• Miguel Camelo added an answer:
    What attributes should an algorithm have for you to say that it is a natural way of mapping two diferent structures?

    Suppose you look in a new way at the structure of some mathematical object.
    Given the simplicity and universality of that object, you wonder whether its disclosed structure fits (as a model) the result of a certain function f or algorithm over another structure patterns from another scientific domain.

    Now suppose that through that function/algorithm's lens you find something that might be a common feature between those structures. But it probably is just a misleading coincidence...

    Knowing that maybe you can always find a function f that transforms anything into anything, and that this kind of inquiry can be a time consuming process (program the algorithm, calculate mappings, ajust the algorithm to fit the results, etc..)
    what criteria would you use to decide whether it is worthwile pursuing such tentative matching (through f or a) between the math structure and the pattern from your scientific domain, so that if you do get to find a final algorithm/function that works you can expect it to reveal a natural "law" of nature and not just a coding procedure?

    Would the apparent function/algorithm have to be quite simple/small and look natural?

    Would the apparent function/algorithm have to be totally absent of arbitray steps so that it seems to capture a "logical" map between both structures that you realize it could be no other way, or no smarter way?

    Do you have any other attributes in mind?

    Is this just something that you should never try for being against scientific methodology or even common sense (pick up a model and see where it fits?)

    Miguel Camelo · Universitat de Girona

    If you are trying to find relationships between two structures, at the beginning the algorithm itself is not important. What really matters is the function f and how this function can map objects from one structure to other one, while the relationships between objects (that you have defined before) are guaranteed. Once you have proved that f performs the map that you are looking for (injection, surjection, bijection, etc.), you have to prove that the algorithm that you are proposing is an implementation of the function f. As you say, the simplicity of the function is a good way to show that both structures are similars, but it would be more important to show that you can solve the same (or equivalent) problems in the resulting structure easier than in the original one. In other words, a good metric to verify for the quality of your function is by showing that the complexity (time/space) of solving equivalent problems in the original structure is bigger than the complexity of the mapping function itself + complexity of solving the equivalent problem in the resulting structure.

  • Ludmila Schellenberg added an answer:
    Can anyone help me with how I can differentiate between E.histolytica and E.hartimani?

    Differentiate between Entamoeba spp.

    Ludmila Schellenberg · Helmholtz-Institut - RWTH Aachen und Universitätsklinikum Aachen


  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer:
    Which are applcations in Biology with environmental SEM?

    With an electron microscope (SEM) Environmental + EDX, the expception characterization of materials, which are applcations in Biology?

    Krishnan Umachandran · Professor

    The ability of environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) to image insulating and/or moist specimens without the need for the removal of volatile components or the application of a conductive coating has significantly increased the potential range of experiments and observations that can be performed at the high resolution of electron microscopy. Such a technological advance has particularly important implications for the study of biological systems, as well as other soft, moist materials and complex fluids. Native - state biological ultrastructures are demonstrated across a range of length scales, from whole organisms to tissues and cells

    Dr D.J. Investigating Biological Ultrastructure using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM), Stokes, Science, Technology and Education of Microscopy: an Overview 564, Polymers & Colloids Group, University of Cambridge, Dept of Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HE, UK.

  • Robin Spivey added an answer:
    What is the biggest scientific coincidence that you know?
    For me the two more important are:

    1. The phase transition liquid-solid for the water is that the solid state is less dense.
    2. The dielectric screening in metals is such that the Coulomb interaction among the electrons falls at a distance of the Bohr radius.

