Waste Management

Waste Management

  • Ilaria Barletta added an answer:
    Is anyone familiar with Material Flow Analysis method for electronic waste?

    MFA is a structured material flow analysis and systematic waste management as a model elemental composition of waste and material management performance evaluation of recycling facilities and management. I want to know how the application of this method in the management of electronic waste.

    Ilaria Barletta · Chalmers University of Technology

    Dear Dino,

    to my knowledge MFA applied to studies on e-waste management is to estimate the flow of e-waste or used electronics to be considered in your problem.

    The following paper reports a review on the several application of analysis tools (e.g., LCA, MFA) adopted several studies on e-waste management. It confirms the idea that I had on the use of MFA, but I am pretty sure you'll find more hints on that.

    Peeranart Kiddee, Ravi Naidu, Ming H. Wong, Electronic waste management approaches: An overview, Waste Management, Volume 33, Issue 5, May 2013, Pages 1237-1250, ISSN 0956-053X, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2013.01.006.

    Best wishes

  • K V V Sagari Kudaligama added an answer:
    How does the UK particularly manage used engine-oils generated from vehicle garages, ship yards and industrial sites?

    Interested in understanding how sustainable use of hydrocarbons are carried out to avoid environmental pollution.

    K V V Sagari Kudaligama · Rubber Research Institute of Sri Lanka, Dartonfield, Agalawatta

    We have developed a low cost sealant using used engine oil, rubber and china clay. It also has adhesive properties

  • Marcell Nikolausz added an answer:
    I'm looking for the methanogenic potential of sugarcane residue or straw (Nm3Ch4/tTS)? Can someone help me?
    I am trying to determine the energetic power of sugarcane straw in my region, but I can't find the biogas potential.
    Marcell Nikolausz · Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung

    You may check this article as well:


  • Manfred Fehr added an answer:
    Does it make economic sense to subsidize waste items at the wholesale level in order to stimulate reverse logistics?
    A questionable alternative is to hand out direct financial support to recyclers.
    Manfred Fehr · Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU)

     Dear Somnath,
    Thank you kindly for your ideas.. You are right with the comparison of prices between virgin and recycled material. I was thinking of the costs of collection, tipping and landfill maintenance. If they are higher than a subsidy aimed at getting the materia out of town, then the subsidy seems to make sense from the point of view of the municipa budget.. Where the subsidized material would end up is another question that I have no answer for at this time. I am studying the problem and any input is welcome. 

  • Arun Babu Vathsalan added an answer:
    I m looking for any paper or formula which can provide me detail to carryout waste collection point and their mapping as a part of urban design?

    We are carrying out a research on planning waste collection points at a city. So we wanted to know if any formula is there to formulate at what distance this waste collection centre can be adopted? If any guideline on the same is available? Please let me know

    Arun Babu Vathsalan · Mahatma Gandhi University

    Dear Avic

    pls see the links. it may be useful for you

  • Dushyant Panwar added an answer:
    Does anyone know how to fix the matter with floating particles in COD test?

    Hi All, I will appreciate if anyone could share his/her experience or any info about this matter with me. I am doing COD test on some industrial waste samples. to make it economic, i make reagents solution by  myself by following the standard method. after all sample and standards preparation, two hours digestion in oven , and cooling down to ambient temperature, when i was gonna transfer samples from cod vials  to spectrophotometer cuvette to read the absorbency, the problems with floating particles in cuvette comes out (sedimentation). no one has faced this matter and if you know the reason or anyway that can fix it. Actually i am not using the ready COD vials with solution which is in market (like Hach) and i dont have COD spectrophotometer that be able to put COD vial directly inside to read the absorbency. i just have a general use spectrophotometer that just support its own cuvette. 

    Dushyant Panwar · Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

    I am not sure about the problem because i never face this type of problem...I am also determine the COD of industrial effluent with the help of close reflux method in this method i ti-trate the solution with FAS after 2 hour digestion,  u can try this to follow APHA.

  • Charles Anukwonke added an answer:
    What are the affordable soild waste managent systems for low income groups?

    Research papers those are already working on it

    Charles Anukwonke · Anambra State University

     Ketan the low income group is an issue here... Integrated Solid waste management incorporates a lot of factors including governance where the entire members of the public must be involved via campaigns/ public enlightenment and other means  that facilitates attitudinal change for better and improved solid waste management in a an area.

