Waste Management

Waste Management

  • Vineet Kumar added an answer:
    Where can I find data of Remote Sensing and GIS of the Niger Delta?
    1. Currently considering a research work on Niger Delta Region. My focus is application of remote sensing and GIS for environmental assessment. Pollution and waste management systems in my mind to consider including land use types. But I am constrained with how to get the right data for this work. Can someone give me hints on the required data sets and where I can easily access these remote sensing data to start the work.
    Vineet Kumar · Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

    You can download optical RS data (LANDSAT) of your area from http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/

  • SEKAR KARTHIKEYAN added an answer:
    How is Activated carbon prepared from Orange peel? Are there any cost effective methods to produce it?

    I want to prepare AC from orange peel. what are processes and methods involved in this? 

    SEKAR KARTHIKEYAN · Central Leather Research Institute

    The porous carbon was prepared in the laboratory using Orange peel as the precursor material: first you make it precarbonization. In the pre- carbonization process, the Orange peel is heated at 300-350 C slowly raise furnace temperature and cooled down to room temperature. The precarbonized carbon is subjected to chemical activation for the purpose of creating porous structure in the carbon structure. In the chemical activation process, 10-100g (depends on crucible size) of the precarbonized carbon was mixed with 100-200g of aqueous solution containing 85% H3PO4 by weight.

  • What is the bio-energetic cost-benefit to a system by using non-native species of organism/s?

    There are number of cases for waste management, land restoration, wasteland development, agroforestry and agriculture where non native species of organisms and external organic input are applied that might be detrimental to the system in the long run.

    Juan-Rodrigo Bastidas-Oyanedel · Masdar Institute of Science and Technology

    From my point of view, regarding the organic waste treatment, or treatment of organic residues from human activities. I personally prefer the methods that use reactors where the non native microorganisms are confined (isolated) from the surrounding  environment. Regarding land restoration, I also pro using local resources rather than use non native species. There cases (not sure if they are documented) of reforestation in SouthAmerica using European Trees. That has cause severe drought since the new species consume more water that the native ones... 

  • Kwamina Ewur Banson added an answer:
    How can I estimate the total pectin content from a agro product/waste?
    Kwamina Ewur Banson · University of Adelaide

    Dearest Kavuthodi Bijesh, find attached how you can estimate the total pectin content from a an orange peel extract.



  • Hanno Krieger added an answer:
    What collection system should be more efficient in a rural mountain region? “Door to door” or through collection points ?

    While I was studying the illegal dumping issue in rural areas of Neamt County (Romania) I noticed that type of waste collection services may influence the behavior of inhabitants regarding the waste disposal. Frequently, the linear morphology of villages (built-up areas) along the rivers and tributaries favor the waste dumping on their banks near the households. In case the localities are served by sanitation services it seems that “ door to door” system is more effective than collection points. In the latter case the proper location of these points within a village is crucial in order to avoid the illegal dumping. Also, there can be a combination between these two systems..such as “door to door” system for mixed wastes and collection point for recyclables. What is your opinion about these collection systems ..? Which of those should be more effective in a mountain region?

    Hanno Krieger · retired from Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen


    I´m astonished about the optimism in your statement. Surely you will find a lot of tidy people taking care for their surrounding. But you only need a small sloppy and lazy minority and the best lanscape degenerates to a huge waste deposal. No regarding the frequent human ignorance and irresponsibility the door to door technique is the better solution.

  • Debasree Purkayastha added an answer:
    What is integrated solid waste management and how can recover the utilizable energy and organic manuring ?

    Solid waste management is a major problem in developing country like India. where there is  no scientific method  used to  collection and disposal but many developed country used to integrated management of solid waste and  recover energy and good manuring.

    Debasree Purkayastha · National Institute of Technology, Agartala

    For organic waste composting and vermi-composting are most environment friendly and efficient techniques in my view.

  • Debasree Purkayastha added an answer:
    Which technology is highly adapted for Bio medical waste management in India ?

    Status of Bio medical waste management in India.

    Debasree Purkayastha · National Institute of Technology, Agartala

    Mostly incineration, although it creates lot of harmful air pollutants lot of which are also carcinogens.

  • Heyd Mas added an answer:
    Is there anyone working with legislation for e-waste in European countries?

    I would like to know more about some national experiences of EU countries on the implementation of legislation for management of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). For instance the Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom.

