TCID50 etc.

    there must be a common logic !...

    Manish Bhattacharjee · Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology

    thanks all ... interesting yet reasonable  inputs from all of you ....

  • Zafar Shahdad Khan added an answer:
    Is there anybody interested in partnership within Erasmus+ KA1 & KA2 with Ukrainian university?

    In biology, ecology. Directions: botany, zoology, entomology, biodiversity, protected areas

    I m intrested in collaborative work on biodiversity.

  • Kenneth M Towe added an answer:
    Are trade-offs in biology inevitable?

    Recently Theodore Garland asked (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982213014553) whether trade-offs are ubiquitous or inevitable in biology. Garland’s arguments and examples make a good case for the inscrutability of trade-offs. However, Lan Smith and myself are not fully convinced that Garland has made a solid case against their inevitability. We suspect that many trade-offs simply remain unknown or ‘hidden’, and that even for those that are well known the shapes remain uncertain either because of multidimensional correlations among many co-varying traits or due to the difficulty of empirically measuring plausible trade-offs with sufficient precision. See more at https://thalassachronicle.wordpress.com

  • Sudev Naduvath added an answer:
    Where can I find useful literature on graph theoretical applications to biological networks?

    Please provide me information regarding the recent developments in the mathematical, especially graph theoretical, studies on biological networks. Please give some good reference too..

    Thanking you in advance,

    Sudev

    Sudev Naduvath · Vidya Academy of Science & Technology

    Thank you so much Professor Ljubomir Jacić, I will go through that.

  • Lifeng Kang added an answer:
    Does anyone have experience with the Journal of Visualized Experiments?
    We are currently debating about subscribing to JoVE in the categories "Neuroscience" and "Behavior". Could anyone comment on the overlap of both categories or the usefulness of the individual categories or even articles? So far "Behavior" only contains 39 articles. Could it be supposed that JoVE is growing? I have seen some colleagues publishing there, but it still seems to be off the typical pursuit of impact points. Could it be supposed that JoVE will receive an Impact factor in the future?
    web: http://www.jove.com/
    Lifeng Kang · National University of Singapore

    I'm now in the process of publishing a paper with JoVE.

    Apart from the high cost, the real concern now its impact factor. It is absolutely critical for this Journal. JoVE is one of a kind and with lots of potentials. But without an impact factor it will not go very far.

  • Baishakhi Ghosh added an answer:
    What is the difference between Ex vivo and In vitro?
    We know the terms Ex vivo and In vitro are very close but they are not same.. non of the articles gives satisfactory information in differentiating these terms. They say Ex vivo is growing cells/tissues out side the living system..still it is not same as in vitro. What makes these systems separate from each other.
    Baishakhi Ghosh · Chest Research Foundation

    All the answer above are correct. I was just reading an article involving ex vivo and in vitro techniques (link provided). According to the published literature, I am interpret the following observation:

    ex vivo involved obtaining the macrophages directly from the subjects and staining and observing them directly. Here we are not growing the cells neither modifying them (and regarding the ex vivo gene many had already provided their opinion in the comments above).

    in vitro  involved isolating the monocytes and growing them into full fledged macrophage by providing the natural stimulation condition artificially.

    Hope this gives you a better understanding.

  • Sayed Mohammad Shafiee added an answer:
    Do I need to filter after dissolving drugs in DMSO?
    I am preparing drug stock in DMSO. To take the weight of drug I need to expose it outside the cabinet. Thus I am wondering about microbial contamination. Do I need to filter it with 0.22um syringe filter?
    Sayed Mohammad Shafiee · Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    If it is possible you can search for an alternative  solvent for the desired drug; then you can strile it through syringe filters.

  • Can I have information or links on the ecology and biology of polychaetes of the Mediterranean sea?(except FAUVEL, 1923 and 1927, Fauchald, 1977).

    I need information or interesting links on the ecology and biology of polychaetes of the Mediterranean Sea (except FAUVEL, 1923 and 1927, Fauchald, 1977). Thanks

    Chariton charles Chintiroglou · Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

    There are many paper related on symbiotic realationship with other host suth as porifera coral and ascidicea

  • Ljubomir Jacić added an answer:
    Should we question the credibility of international conferences?

