• Anuraj Nayarisseri added an answer:
    Can anyone provide me a chimpanzee genomic DNA, urgently required?

    I'm looking chimpanzee genomic DNA for my research,



    Anuraj Nayarisseri

    Since this is an internet forum, I thought you are asking for Genomic DNA Sequence. For  dna sample you may follow Peter apps's answer.


  • Boris Zaslavsky added an answer:
    How to dissolve hydrophobic drug.......
    I am working on Tanshinone I, a Chinese herbal drug known for its anti-cancer properties. As this drug is highly hydrophobic in nature I can dissolve this drug only in the DMSO. This drug gets easily dissolved in dmso, but when I tried to make serial dilution from the stock solution(let’s say 10mg/200ul of DMSO) in the RPMI media or PBS, the homogenous mixture is not being formed. I want 0.2%v/v final dmso concentration to rule out its toxicity and to perform my MTT assay. Is there anyone who can help me out of this mess……. Plz do reply to this post
    Boris Zaslavsky

    Since in vivo your compound would bind to some carrier protein, e.g., serum albumin, I would suggest you dissolve your drug in solution of human serum albumin. It worked in my practice for dissolution studies...

  • John Bruce Langley added an answer:
    Which language can be an ideal or optimal lingua franca for science?
    To use a language as a scientific lingua franca can give advantages and disadvantages for the members of the scientific community on the basis of their culture and mother tongue. The status of a scientific or international language developed historically and not according to logical ideas and decisions on equal opportunity. I have tried to classify former scientific languages and some present candidates. I - as a European with my own experiences and preconceptions - have found Italian and German languages as the best fits. I am waiting for your opinion and reasons.

    Characteristics of the ideal international scientific language

    Grammar: easy
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: easy
    Giving equal opportunity: perfect = dead language
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: none (= economy and politics do not influence the choice)

    Characteristics of historical international scientific languages and candidates


    Grammar: not easy
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: not easy
    Pronunciation: not easy
    Giving equal opportunity? yes, one mother country
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: historically yes
    Strong economic/political background: none


    Grammar: difficult
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: relatively easy
    Giving equal opportunity? perfect
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: historically yes
    Strong economic/political background: none


    Grammar: very difficult
    Vocabulary: very difficult
    Script: very difficult
    Pronunciation: very difficult
    Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: historically yes
    Strong economic/political background: too many countries


    Grammar: I do not know
    Vocabulary: very difficult (for Europeans at least)
    Script: very difficult
    Pronunciation: very difficult
    Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: world power


    Grammar: at the beginning easy, then difficult
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: OK
    Pronunciation: difficult
    Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: world power


    Grammar: difficult
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: OK
    Pronunciation: difficult
    Giving equal opportunity? one mother country
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: none


    Grammar: relatively easy
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: easy
    Giving equal opportunity? two mother countries (Switzerland has four official languages)
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: none


    Grammar: difficult
    Vocabulary: not so easy
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: easy
    Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: world power


    Grammar: easy
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: easy
    Giving equal opportunity? one country
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: none


    Grammar: not so easy
    Vocabulary: well known
    Script: easy
    Pronunciation: not so easy
    Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
    Strong cultural background: yes
    Strong scientific background: yes
    Strong economic/political background: too many countries
    John Bruce Langley


    Thank you for telling about this thread. And thank you for offering such vibrant comment on my current question. To your question, I am biased in that I am a native English speaker. However, I like you, am partial to German and Italian having lived in Europe for nine years in Germany and Italy. My genealogical roots have a strong background in these language groups so I also follow your similar conclusions.  Thanks for great discussions.

  • Vikrant Sahu added an answer:
    What is basic meaning of additive and dominance effect of qtl.?is this effective or useful in f5 population?


    Vikrant Sahu

    thanks sir

  • Debebe Shaweno added an answer:
    What is the progression risk of Latent TB Infection?

    One of the issue which we do not clearly know about tuberculosis biology is the risk or rate of progression from latent infection to active TB diseases. However, ones  life time risk of progression from latent TB to active TB is reported  to be between 5 to 10% in the absence of other risk factors such as HIV in many  documents. Sadly, these reports  are not citing the original  studies (if they ever have existed).

    So can I find the relevant original references? Opinions on the risk of progression?


