• Christina Dean added an answer:
    Does anyone know of a better tool than SurveyMonkey for procuring research participants via survey responses?

    I am seeking female respondents aged 18+. Seeking respondents with a history of childhood neglect (as defined in my study as one or more of the following: physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect or verbal abuse).

    Location is not important, however, Internet access is a requirement to complete the surveys.

    SurveyMonkey has indicated that they will be unable to assist me, as an adequate sample of qualified respondents would not be possible and that there are not enough people who would qualify to take my survey. Also, due to the sensitive nature of the subject of my research SurveyMonkey will not be a good fit for providing an audience.

    Any suggestions are greatly appreciated!


    Christina Dean

    Hi Ruth,

    Thank you for your suggestions! I will look into this. I have worked through the possibility of recruiting vulnerable participants to the IRB's liking, so I've overcome that hurdle.  ;)  Thank you!

  • Jeanette Arnold added an answer:
    Any authors studying factors influencing university student’s vulnerability to exploitation, sexual harassment and abuse?

    1. What forms of abuse do students experience at Universities ?

    2. Examine the factors contributing to student vulnerabilities and abuse

    2. What is the sociological or anthropological justification given to the study?

    3. What is the practical justification concerning exploitation, sexual harassment and abuse?

    4. Explore the steps to recourse taken by students

    Jeanette Arnold

    Without even identifying verbal or physical abuse, what about the inherent violence of participating in academic programmes and workloads and lifestyles? The following is a reflection I crafted after a student colleague (Sonia) and I shared how difficult work-study-life balance can be. This is about the violence we tolerate chaffingly when we undertake academic study. I suppose that if I (or we as students) tolerate violence of this sort I have written about, then is it any wonder other sorts of violence and participation in it, is rife at universities, polytechnics, schools, kindergartens, families, societies?

  • Richard Allan Dale added an answer:
    What type of questions can be asked to juveniles if we want to gather information from them about abuse they faced and their relations with family?

    I am currently working on finding a relationship between abuse faced by children in family and their tendency to develop criminal behavior.

    Richard Allan Dale

    Hello Elsie!

    A retrospective case-control study can help you to find out the relationship between Child abuse and criminal behavior. You start getting young criminal as cases and matching as much of you can with one or two Controls (no Young criminals with nearly the same characteristics: age, sex, SES, etc.). You need to be aware that perception of Child abuse has changed with the time in some societies and that there are different kind of Child abuse: physical, psychological and even sexual abuse. The level and frequency of the abuse during childhood is important to measure as well as who was the perpetrator. There are studies pointing out that abused boys usually turns in offender at youth age. The same relationship has not been found among abused Girls.

  • Philip Gillingham added an answer:
    What are some global examples of the risk of abused/neglected children becoming abusive/neglectful parents?

    I'm interested in hearing from other child protection professionals about the risk of abused/neglected children becoming abusive/neglectful parents. I'd like a range of examples from different countries and cultures, and would ideally like to have examples of both sides of the coin (i.e. parents with aAskdverse childhood experiences who demonstrate positive parenting practices as well as those who demonstrate high risk or abusive parenting practices). As recent as possible. 

    Philip Gillingham

    You could follow some of the refs in my thesis or go to the Children's Research Center website - they have copies of articles and reports about the data they used to develop SDM - which would include specific data about maltreated parents going on to maltreat their own children.

  • Ramiro Vergara added an answer:
    What neurological changes affect abused children in the onset of puberty?

    Are neurological changes in the amygdala responsible for accelerating the rate of puberty and in abused children?  Which hormones specifically are responsible? Do these neurological changes have other consequences as the child matures to adulthood? 

    Ramiro Vergara

    Thank you very much for your kind words, them make me feel proud. I want to comment this is a very wide subject, we could talk larger. please feel free to comment whenever you want.  

  • David Seamon added an answer:
    Is Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis suitable to use as an analysis with a existential phenomenological approach?

    I am trying to find empirical evidence that IPA and existential phenomenology have a link and can work together in my research on women's experiences of reconciling with an abusive spouse. IPA will be used as an analysis approach.

    David Seamon


    Eva's answer is important because she marks out three key stages of research in which one can "go amuck" and lose contact with the phenomenon one is studying.

