• Debebe Shaweno asked a question:
    What is the progression risk of Latent TB Infection?

    One of the issue which we do not clearly know about tuberculosis biology is the risk or rate of progression from latent infection to active TB diseases. However, ones  life time risk of progression from latent TB to active TB is reported  to be between 5 to 10% in the absence of other risk factors such as HIV in many  documents. Sadly, these reports  are not citing the original  studies (if they ever have existed).

    So can I find the relevant original references? Opinions on the risk of progression?


    University of Melbourne 

  • Kamakhya Kumar added an answer:
    Where can I find websites to get free scientific publications?

    Please I need links like http://gen.lib.rus.ec/ or http://www.freefullpdf.com/; I´m from Bolivia and sometimes it is too expensive buy scientific papers, usually it is not one or three, also for the students could have access without having a account where you have to be endorsed for a institution to get it (like on reserchgate). Also publications in other fields such as art, music, etc. Thank you for answers

    Kamakhya Kumar · Dev Sanskriti Vishwavidyalaya

    please find the link:

  • Saleh Alkarim added an answer:
    Does anyone know how to manipulate FGF23 level?

    I would like to investigate molecular mechanisms of FGF23 signaling during kidney diseases, have anyone suggestion how can I manipulate FGF23 level in blood serum in specific cells etc?  Should I use Crisper/Cas9 system or?

    Saleh Alkarim · King Abdulaziz University


    Agree with researchers . also , Look at the links here :

    Good Luck

  • Iftikhar Ali added an answer:
    Is it worth publishing with Lambert Academic publishers?
    My inbox has repeatedly been spammed from lambert Academic publishers. Is it worth publishing with this publisher. Do they have any authenticity. There is a lot of bad stuff written about this. Still, people publish their thesis with them. How one could publish your results in the form of book when its already published in the form of research articles. Are they peer reviewed....Suggestions welcome

    Iftikhar Ali · University of Swabi

    Thanks for information,i received many emails from LAP. 

  • Daniil R. Petrenyov added an answer:
    Can we perform viability/antiproliferation study on MCF and MDA cell lines in SERUM-FREE media for up to 96 hours?
    We want to test the cytotoxcity of our drugs/compounds on different MCF and MDa cell lines. Presence of serum during treatment, even at low concentrations (2.5%) seem to negatively affect the results. We are not sure why. We are considering performing the study in serum free media. Out protocol calls for overnight incubation followed by a 72h treatment. Viability is tested with cell titre glow assay. Anyone has any experience performing studies in serum-free media?
    Daniil R. Petrenyov · National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

    To do viability measurement without serum it's not a problem. We have experience in analyzing metabolic activity in number cell lines even in HBSS. But main question what you want to study! Try to realize what signal or methabolic pathways will be affected with your substances. May be it will be better to control cell proliferation by manipulating level of hormones (MCF7 is dependent and MDA is not).

    I'm agree with Anindya Dey - much better to use hormone free serum to prevent cells from inducing apoptosis. It available from suppliers as well as could be prepared by self (link below).

    Try to search for "antiproliferation study"   - a lot of publications with methods are available.

    have a nice day!

  • Han Ping Fung added an answer:
    Which language can be an ideal or optimal lingua franca for science?
    To use a language as a scientific lingua franca can give advantages and disadvantages for the members of the scientific community on the basis of their culture and mother tongue. The status of a scientific or international language developed historically and not according to logical ideas and decisions on equal opportunity. I have tried to classify former scientific languages and some present candidates. I - as a European with my own experiences and preconceptions - have found Italian and German languages as the best fits. I am waiting for your opinion and reasons.

    Characteristics of the ideal international scientific language

    Grammar: easy
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: easy
    Giving equal opportunity: perfect = dead language
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: none (= economy and politics do not influence the choice)

    Characteristics of historical international scientific languages and candidates


    Grammar: not easy
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: not easy
    Pronunciation: not easy
    Giving equal opportunity? yes, one mother country
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: historically yes
    Strong economic/political background: none


    Grammar: difficult
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: relatively easy
    Giving equal opportunity? perfect
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: historically yes
    Strong economic/political background: none


    Grammar: very difficult
    Vocabulary: very difficult
    Script: very difficult
    Pronunciation: very difficult
    Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: historically yes
    Strong economic/political background: too many countries


    Grammar: I do not know
    Vocabulary: very difficult (for Europeans at least)
    Script: very difficult
    Pronunciation: very difficult
    Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: world power