    Heyd Mas · University of Groningen

    Thank you, Florin. The paper is quite useful to my research.
    I wasn't familiar with this repository either, thank you for sharing your knowledge with me.

  • Heyd Mas added an answer:
    How can I access comments and critiques to the WEEE directive and its recast (EU)?

    I'm particularly interested in the legal debate on this topic, that is, how were the regulations evaluated as presenting feasible strategies, viable procedures and methods for a successful implementation.

    Heyd Mas · University of Groningen

    Dear Prof. Frank Emmert,

    Thank you very much for your kind attention and help. This is exactly the kind of discussion I am looking for. I will look into this literature with great interest!

    In the case you have some pdfs you could send to me it would be very useful as looking for texts is quite time consuming.

    Best regards,


  • Muhammad Imran added an answer:
    Is the aluminium silicate present in incineration fly ash worth extracting/separating? What are some of the possible application for these materials?

    How much does it cost and what is the current applications for these materials? 

    Muhammad Imran · Underground Coal Gasification Thar Coal Project, Islamkot, Tharparkar, Pakistan

    The Best use of Fly Ash Aluminium silicates is mixing with Cement clinker in Ball mill to set the composition of portland cement.

    If you are interested to extract the aluminium, then you can make Alum from it.

    But it should be costly as compared to other Raw material for Alum production.

  • Muhammad Imran added an answer:
    What is the cause of abnormal change in pH of fly ash when acid is added?

    I am working on municipal waste incineration fly ash and I was recently trying to do leaching of the ashes using different pH.

    For the electrostatic precipitator fly ash's pH drops very consistently with the addition of more acid. (i.e. when I add additional units of acid, the pH drops consistently from 11->10->9->8->7->6->5->4->3->2->1). I guess it might be due to the heterogeneous nature of the ash and the effects of buffer?

    As for the scrubber fly ash which comprises of mainly lime, the pH is very consistent at about pH 10 despite adding more acid and the pH suddenly drops to acidic level (below 3) upon the addition of 1 more unit of acid.

    does anyone has experience with this and recommend me something regarding this? 

    Muhammad Imran · Underground Coal Gasification Thar Coal Project, Islamkot, Tharparkar, Pakistan

    Dear Zheng Hui Phua,

    Fly Ash will leach at highly acidic pH more effectively.

    In case of ESP the Fly Ash particle are very fine and mostly consist of metal oxides. So they got charged and precipitated by ESP. When you pour them into the acidic media, they metals will dissolved sharply, as you add more and more Acid, the solubility and reaction rate will be increased. But the pH will remained near to 1 or 0, thats mean highly acidic.

    While in case of Lime scrubber, as Lime is Alakil in nature so when you Pour it in Acid solution the lime starts reaction with HCl  or any acid to (acid Base Reaction) to neutralize the acid according to its mass ratio within the Ash, So it neutralize the Acid that's why the acidity of the solution remains low and pH don't decrease abruptly. 

    You can also observe in Scrubber Ash  case that thee Lime components will not dissolve completely.

    I hope it will help you in this project.


  • Shyam Lakshmanan added an answer:
    Is Anyone doing research about fly ash in chemical or petrochemical projects?

    I would like to do research of large quantity of waste material, recently I found this fly ash is one of that. so If anybody doing.

    Shyam Lakshmanan · Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS

    Siva Mani,

    try Prof Bassim Hameed of Uni Sains Malaysia 

  • Muhammad Imran added an answer:
    What are the correct emission factors for a comprehensive emission inventory in waste management covering all the processes? I need your help.

    Most inventory cover only the main emissions and do not provide details. I am considering all emissions. For instance under transportation - CO2, NOx, CO, NMVOCs, HC, PM10, N2O, CH4, SO2 and NH3.

    Muhammad Imran · Underground Coal Gasification Thar Coal Project, Islamkot, Tharparkar, Pakistan

    Also consider H2, H2S and Tar with all above mention components, these all will be produced as product gas, depending upon conditions and temperatures of the combustion chamber.

  • Marco Caniato added an answer:
    Are there recent studies on Health Care waste management in Africa?

    I am starting the process of my dissertation and I am looking at medical or healthcare waste management in rural Africa. I want to know which direction do I go: formative evaluation where I try to do a need assessment in rural clinics present in rural Africa or do an impact evaluation of past community -based interventions to control infectious diseases as a result of contact with hospital or medical waste at open dumpsites in rural Africa. 