    University of Melbourne 

    Debebe Shaweno

    ok thanks. no mention in CDC

  • Vyanaktesh Balajirao Yannawar added an answer:
    Is it worth publishing with Lambert Academic publishers?
    My inbox has repeatedly been spammed from lambert Academic publishers. Is it worth publishing with this publisher. Do they have any authenticity. There is a lot of bad stuff written about this. Still, people publish their thesis with them. How one could publish your results in the form of book when its already published in the form of research articles. Are they peer reviewed....Suggestions welcome

    Vyanaktesh Balajirao Yannawar

    I dont face such problem from publishers. infect is a good source for free eBook publishing and making good platform for young researchers

  • How-Ran Guo added an answer:
    What is the significance of 50% in biology ?

    I was wondering that why is 50% considered so important in biology, as there are inumerable examples in experimental biology where we consider the 50% of something, starting from half life of biomolecules to tm value for primers, IC50, LD50, TCID50 etc.

    there must be a common logic !...

    How-Ran Guo

    I believe in many cases it is the cutoff between “likely” and “unlikely.” For example, exposure to a dose above LD50 is more “likely” to cause death than “unlikely” to cause death. This is very useful when there is only one case is under consideration or each case is considered individually. A cutoff value at 50% can help reach the best prediction (or best guess) between “yes” and “no.” In many other cases, it is an indicator of the central location. For example, median is the location of the center when all the values are lined up in descending or ascending order. This is very useful when there is only one indicator of location to use; using the center as the reference is usually more helpful than using another reference.

  • Kamakhya Kumar added an answer:
    Where can I find websites to get free scientific publications?

    Please I need links like http://gen.lib.rus.ec/ or http://www.freefullpdf.com/; I´m from Bolivia and sometimes it is too expensive buy scientific papers, usually it is not one or three, also for the students could have access without having a account where you have to be endorsed for a institution to get it (like on reserchgate). Also publications in other fields such as art, music, etc. Thank you for answers

    Kamakhya Kumar

    please find the link:

  • Saleh Alkarim added an answer:
    Does anyone know how to manipulate FGF23 level?

    I would like to investigate molecular mechanisms of FGF23 signaling during kidney diseases, have anyone suggestion how can I manipulate FGF23 level in blood serum in specific cells etc?  Should I use Crisper/Cas9 system or?

    Saleh Alkarim


    Agree with researchers . also , Look at the links here :

    Good Luck

    + 3 more attachments

  • Daniil R. Petrenyov added an answer:
    Can we perform viability/antiproliferation study on MCF and MDA cell lines in SERUM-FREE media for up to 96 hours?
    We want to test the cytotoxcity of our drugs/compounds on different MCF and MDa cell lines. Presence of serum during treatment, even at low concentrations (2.5%) seem to negatively affect the results. We are not sure why. We are considering performing the study in serum free media. Out protocol calls for overnight incubation followed by a 72h treatment. Viability is tested with cell titre glow assay. Anyone has any experience performing studies in serum-free media?
    Daniil R. Petrenyov

    To do viability measurement without serum it's not a problem. We have experience in analyzing metabolic activity in number cell lines even in HBSS. But main question what you want to study! Try to realize what signal or methabolic pathways will be affected with your substances. May be it will be better to control cell proliferation by manipulating level of hormones (MCF7 is dependent and MDA is not).

    I'm agree with Anindya Dey - much better to use hormone free serum to prevent cells from inducing apoptosis. It available from suppliers as well as could be prepared by self (link below).

    Try to search for "antiproliferation study"   - a lot of publications with methods are available.

    have a nice day!

    + 2 more attachments

  • Doug Millar added an answer:
    Is there a change of acoustic hearing after cochlear implantation only by the presence of the electrode itself and not by the insertion process?

    Of course, there can be a change in residual hearing by inserting the electrode into the cochlea (speed, depth), but I can image also the presence of the electrode inside the cochlear influences the patients hearing. Till now, I just found this German research project (see link at the end: "Einfluss der Cochlea-Implantat Elektrode auf die Schallverarbeitung im Innenohr"), where you can already see a nice 3D reconstruction of the cochlea and an electrode inside.

    Does anyone know more about this topic?

    Doug Millar

    As I have had a cochlear implant I can tell you that in my case the process destroyed most of the residual hearing that I had left in the implanted ear. Newer electrode designs are made to preserve any residual hearing that the patient has. I also guess that the level of residual hearing left will vary from patient to patient. 

  • Sarah M Jacquet added an answer:
    Do scale worms (Polynoidae) use defensive enrolment?

    Has anyone got any information on the propensity of enrolment in polychaete worms in particular the Polynoidae. Any sort of literature (published or 'grey') or personal observations would be much appreciated. 