    There is also the concern on the aspects of management of the informal participants in waste management in form of scavengers to actively participate in the quest  for the zero waste control and other approaches within the integrated framework. 

    Pls go through some of the files that have been sent to you above. some of them are so useful

  • Tinus Pulles added an answer:
    What are the correct emission factors for a comprehensive emission inventory in waste management covering all the processes? I need your help.

    Most inventory cover only the main emissions and do not provide details. I am considering all emissions. For instance under transportation - CO2, NOx, CO, NMVOCs, HC, PM10, N2O, CH4, SO2 and NH3.

    Tinus Pulles · TNO

    Please check http://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/air/emep-eea-air-pollutant-emission-inventory-guidebook to find a full set recent air pollutant emission estimation methods and default emission factors for all relevant processes. These methods also follow those of the IPCC 2006 Guidelines for Greenhouse Gases: http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/index.html.

  • Mujeeb Irukulangara added an answer:
    Which technology is highly adapted for Bio medical waste management in India ?

    Status of Bio medical waste management in India.

    Mujeeb Irukulangara · Dr. Abdulrahman Al Mishari Hospital

    We are in Saudi Arabia using Physical/chemical incineration for medical waste treatment, I was able to visit  a company named 'SEPCO environment' to see their collection-transportation-incineration and disposal management. This is the company who deal with most of the hospitals in Saudi Arabia for their medical waste disposal. 

  • Attila Haris added an answer:
    Is there a rigorous, scientific methodology for determining the origin of beach waste/litter (e.g. moisture, density, lab based analysis)?

    Most studies and guidelines I have found provide estimates on waste origin (e.g. from tourists, from ships, from the port, from dumpsites) based on the indexing of materials found and spatial analysis. Is there no way to examine specific waste items in a lab (e.g. chemical, physical analysis) to determine origin? 

    Attila Haris · Rippl-Rónai Museum

    Dear Kenneth,

    This could be a "bit arrogant" but in many companies from IBM to GE this is the practice. :)

    1. Experts, engineers, advisors etc. receive a project

    2. After their investigation they set a theory

    3. To verify their theory, they send samples to labs. and they specify which tests they need and also for which componensts. (also depend on lab. prices). 

    4. They receive lab. results evaluate it and based on lab results:

    a. modify theory or 

    b. find other solution for problem

    c. their theory is supported by lab results in this case: project closed, problem resolved.

  • A. Subba Rao added an answer:
    Circular Economy: what is beneath it? Will it solve resource challenges?

    Recently, the buzz word 'circular economy' has been highly popularized, especially, in the developed countries.

    Is it just another name for traditional resource recovery approaches as Costas Velis highlights in the editorial section of 'Waste Management and Research' May 2015 issue?

    How will it affect already developed waste management sector in developed countries?

    What can a circular economy offer to developing countries with economically inferior waste streams?

    To what extent does the speed of 'circularity' matters?

    A. Subba Rao · Coromandel International

    The circular economy  may be a better proposition for mineral nutrient like phosphorus in countries  like India which are not endowed with rich reserves of rock phosphate which is the main source from which phosphate fertilizers are made.Phosphorus from plant ,animal,human and water system need to be recovered and reused.P from crop residues, animal manures, urban solid and liquid wastes including foodwaste and sewage water need to be recovered and used in agriculture.One good example is recovery of P as struvite from municipal sewage water  and manure slurries and use it as fertilizer.Some  countries in Europe and  Japan made good progress and country like India need to take initiave in recovering and using P from urban sanitary treatment systems,manures and food waste.So circular economy as I understand is important for both developed and developing countries.

  • Mukut Gohain added an answer:
    Is anyone familiar with the green disposal of both organic and inorganic wastes in bulk, of a Pharmaceutical Industry?

    I want to know about convenient and efficient recent  green technologies which we can use in waste disposal in bulk scale that’s generated by a chemical industry during synthesis of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients.

    Mukut Gohain · Chemical Process Technologies, South Africa

    Thank you Dear Franz Xaver Strohmer for response, we may contact you via your email to know details about installation and installation cost.