    So my question is Are there recent studies done on this aspect and what are possible research gaps. Thanks

    Marco Caniato · SET4food project

    Hereafter you can find publications scientific literature regarding HCWM in Africa. Unfortunately few of them deal with with rural clinics and you will not find indications regarding the link between infection spreading and presence of infectious waste in dumpsite. Actually also the link between infection spreading and infectious waste WITHIN or immediately near healthcare facilities can be demonstrated, but if you go in a dumpsite (as well as a landfill) it will be far more disputable, due to the presence of counfonding factors.



    Abor, P.A. & Bouwer, A., 2008. Medical waste management practices in a Southern African hospital. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 21(4), pp.356–364. Available at: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/09526860810880153 [Accessed November 1, 2013].
    Adedigba, M. a et al., 2010. Assessment of dental waste management in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Waste management & research : the journal of the International Solid Wastes and Public Cleansing Association, ISWA, 28(9), pp.769–77. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20124316 [Accessed November 1, 2013].
    Bassey, B.E., Benka-Coker, M.O. & Aluyi, H.S.A., 2006. Characterization and management of solid medical wastes in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja Nigeria. African Health Sciences, 6(1), pp.59–63. Available at: http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-33747296858&partnerID=40&md5=78ce24297c05377656f677608e01f796.
    Beghdadli, B. et al., 2010. Implementation of WHO healthcare waste management (HCWM) approach in an Algerian hospital. Waste management (New York, N.Y.), 30(1), pp.162–3. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19910180 [Accessed November 1, 2013].
    Di Bella, V., Ali, M. & Vaccari, M., 2012. Constraints to healthcare waste treatment in low-income countries - a case study from Somaliland. Waste management & research : the journal of the International Solid Wastes and Public Cleansing Association, ISWA, 30(6), pp.572–5. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22128091 [Accessed November 1, 2013].
    Bendjoudi, Z. et al., 2009. Healthcare waste management in Algeria and Mostaganem department. Waste management (New York, N.Y.), 29(4), pp.1383–7. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19091540 [Accessed November 1, 2013].
    Chima, G.N., Ezekwe, I.C. & Digha, N.O., 2011. An assessment of medical waste management in health institutions in Yenagoa, South-South, Nigeria. World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, 8(2-4), pp.224–33. Available at: http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84857331992&partnerID=40&md5=d990cbaa57c8373faf077f3ee23cfaf2.
    Coker, A. et al., 2009. Medical waste management in Ibadan, Nigeria: obstacles and prospects. Waste management (New York, N.Y.), 29(2), pp.804–11. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18835151 [Accessed November 1, 2013].
    Debere, M.K. et al., 2013. Assessment of the health care waste generation rates and its management system in hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011. BMC public health, 13(1), p.28. Available at: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3565894&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract [Accessed November 1, 2013].
    Haylamicheal, I.D. et al., 2011. Assessing the management of healthcare waste in Hawassa city, Ethiopia. Waste management & research : the journal of the International Solid Wastes and Public Cleansing Association, ISWA, 29(8), pp.854–62. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20686051 [Accessed November 1, 2013].
    Manga, V.E. et al., 2011. Health care waste management in Cameroon: A case study from the Southwestern Region. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 57, pp.108–16. Available at: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0921344911002035 [Accessed November 1, 2013].
    Manyele, S. V & Anicetus, H., 2006. Management of medical waste in Tanzanian hospitals. Tanzania health research bulletin, 8(3), pp.177–82. Available at: http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-40949088669&partnerID=40&md5=b6278b4a1e737c67caadfb27c15864af.
    Manyele, S. V & Lyasenga, T.J., 2010. Factors affecting medical waste management in low- level health facilities in Tanzania. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 4(5), pp.304–18.
    Manyele, S. V & Mujuni, C.M., 2010. Current status of sharps waste management in the lower-level health facilities in Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Health Research, 12(4).
    Mbongwe, B., Mmereki, B.T. & Magashula, A., 2008. Healthcare waste management: current practices in selected healthcare facilities, Botswana. Waste management (New York, N.Y.), 28(1), pp.226–33. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17350817 [Accessed November 1, 2013].
    Mohee, R., 2005. Medical wastes characterisation in healthcare institutions in Mauritius. Waste management (New York, N.Y.), 25(6), pp.575–81. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15993341 [Accessed November 1, 2013].
    Mugambe, R.K. et al., 2011. Healthcare waste management in Uganda: management and generation rates in public and private hospitals in Kampala. Journal of Public Health, 20(3), pp.245–51. Available at: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10389-011-0459-6 [Accessed November 1, 2013].
    Muluken, A., Haimanot, G. & Mesafint, M., 2013. Healthcare waste management practices among healthcare workers in healthcare facilities of Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Health Science Journal, 7(3), pp.315–26. Available at: http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84883038403&partnerID=40&md5=8f2c4c716eefc58b55d777c8958d9488.
    Ndiaye, M. et al., 2012. Biomedical waste management in five hospitals in Dakar, Senegal . Gestion des déchets biomédicaux au sein de cinq structures hospitalières de Dakar, Sénégal, 105(4), pp.296–304. Available at: http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84871826192&partnerID=40&md5=73859e17fdd4a21d9110b6f29bb82eff.
    Nemathaga, F., Maringa, S. & Chimuka, L., 2008. Hospital solid waste management practices in Limpopo Province, South Africa: a case study of two hospitals. Waste management (New York, N.Y.), 28(7), pp.1236–45. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18060760 [Accessed November 1, 2013].
    Ngounou, S.A.N., 2004. Hospital waste management in Britain: Good practices to be implemented in Cameroonian hospitals. In P. V. et al., eds. Waste Management and the Environment II. Second International Conference on Waste Management and the Environment. School of Conservation Sciences, Bournemouth University, United Kingdom, pp. 491–500. Available at: http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-12344324950&partnerID=40&md5=48d8cb8fb2721b40afe37753c1957994.
    Njagi, N. a et al., 2012. Health-care waste incineration and related dangers to public health: case study of the two teaching and referral hospitals in Kenya. Journal of community health, 37(6), pp.1168–71. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22718254 [Accessed February 6, 2014].
    Nkonge Njagi, a et al., 2012. Knowledge, attitude and practice of health-care waste management and associated health risks in the two teaching and referral hospitals in Kenya. Journal of community health, 37(6), pp.1172–7. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22752531 [Accessed November 1, 2013].
    Rogers, D.E.C. & Brent, A.C., 2006. Small-scale medical waste incinerators--experiences and trials in South Africa. Waste management (New York, N.Y.), 26(11), pp.1229–36. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16364626 [Accessed November 2, 2013].
    Saad, S. a G., 2013. Management of hospitals solid waste in Khartoum State. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 185(10), pp.8567–82. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23644667 [Accessed November 1, 2013].
    Sawalem, M., Selic, E. & Herbell, J.-D., 2009. Hospital waste management in Libya: a case study. Waste management (New York, N.Y.), 29(4), pp.1370–5. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19036572 [Accessed November 1, 2013].