    As she says, there is first the difficulty of encountering the phenomenon--i.e., how do we devise a way to accurately "see" and describe our topic of study. As I said earlier, different phenomena demand different methods for encountering. As Eva says, typically interviews, personal narratives, and other verbal accounts are most often the basis for study, but there are other possibilities as well: carefully observing places, having respondents do drawings or mappings, and so forth (see Eva's fine study of changing sense of place for residents of the Hill district in Pittsburgh)--she used mappings in that study).

    Next, there is the difficulty of "analysis"--i.e., as Tony and Jacob indicate above, are we describing or interpreting? I would say there is a continuum between the two, and the main aim is to be as thorough and fair to the phenomenon as possible. THE PHENOMENON ALWAYS MUST COME FIRST!

    Finally, there is the difficulty of presenting our phenomenological discoveries to others. Here, as Eva says, clear, comprehensive writing is key. Phenomenologists must be able to write well, again, PUTTING THE PHENOMENON FIRST, describing it in language it would use if it could write.

    But the key point is working through an approach that respects the phenomenon and allows it as much "space" as possible to be what it is.

    David Seamon

  • Hendrika Vande Kemp added an answer:
    What are some ways to teach others about boundaries in a non-clinical setting?
    Boundaries are important to develop healthy relationships with others. Many who suffered from experiences of abuse do not practice setting or keeping healthy boundaries. It is easy to talk and discuss setting healthy boundaries with people, it is not something that is always applied outside of sessions.
    Hendrika Vande Kemp

    I often recommend a book on manners, as manners are a socially structured way to set boundaries. There is an interesting article on the function of manners by Miss Manners herself  [Judith Martin] in the American Scholar.

    Martin, J., & Stent, G. S. (1990). I think; therefore I thank: A philosophy of etiquette. The American Scholar, 59, 237-254.

    The Miss Manners books are very readable, as she has a marvelous sense of humor, and she models excellent ways to set boundaries verbally.

    For a very non-clinical approach to boundary setting I recommend Henry Cloud and John Townsend's Boundaries (Zondervan). This is a Christian book, but I found clients like it even when they're not Christians.  The authors followed this wildly popular book with several that have a specific focus, such as parenting, dating, marriage.

  • Kathy Sias added an answer:
    What is the best scoring method for the Conflict Tactics Scales?

    I am working with the Partners Conflict Tactics Scales and the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales.

    Both sets of scales include several types of violent / maltreatment actions.

    Each sub-scale has items asking for the frequency of actions/behaviors.

    What is the best way of scoring a sub-scale (e.g. physical abuse) taking into account that each item has different severity levels in addition to the frequency Likert-type answer?

    Additionally, is it possible to combine different forms of violence into a composite index? (An index for partners violence and another index for child maltreatment).

    Thank you.

    Kathy Sias

    Here is an excerpt from a document I just uploaded that might be of interest as you identify how to assess for IPV.  For a quick, high-level assessment of IPV use, the most common assessment is the Conflict Tactic Scale.  Assess for three timeframes: current relationship, past-12 month current relationship before past 12-months, and prior relationship IPV exposure.  Most studies do not make this distinction.  They often simply ask about lifetime exposure.  To future explore IPV use, asking for a frequency count by item for past 12-month use.  Using a scale (1-often to 4-never) is problematic.  For example, often does not always include past-12 month IPV use (my unpublished data). 

         If you have the time, consider using the timeline followback: Fals-Stewart, W., Birchler, G. R., & Kelley, M. L. (2003). The timeline followback spousal violence interview to assess physical aggression between intimate partners: Reliability and validity. Journal of Family Violence, 18(3), 131-142.

         Following up on Catherine's observation, consider: To identify whether the victim is experiencing coercive control IPV or situational couple IPV.  This has not been a significant area of research due to clinical-advocates and the Office of Violence Against Women’s opposition to two IPV etiologies.  Even so, the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory appears to be a viable tool.  It reported significantly different results between the two IPV victim subsets, women seeking clinical-advocacy services versus women from the community.  Of interest, this assessment found no significant differences between women experiencing IPV and not seeking clinical-advocacy services and women reporting poor couple relationship functioning and no IPV.  This finding suggests that this assessment could be used to distinguish between coercive control abuse and situational couple aggression. Tolman, R. M. (1999). The validation of the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory. Violence and victims, 14(1), 25-37. 

