• Julian Osuji added an answer:
    Are any other researchers interested in conducting a collaborative evolution field study in biology majors at research universities?

    I am looking for collaborators to conduct a broad field study of acceptance and rejection of evolution in biology majors that is comparative across regions of the United States and abroad. Please respond if you might be interested. Instrumentation is already prepared/validated and reliability tested.

    Julian Osuji · University of Port Harcourt

    I am, basically, a plant scientist trained in the general field of biosystematics and plant taxonomy. In this general field, my specif areas of research cover, though not limited to, general genetics, cytogenetics, molecular genetics, anatomy, histochemistry, phenotypic studies/morphology and taxonomy. My broad scope of specialiation prepares me for in-depth understanding of evolution and phylogeny, which I feel is what you need. I am interested in a research collaboration with you in case the opportunity is still available. I am on ResearchGate and you can find more information on me online.

  • John LaCava added an answer:
    What is difference between TAE and TBE buffers and their properties regarding use in agarose gel electrophoresis?
    Why do some researchers use TAE and some TBE?
    John LaCava · The Rockefeller University

     See also:

    Modification of gel architecture and TBE/TAE buffer composition to minimize heating during agarose gel electrophoresis

    Brian A. Sanderson, Naoko Araki, Jennifer L. Lilley, Gilberto Guerrero, L. Kevin Lewis 

    0.5x TBE working very well for me.

  • Nirakar Pradhan added an answer:
    Is it worth publishing with Lambert Academic publishers?
    My inbox has repeatedly been spammed from lambert Academic publishers. Is it worth publishing with this publisher. Do they have any authenticity. There is a lot of bad stuff written about this. Still, people publish their thesis with them. How one could publish your results in the form of book when its already published in the form of research articles. Are they peer reviewed....Suggestions welcome

    Nirakar Pradhan · University of Naples Federico II

    mails from Lambert Academic publishers (LAP) is really annoying and they are sending email every now and then..worthless publication house...:(

  • Juliette Alemany added an answer:
    How can we estimate fish biomass using catch per unit effort for cuttlefish caught by artisanal fishermen using hook and line?
    I have data of catch and catch per unit effort of cuttlefish for 2 years. The data came from artisanal hook and line fishery. Can we simply use the equation which relate CPUE and abundance to estimate fish biomass? How to estimate the catchability coefficient in such case? There are many factors affecting this relationship and sometimes it is difficult to take account of them.
    The data I have include catch, effort in time spent fishing (from handheld gps loggers) and the estimated CPUE.
    Juliette Alemany · IFREMER


    Have you heard about the two-stage biomass model? It is based on assumptions about a simplified life cycle, and the idea is to model biomass dynamic between two stages of the stock (in the English Channel we use it between age 1 and age 2 because we consider a life-cycle of 2 years). You can set priors on the catchability, and the model fit will give you an estimate of the catchability according to the LPUE and survey data. I'm not sure you do have survey data, but you could adapt the model to your data.

  • Hossam hassan Elborombaly added an answer:
    Should we question the credibility of international conferences?

    We see most of international conferences accept more than 90 percent of the papers that they receive regardless of the quality of the papers or plagiarism possibilities. Shall it make us think that the conferences are only business?

    Hossam hassan Elborombaly · Effat University

    I believe that some conference has a high impact point also some journal. but the majority take the commercial way in order to make business work. We need a quality control for these factors. It should be our duty to put some argument for shearing both published associates to raised the quality of researches and to encourage researchers to publish researches without panic. 

  • Sisubalan Natarajan added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest who is doing DNA Barcoding studies in India?
    I have to do the work for my Ph.D study.
    Sisubalan Natarajan · Jamal Mohamed College

    To all the researchers who have given suggestions and information's regarding DNA barcoding study; now i am doing this work at CSIR-CIMAP, bangalore. Thank you.

  • Amulya Nidhi Shrivastava added an answer:
    How we usually determine the neurotoxicity of certain Antibody?

    I am working to determine the proper therapeutic dose for certain antibody  so I need to know how we can evaluate the toxicity using a validated method ? 

    Please, could anybody also provide me with a published article about this? 