  • Mamdouh F. Abdel-Sabour added an answer:
    Which industrial waste material can we add to saline soil to remove the salinity from the soil?

    geotech expertise

    Mamdouh F. Abdel-Sabour · Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority

    Utilization of halophytes as cash crops would help valorizing highly salinized zones and mediocre waters unsuitable for conventional agriculture (Rozema and Flowers, 2008).Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a traditional and high nutritional food crop that has been cultivated in the Bolivian and Peruvian Andean region for around 7000 years (Garcia et al., 2007). It is well adapted to arid and semi-arid region and can grow from sea levels to high Andean mountains areas around 4000 m.a.sl. Apart from drought, quinoa is also adapted to frost and can grow in saline soil (Geerts et al., 2008; Jacobsen et al., 2003 a, b). There are already several examples known for the utilization of halophytes for industrial, ecological, or agricultural purposes (Figure 1). Because of their diversity, halophytes have been tested as vegetable, forage, and oilseed crops in
    agronomic field trials. The most productive species yield 10 to 20 t ha-1 of biomass on seawater irrigation, equivalent to conventional crops. The oilseed halophyte, Salicornia bigelovii, yields 2 t ha-1 of seed containing 28% oil and 31% protein, similar to soybean yield and seed quality (Glenn et al., 1999).