  • Tony Salvatore added an answer:
    Does anyone know of any studies identifying elder abuse as a risk factor for elder suicide?
    Physical, psychological and sexual abuse have been found to be risk factors for suicide in adolescents and adults (<65). These modes of abuse would seem to be associated with increased suicide risk in the elderly. Is there any research in the literature citing elder abuse as a suicide risk factor in those aged 65/over?
    Tony Salvatore

    For the 4-5 other people in the world interested in this topic (generous estimate), here is a link to 2010 Korean study (looks like only the abstract is available in English).

  • Tony Mcginn added an answer:
    Are there any domestic abuse risk assessment tools used in the UK, apart from the CAADA (Safelives) Dash Ric?

    I'm interested to learn if anybody knows if there are any other risk assessment tools that assess history as well as present risk of abuse in frontline services i.e refuges, statutory agencies and support services? 

    Tony Mcginn

    SARA or ODARA or URICADV - sorry I haven't time to get references at the moment - you may find online

  • Rahimi Ali added an answer:
    Literature regarding family violence in which females are the perpetrators?

    I'm interested in family violence but specifically regarding mothers as abusers within the family. As research focuses on males as more likely abusers within such relationships, I feel that this may be a cultural phenomenon but I also feel it is a hidden one. What do you think?...or am I wrong?

    Rahimi Ali

    this appears to be an iconoclastic , ironically mainstream or probably misogynistic study , I just can figure out the focus on female violators and abusers , cant assign it to a certain philosophical or social framework ,  whats more , I need to know more about the specific probably local or idiosyncratic motive evoking such a question , interesting  and profound regardless.

  • Erik Lindberg added an answer:
    Can someone provide the scale on self efficacy on performing tasks?

    I am doing research on emotional abuse and self efficacy and I am not able to find out the scale of self efficacy.

    Erik Lindberg

    If you read the article "Effects of management by objectives : studies of Swedish upper secondary schools and the Influence of role stress and self-efficacy on school leaders" in Journal of Applied Social Psychology you will becomw inspired and get some new knowledge in this area.

  • Paulo Ferrajão added an answer:
    How to control variables in multiple regression analysis?

    I want to find the impact of both perpetration of abusive violence and observation of abusive violence on PTSD symptoms, controlling for combat exposure, age, and clinical status. Do I have to apply hierarchical regression analysis?

    Paulo Ferrajão

    Dear Jochen

    Thank you for your advice,

  • Stefan Gruner added an answer:
    Are unproven unscientific theories accepted in court?

    Many miscarriage of justice cases have occurred because experts give their expert opinions based on theories which lack sound scientific foundations.  Some theories gain acceptance based on very little verification and even remain in use despite being shown to be unsound. 

    An example is Shaken Baby Syndrome, where despite the basis of the theory being falsified in that the triad of injuries upon which the theory relies being found in natural deaths where no abuse or non accidental injury has occurred, the theory remains deployed. 

    Similarly Münchausen Syndrome by Proxy has been deployed and, despite judicial recognition of its poor scientific foundations, and in consequence of it, the theory has been renamed.  It was redeployed initially as 'Factitious Illness by Proxy' ('FIBP') and later "Fabricated or Induced Illness" ("FII") appears to have taken over.

    + 2 more attachments

    Stefan Gruner

    Related work by Martin Olivier: follow the link given below.


  • Carlos Soler-González added an answer:
    Predominated reductionism has caused abuses and crimes against psychiatric patients every time in the history of psychiatry. Do you agree?
    Any all-encompassing theory constitutes a threat to the dignity and the respect of the person.
    Carlos Soler-González

    What an interesting and relevant question. Thanks Giacinto for bringing it in, and both Thomas and Paul for their comments.

    I have always been worried about phylosophy of psychiatry. When I consider this "reductionist" issue, I always end up figuring what is behind, what feeds and sustains it. It is, of course, a very complex question that involves ideologic, episthemologic as well as more pragmatic considerations, some of them already cited by you (lack of proper training for physicians, perversion of EBM, erasing ethical considerations, and so on).