  • Maibritt Pedersen Zari added an answer:
    What projects, designs, initiatives, research is there that investigates 'designing out waste' in the construction process?

    We have been asked by the New Zealand Government, in partnership with elements of the NZ construction industry, to establish the feasibility of significantly reducing the amount of waste generated in the plasterboard and treated timber sectors.

    We are seeking to do this by establishing suitable strategies, initiatives and tools for designing out waste i.e. preventing, avoiding or eliminating waste in these two sectors. The target is to reduce generated waste by 20% in these sectors by 2017.

    We are well aware that designing out waste measures are already in place in several other countries around the world. As an essential first stage in our research we are seeking to find out what these are and how effective they have been. As you might be aware there are strong links between the concept of designing out waste, resource efficient design and lean design

    Do you know of any research investigating Designing out Waste in the construction sector? 



    Maibritt Pedersen Zari · Victoria University of Wellington

    Thanks very much Douglas, that's very helpful! This is actually John Storey's project - I have just agreed to help out with the initial research. He will know Andy. I will pass all of this on to him. Thanks again.

  • Mina Kolagar added an answer:
    Does anyone know about the advantage of statistical entropy in waste management (based on Shannon entropy) in compare to mass distribution?

    Statistical entropy is used to calculate concentration or dilution of a specific component in a process but a simple mass balance gives this data too. I like to know if there is any other point that statistical entropy gives more information in compare to simple mass balance!

    Many Thanks,

    Mina Kolagar · Sharif University of Technology

    thank you Alessio for your comprehensive description. 

  • Miroslav Vysoudil added an answer:
    What is the emissivity of black liquor in order to get the image by infrared camera?

    It must be known for the droplets of black liquor.

    Miroslav Vysoudil · Palacký University of Olomouc

    Average emisivity of water is 0,988 (see http://www.icess.ucsb.edu/modis/EMIS/html/em.html ).

  • Alfons Buekens added an answer:
    Is high temperature smelting reduction of industrial waste possible?

    High temperature smelting reduction is possible or not?

    Alfons Buekens · Free University of Brussels

    Oxides at high temperature are reduced to metal in the presence of carbon monoxide and hydrogen (cf. blast furnace operation).

    Plasma is an expensive heating method, so other methods are much more economic. Conversely, plasma may be used to enhance already high temperatures, e.g., to ensure slag melt flow. Yes ago, this possibility was used in the Andco-Torrax plant at Créteil/Paris.

  • Sergio E. Gómez added an answer:
    Why does garbage in a flowing river tends to segregate rather than distribute homogeneously in the surface?

    Why the garbage in a flow river tends to segregate rather than distribute homogeneously in the surface? Is it related to the flow dynamics?

    Similarly, with a forced flow field, is the second phase particles (such as SiC in Al melt) in the melt easy to segregate (in the liquid state rather than during solidification process)?

    Sergio E. Gómez · National Scientific and Technical Research Council


  • Veluchamy Chitraichamy added an answer:
    What are the appropriate 3Rs tools/equipment for MSW management applicable to different geographical locations (Hills, mountains, plains) ?

    We want to design different 3Rs promotional activities in managing MSW in small to large cities located at different geographical location. Beside the IEC materials, awareness campaign, policy/strategy advocacy, we would like to design cost-effective tools/equipment and technologies which could be effective for 3Rs promotional activities. These instruments will help in improving collection, transportation and increasing recycling/reusing opportunities. ..............................

    Veluchamy Chitraichamy · Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

    if you go through this text book means you will get all necessary list of equipment/vehicles for your reference. and also for your all kind of solid watse question you will get answer from this book named-

    " Integrated Solid Waste Management: Engineering Principles and Management "  by Tchobanoglous, G., Theisen and Vigil --Issues, McGraw Hill, 1993

  • Arif Reza added an answer:
    Can you recommend an easily operation procedure for the sulfur fraction in sediment or solid wastes?

    We have the EA-IRMS. and can measure the total S in solid. The main composition of my materials is gypsum, which might  also have some element S. I want to have some procedure for the S species. I have found the procedure based on the Tuttle and Goldhaber (1986) and I am wondering if any one have combined their procedure with EA-IRMS. Thanks for the reply

    Arif Reza · Kangwon National University

    Please check the attached files. These articles might be helpful for you.