    The first one has many important applications as the one of allowing the live in rivers during winter or so on. On the other hand, there are also very interesting electric and thermodynamic phase transitions for this material

    The second, thanks to have a so local electric interaction it allows to have almost free electrons at quite high electronic density in matter and therefore to apply theories so useful as the bands in solids. Over all in metals
    Robin Spivey · Bangor University

    Dear Daniel, with regards to your questions:

    (1) I think you mean dark energy here rather than dark matter. I'm not suggesting that dark energy models are wrong nor am I suggesting that the weak interaction is responsible for the accelerating expansion of the universe. What I'm proposing is that this expansion ends with the decay of dark energy (predominantly) to neutrinos about 60 billion from now. I would argue that this decay is not altogether unlikely because the energy density associated with the current phase of accelerating expansion is tiny compared to its value during inflation and so decay to very light particles might be on the cards. Neutrinos are by some margin the lightest fermionic particles we know of. The lowest energy fermionic particle is a nonrelativistic neutrino.

    (2) Agreed, weak interactions proceed very rapidly (neutrino annihilation included). However, that doesn't mean that the events themselves have to be frequent. The internal heating of planets by a neutrino halo could be compared to keeping a cactus alive with a slow drip of water from a huge lake. It can take a very long time for the lake to empty!

    (3) Why dark energy instead of a cosmological constant? The current phase of accelerating cosmic expansion was preceded by inflation, which terminated with the decay of the underlying energy field to particles. If dark energy follows suit and generates low energy neutrinos then it becomes possible to comprehend a myriad of coincidences as being consequences of the biocompatibility of the universe. Also, until the supernova evidence for acceleration came along, almost everyone just assumed that lambda was zero because some small but non-zero value would have to be fine-tuned to 120 decimal places - no plausible mechanism for which has ever been advanced. So it makes far more sense to keep lambda=0 and anticipate that the dark energy driven accelerating expansion will terminate at some stage, at which time one would expect the copious production of matter particles.

    I hope this helps clarify things but do let me know if you have any other queries.

  • Mike Reich added an answer:
    Threadfin bream (family Nemiptridae) biology or taxonomy

    Has anyone here have worked in Threadfin bream (family Nemiptridae)?

    Mike Reich · Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und Geologie

    Hello Rodulf,

    you can try the Dulvy Lab at the University of Newcastle (www.dulvy.com) or Ismail Shalaby (he is also on researchgate) ... best wishes, Mike

  • Masood Sepehrimanesh added an answer:
    How do I find journals on Biology of atoms, molecules and life?

    I have been sitting at my computer with a text book on one hand and a keyboard on the other looking for two journals.

    Masood Sepehrimanesh · Shiraz University

    Deat Katherin

    You can go to the following site and find your mentioned journals:


    If you found your journal and need to uptake specific article, please dont hesitate to contact me.


  • Louis Brassard added an answer:
    Do the numbers exist in real world, or they are the product of our imagination?
    Are the numbers a reality, or just an idea?


    A lot of big questions and so a short answer is not going to close the box.  First, our Mind is intimatly related to our body, it is the control center of our body and our entire body is our relation to the world.  The only possible meaning to the word <<world>> is what you can related with respect to your body and when you think or when you communicate with othere humans you send signal that encode enough information so the decoding could be embodied in a way that is as unambiguous as possible for achieving the purpose of the communication.  And among the most basic items of human communication numbers have been used , and that much before mathematics existed as a separate discipline.  Peoples exchange live stocks, land was measured etc.  No effective communication and effective echange practice could exist without inventing some form of numbers.  A few thousand years later, we incorporated them into model of the universe we communicate to each other unambiguiously and so far we alway need numbers.  We crafted very good numbering systems, encoding technique and formalisation of them and we do not see the days when we may do without them and find something better for our modeling and communication.  So so far Nature let herself approached and described in multiple ways with the use of numbers.  Maybe a more advance civilisation have found way to go further and get rid of this archaic communicative and modeling concept.

  • Arseniy Yuzhalin added an answer:
    Can you detect cytokines levels from plasma of healthy rats?

    Hi all,

    I am wondering if it is possible to detect levels of cytokines from plasma of healthy rats either immediately after an acute stress or after a week from the stress.