    Glenn, E. P., J. Brown and E. Blumwald. 1999. Salt tolerance and crop potential of
    halophytes. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 18:227-255.



  • Mayank Pandey added an answer:
    How can we efficiently utilize the fly ash in agriculture?
    Fly ash contains heavy metals. Studies reported the use of fly ash in agriculture but no study reveals how much fly ash can be used as a fertilizer in the next crop season. How can one estimate the residual fly as in soil? If we use fly ash in one crop season, is it not necessary that all the fly ash can be used up? If we use the same concentration of fly ash in the next cropping season the concentration of fly ash may be increased and that may negatively affect the crop growth and germination.

    Please comment on this and clear my query. Thanks.
    Mayank Pandey · Banaras Hindu University

    Fly ash can be added to the mineral deficient soils in agriculture fields as nutrient supplement. But before the application, metals quanitification (characterization) is must as to assess the concentration of metals in the ash. Long term treatment (exposure) may cause bioaccumulation.   

  • Hamed Haghi added an answer:
    What are your suggestions in designing a paper deinking flotation cell?
    I am working to gather information about different kinds of laboratory deinking flotation cell sand choosing one of them. Any experience in this respect is also welcomed.
    Hamed Haghi · University of Tehran

    Hello dear Mehdi;

    I have checked my database and maybe the enclosed 2 papers could be useful for you.

    Also please check the below link which it could be interesting:


    Best regards,


  • Petra Schneider added an answer:
    Who has experience with landfill settlements and the application of a temporary landfill cover?

    The decomposing process of waste is usually causing significant settlements of a landfill body. From practical experience these settlements can reach from several decimeters up to several meters, depending on the dimension and composition of the landfill body. Some countries (as Germany) have the provision of a temporary landfill cover for the period after closure of a landfill fixed in the legislation. This is to ensure the geotechnical stability of the later final cover. Having in view this situation, I am interested in two questions: a) Is data available on the resulting settlements of landfill bodies from several parts of the world? and, b) in which countries is temporary landfill cover in the landfill legislation considered?

    Thank you in advance !

    Thanks ! ... and Happy New Year to everybody.

  • Alvin Vista added an answer:
    Is my scale for EFA appropriate?

    I want to conduct a survey on the external motivational factors for the adoption of sound Hospital Waste Management. The nursing staff form the respondents. I want to be able to conduct EFA on the responses to identify the groups/factors under which the variables/statement would lie. The scale to measure the responses consists of YES/NO in the beginning followed by the strength of this response in the form of a Likert scale. Its something like:-

    1. Govt Regulations should be followed for HWM     Yes/No      VL  L  M  H  VH

    here VL= very low L=low M= medium H=high VH=very high

    My questions are

    a. Is this approach correct?

    b. How should I assign scores to the responses for EFA?

    The way I see it there would be five unique scores each for a combination of Yes/No and the corresponding strength. So should I use the following scores?

    Yes/VL =1;  Yes/L=2;  Yes/M=3;  Yes/H=4;  Yes/VH=5;  No/VL=6;  No/L=7;.......

    I know it sounds complicated. Your feedback might help me approach my research in a better way


    Alvin Vista · University of Melbourne

    i would also recommend a simple Likert type scale. you can make it wider than 5 if you prefer a finer differentiation between responses.

    if you want to stick with your current combinations, center the scale at 0 then use the positive side for the Yes and the negative side for the No combinations respectively. 

    in other words: -5 (no-VH) to +5 (yes-VH), making a scale that is 10-points wide.

  • Sharon Primerano added an answer:
    Can anyone explain if there is a difference in regulations from the EPA on waste discharge from concentrated animal feeding operation?

    I am trying to find easy to understand information on the EPAs difference between regulations that control human waste and animal waste.

    Sharon Primerano · University of Phoenix

    Thank-you for your responses and the link. I see, how the size of the farm would regulate the waste. I also had not thought about a difference depending on if any animals were slaughter at the same facility.

  • Oseweuba Valentine Okoro added an answer:
    Can I use cowdung which is old for Biogas production or I need to collect the fresh cowdung?

    I collected the cow dung from the farm and put it for some days (air tight and constant room temperature), can I use this cow dung for Biogas plant feeding?

    Oseweuba Valentine Okoro · Abertay University

    thank you Cloud 😊..will check it out

  • Oseweuba Valentine Okoro added an answer:
    Which measures may be efficiently in order to improve the correct separate collection of household waste?