    Grammar: at the beginning easy, then difficult
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: OK
    Pronunciation: difficult
    Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: world power


    Grammar: difficult
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: OK
    Pronunciation: difficult
    Giving equal opportunity? one mother country
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: none


    Grammar: relatively easy
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: easy
    Giving equal opportunity? two mother countries (Switzerland has four official languages)
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: none


    Grammar: difficult
    Vocabulary: not so easy
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: easy
    Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: world power


    Grammar: easy
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: easy
    Giving equal opportunity? one country
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: none


    Grammar: not so easy
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: not so easy
    Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: too many countries
    Han Ping Fung · Hewlett-Packard

    Think the originality of ideas, research, scientific works or knowledge contribution is more important than which languages were used to develop it.  Because we can always translate the scientific works or knowledge from the original language to other languages to the best that we can.

  • Douglas S Millar added an answer:
    Is there a change of acoustic hearing after cochlear implantation only by the presence of the electrode itself and not by the insertion process?

    Of course, there can be a change in residual hearing by inserting the electrode into the cochlea (speed, depth), but I can image also the presence of the electrode inside the cochlear influences the patients hearing. Till now, I just found this German research project (see link at the end: "Einfluss der Cochlea-Implantat Elektrode auf die Schallverarbeitung im Innenohr"), where you can already see a nice 3D reconstruction of the cochlea and an electrode inside.

    Does anyone know more about this topic?

    Douglas S Millar · Human Genetic Signatures

    As I have had a cochlear implant I can tell you that in my case the process destroyed most of the residual hearing that I had left in the implanted ear. Newer electrode designs are made to preserve any residual hearing that the patient has. I also guess that the level of residual hearing left will vary from patient to patient. 

  • Sarah M Jacquet added an answer:
    Do scale worms (Polynoidae) use defensive enrolment?

    Has anyone got any information on the propensity of enrolment in polychaete worms in particular the Polynoidae. Any sort of literature (published or 'grey') or personal observations would be much appreciated. 

    Sarah M Jacquet · Macquarie University

     Thanks Joachim, I haven't seen it, but I am interested in the behaviour particularly for comparison to multi-element fossil groups. 

  • Shami Bakhiet added an answer:
    Are any other researchers interested in conducting a collaborative evolution field study in biology majors at research universities?

    I am looking for collaborators to conduct a broad field study of acceptance and rejection of evolution in biology majors that is comparative across regions of the United States and abroad. Please respond if you might be interested. Instrumentation is already prepared/validated and reliability tested.

    Shami Bakhiet · Al-Neelain University

    we are interested but you have to give us more information about the project and our contribution.

  • Christian Cibert added an answer:
    Is it possible to compare anticancer activity of raw-Curcumin and prepared pure curcumin nanoparticles ?

    recently i prepared nanoparticles of curcumin without any stabilizer, carrier and encapsulating agent. it was pure nanoparticles of curcumin only. i went through literature to know the precedure to compare raw and nano-curcumin anticancer activity but i never found such type of literature. however, there was many papers in which they encapsulated in polymers or stabilizer, or they attached curcumin nanoparticles to different carriers metal nanoparticles, polymers. so i want to know whether it is possible or not ? if noy why ? if yes then what is the procedure for MTT assay. any literture is there then share link with me.?


    Raj Kumar

    Christian Cibert · Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6

    Then, you must define your control the most precisely possible.


  • Kadavul Krishnan added an answer:
    Can you help me identify this creeping plant?

    Very small leaves over creeping main branch. No adequate water supply required (mostly I observed this plant growing in soil deposits between the small cuts and grooves of a rock or stone). Upon cut of brownish stem a white latex like liquid oozes out. Leaves are not thick and stem has a little stretching capability not like rubber.  

    Kadavul Krishnan · Pondicherry Univ. Affiliated college, Tagore Arts College, Puducherry

    pl check ..Euphorbia thymifolia...

  • Carlos Martín Salazar Céspedes added an answer:
    How can we estimate fish biomass using catch per unit effort for cuttlefish caught by artisanal fishermen using hook and line?
    I have data of catch and catch per unit effort of cuttlefish for 2 years. The data came from artisanal hook and line fishery. Can we simply use the equation which relate CPUE and abundance to estimate fish biomass? How to estimate the catchability coefficient in such case? There are many factors affecting this relationship and sometimes it is difficult to take account of them.
    The data I have include catch, effort in time spent fishing (from handheld gps loggers) and the estimated CPUE.
    Carlos Martín Salazar Céspedes · Instituto del Mar del Perú

    Natheer Alabsi:

    Please check "Manual on estimation of selectivity for gillnet and longline gear in abundance surveys".