    We see most of international conferences accept more than 90 percent of the papers that they receive regardless of the quality of the papers or plagiarism possibilities. Shall it make us think that the conferences are only business?

    Ljubomir Jacić · Technical College Požarevac

    Dear @Ahmad Rezaee Jordehi invited me to join the committee and to take part in the International Conference that will be held in Iran,Ayandegan University, link follows! I do just share informations. Link is in Persian!

  • Woo-Sik Jo added an answer:
    What is the liquid spawn production method of edible mushrooms?
    .
    Woo-Sik Jo · S. KOREA / www.gba.go.kr

    PDB broth of Lab, new developed medium in mass mushroom factory farm, in south Korea.

    Note : http://blog.daum.net/cordyceps/1601

    Sinecery yours

  • Ramón Aznar Roca added an answer:
    I am looking for non-destructive method for analyzing pesticide contamination in birds of prey?

    I am looking for non-destructive method for analyzing pesticide contamination in birds of prey, can we use fecal sample and pellets for analyzing pesticide contamination? 

    Ramón Aznar Roca · Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria

    Dear Prajakta,

    One year ago I published a method to detect insecticides an environmental pollutants in manure from birds. 

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/264089692_Multiresidue_Analysis_of_Insecticides_and_Other_Selected_Environmental_Contaminants_in_Poultry_Manure_by_Gas_ChromatographyMass_Spectrometry

    Please don't hesitate to contact me if you need any furhter info

    Best of luck

    Ramón

  • Alok Nahata added an answer:
    What are the solvents used in TLC for plant samples?
    Please suggest me the solvents used for TLC
    Alok Nahata · Dr. Harisingh Gour University

    Because of toxicity, cost, and flammability concerns, the common solvents are hexanes (or petroleum ethers/ligroin) and ethyl acetate (an ester). Diethyl ether can be used, but it is very flammable and volatile. Alcohols (methanol, ethanol) can be used. Acetic acidcan be used, usually as a small percentage component of the system, since it is corrosive, non-volatile, very polar, and has irritating vapors. Acetone can be used. Methylene chloride or and chloroform (halogenated hydrocarbons) are good solvents, but are toxic and should be avoided whenever possible. If two solvents are equal in performance and toxicity, the more volatile solvent is preferred in chromatography because it will be easier to remove from the desired compound after isolation from a column chromatography procedure.

    Usually we mix a non-polar solvent (hexanes) with a polar solvent (ethyl acetate or acetone) in varying percent combinations to make solvent systems of greater and lesser polarity.

  • Mouri Ghosh added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest materials for a literature

    Prefer recent journal articles, and textbooks as well as current methods in their assays. All materials are welcomed.

    Mouri Ghosh · Hooghly Womens College, India

    You could try “Genotoxicity Assessment Methods and Protocols” by Alok Dhawan and Mahima Bajpayee, published by Springer Ptotocols. Its freely accessible in the net (about 8.2 Mb). It helped me . Another book is "Invitro toxicity testing protocols" edited by Sheila O'Here and Chris K. Atterwill, vol 43, under "Methods on Molecular Biology" also freely downloadable,  but I haven't really read that one (actually i have only read the headings of that one). Good luck staying awake, hurting your eyes, and loading your brain with loads of toxicity :-)

  • Billy Almarinez added an answer:
    Can mosquitoes larvae causes myiasis? If yes, which larvae?

    Usually, reports of myiasis is associated to flies. Because of resemblance in biology of fly and mosquito it seems the later could do it too.

    Billy Almarinez · De La Salle University

    You are welcome, Sir Mansour. If you are asking for links to the reports on cases of myiasis being caused by larvae of Psychoda spp., you may easily search for publications here in ResearchGate with the keywords "Psychoda" and "myiasis". You can likewise search Google for links to articles or at least abstracts of the publications using the same keywords.