    Arseniy Yuzhalin · University of Oxford

    Besides ELISA, you can also use quantitative mass-spectrometry for this purpose.

  • Geng Ouyang added an answer:
    What is the meaning of words "right" and "wrong" in scientific argument?
    Scientific discussions and arguments are all about how to do, what to do and what is true. What is right for one, may be wrong for other.
    Geng Ouyang · MinNan Normal University

    I think “the meaning of words right and wrong in scientific argument” should be “scientific or not” according to a recognized science system.
    But “what is the criteria of ‘scientific or scientificity’-----the demarcation of ‘scientific—nonscientific’ in our science?” is still troubling us human.

  • Sisubalan Natarajan added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest who is doing DNA Barcoding studies in India?
    I have to do the work for my Ph.D study.
    Sisubalan Natarajan · Jamal Mohamed College

    @Fernanda Tonelli Thank you so much for your information.

  • Mohammod Hossain added an answer:
    How do you feel when your answer in RG is down-voted

    Sometimes we get down-vote to our answer. We do not get reply (without disagreement) of our answer to a question from down voter. I like to get criticism of my answer instead of down vote. What do you think?

    Mohammod Hossain · Bangladesh Rice Research Institute

    Dear Yuan-Yeu Yau, thank you for your response. I agree with you. We are here to learn from everybody even from down-voter. Your suggestion is nice.

  • Jan Cermák added an answer:
    Is it realistic for a physicist to become a biologist?
    I work in material science (specializing in TEM microscopy and magnetism). Right now I'm finishing my Ph.D. However, lately I feel a bit dissatisfied with this particular field. I'm very interested in biology (topics like programmed cell death and ageing), however I have doubts whether it's realistic at this point to change my career path.
    Jan Cermák · Mendel University in Brno

    Physics is the best background for any biological work, at both: micro and macro (whole organisms level). E.g., we are working with several groups of physicists on the whole tree (and stand) levels and the results are very encouraging.   Jan

  • Kuldip Pawar asked a question:
    Can anyone suggest me about cotton flower bud midge fly Dasineura Gossypi?

    Regarding cotton Flower bud midge fly Taxonomy, Biology, Behavior  and Management .

  • Kamal Eddin Bani-Hani added an answer:
    Are you a researcher or a scientist?

    What differentiates a researcher from a scientist? 

    Kamal Eddin Bani-Hani · Hashemite University

    Research and science goes hand on hand, you can't separate one from the other!!

  • Hamid R. Jamali added an answer:
    What are the measures used in different countries to stimulate publication activity?
    The main problem of Post-Soviet science is connected with its weak "visibility" that leads to its weak global competitiveness. Very weak growth rates of publication activities of the Post-Soviet countries are noted. In these countries, publication activities of scientists in the journals that are included into the Web of Science and SCOPUS databases are by no means stimulated.
    On the SCIMAGO platform, by means of the operator «Compare», I generated graphics on dynamics of publications by Russian and Ukrainian scientists in comparison with the total publication activity in Iran and Turkey (graph).
    It is well known that Iran and Turkey implemented stimulating measures aimed at supporting the publication activities of their scientists many years ago. About ten years ago in Turkey a reward of $100 to $300 US dollars was offered for one SCI- publication, depending on the impact factor of the journal. In Iran for one such publication, a reward ranging from 300 to 500 Euros is currently offered by the State University. Besides, they have government grants for the support of such publication activities (up to 20,000 Euros for approximately ten publications). This explains the reason why in 2012 Iran bypasses Russia in total publication activities (graph).
    I’m interested in the examples of stimulating measures that are being granted by different countries in the form of publication micro-grants. Generalization of these measures would allow to adapt them for the conditions of Post Soviet countries, where in many fields of knowledge their is absence of publication practice of results of researches in internationally recognized journals.
    Hamid R. Jamali · Kharazmi University

    There are different factors involved. Most of research in Iran is done by postgraduate students. Regulations require PhD students to have published/accepted papers in order to be allowed to have their viva and also to get their certificates.  This varies among different universities. Some require two ISI papers for viva, some require papers but also accept papers in national journals (doesn't have to be ISI). Some require one, some require two..., and this might change from year to year!

