• Stefan Gruner added an answer:
    Are unproven unscientific theories accepted in court?

    Many miscarriage of justice cases have occurred because experts give their expert opinions based on theories which lack sound scientific foundations.  Some theories gain acceptance based on very little verification and even remain in use despite being shown to be unsound. 

    An example is Shaken Baby Syndrome, where despite the basis of the theory being falsified in that the triad of injuries upon which the theory relies being found in natural deaths where no abuse or non accidental injury has occurred, the theory remains deployed. 

    Similarly Münchausen Syndrome by Proxy has been deployed and, despite judicial recognition of its poor scientific foundations, and in consequence of it, the theory has been renamed.  It was redeployed initially as 'Factitious Illness by Proxy' ('FIBP') and later "Fabricated or Induced Illness" ("FII") appears to have taken over.

    Stefan Gruner · University of Pretoria

    Related work by Martin Olivier: follow the link given below.


  • Edwin A. Locke added an answer:
    Can someone provide the scale on self efficacy on performing tasks?

    I am doing research on emotional abuse and self efficacy and I am not able to find out the scale of self efficacy.

    Edwin A. Locke · University of Maryland, College Park

    SE is task specific so the scale has to be tailor made--see Bandura's website for more information-

  • Ramiro Vergara added an answer:
    What neurological changes affect abused children in the onset of puberty?

    Are neurological changes in the amygdala responsible for accelerating the rate of puberty and in abused children?  Which hormones specifically are responsible? Do these neurological changes have other consequences as the child matures to adulthood? 

    Ramiro Vergara · Fundación Ciencia Tecnología

    Joining psychoanalysis with neuroscience allows us to learn unconscious mind (UM) rules the brain, UM is made of information. Which information? The information that constitutes the history of every one, all what you have in memory. Any abuse is an unfortunate experience, which is stored in memory (brain) like any other, it is usually repressed, which means stored in UM, but this doesn't means immobilized or destroyed, no, it always try to become to conscious level and produces any kind of effects according to other UM contents this person has.

    So this means abuse doesn't produce physical hurt in brain, but it produces behavior changes at any time, even days after the experience and in the adulthood. Anyway I can tell you all these traumas can be intervened with high probabilities of success, through psychoanalysis; which takes long periods of time, what for I have designed a therapy combining psychoanalysis with neurolinguistic programming, which produces favorable changes in short periods of time and can be implemented at any age.  

    Psychoanalysis takes long periods of time, but really it is desirable to anyone.    

  • Carlos Soler-González added an answer:
    Predominated reductionism has caused abuses and crimes against psychiatric patients every time in the history of psychiatry. Do you agree?
    Any all-encompassing theory constitutes a threat to the dignity and the respect of the person.
    Carlos Soler-González · Hospital Clínic de Barcelona

    What an interesting and relevant question. Thanks Giacinto for bringing it in, and both Thomas and Paul for their comments.

    I have always been worried about phylosophy of psychiatry. When I consider this "reductionist" issue, I always end up figuring what is behind, what feeds and sustains it. It is, of course, a very complex question that involves ideologic, episthemologic as well as more pragmatic considerations, some of them already cited by you (lack of proper training for physicians, perversion of EBM, erasing ethical considerations, and so on).

    In my view there is an actor which obtains extremely high (economical) benefit from this reductionist approach to mental illness and is its main promoter and sustainer: pharmaceutical industry. They have infiltrated health systems and academy in such a manner that makes it hard for doctors and students to avoid being permeated by reductionisim in one way or another. Before further developing this, what do you thnik about it?

  • Carlos Pomares added an answer:
    Current therapies of domestic violence used for male/female perpetrators of physical/psychological abuse?

    Domestic violence and its therapies. Do they work? What sort of therapies are currently being utilised in the UK? 

    Carlos Pomares · Policía Local de Mutxamel (Alicante)

    Buenas tardes de nuevo Dorita.

    Se que ellos disponen de dicha información, y quizás te la pudieran facilitar si te pones en contacto con ellos. Verás que están suscritos a las principales redes sociales y profesionales.

    Creo recordar que también han tratado con mujeres, pero no te sabría decir en qué porcentaje ni con qué frecuencia.

    Un saludo, y encantado de ayudarte.


  • Kathy Sias added an answer:
    Does anyone know of a tool (which can be retrieved easily) to assess symptoms of PTSD among children aged 3-8 years old?

    I will use this tool to assess PTSD symptoms among children at shelters for abused children. This is for my dissertation. Thank you.

    Kathy Sias · Florida International University

    Ran across another assessment for your age group used in another study:  

    Hickman, L. J., Jaycox, L. H., Setodji, C. M., Kofner, A., Schultz, D., Barnes-Proby, D., & Harris, R. (2013). How much does “how much” matter? Assessing the relationship between children’s lifetime exposure to violence and trauma symptoms, behavior problems, and parenting stress. Journal of interpersonal violence, 28(6), 1338-1362. 10.1177/0886260512468239

  • Kathleen Thimsen added an answer:
    How can we protect the human rights of elderly?