    Or contact to Dr Matsuoka in Kagoshima University

    good luck

  • John LaCava added an answer:
    What is difference between TAE and TBE buffers and their properties regarding use in agarose gel electrophoresis?
    Why do some researchers use TAE and some TBE?
    John LaCava · The Rockefeller University

     See also:

    Modification of gel architecture and TBE/TAE buffer composition to minimize heating during agarose gel electrophoresis

    Brian A. Sanderson, Naoko Araki, Jennifer L. Lilley, Gilberto Guerrero, L. Kevin Lewis 

    0.5x TBE working very well for me.

  • Hossam hassan Elborombaly added an answer:
    Should we question the credibility of international conferences?

    We see most of international conferences accept more than 90 percent of the papers that they receive regardless of the quality of the papers or plagiarism possibilities. Shall it make us think that the conferences are only business?

    Hossam hassan Elborombaly · Effat University

    I believe that some conference has a high impact point also some journal. but the majority take the commercial way in order to make business work. We need a quality control for these factors. It should be our duty to put some argument for shearing both published associates to raised the quality of researches and to encourage researchers to publish researches without panic. 

  • Sisubalan Natarajan added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest who is doing DNA Barcoding studies in India?
    I have to do the work for my Ph.D study.
    Sisubalan Natarajan · Jamal Mohamed College

    To all the researchers who have given suggestions and information's regarding DNA barcoding study; now i am doing this work at CSIR-CIMAP, bangalore. Thank you.

  • Amulya Nidhi Shrivastava added an answer:
    How we usually determine the neurotoxicity of certain Antibody?

    I am working to determine the proper therapeutic dose for certain antibody  so I need to know how we can evaluate the toxicity using a validated method ? 

    Please, could anybody also provide me with a published article about this? 

    Amulya Nidhi Shrivastava


  • Parviz Parvin added an answer:
    Is there any attempt to model "Physics of Cancer"?
    Cancer consists of a series of diseases based on undesired cell proliferation. The cancerous cells are continuously formed in infectious organs whereas the human immunity system regularly identifies and destroys the unhealthy cells. When the defense system fails to demolish these malignant cells because its mal-function then the proliferation takes place in a definite rate (constant or increasing).
    In this case, the patient needs to be treated by chemo-therapy to hinder (or slow down) the peroliferation rate. This may be done by using vaious techniques available such as employment of the nanostructures, novel bio-clusters, bio-stimulation, thermal therapy and laser techniques or hybrid methods of treatment accompanied by traditional chemo-drugs to enhance the efficiency.
    Parviz Parvin · Amirkabir University of Technology

    Presently, our research team  is focused on the project entitled by "Optically enhanced nano-particles for efficient cancer therapy".

  • Abouzar Bagheri added an answer:
    Which organism has the most complicated life cycle?

    I recall seeing, a couple of years ago, an enormously complicated life cycle of, well, I think it was a protist-style "animal". Loads of resting stages, morphs and sexual/asexual stages - and multiple tentative connections among most of these. It covered two full pages of a text book.

    I would like to use this life cycle as an amusing example in teaching. Problem is, I can’t seem to recall where I saw it.

    I realize that this vague description is so unspecific that you won’t be able to single out the organism. Instead, my question is: which organism has the most complicated life cycle? Or even: which is the messiest life cycle you have ever seen in print?

    Abouzar Bagheri · University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences


  • prof V.S Muralidharan added an answer:
    What do you think of MSc and PhD theses written in languages other than English?
    For non-native speakers it can be easier to write in their mother tongue. Moreover, pride in ones language can play a role. However, the language of science is English and writing science in other languages has, therefore, drawbacks. I wonder how this issue is navigated internationally.
    prof V.S Muralidharan · Central Electrochemical Research Institute

    i received an e mail stating that

  • John Burrett added an answer:
    Does visualising your continuous data using bar graph makes any sense?

    Bar graphs don't inform adequately. They just represent the mean and the standard error.  We need to know even more from the graphs. In fact, the bar graphs starts from 0 at the bottom, which itself makes no sense. When looking at a graph we need to know the range (minimum and maximum), the distribution, outliers etc., none of which is represented in a bar graph. A box plot with the scatter overlay could be a meaningful way to represent continuous data. I need opinions on this. This question is related to the recent article in Plos biology.