    Another factor is the amount of monetary reward paid to faculty members for their ISI papers; Yes, this has been reduced during the last few years. 

    The other factor is the weight put on international/ISI papers by the promotion regulations. Weight used to be more in the past, but in recent years the government has put more weight on national journals in order to encourage researching local issues and so on. 

    But please also note that this might be a global trend as well. I read a short paper in IPM that compares research output of USA and China and you can see a decline in the output of them I think in 2011 or 2012.

    The other thing you need to note is that the decline you mention is in the growth slope and obviously a high growth rate can't be maintained for ever. It's like expecting China to have economic growth rate of 10 for the next 30 years. It's going to reach its peak soon and its grows will decline to a more reasonable rate like all other countries. 

  • Vahid Rakhshan added an answer:
    Should a scientist be versatile or focused? Is being versatile, a limitation or a strength? Is it important for a scientist's prestige or reputation?

    Some people say a true researcher should be focused on a narrow line of research. They say that a researcher with broad research interests or an author with a broad range of publication fields is not a real scientist.

    I don't think so. I think only people who can't be versatile focus down in a arrow field, and since they can't reach that level, they try to discredit being versatile. In my humble opinion, a researcher can be involved in as many fields as he likes and he can, if he can really do something worthy in that field.

    However, I am still curious to know what do real scientists, big names, administrators of international universities, etc. who are on RG think about this issue. Do they think that publishing in different fields is a weak point, or does it show some strength and good for one's reputation?


    To clarify mentioning big names or administrators, I used to be told by many people (administrators and so-called scientists in my city) that being versatile is bad. I wonder if this is a consensus in academia worldwide? But I don't say that if it is agreed upon, it is necessarily correct or good. I for one think life is too short to be wasted by not following one's heart and interest, but by following what is considered good here or there. If someone really can be good at different fields during this short life, IMHO it would be the utmost failure if he ignores his talents and knowingly limit himself just because some people tell him so, at least as long as he does not need a fund from them!!

    Dear Peter, thanks for this AWESOME comment.

  • Deepika Khatri added an answer:
    What are the most important criteria in finding the best supplier?

    What are the most important attributes in dealing with the supplier selection problem?

    Deepika Khatri · Dayanand Medical College & Hospital

    The Supplier Assessment is to be a process assessment and should accurately reflect the Supplier's actual manufacturing and quality processes, as evidenced on the manufacturing floor. The Assessment should validate that the day-to-day operations comply with the requirements detailed in the Assessment. It is insufficient for a Supplier to have documented procedures only.

    Recognizing that some suppliers have the capacity to provide multiple commodities, it is encouraged that the appropriate technical assessment be completed in parallel with the quality assessment portion. There is also a "Quick Assessment" worksheet that can be completed as part of a general overview or visit of a supplier's facility. Recognizing that this is a very general overview only, a detailed quality and technical assessment should always be completed prior to award of new business, substantial increase of existing business or in response to poor supplier performance and/or elevated risk.

    For each audit section, the required evidence/documentation is described on the Assessment Form. The Assessor should also use the "Observations & Notes" field to help clarify and explain their findings. A "High", "Medium" or "Low" Risk status will automatically be generated by the score assigned to each element. The Summary Score for each particular element of the Operational/Quality portion, will automatically be reflected on the Audit Cover Page and the total number of high risk elements will be shown. The risk summaries for each Quick and Technical assessment completed, should be manually entered on the cover page, as well.