    Sarah M Jacquet

     Thanks Joachim, I haven't seen it, but I am interested in the behaviour particularly for comparison to multi-element fossil groups. 

  • Taqiyeddine Bensouilah added an answer:
    Are any other researchers interested in conducting a collaborative evolution field study in biology majors at research universities?

    I am looking for collaborators to conduct a broad field study of acceptance and rejection of evolution in biology majors that is comparative across regions of the United States and abroad. Please respond if you might be interested. Instrumentation is already prepared/validated and reliability tested.

    Taqiyeddine Bensouilah

    Dear Amanda,

    I am interested on this collaboration and I wish to join


  • Christian Cibert added an answer:
    Is it possible to compare anticancer activity of raw-Curcumin and prepared pure curcumin nanoparticles ?

    recently i prepared nanoparticles of curcumin without any stabilizer, carrier and encapsulating agent. it was pure nanoparticles of curcumin only. i went through literature to know the precedure to compare raw and nano-curcumin anticancer activity but i never found such type of literature. however, there was many papers in which they encapsulated in polymers or stabilizer, or they attached curcumin nanoparticles to different carriers metal nanoparticles, polymers. so i want to know whether it is possible or not ? if noy why ? if yes then what is the procedure for MTT assay. any literture is there then share link with me.?


    Raj Kumar

    Christian Cibert

    Then, you must define your control the most precisely possible.


  • Kadavul Krishnan added an answer:
    Can you help me identify this creeping plant?

    Very small leaves over creeping main branch. No adequate water supply required (mostly I observed this plant growing in soil deposits between the small cuts and grooves of a rock or stone). Upon cut of brownish stem a white latex like liquid oozes out. Leaves are not thick and stem has a little stretching capability not like rubber.  

    Kadavul Krishnan

    pl check ..Euphorbia thymifolia...

  • Carlos Martín Salazar Céspedes added an answer:
    How can we estimate fish biomass using catch per unit effort for cuttlefish caught by artisanal fishermen using hook and line?
    I have data of catch and catch per unit effort of cuttlefish for 2 years. The data came from artisanal hook and line fishery. Can we simply use the equation which relate CPUE and abundance to estimate fish biomass? How to estimate the catchability coefficient in such case? There are many factors affecting this relationship and sometimes it is difficult to take account of them.
    The data I have include catch, effort in time spent fishing (from handheld gps loggers) and the estimated CPUE.
    Carlos Martín Salazar Céspedes

    Natheer Alabsi:

    Please check "Manual on estimation of selectivity for gillnet and longline gear in abundance surveys".

    Or contact to Dr Matsuoka in Kagoshima University

    good luck

  • John LaCava added an answer:
    What is difference between TAE and TBE buffers and their properties regarding use in agarose gel electrophoresis?
    Why do some researchers use TAE and some TBE?
    John LaCava

     See also:

    Modification of gel architecture and TBE/TAE buffer composition to minimize heating during agarose gel electrophoresis

    Brian A. Sanderson, Naoko Araki, Jennifer L. Lilley, Gilberto Guerrero, L. Kevin Lewis 

    0.5x TBE working very well for me.

  • Hossam hassan Elborombaly added an answer:
    Should we question the credibility of international conferences?

    We see most of international conferences accept more than 90 percent of the papers that they receive regardless of the quality of the papers or plagiarism possibilities. Shall it make us think that the conferences are only business?

    Hossam hassan Elborombaly

    I believe that some conference has a high impact point also some journal. but the majority take the commercial way in order to make business work. We need a quality control for these factors. It should be our duty to put some argument for shearing both published associates to raised the quality of researches and to encourage researchers to publish researches without panic. 

  • Bir Bahadur added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest who is doing DNA Barcoding studies in India?
    I have to do the work for my Ph.D study.
    Bir Bahadur

    Contact Bhatriar University, Coimbatore  TNBotany Dept.India

  • Amulya Nidhi Shrivastava added an answer:
    How we usually determine the neurotoxicity of certain Antibody?

    I am working to determine the proper therapeutic dose for certain antibody  so I need to know how we can evaluate the toxicity using a validated method ? 

    Please, could anybody also provide me with a published article about this? 