    John Burrett · Haiku Analytics Inc

    I was going to say more or less what Paulo said.  What works best depends on what information you are trying to impart and on your audience.  More is not always better.

  • George Stoica added an answer:
    What is the degradation scale in the higher education worldwide?
    In my previous question I suggested using the Research Gate platform to launch large-scale spatio temporal comparative researches.
    The following is the description of one of the problems of pressing importance for humanitarian and educational sectors.
    For the last several decades there has been a gradual loss in quality of education on all its levels . We can observe that our universities are progressively turning into entertaining institutions, where students parties, musical and sport activities are valued higher than studying in a library or working on painstaking calculations.
    In 1998 Vladimir Arnold (1937 – 2010), one of the greatest mathematicians of our times, in his article “Mathematical Innumeracy Scarier Than Inquisition Fires” (newspaper “Izvestia”, Moscow) stated that the power players didn’t need all the people to be able to think and analyze, only “cogs in machines,” serving their interests and business processes. He also wrote that American students didn’t know how to sum up simple fractions. Most of them sum up numerator and denominators of one simple fraction with the ones of the other, i.e. as they did it, 1/2+ 1/3 according to their understand is equal to 2/5 . Vladimir Arnold pointed out that with this kind of education, students can’t think, prove and reason – they are easy to turn into a crowd, to be easily manipulated by cunning politicians because they don’t usually understand causes and effects of political acts. I would add, for myself, that this process is quite understandable and expected because computers, internet and consumer society lifestyle (with its continuous rush for more and newer commodities we are induced to regard as a healthy behavior) have wiped off young people’s skills in elementary logic and eagerness to study hard. And this is exactly what the consumer economics and its bosses, the owners of international businesses and local magnates, need.
    I recall a funny incident that happened in Kharkov (Ukraine). One Biology student was asked what “two squared” was. He answered that it was the number 2 inscribed into a square.
    The level and the scale of education and intellectual decline described can be easily measured with the help of the Research Gate platform. It could be appropriate to test students’ logic abilities, instead of guess-the-answer tests which have taken over all the universities within the framework of Bologna Process which victorious march on the territories of former Soviet states. Many people can remember the fact that Soviet education system was one of the best in the world. I have therefore suggested the following tests:
    1. In a Nikolai Bogdanov-Belsky (1868-1945) painting “Oral accounting at Rachinsky's People's school”(1895) one could see boys in a village school at a mental arithmetic lesson. Their teacher, Sergei Rachinsky (1833-1902), the school headmaster and also a professor at the Moscow University in the 1860s, offered the children the following exercise to do a mental calculation (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BogdanovBelsky_UstnySchet.jpg?uselang=ru):
    (10 х 10 + 11 х 11 + 12 х 12 + 13 х 13 + 14 х 14) / 365 = ?
    (there is no provision here on Research Gate to write square of the numbers,thats why I have writen through multiplication of the numbers )
    19th century peasant children with basted shoes (“lapti”) were able to solve such task mentally. This year, in September, this very exercise was given to the senior high school pupils and the first year students of a university with major in Physics and Technology in Kyiv (the capital of Ukraine) and no one could solve it.
    2. Exercise of a famous mathematician Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855): to calculate mentally the sum of the first one hundred positive integers:
    1+2+3+4+…+100 = ?
    3. Albrecht Dürer’s (1471-1528) magic square (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magic_square)
    The German Renaissance painter was amazed by the mathematical properties of the magic square, which were described in Europe firstly in Spanish (the 1280s) and Italian (14th century) manuscripts. He used the image of the square as a detail for in his Melancholia I painting , which was drawn in 1514, and included the numbers 15 and 14 in his magic square:

    16 3 2 13
    5 10 11 8
    9 6 7 12
    4 15 14 1

    Ask your students to find regularities in this magic square. In case this exercise seems hard, you can offer them Lo Shu (2200 BC) square, a simpler variant of magic square of the third order (minimal non-trivial case):

    4 9 2
    3 5 7
    8 1 6

    4. Summing up of simple fractions.
    According to Vladimir Arnold’s popular articles, in the era of computers and Internet, this test becomes an absolute obstacle for more and more students all over the world. Any exercises of the following type will be appropriate at this part:
    3/7 + 7/3 = ? and 5/6 + 7/15=?
    I think these four tests will be enough. All of them are for logical skills, unlike the tests created under Bologna Process.
    Dear colleagues, professors and teachers,
    You can offer these tasks to the students at your colleges and universities and share the results here, at the Research Gate platform, so that we all can see the landscape of the wretchedness and misery resulted from neoliberal economics and globalization.
    George Stoica · Canada

    There are universities with special agendas, very well hidden, and that makes it close to impossible to identify the real quality of their programs. There are universities with constantly very good results, and those should be analyzed and followed. 