    One of the main factors which cause low performances of current urban waste management systems in terms of recycling & treatment rates is the mixed collection of waste fractions despite of selective infrastructure. Frequently, unsorted recyclables and organic wastes from special containers are  disposed in landfills.. How people may be more responsible on this matter?

    Oseweuba Valentine Okoro · Abertay University

    hello , i have attached a paper that considered the reasons for possible failures in health and safety practices in the waste and recycling industry in the UK ... hopefully it will be useful

  • Ulf Mohlander added an answer:
    Is 2 microgram/L of soluble copper OK for stormwater discharge, from a tunneling operation?

    the local 95% trigger value for marine ecosystem health is 1.3 mcg/l

    Ulf Mohlander · City of Stockholm

    Seems to be very low and safe. The City of Gothenburg in Sweden has a threshold value of 10 µg Cu/l in stormwater discharged to streams and creeks. The suggestion for EQS (the bioavailable fraction) in freshwater in Sweden is 0,5 µg/l, and in marine water 1,45 µg/l (Baltic Sea) and 4,3 µg/l (North Sea).

  • R.B. Brobst added an answer:
    What is the optimum size of liquid inoculum to apply and the frequency of application for cleaning 1 ha of soil contaminated with 4% crude oil ?

    The liquid inoculum contains a consortium of efficient microorganisms (10 to power 8-9 CF U).The soil was contaminated 4 years ago. The soil is clay loam, pH above 8,with low content of N,P and organic matter.

    R.B. Brobst · United States Environmental Protection Agency

    I agree strongly with Karthik. You need to optimize the soil conditions first. pH 6.5 to 7.5, maintain moisture to ~60% field capacity, aerobic conditions need to be maintained, adequate nutrients (N,P,K,S) before you add any (if needed) microorganisms . You need to optimize the soil condition for microbial populations as well as plant growth.  We have added compost to sites with success and the compost will aid in buffering the lower pH.

    Good luck

  • Heyd Mas added an answer:
    Do landfills remain being an ecollogical alternative for the management of municipal solid waste?

    In Mexico landfills are considered as a technical and economic alternative for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). It has been estimated that during 2010 the 70% of the MSW produced in Mexico was deposited in landfills. However there is scarcey information about the ecollogical impact of this activity in Mexico on the medium and large term.

    Heyd Mas · University of Groningen

    I wouldn't say landfills are an alternative, but rather the last resource.
    If you observe the Waste Framework Directive (European Council Directive 75/442/EEC re-edited in 2006 and revised in 2008/98/EC), and the Landfill Directive adopted in 2001 (Council Directive 1999/31/EC) you will notice that recycling, re-use and energy recovery are strongly encouraged, while the "dispose of product (in a landfill)" is the last, worst option available.
    However, clear regulations which will enable sound disposal of waste - both for human health and the environment - are extremely necessary, specially when the technology and/or infra-structure limitations turn landfills into the last resource.

  • Alejandro Gallego Schmid added an answer:
    Is anyone familiar with Life Cycle Inventory data (LCI) for recycling process of polypropylene?

    Hi all,
    I’m looking for life cycle inventory data (LCI) for recycling process of polypropylene (consumption of energy, water, waste…). Data from cradle to gate (“recycled propylene granulate at plant”) will be perfect.
    I have been looking at different life cycle assessments (LCAs) and I’m not able to find something specific. Could you help me please?
    Thanks in advance

    Alejandro Gallego Schmid · The University of Manchester

    Hi Anders,

    Many thanks for your helpfull answer and the link. It helps a lot.

     I wrote you already a direct message.

    Best regards,


  • Lelde Timma added an answer:
    What are some new recycling strategies for the disposal of urban waste?

    Recycling technologies for the processing of urban waste are being continuously improved.

    Currently, more than 30% of MSW generated in the United States is recycled annually. The United States has about 872 operational MSW-fired power generation plants, generating approximately 2500MW, or about 0.3% of total national power generation.

    However, because construction costs of new plants have increased, economic factors have limited new construction.

    Lelde Timma · Riga Technical University

    Dear all,

    I am pleased to inform you that the final version of our article is now available online.