  • András Bozsik added an answer:
    Which language can be an ideal or optimal lingua franca for science?
    To use a language as a scientific lingua franca can give advantages and disadvantages for the members of the scientific community on the basis of their culture and mother tongue. The status of a scientific or international language developed historically and not according to logical ideas and decisions on equal opportunity. I have tried to classify former scientific languages and some present candidates. I - as a European with my own experiences and preconceptions - have found Italian and German languages as the best fits. I am waiting for your opinion and reasons.

    Characteristics of the ideal international scientific language

    Grammar: easy
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: easy
    Giving equal opportunity: perfect = dead language
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: none (= economy and politics do not influence the choice)

    Characteristics of historical international scientific languages and candidates

    Greek

    Grammar: not easy
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: not easy
    Pronunciation: not easy
    Giving equal opportunity? yes, one mother country
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: historically yes
    Strong economic/political background: none

    Latin

    Grammar: difficult
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: relatively easy
    Giving equal opportunity? perfect
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: historically yes
    Strong economic/political background: none

    Arabic

    Grammar: very difficult
    Vocabulary: very difficult
    Script: very difficult
    Pronunciation: very difficult
    Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: historically yes
    Strong economic/political background: too many countries


    Chinese

    Grammar: I do not know
    Vocabulary: very difficult (for Europeans at least)
    Script: very difficult
    Pronunciation: very difficult
    Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: world power

    English

    Grammar: at the beginning easy, then difficult
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: OK
    Pronunciation: difficult
    Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: world power

    French

    Grammar: difficult
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: OK
    Pronunciation: difficult
    Giving equal opportunity? one mother country
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: none

    German

    Grammar: relatively easy
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: easy
    Giving equal opportunity? two mother countries (Switzerland has four official languages)
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: none

    Russian

    Grammar: difficult
    Vocabulary: not so easy
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: easy
    Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: world power

    Italian

    Grammar: easy
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: easy
    Giving equal opportunity? one country
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: none

    Spanish

    Grammar: not so easy
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: not so easy
    Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: too many countries
    András Bozsik · University of Debrecen

    Dear Kennedy,

    The question was to evaluate which language suits best general scientific communication. Please, find a determined opinion.

  • Abdou abd alltif added an answer:
    How to determine ascorbic acid in any plant sample using Spectrophotometer?
    I need detailed protocol to determine ascorbic acid in plants, I will make analysis with UV-Spectrophotometer.
    Abdou abd alltif · Cairo University

    This method cited from (Sakr et al., 2012)

    Ascorbic acid extracted from 2 g shoot fresh material by 4% oxalic acid, then made up to 100 mL and centrifuge at 2,000 rpm for 5 min, then add 10 mL of 4% oxalic acid and titrate with 2,6-dichlorphenol-indophenol as described by Sadasivam and Manickam (1996)

    Sadasivam S, Manickam A (1996) Biochemical methods, 2nd edn.
    New Age International (P)Ltd., Publishers, New Delhi, ISBN
    81-224-0976-8

  • Felipe Kupske added an answer:
    GLMM tutorial in SPSS?
    We are trying to find some tutorial, guide, or video explaining how to use and run Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) in SPSS software. We are working in animal behavior (primatology) and we need to analyze a 8 years' longitudinal database about the re-socialization and rehabilitation process of a chimpanzee sample.

    Do you know where to get it? Some advice?
    Felipe Kupske · Universidade Comunitária da Região de Chapecó

    http://www-01.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/SSLVMB_20.0.0/com.ibm.spss.statistics.help/glmm_howto.htm?cp=SSLVMB_20.0.0 

  • Daniel Baldomir added an answer:
    What is the biggest scientific coincidence that you know?
    For me the two more important are:

    1. The phase transition liquid-solid for the water is that the solid state is less dense.
    2. The dielectric screening in metals is such that the Coulomb interaction among the electrons falls at a distance of the Bohr radius.

    The first one has many important applications as the one of allowing the live in rivers during winter or so on. On the other hand, there are also very interesting electric and thermodynamic phase transitions for this material

    The second, thanks to have a so local electric interaction it allows to have almost free electrons at quite high electronic density in matter and therefore to apply theories so useful as the bands in solids. Over all in metals
    Daniel Baldomir · University of Santiago de Compostela

       Dear Robin,

       I have only reading the abstract of the paper, could I have the rest of the paper? Thank you

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