    Here, I am working on social gerontology. So, I am interested in that how we protect the human rights of the elderly? Because today, elderly population is near 8% of the total population. We also listen many times, abuse against elderly.

    Kathleen Thimsen · Barnes-Jewish College

    Luis, stated very well. In the US, the literature and social attention to the issue of elder care and abuse, is not of high interest.

    Your recommendations on increasing the visibility and awareness of the issue is so very true.

    I think that it may pose an interesting approach to many countries, if we created a collaboration on education and literature that identifes how this violence occurs, why it happens, who is at risk and what can be done about it. The interventions are inter-professional (medicine, nursing, social services, law enforcement, regulatory and legal to name a few). 

    All of our countries have this growth spurt happening with the 65 years and older population. As one of the authors (Chism)  in elder abuse has stated, "the face of aging will forever be changed" ... I believe that the time is here for us to do this important work.

  • Justin Snyder added an answer:
    Where can I find research articles on teaching hope to trauma sufferers?
    Hope is an essential part of the healing process. There is some research on how it can be used in counseling those suffering from substance abuse. Having difficulty finding any research articles that have research teaching Hope or incorporating it in counseling with trauma experience.
    Justin Snyder · Pennsylvania State University

    Judith Herman, Trauma and Recovery

  • Tony Salvatore added an answer:
    Does anyone know of any studies identifying elder abuse as a risk factor for elder suicide?
    Physical, psychological and sexual abuse have been found to be risk factors for suicide in adolescents and adults (<65). These modes of abuse would seem to be associated with increased suicide risk in the elderly. Is there any research in the literature citing elder abuse as a suicide risk factor in those aged 65/over?
    Tony Salvatore · Montgomery County Emergency Service


    Thanks for your comments and support. I concur that "the issue of suicide in the elderly extends across the board." Similarly the issue of suicide among victims of abuse would seem to as well as evident in what I found in that literature:

    Intimate partner violence and suicide appear linked in adult females of varying ages.  Women who have been victims of intimate partner violence and who have a chronic illness or disability have an increased risk of threatening or attempting suicide (Cavanaugh et al., 2011).  Women 55 years of age and older who had been discharged from inpatient psychiatric care and who were abused in the past or at present displayed a significantly higher incidence of suicidal behavior (Osgood & Manetta, 2001).  Women who experience intimate partner violence, particularly sexual abuse, are at risk for suicidal ideation or behavior (Simon et al., 2002).  Studies of domestic violence cases in hospital emergency rooms have found battered women to more likely have histories of past or present suicidal behavior (Abbott et al., 1995; McCoy, 1996).  One emergency room study urged that “domestic assault patients should be asked about suicidal ideation” (Boyle et al., 2006).

  • Lynn Higgs asked a question:
    What are some ways to teach others about boundaries in a non-clinical setting?
    Boundaries are important to develop healthy relationships with others. Many who suffered from experiences of abuse do not practice setting or keeping healthy boundaries. It is easy to talk and discuss setting healthy boundaries with people, it is not something that is always applied outside of sessions.
  • Rawan Alheresh added an answer:
    Can anyone recommend literature about occupational therapy with survivors of torture? Thank you.
    There is scant research about the application of OT with survivors of torture, but some crossover with working with refugees and asylum seekers.
    Rawan Alheresh · Boston University
    No problem! please find attached the publication!
  • Patrice S. Rasmussen added an answer:
    What can be suggested to counselors, whose passion is to assist those suffering from experiencing abuse, but have no personal experience with abuse?
    Many have decided to specialized in treating individuals that experience abuse but have no understanding of the experience. This can cause both the counselor and the individual harm. The experiences of abuse may cause a number of symptoms and responses to therapy. It is important for counselors to understand the clients they are serving. Sometimes counselors enter into a therapeutic relationship with abused clients, without any knowledge of the experience. Many times the counselors bring their preconceived ideas of what the client is feeling or should feel. When the client's emotions and descriptions do not line up, it causes many problems. Counselors interested in assisting those who experienced abuse can better equip themselves with the reality of what the abused has experienced. How can a counselor take this knowledge, transfer it into understanding how an abuse experienced will respond to treatment? It is not always the best intention to provide the best results. Sometimes and especially in these types of situations the best intentions may create the most harm.
    Patrice S. Rasmussen · University of South Florida
    Please understand at the end of a session it is hard for the traumatized person as they may have just discussed different experiences and may be left feeling confused and in some cases abandoned.
    I recommend five to ten minutes prior to leaving to prepare in advance what to think about for the next week. Mention positive discussion and progress while looking ahead to continued journey ahead in the following week
    Remember, the traumatized patient may actually not be in a good place to leave due to the discussion...think about ensuring a secure ending to the session before the time just stops.

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