    There is free access to our article valid for 50 days, until January 25, 2015 by following link: http://authors.elsevier.com/a/1Q9Rx3QCo9AcRt

    No sign up or registration is needed - just click and read!

    Best regards, Lelde Timma

  • Lelde Timma added an answer:
    What feedback have you found missing in principal models of waste collection schemes?

    Me and my colleagues recently studied one of the oldest centralized collection programs for waste portable batteries, named also as, single organization model, which is in operation in Belgium since 1996. The collective battery management program is monitored by the Belgian battery organization (BEBAT).

    The operation of BEBAT is financed by a government mandated fee or levy, which is set by law and is included in the price of the battery. Consequently, it is paid by consumers.

    Although, the BEBAT achieved 84 % of public participation in 2012 and a dense network of collection points (on average one active collection point for 450 residents), the collection ratio of portable waste batteries has remained stagnant at around 50 %. The data showed that the dynamic problems present in the sector: despite increasing public awareness the collection rate is not increasing.

    Therefore we developed a system dynamics model to sheds light on the structure of the system and the system’s behavior. The model allows examining how the physical processes and information flows interrelate in the structure of a dynamic system, and how this structure generates dynamic behavior over time.

    We found out that important feedbacks are missing in the collection scheme:

    • the level of the levy on the price is not linked to the achieved collection goal.
    • effectiveness of the information campaign and the costs related to these awareness-increasing activities are not linked.

    The presented model can be adapted for other types of batteries’ collection models. In the context of the Europe Union the developed model can be used by member states to align with the collection targets set in the Directive 2006/66/EC on batteries and accumulators and waste batteries and accumulators.

    Our model and results are presented in Journal of Cleaner Production (Elsevier) under title “Dynamic modelling of a collection scheme of waste portable batteries for ecological and economic sustainability”.

    What feedbacks have you found missing in other principal models of collection schemes (state fund models, competing organizations models, and models without organizations (more details about principal models can be found in the supplement))? What are your thoughts and observations?

    Lelde Timma · Riga Technical University

    Dear all,

    I am pleased to inform you that the final version of our article is now available online.

    There is free access to our article valid for 50 days, until January 25, 2015 by following link: http://authors.elsevier.com/a/1Q9Rx3QCo9AcRt

    No sign up or registration is needed - just click and read!

    Best regards, Lelde Timma

  • Alfons Buekens added an answer:
    What is the best method to dispose TCDD and Dioxin?

    We are working with Dioxin and its antagonists. I was wondering what is the best diposal method?

    Alfons Buekens · Free University of Brussels

    I imagine that the absolute amounts are quite low and that the fluid waste are composed of highly flammable fluids, such as toluene or other organic solvents. The reason for this hypothesis is that dioxins would normally never appear in aqueous midst.

    Fluids containing dioxins could probably be mixed with oil and directly fired, under suitable conditions (the 3 T's leading to complete combustion).

    In this case, if you know how much dioxins enter your burner, you could guess how much would possibly survive in a worst case hypothesis (eg, 1 %) and then calculate how much would remain in the flue gas. If this remains below 1 to 10 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 the risk for the environment would be minimal, given the limited time required for disposal of your waste. Most exposed would be grazing cattle, such as cows. Since in Iran you often have a clear sky photolytic decomposition should do its work well.

    The best conditions for destruction would be a low-concentration of dioxins dissolved in a flammable solvent. The worst would be a fluid with sediments or sludge. I would recommend filtering out all suspended solids prior to firing.

    Dioxins have often shown NOT to follow what was expected on the basis of previous research. In the USA in the eighties and nineties Prof. Dellinger practised a pragmatic Question/Answer approach regarding incinerating various kinds of hazardous waste. You could retrieve it from literature searching for his name + the key words Test Burn.

  • Atiq Uz Zaman added an answer:
    What are the key steps to achieve zero waste goals?
    ‘Zero Waste’ means designing and managing products and processes to systematically avoid and eliminate the volume and toxicity of waste and materials, conserve and recover all resources (ZWIA, 2004). In your opinion, what key steps are required to implement in order to achieve zero waste goals?
    Atiq Uz Zaman · University of South Australia 

    Thank you Luca for your comments. Yes, you are right, we need an alternative production systems... most of the challenges in achieving zero waste goals are often associated with the existing systems and policies! we need system changes by incorporating/integrating Industrial Ecology and Circular Economy.... 

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