    All areas assessed as High Risk must have a defined Corrective Action Plan detailed, as well as dates defined for completion, prior to award of any new business. Aside from the "High" risk elements, corrective action shall be at the discretion of the Assessor. The goal of Corrective Action is to eliminate all "High" risk elements in addition to attaining a minimum score of 80% for each audit section. The "Corrective Action Plan" contained within the Assessment file, shall be used to track all corrective action activity.

    Subsequent follow-up activity, and subsequent Assessments to validate implementation of Corrective Action, shall be the responsibility of the originating Magna Group and Supplier Quality/Development Engineer, and must be initiated with the award of business, at the latest. If the Assessing Group does not source business with the Supplier, development activity shall become the responsibility of the sourcing Group/Division, as defined by their Business Rules.

    It is at the discretion of the particular Magna Groups to base sourcing decisions on the final score attained. Each Groups' Business Rules shall define the selection criteria to be used. The aim of an Assessment is not simply the generation of a score. The ultimate aim is to identify and address areas of systemic failure driving undue risk to our Groups and Divisions, and therefore proper resolution and closure of "High" risk items, is critical.

    Assessment results are for site-specific manufacturing facilities. If a supplier has two or more manufacturing locations, all locations require a separate Assessment.

  • Louis Brassard added an answer:
    What are the most interesting unsolved problems in science for you?
    Let me introduce some of mine:

    1- Reach quantum gravity for introducing this interaction into the quantum field theory and probably to be unified with the other three interactions:electro-weak-strong.
    2- Find an extension of the many-body theory for solving DFT (density functional theory) for excited states and to finite temperatures.
    3- New physical properties for joining materials as topological insulators and thermoelectricity.
    4- Quantum entanglement and informatics.

    Hi Daniel,

    I mean a physics that is not a set of fixed eternal laws but which is like everything else in nature evolutionary.  See Peirce or Lee Smolin


    or Feynman


  • Arthur Lustig asked a question:
    The Evolving Telomere

    I would like to invite any interested individuals to contribute to a Peer-reviewed  Research Topic series entitled " The Evolving Telomere" in Frontiers in Genetics.  if you are interested please submit an abstract by November 15, 2014. We already have a broad range of contributors  for this issue from leaders in telomere biology.

  • Saeed Moradi added an answer:
    Do you know what is the RG algorithm?

    Do you know what is the RG algorithm?

    I think I find it. What is your opinion? I hope you can help me improve this algorithm

    a1= Publication views (Total) a2=Publication views (Last week)
    b1=Profile views (Total) b2=Profile views (Last week)
    c1=Full-text downloads (Total) c2=Full-text downloads (Last week)
    d1=Dataset downloads (Total) d2=Dataset downloads (Last week)
    e1=Citations (Total) e2=Citations (Last week)
    f1=Profile views (Total) f2=Profile views (Last week)
    g1=Endorsements (Total) g2=Endorsements (Last week)
    h1=Question views and voted (Total) h2=Question views and voted (Last week)
    i1=Answer view and voted (Total) i2=Answer view and voted (Last week)

    RG(Total)=RG(Old)+RG(Last week)

    RG(Last week)=(a2/a1)+(b2/b1)+(c2/c1)+(d2/d1)+(e2/e1)+(f2/f1)+(g2/g1)+(h2/h1)+(i2/i1)
    IF RG(Last week)<0.01 then RG(Last week)=0

    Saeed Moradi · Khorasan Institute of Higher Education

    Dear Professor.

    May be your algorithm is right/

    Dr.shanmugasundaram P

  • Mehdi Rajabi Asadabadi added an answer:
    Do you agree with RG score policy?

    We can see so many people get high RG scores based on the upvotes they receive (some even without a publication).

    Isn't this policy, inherently and trickily , keeping you more than the time that you really should browse in this website to learn and communicate. 

    Mehdi Rajabi Asadabadi · University of San Jose-Recoletos

    How about the decreases?

  • Piyush Chudasama added an answer:
    The scorpion venom is poisonous orally?