    Amulya Nidhi Shrivastava


  • Parviz Parvin added an answer:
    Is there any attempt to model "Physics of Cancer"?
    Cancer consists of a series of diseases based on undesired cell proliferation. The cancerous cells are continuously formed in infectious organs whereas the human immunity system regularly identifies and destroys the unhealthy cells. When the defense system fails to demolish these malignant cells because its mal-function then the proliferation takes place in a definite rate (constant or increasing).
    In this case, the patient needs to be treated by chemo-therapy to hinder (or slow down) the peroliferation rate. This may be done by using vaious techniques available such as employment of the nanostructures, novel bio-clusters, bio-stimulation, thermal therapy and laser techniques or hybrid methods of treatment accompanied by traditional chemo-drugs to enhance the efficiency.
    Parviz Parvin · Amirkabir University of Technology

    Some natural Antioxidant agents:

    1-  Turmeric

    2- Ginger

    3- Cinnamon

    4- Green Tea

    5- Citron (Vitamin C)  and Orange

    6- Tomato (Vitamin C)

    7- Peanut (Vitamin E)

    8- Walnut (Vitamin E)

    9- Pistachio (Vitamin E)

  • Abouzar Bagheri added an answer:
    Which organism has the most complicated life cycle?

    I recall seeing, a couple of years ago, an enormously complicated life cycle of, well, I think it was a protist-style "animal". Loads of resting stages, morphs and sexual/asexual stages - and multiple tentative connections among most of these. It covered two full pages of a text book.

    I would like to use this life cycle as an amusing example in teaching. Problem is, I can’t seem to recall where I saw it.

    I realize that this vague description is so unspecific that you won’t be able to single out the organism. Instead, my question is: which organism has the most complicated life cycle? Or even: which is the messiest life cycle you have ever seen in print?

    Abouzar Bagheri · University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences


  • prof V.S Muralidharan added an answer:
    What do you think of MSc and PhD theses written in languages other than English?
    For non-native speakers it can be easier to write in their mother tongue. Moreover, pride in ones language can play a role. However, the language of science is English and writing science in other languages has, therefore, drawbacks. I wonder how this issue is navigated internationally.
    prof V.S Muralidharan · Central Electrochemical Research Institute

    i received an e mail stating that

  • Ljubomir Jacić added an answer:
    Which language can be an ideal or optimal lingua franca for science?
    To use a language as a scientific lingua franca can give advantages and disadvantages for the members of the scientific community on the basis of their culture and mother tongue. The status of a scientific or international language developed historically and not according to logical ideas and decisions on equal opportunity. I have tried to classify former scientific languages and some present candidates. I - as a European with my own experiences and preconceptions - have found Italian and German languages as the best fits. I am waiting for your opinion and reasons.

    Characteristics of the ideal international scientific language

    Grammar: easy
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: easy
    Giving equal opportunity: perfect = dead language
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: none (= economy and politics do not influence the choice)

    Characteristics of historical international scientific languages and candidates


    Grammar: not easy
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: not easy
    Pronunciation: not easy
    Giving equal opportunity? yes, one mother country
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: historically yes
    Strong economic/political background: none


    Grammar: difficult
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: relatively easy
    Giving equal opportunity? perfect
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: historically yes
    Strong economic/political background: none


    Grammar: very difficult
    Vocabulary: very difficult
    Script: very difficult
    Pronunciation: very difficult
    Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: historically yes
    Strong economic/political background: too many countries


    Grammar: I do not know
    Vocabulary: very difficult (for Europeans at least)
    Script: very difficult
    Pronunciation: very difficult
    Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: world power


    Grammar: at the beginning easy, then difficult
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: OK
    Pronunciation: difficult
    Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: world power


    Grammar: difficult
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: OK
    Pronunciation: difficult
    Giving equal opportunity? one mother country
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: none


    Grammar: relatively easy
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: easy
    Giving equal opportunity? two mother countries (Switzerland has four official languages)
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: none


    Grammar: difficult
    Vocabulary: not so easy
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: easy
    Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: world power


    Grammar: easy
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: easy
    Giving equal opportunity? one country
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: none


    Grammar: not so easy
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: not so easy
    Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: too many countries
    Ljubomir Jacić · Technical College Požarevac

    Dear @Jane, thanks for very good resource. You are right, it is about crystal-clear communication! 

    "'All politicians are guilty of slipping into jargon - and all of us deserve scrutiny from the Plain English Campaign. Complicated sets of initials, official jargon, bureaucracies that over-complicate things to boost their own self-importance - all of these things help to build barriers between government and people.

    When important information is being provided by officials or government departments, that is especially serious. So I congratulate the Campaign on all it has achieved to date, and wish it well.'" - David Cameron MP, Prime Minister

  • John Burrett added an answer:
    Does visualising your continuous data using bar graph makes any sense?