    Amulya Nidhi Shrivastava


    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Prion infections cause lethal neurodegeneration. This process requires the cellular prion protein (PrP(C); ref. 1), which contains a globular domain hinged to a long amino-proximal flexible tail. Here we describe rapid neurotoxicity in mice and cerebellar organotypic cultured slices exposed to ligands targeting the α1 and α3 helices of the PrP(C) globular domain. Ligands included seven distinct monoclonal antibodies, monovalent Fab1 fragments and recombinant single-chain variable fragment miniantibodies. Similar to prion infections, the toxicity of globular domain ligands required neuronal PrP(C), was exacerbated by PrP(C) overexpression, was associated with calpain activation and was antagonized by calpain inhibitors. Neurodegeneration was accompanied by a burst of reactive oxygen species, and was suppressed by antioxidants. Furthermore, genetic ablation of the superoxide-producing enzyme NOX2 (also known as CYBB) protected mice from globular domain ligand toxicity. We also found that neurotoxicity was prevented by deletions of the octapeptide repeats within the flexible tail. These deletions did not appreciably compromise globular domain antibody binding, suggesting that the flexible tail is required to transmit toxic signals that originate from the globular domain and trigger oxidative stress and calpain activation. Supporting this view, various octapeptide ligands were not only innocuous to both cerebellar organotypic cultured slices and mice, but also prevented the toxicity of globular domain ligands while not interfering with their binding. We conclude that PrP(C) consists of two functionally distinct modules, with the globular domain and the flexible tail exerting regulatory and executive functions, respectively. Octapeptide ligands also prolonged the life of mice expressing the toxic PrP(C) mutant, PrP(Δ94-134), indicating that the flexible tail mediates toxicity in two distinct PrP(C)-related conditions. Flexible tail-mediated toxicity may conceivably play a role in further prion pathologies, such as familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans bearing supernumerary octapeptides.
      Nature 07/2013; 501(7465). DOI:10.1038/nature12402
  • Parviz Parvin added an answer:
    Is there any attempt to model "Physics of Cancer"?
    Cancer consists of a series of diseases based on undesired cell proliferation. The cancerous cells are continuously formed in infectious organs whereas the human immunity system regularly identifies and destroys the unhealthy cells. When the defense system fails to demolish these malignant cells because its mal-function then the proliferation takes place in a definite rate (constant or increasing).
    In this case, the patient needs to be treated by chemo-therapy to hinder (or slow down) the peroliferation rate. This may be done by using vaious techniques available such as employment of the nanostructures, novel bio-clusters, bio-stimulation, thermal therapy and laser techniques or hybrid methods of treatment accompanied by traditional chemo-drugs to enhance the efficiency.
    Parviz Parvin

    Presently, our research team  is focused on the project entitled by "Optically enhanced nano-particles for efficient cancer therapy".

  • Abouzar Bagheri added an answer:
    Which organism has the most complicated life cycle?

    I recall seeing, a couple of years ago, an enormously complicated life cycle of, well, I think it was a protist-style "animal". Loads of resting stages, morphs and sexual/asexual stages - and multiple tentative connections among most of these. It covered two full pages of a text book.

    I would like to use this life cycle as an amusing example in teaching. Problem is, I can’t seem to recall where I saw it.

    I realize that this vague description is so unspecific that you won’t be able to single out the organism. Instead, my question is: which organism has the most complicated life cycle? Or even: which is the messiest life cycle you have ever seen in print?

    Abouzar Bagheri


  • prof V.S Muralidharan added an answer:
    What do you think of MSc and PhD theses written in languages other than English?
    For non-native speakers it can be easier to write in their mother tongue. Moreover, pride in ones language can play a role. However, the language of science is English and writing science in other languages has, therefore, drawbacks. I wonder how this issue is navigated internationally.
    prof V.S Muralidharan

    i received an e mail stating that

  • John Burrett added an answer:
    Does visualising your continuous data using bar graph makes any sense?

    Bar graphs don't inform adequately. They just represent the mean and the standard error.  We need to know even more from the graphs. In fact, the bar graphs starts from 0 at the bottom, which itself makes no sense. When looking at a graph we need to know the range (minimum and maximum), the distribution, outliers etc., none of which is represented in a bar graph. A box plot with the scatter overlay could be a meaningful way to represent continuous data. I need opinions on this. This question is related to the recent article in Plos biology.

    John Burrett

    I was going to say more or less what Paulo said.  What works best depends on what information you are trying to impart and on your audience.  More is not always better.