    In my view there is an actor which obtains extremely high (economical) benefit from this reductionist approach to mental illness and is its main promoter and sustainer: pharmaceutical industry. They have infiltrated health systems and academy in such a manner that makes it hard for doctors and students to avoid being permeated by reductionisim in one way or another. Before further developing this, what do you thnik about it?

  • Lisa Aronson Fontes added an answer:
    Current therapies of domestic violence used for male/female perpetrators of physical/psychological abuse?

    Domestic violence and its therapies. Do they work? What sort of therapies are currently being utilised in the UK? 

    Lisa Aronson Fontes

    check out the book, Unclenching Our First, by Sara Acker

  • Kathy Sias added an answer:
    Does anyone know of a tool (which can be retrieved easily) to assess symptoms of PTSD among children aged 3-8 years old?

    I will use this tool to assess PTSD symptoms among children at shelters for abused children. This is for my dissertation. Thank you.

    Kathy Sias

    Ran across another assessment for your age group used in another study:  

    Hickman, L. J., Jaycox, L. H., Setodji, C. M., Kofner, A., Schultz, D., Barnes-Proby, D., & Harris, R. (2013). How much does “how much” matter? Assessing the relationship between children’s lifetime exposure to violence and trauma symptoms, behavior problems, and parenting stress. Journal of interpersonal violence, 28(6), 1338-1362. 10.1177/0886260512468239

  • Kathleen Thimsen added an answer:
    How can we protect the human rights of elderly?

    Here, I am working on social gerontology. So, I am interested in that how we protect the human rights of the elderly? Because today, elderly population is near 8% of the total population. We also listen many times, abuse against elderly.

    Kathleen Thimsen

    Luis, stated very well. In the US, the literature and social attention to the issue of elder care and abuse, is not of high interest.

    Your recommendations on increasing the visibility and awareness of the issue is so very true.

    I think that it may pose an interesting approach to many countries, if we created a collaboration on education and literature that identifes how this violence occurs, why it happens, who is at risk and what can be done about it. The interventions are inter-professional (medicine, nursing, social services, law enforcement, regulatory and legal to name a few). 

    All of our countries have this growth spurt happening with the 65 years and older population. As one of the authors (Chism)  in elder abuse has stated, "the face of aging will forever be changed" ... I believe that the time is here for us to do this important work.

  • Justin Snyder added an answer:
    Where can I find research articles on teaching hope to trauma sufferers?
    Hope is an essential part of the healing process. There is some research on how it can be used in counseling those suffering from substance abuse. Having difficulty finding any research articles that have research teaching Hope or incorporating it in counseling with trauma experience.
    Justin Snyder

    Judith Herman, Trauma and Recovery

  • Rawan Alheresh added an answer:
    Can anyone recommend literature about occupational therapy with survivors of torture? Thank you.
    There is scant research about the application of OT with survivors of torture, but some crossover with working with refugees and asylum seekers.
    Rawan Alheresh
    No problem! please find attached the publication!
  • Patrice S. Rasmussen added an answer:
    What can be suggested to counselors, whose passion is to assist those suffering from experiencing abuse, but have no personal experience with abuse?
    Many have decided to specialized in treating individuals that experience abuse but have no understanding of the experience. This can cause both the counselor and the individual harm. The experiences of abuse may cause a number of symptoms and responses to therapy. It is important for counselors to understand the clients they are serving. Sometimes counselors enter into a therapeutic relationship with abused clients, without any knowledge of the experience. Many times the counselors bring their preconceived ideas of what the client is feeling or should feel. When the client's emotions and descriptions do not line up, it causes many problems. Counselors interested in assisting those who experienced abuse can better equip themselves with the reality of what the abused has experienced. How can a counselor take this knowledge, transfer it into understanding how an abuse experienced will respond to treatment? It is not always the best intention to provide the best results. Sometimes and especially in these types of situations the best intentions may create the most harm.
    Patrice S. Rasmussen
    Please understand at the end of a session it is hard for the traumatized person as they may have just discussed different experiences and may be left feeling confused and in some cases abandoned.
    I recommend five to ten minutes prior to leaving to prepare in advance what to think about for the next week. Mention positive discussion and progress while looking ahead to continued journey ahead in the following week
    Remember, the traumatized patient may actually not be in a good place to leave due to the discussion...think about ensuring a secure ending to the session before the time just stops.

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