  • Andy Okorocha added an answer:
    What are the environmentally-friendly methods for the disposal of used engine-oils from garages and industrial sites in the developed economies?

    Interested in the articulation of options for sustainable use of hydrocarbon wastes in emerging economies and third-world countries.

    Andy Okorocha · Federal University of Technology Owerri

    The method of choice is regeneration of the spent lube oil. I have carried out this effort and the result gave a 60-70 per cent recovery. 

    The heavy material residue  can be used to harden clays.

  • Paschal Awingura Apanga added an answer:
    Are there recent studies on Health Care waste management in Africa?

    I am starting the process of my dissertation and I am looking at medical or healthcare waste management in rural Africa. I want to know which direction do I go: formative evaluation where I try to do a need assessment in rural clinics present in rural Africa or do an impact evaluation of past community -based interventions to control infectious diseases as a result of contact with hospital or medical waste at open dumpsites in rural Africa. 

    So my question is Are there recent studies done on this aspect and what are possible research gaps. Thanks

    Paschal Awingura Apanga · Ghana Health Service

    You can access the following papers from PubMed from the link below:


  • Mamdouh F. Abdel-Sabour added an answer:
    Which industrial waste material can we add to saline soil to remove the salinity from the soil?

    geotech expertise

    Mamdouh F. Abdel-Sabour · Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority

    nice research but it should be implemented on a filed scale to provide practical economical information to have better assessment.

  • Roland Ramusch added an answer:
    Can anyone recommend some case studies of decentralized composting initiatives carried out in developing countries?

    I am looking for research paper or person who can help me provide information . .am especially looking for information on Scientific Handling of Waste Society, Bangalore India and other similar activities in developing countries? Will appreciate your kind support..

    Roland Ramusch · University of Natural Resources and Life Science Vienna

    Linzner R. (2010): Decentralised composting of market waste and use in urban agriculture; Conakry, Guinea. Urban Agriculture Magazine, 23 (April 2010), 20-21; ISSN 1571-6244.

    Educational movie on decentralised composting based on a small-scale facility located in Conakry (Guinée): http://www.wau.boku.ac.at/abf/forschungsschwerpunkte/entwicklungszusammenarbeit-und-wissenstransfer/kompostlehrfilm/

    Project report: http://www.kef-research.at/fileadmin/media/stories/downloads/Projektberichte/P139_Endbericht_Guinea.pdf

  • Amany Gomaa Madkour added an answer:
    Could anyone please, help me with any information/article on the microbial ecology and characterization of struvite in pavement structures?

    Still trying to figure out how to carry out a study on the potentials of struvite in SuDS but, need further information. 

    Amany Gomaa Madkour · National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries

    This Article can give you part of info you look for 


    if i found what you exact looks for i'll upload it here to u

  • Edward Calt added an answer:
    Can the digestate resulting from food waste be used as construction material?

    Are there any studies of digestate composition and it use as construction material?
    According to Rigby H. And Smith S. New Markets for Digestate from AnaerobicDigestion, WRAP, August 2011, p.30.: "it would be possible to produce medium density fiberboards and wood-plastic composites from digestate resulting from food waste"
    Any comments about this? 

    Edward Calt · Integrated Biochem

    If the objective to produce fertilizer, or cellulosic matter for particle board fine.  But if the objective is to convert the food waste into more valuable products then using anaerobic digestion is not particularly good.  Using the Managed Ecosystem Fermentation process produces proteins that can be used as adhesives or animal feed as well as other high value industrial chemicals biologically over night.  Attached is a paper that is being published in June in the Journal of Sustainable development titled "Products from Organic Waste". 

  • Edward Calt added an answer:
    How can I remove ethanol from water rom water waste from a petrochemical company?

    We have been asked to research the removal of ethanol from water waste from a petrochemical company. They only want the water as the ethanol can be disposed of.  Will RO or hyperfiltration membranes remove ethanol? We need to retain the water and not damage the membranes in any way. Salt, or sulphur ethanol-removal processes may not be viable options.

    Edward Calt · Integrated Biochem

    vacuum distillation... you get two materials that can then be used or sold

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