  • George Stoica added an answer:
    What is the degradation scale in the higher education worldwide?
    In my previous question I suggested using the Research Gate platform to launch large-scale spatio temporal comparative researches.
    The following is the description of one of the problems of pressing importance for humanitarian and educational sectors.
    For the last several decades there has been a gradual loss in quality of education on all its levels . We can observe that our universities are progressively turning into entertaining institutions, where students parties, musical and sport activities are valued higher than studying in a library or working on painstaking calculations.
    In 1998 Vladimir Arnold (1937 – 2010), one of the greatest mathematicians of our times, in his article “Mathematical Innumeracy Scarier Than Inquisition Fires” (newspaper “Izvestia”, Moscow) stated that the power players didn’t need all the people to be able to think and analyze, only “cogs in machines,” serving their interests and business processes. He also wrote that American students didn’t know how to sum up simple fractions. Most of them sum up numerator and denominators of one simple fraction with the ones of the other, i.e. as they did it, 1/2+ 1/3 according to their understand is equal to 2/5 . Vladimir Arnold pointed out that with this kind of education, students can’t think, prove and reason – they are easy to turn into a crowd, to be easily manipulated by cunning politicians because they don’t usually understand causes and effects of political acts. I would add, for myself, that this process is quite understandable and expected because computers, internet and consumer society lifestyle (with its continuous rush for more and newer commodities we are induced to regard as a healthy behavior) have wiped off young people’s skills in elementary logic and eagerness to study hard. And this is exactly what the consumer economics and its bosses, the owners of international businesses and local magnates, need.
    I recall a funny incident that happened in Kharkov (Ukraine). One Biology student was asked what “two squared” was. He answered that it was the number 2 inscribed into a square.
    The level and the scale of education and intellectual decline described can be easily measured with the help of the Research Gate platform. It could be appropriate to test students’ logic abilities, instead of guess-the-answer tests which have taken over all the universities within the framework of Bologna Process which victorious march on the territories of former Soviet states. Many people can remember the fact that Soviet education system was one of the best in the world. I have therefore suggested the following tests:
    1. In a Nikolai Bogdanov-Belsky (1868-1945) painting “Oral accounting at Rachinsky's People's school”(1895) one could see boys in a village school at a mental arithmetic lesson. Their teacher, Sergei Rachinsky (1833-1902), the school headmaster and also a professor at the Moscow University in the 1860s, offered the children the following exercise to do a mental calculation (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BogdanovBelsky_UstnySchet.jpg?uselang=ru):
    (10 х 10 + 11 х 11 + 12 х 12 + 13 х 13 + 14 х 14) / 365 = ?
    (there is no provision here on Research Gate to write square of the numbers,thats why I have writen through multiplication of the numbers )
    19th century peasant children with basted shoes (“lapti”) were able to solve such task mentally. This year, in September, this very exercise was given to the senior high school pupils and the first year students of a university with major in Physics and Technology in Kyiv (the capital of Ukraine) and no one could solve it.
    2. Exercise of a famous mathematician Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855): to calculate mentally the sum of the first one hundred positive integers:
    1+2+3+4+…+100 = ?
    3. Albrecht Dürer’s (1471-1528) magic square (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magic_square)
    The German Renaissance painter was amazed by the mathematical properties of the magic square, which were described in Europe firstly in Spanish (the 1280s) and Italian (14th century) manuscripts. He used the image of the square as a detail for in his Melancholia I painting , which was drawn in 1514, and included the numbers 15 and 14 in his magic square:

    16 3 2 13
    5 10 11 8
    9 6 7 12
    4 15 14 1

    Ask your students to find regularities in this magic square. In case this exercise seems hard, you can offer them Lo Shu (2200 BC) square, a simpler variant of magic square of the third order (minimal non-trivial case):

    4 9 2
    3 5 7
    8 1 6

    4. Summing up of simple fractions.
    According to Vladimir Arnold’s popular articles, in the era of computers and Internet, this test becomes an absolute obstacle for more and more students all over the world. Any exercises of the following type will be appropriate at this part:
    3/7 + 7/3 = ? and 5/6 + 7/15=?
    I think these four tests will be enough. All of them are for logical skills, unlike the tests created under Bologna Process.
    Dear colleagues, professors and teachers,
    You can offer these tasks to the students at your colleges and universities and share the results here, at the Research Gate platform, so that we all can see the landscape of the wretchedness and misery resulted from neoliberal economics and globalization.
    George Stoica

    There are universities with special agendas, very well hidden, and that makes it close to impossible to identify the real quality of their programs. There are universities with constantly very good results, and those should be analyzed and followed. 

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