    Scorpion or snake venom

    Piyush Chudasama · Charotar University of Science and Technology

    Do you know anything about protease, present in the stomach? they can digest proteins...and can make them non functional. That is the reason why many protein treatments like hormones are not given orally. Though new approaches are still under investigations and many groups came with innovative ideas too.  

  • Olja Vasic added an answer:
    Can you help me identify this creeping plant?

    Very small leaves over creeping main branch. No adequate water supply required (mostly I observed this plant growing in soil deposits between the small cuts and grooves of a rock or stone). Upon cut of brownish stem a white latex like liquid oozes out. Leaves are not thick and stem has a little stretching capability not like rubber.  

    Olja Vasic · Natural History Museum, Beograd

    According to the picture I think it is Euphorbia chamaesyce, native in south part of North America. The similar plant is Euphorbia maculata that differs by irregular dot on the leaves.

  • Prakash Singh added an answer:
    Giving authorship to paid services or core facility techs

    If I get my job done from a core facility or from a service in university or outside and pay per sample analysis. Do the techs deserve authorship

    Prakash Singh · Banaras Hindu University


  • Younes BOUALLEGUI added an answer:
    How can we inhibit a particular signaling pathway?
    To silence genes of a particular pathway to study the significance of said pathway.
    Younes BOUALLEGUI · University of Carthage

    Hi, pharmacological inhibitors should be useful and very efficient for this kind of studies.

  • Prabhakar Purushothaman added an answer:
    What are some tricks in making your classes more effective for students?

    Classes are sometimes boring for students.

    I would like to ask you to share your teaching experience to improve the quality of classes that we may have in future.

    We can learn from each other and sharing experiences may significantly help.

    Prabhakar Purushothaman · UCAM Pvt Ltd, Bangalore, India

    When PPT is connected to projected and start giving lecture that too in afternoon right after the lunch most of the students start to yarn and about to sleep ( it is not the mistake of students or me too) I handle such situation by changing my modulation of my voice suddenly by increasing my sound on the same topic or suddenly I start to play video with huge noise this will make them sudden alert and further they don't get sleep and continue to concentrate this is one of my trick

  • Pavlina Sasheva added an answer:
    Making a new discovery: Is chance still the main reason?

    making a new discovery may be not easy as in previous. previously chance played a major triggering factor. examples included gravity, antibiotics,...etc.

    I have my doubts about the role of chance in making new discoveries, preconditions should exist to qualify discovers for that.

    what are your views about that?

    thanks in advance 

    Pavlina Sasheva · Medical University of Sofia

    This is an interesting view point. I think chance is still an option, but is predominantly a mind set. For me this is ability to think outside the box and seeing new patterns instead of trying to fit all your data to the predictions or previous discoveries.

  • How to encourage the students who are doing well?

    Some students are studying and researching considerably better than their classmates. Don't they need to be encouraged?

    Does ignoring kill their motivations?

    What is your university's policy to motivate them more, is the policy effective?

    Clara Viorica Demeter(Syam) · King Fahad Medical City

    "[I would like to recall the Speeches by so called spiritual Masters about the energetic Influence that a positive/negative Thought can have, and notably has, upon another ".

    Dear Francesca, what you said is very important, and I have to add also the energetic influence of the words.
    When you say words of appreciations to a student this will have extraordinary benefic effects and will rise their productivity.
    The strategy have to be used also to those students who can perform better but they need a little push.
    Choose positive words when you speak to students, the energy behind words could be the engine to improve their performance and self esteem.

  • Anyone know the effective management of Mycogone perniciosa disease (wet bubble) disease during cultivation of white button mushrooms?
    Ebrahim Mohammadi Goltapeh · Tarbiat Modares University

    cleaning the rooms and hygiene  is the best way of keeping contamination out of the cul..rooms.sterilizing before and after cultivation .also you can see our papers on Wet and Dry Bubble diseases of cultivated mushrooms.


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