    Bar graphs don't inform adequately. They just represent the mean and the standard error.  We need to know even more from the graphs. In fact, the bar graphs starts from 0 at the bottom, which itself makes no sense. When looking at a graph we need to know the range (minimum and maximum), the distribution, outliers etc., none of which is represented in a bar graph. A box plot with the scatter overlay could be a meaningful way to represent continuous data. I need opinions on this. This question is related to the recent article in Plos biology.

    John Burrett · Haiku Analytics Inc

    I was going to say more or less what Paulo said.  What works best depends on what information you are trying to impart and on your audience.  More is not always better.

  • George Stoica added an answer:
    What is the degradation scale in the higher education worldwide?
    In my previous question I suggested using the Research Gate platform to launch large-scale spatio temporal comparative researches.
    The following is the description of one of the problems of pressing importance for humanitarian and educational sectors.
    For the last several decades there has been a gradual loss in quality of education on all its levels . We can observe that our universities are progressively turning into entertaining institutions, where students parties, musical and sport activities are valued higher than studying in a library or working on painstaking calculations.
    In 1998 Vladimir Arnold (1937 – 2010), one of the greatest mathematicians of our times, in his article “Mathematical Innumeracy Scarier Than Inquisition Fires” (newspaper “Izvestia”, Moscow) stated that the power players didn’t need all the people to be able to think and analyze, only “cogs in machines,” serving their interests and business processes. He also wrote that American students didn’t know how to sum up simple fractions. Most of them sum up numerator and denominators of one simple fraction with the ones of the other, i.e. as they did it, 1/2+ 1/3 according to their understand is equal to 2/5 . Vladimir Arnold pointed out that with this kind of education, students can’t think, prove and reason – they are easy to turn into a crowd, to be easily manipulated by cunning politicians because they don’t usually understand causes and effects of political acts. I would add, for myself, that this process is quite understandable and expected because computers, internet and consumer society lifestyle (with its continuous rush for more and newer commodities we are induced to regard as a healthy behavior) have wiped off young people’s skills in elementary logic and eagerness to study hard. And this is exactly what the consumer economics and its bosses, the owners of international businesses and local magnates, need.
    I recall a funny incident that happened in Kharkov (Ukraine). One Biology student was asked what “two squared” was. He answered that it was the number 2 inscribed into a square.
    The level and the scale of education and intellectual decline described can be easily measured with the help of the Research Gate platform. It could be appropriate to test students’ logic abilities, instead of guess-the-answer tests which have taken over all the universities within the framework of Bologna Process which victorious march on the territories of former Soviet states. Many people can remember the fact that Soviet education system was one of the best in the world. I have therefore suggested the following tests:
    1. In a Nikolai Bogdanov-Belsky (1868-1945) painting “Oral accounting at Rachinsky's People's school”(1895) one could see boys in a village school at a mental arithmetic lesson. Their teacher, Sergei Rachinsky (1833-1902), the school headmaster and also a professor at the Moscow University in the 1860s, offered the children the following exercise to do a mental calculation (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BogdanovBelsky_UstnySchet.jpg?uselang=ru):
    (10 х 10 + 11 х 11 + 12 х 12 + 13 х 13 + 14 х 14) / 365 = ?
    (there is no provision here on Research Gate to write square of the numbers,thats why I have writen through multiplication of the numbers )
    19th century peasant children with basted shoes (“lapti”) were able to solve such task mentally. This year, in September, this very exercise was given to the senior high school pupils and the first year students of a university with major in Physics and Technology in Kyiv (the capital of Ukraine) and no one could solve it.
    2. Exercise of a famous mathematician Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855): to calculate mentally the sum of the first one hundred positive integers:
    1+2+3+4+…+100 = ?
    3. Albrecht Dürer’s (1471-1528) magic square (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magic_square)
    The German Renaissance painter was amazed by the mathematical properties of the magic square, which were described in Europe firstly in Spanish (the 1280s) and Italian (14th century) manuscripts. He used the image of the square as a detail for in his Melancholia I painting , which was drawn in 1514, and included the numbers 15 and 14 in his magic square:

    16 3 2 13
    5 10 11 8
    9 6 7 12
    4 15 14 1

    Ask your students to find regularities in this magic square. In case this exercise seems hard, you can offer them Lo Shu (2200 BC) square, a simpler variant of magic square of the third order (minimal non-trivial case):

    4 9 2
    3 5 7
    8 1 6

    4. Summing up of simple fractions.
    According to Vladimir Arnold’s popular articles, in the era of computers and Internet, this test becomes an absolute obstacle for more and more students all over the world. Any exercises of the following type will be appropriate at this part:
    3/7 + 7/3 = ? and 5/6 + 7/15=?
    I think these four tests will be enough. All of them are for logical skills, unlike the tests created under Bologna Process.
    Dear colleagues, professors and teachers,
    You can offer these tasks to the students at your colleges and universities and share the results here, at the Research Gate platform, so that we all can see the landscape of the wretchedness and misery resulted from neoliberal economics and globalization.
    George Stoica · Canada

    There are universities with special agendas, very well hidden, and that makes it close to impossible to identify the real quality of their programs. There are universities with constantly very good results, and those should be analyzed and followed. 