  • Duaa Dakhlallah added an answer:
    what's the difference between siRNA and microRNA (miRNA) ?
    both are formed from dsRNA and both eventually get cleaved into pieces by Dicer and then incorporated into RISC which in effect cleaves target mRNA.
    Duaa Dakhlallah · The American University of the Middle East

    Dr. Asif Ahmed, their are many ways to deliver miRNAs into human .none is being approved yet to apply. In general, the delivery of miRNA into the human body depends on the targeted cells / organ, amount of miRNA needed to function effectively,   the duration and the repetitive treatment needed to be effective, specifity and other targets of this miRNA that can cause serious side effects , ext. . for example, to target the lung , you can use nasal aerosol spray, or one can use synthetic tissue marker labeled micro-vesicles containing specific concentration of miRNA to be up taken by the cells , also you can introduce  oligonucleotides directly or in a vector containing tissue specific marker which will target specific cell type in the organ.

    in addition,  you can purified cells from the patient, treat them with miRNA in-vitro and re-introduce them back to the patient again after treatment to be monitored.

    hope I answered your question  :)

  • John David Sanders added an answer:
    Robotics, Genetics and AI with a touch of Philosophical prediction?
    Would it be reasonable to think that combining Molecular Genetics and Cognitive Robotics will some day (ex. in 10, 50, 100 yrs.) contribute to a successful convergence between man and machine to combat disease and degeneration of humans?
    Many science writers seem to say the merger in not too far away now. Should we believe them?
    John David Sanders · Bluestone Enterprise Ltd , UK

    Cognitive robots (electro-mechanically based) capable of fully  interacting with our environment will be a significantly different architecture from biological systems.  It is possible to have a biological solution and a mechanical/electronic system both of which may be, in some sense, viable (with respect to the environment) but which are mutually incompatible. And still we cannot say  that we will build a cybernetic solution within the next few decades. Convergence (if even possible) need not occur.

    Why do I say this? Because the driving force of their development is not the environment but the minds of people applying modelling, determinism, discrete rules from a basis which is machine dominated. (ie we are trying to simulate living systems)

  • Rogelio Rodríguez-Sotres added an answer:
    Have you come across any protein prediction tool/server which takes input as fasta sequence?
    I am looking for different protein classification problems where machine learning can be or has been implemented. I would like to include them in my own models.
    Rogelio Rodríguez-Sotres · Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

    Probably your requirement for a fasta sequence input can be bypassed using conversion tools, such as:


    Best wishes,


  • Jeza M Abdul aziz added an answer:
    Contaminants in DNA?
    Low 260/280 in DNA isolated from liver tissue with Qiagen DNeasy. I am isolating total DNA from liver tissue for downstream use in exomic sequencing. I need a final quantity of 3.6 micrograms at a concentration of 60ng/ul. My yield looks high but my nanodrop OD looks bad. With other samples i have gotten 260/280 of 1.9-2 but now its lower, at 1.6. The minimum ratio needed for this application is 1.80. I think this is protein contamination, though I am not sure. The 260/230 is also <1, which I've read may be due to contamination with salts. I added RNAse to this purification, though it didn't seem any different from the identical one without RNAse. Should I perform the elution again? Should I add more proteinase K? Digest for a longer period of time? I have plenty of yield so I could do part/all of it again, but don't want to waste a lot of spin columns. I also thought that perhaps my elution was too concentrated as I used only 100uL instead of the suggested 200uL to elute so I added another 100uL of the AE (elution buffer) to my final sample to see if that helped and it didn't seem to.
    Jeza M Abdul aziz · Bangalore University

     Secondary measure of nucleic acid purity is 260/230: ratio of samples absorbance at 260 and 230 nm. The 260/230 values for “pure” nucleic acid are often higher than the respective 260/280 values and they are commonly in the range of 1.8-2.2, If the ratio is appreciably lower, this may indicate the presence of co-purified contaminants. 

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