  • Duaa Dakhlallah added an answer:
    what's the difference between siRNA and microRNA (miRNA) ?
    both are formed from dsRNA and both eventually get cleaved into pieces by Dicer and then incorporated into RISC which in effect cleaves target mRNA.
    Duaa Dakhlallah · The American University of the Middle East

    Dr. Asif Ahmed, their are many ways to deliver miRNAs into human .none is being approved yet to apply. In general, the delivery of miRNA into the human body depends on the targeted cells / organ, amount of miRNA needed to function effectively,   the duration and the repetitive treatment needed to be effective, specifity and other targets of this miRNA that can cause serious side effects , ext. . for example, to target the lung , you can use nasal aerosol spray, or one can use synthetic tissue marker labeled micro-vesicles containing specific concentration of miRNA to be up taken by the cells , also you can introduce  oligonucleotides directly or in a vector containing tissue specific marker which will target specific cell type in the organ.

    in addition,  you can purified cells from the patient, treat them with miRNA in-vitro and re-introduce them back to the patient again after treatment to be monitored.

    hope I answered your question  :)

  • John David Sanders added an answer:
    Robotics, Genetics and AI with a touch of Philosophical prediction?
    Would it be reasonable to think that combining Molecular Genetics and Cognitive Robotics will some day (ex. in 10, 50, 100 yrs.) contribute to a successful convergence between man and machine to combat disease and degeneration of humans?
    Many science writers seem to say the merger in not too far away now. Should we believe them?
    John David Sanders · Bluestone Enterprise Ltd , UK

    Cognitive robots (electro-mechanically based) capable of fully  interacting with our environment will be a significantly different architecture from biological systems.  It is possible to have a biological solution and a mechanical/electronic system both of which may be, in some sense, viable (with respect to the environment) but which are mutually incompatible. And still we cannot say  that we will build a cybernetic solution within the next few decades. Convergence (if even possible) need not occur.

    Why do I say this? Because the driving force of their development is not the environment but the minds of people applying modelling, determinism, discrete rules from a basis which is machine dominated. (ie we are trying to simulate living systems)

  • Rogelio Rodríguez-Sotres added an answer:
    Have you come across any protein prediction tool/server which takes input as fasta sequence?
    I am looking for different protein classification problems where machine learning can be or has been implemented. I would like to include them in my own models.
    Rogelio Rodríguez-Sotres · Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

    Probably your requirement for a fasta sequence input can be bypassed using conversion tools, such as:


    Best wishes,


  • Karthi Keyan added an answer:
    Where can I find websites to get free scientific publications?

    Please I need links like http://gen.lib.rus.ec/ or http://www.freefullpdf.com/; I´m from Bolivia and sometimes it is too expensive buy scientific papers, usually it is not one or three, also for the students could have access without having a account where you have to be endorsed for a institution to get it (like on reserchgate). Also publications in other fields such as art, music, etc. Thank you for answers

    Karthi Keyan · Christian Medical College & Hospital

    Dear Andrei

    thanks for the list of links. Some of them r really  good to have.

  • Jeza M Abdul aziz added an answer:
    Contaminants in DNA?
    Low 260/280 in DNA isolated from liver tissue with Qiagen DNeasy. I am isolating total DNA from liver tissue for downstream use in exomic sequencing. I need a final quantity of 3.6 micrograms at a concentration of 60ng/ul. My yield looks high but my nanodrop OD looks bad. With other samples i have gotten 260/280 of 1.9-2 but now its lower, at 1.6. The minimum ratio needed for this application is 1.80. I think this is protein contamination, though I am not sure. The 260/230 is also <1, which I've read may be due to contamination with salts. I added RNAse to this purification, though it didn't seem any different from the identical one without RNAse. Should I perform the elution again? Should I add more proteinase K? Digest for a longer period of time? I have plenty of yield so I could do part/all of it again, but don't want to waste a lot of spin columns. I also thought that perhaps my elution was too concentrated as I used only 100uL instead of the suggested 200uL to elute so I added another 100uL of the AE (elution buffer) to my final sample to see if that helped and it didn't seem to.
    Jeza M Abdul aziz · Bangalore University

     Secondary measure of nucleic acid purity is 260/230: ratio of samples absorbance at 260 and 230 nm. The 260/230 values for “pure” nucleic acid are often higher than the respective 260/280 values and they are commonly in the range of 1.8-2.2, If the ratio is appreciably lower, this may indicate the presence of co-purified contaminants. 

  • Manish Bhattacharjee added an answer:
    What is the significance of 50% in biology ?

    I was wondering that why is 50% considered so important in biology, as there are inumerable examples in experimental biology where we consider the 50% of something, starting from half life of biomolecules to tm value for primers, IC50, LD50, TCID50 etc.

    there must be a common logic !...

    Manish Bhattacharjee · Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology

    thanks all ... interesting yet reasonable  inputs from all of you ....

  • Zafar Shahdad Khan added an answer:
    Is there anybody interested in partnership within Erasmus+ KA1 & KA2 with Ukrainian university?

    In biology, ecology. Directions: botany, zoology, entomology, biodiversity, protected areas

    Zafar Shahdad Khan

    I m intrested in collaborative work on biodiversity.

  • Kenneth M Towe added an answer:
    Are trade-offs in biology inevitable?

    Recently Theodore Garland asked (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982213014553) whether trade-offs are ubiquitous or inevitable in biology. Garland’s arguments and examples make a good case for the inscrutability of trade-offs. However, Lan Smith and myself are not fully convinced that Garland has made a solid case against their inevitability. We suspect that many trade-offs simply remain unknown or ‘hidden’, and that even for those that are well known the shapes remain uncertain either because of multidimensional correlations among many co-varying traits or due to the difficulty of empirically measuring plausible trade-offs with sufficient precision. See more at https://thalassachronicle.wordpress.com

  • Sudev Naduvath added an answer:
    Where can I find useful literature on graph theoretical applications to biological networks?

    Please provide me information regarding the recent developments in the mathematical, especially graph theoretical, studies on biological networks. Please give some good reference too..

    Thanking you in advance,


    Sudev Naduvath · Vidya Academy of Science & Technology

    Thank you so much Professor Ljubomir Jacić, I will go through that.

  • Lifeng Kang added an answer:
    Does anyone have experience with the Journal of Visualized Experiments?
    We are currently debating about subscribing to JoVE in the categories "Neuroscience" and "Behavior". Could anyone comment on the overlap of both categories or the usefulness of the individual categories or even articles? So far "Behavior" only contains 39 articles. Could it be supposed that JoVE is growing? I have seen some colleagues publishing there, but it still seems to be off the typical pursuit of impact points. Could it be supposed that JoVE will receive an Impact factor in the future?
    web: http://www.jove.com/
    Lifeng Kang · National University of Singapore

    I'm now in the process of publishing a paper with JoVE.

    Apart from the high cost, the real concern now its impact factor. It is absolutely critical for this Journal. JoVE is one of a kind and with lots of potentials. But without an impact factor it will not go very far.

  • Baishakhi Ghosh added an answer:
    What is the difference between Ex vivo and In vitro?
    We know the terms Ex vivo and In vitro are very close but they are not same.. non of the articles gives satisfactory information in differentiating these terms. They say Ex vivo is growing cells/tissues out side the living system..still it is not same as in vitro. What makes these systems separate from each other.
    Baishakhi Ghosh · Chest Research Foundation

    All the answer above are correct. I was just reading an article involving ex vivo and in vitro techniques (link provided). According to the published literature, I am interpret the following observation:

    ex vivo involved obtaining the macrophages directly from the subjects and staining and observing them directly. Here we are not growing the cells neither modifying them (and regarding the ex vivo gene many had already provided their opinion in the comments above).

    in vitro  involved isolating the monocytes and growing them into full fledged macrophage by providing the natural stimulation condition artificially.

    Hope this gives you a better understanding.

  • Sarah M Jacquet asked a question:
    Do scale worms (Polynoidae) use defensive enrolment?

    Has anyone got any information on the propensity of enrolment in polychaete worms in particular the Polynoidae. Any sort of literature (published or 'grey') or personal observations would be much appreciated. 

  • Sayed Mohammad Shafiee added an answer:
    Do I need to filter after dissolving drugs in DMSO?
    I am preparing drug stock in DMSO. To take the weight of drug I need to expose it outside the cabinet. Thus I am wondering about microbial contamination. Do I need to filter it with 0.22um syringe filter?
    Sayed Mohammad Shafiee · Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    If it is possible you can search for an alternative  solvent for the desired drug; then you can strile it through syringe filters.

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