Waste Management

Waste Management

  • Jana Soukopová added an answer:
    Anyone interested in collaborating on a comparative study of municipal cost on waste management in Europe?

    I have some data from a previous project on efficiency of municipal WM costs in the Czech Republic (2008, 2010 - 2013), part of which I have recently published.
    I am interested in collecting similar data in EU countries (especially in Post-communist countries) for the purpose of comparing efficiency and factors of efficiency of municipal waste management relative to public finance (municipal cost) across Europe. I am looking for researchers with an interest in this area and who will be willing to collect data in their locale, contribute to the analyses and interpretation, and collaborate with me in publishing of the results (as co-author).

    Jana Soukopová · Masaryk University

    Thank you very much for your answers and questions.
    I am very bussy now and it is very difficult to answer all questions here.

    Therefore I´ll respond to everyone by email as soon as possible.

    Kind regards


  • Florin Constantin Mihai added an answer:
    Mapping waste indicators: have you examined papers which reveal spatial patterns of waste indicators in your country/region?

    Few environmental reports provide a spatial analysis of waste indicators through various scales within a country (rural locality- city-county-development region-country) and such studies are not quite widespread in literature .


    Do you think that environmental authorities should be obliged to provide maps concerning municipal waste indicators for all administrative territorial units in a country? What implications would have a such initiative?

    Florin Constantin Mihai · Romanian Environment Association (ARM-1998)

     Dear Mohammad H Golabi,

    Thematic maps with such "real numbers' should de provided at various geographical scales ( cities, rural localities, region etc).. environmental specialist should include social behavior in their analysis ..of course.. many geographical variables ( nature & socio-economic features) may be related to such indicators...holistic and systemic approaches are compulsory.

  • Manfred Fehr added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest good sources of references to obtain the calorific values of different fractions of solid waste?

    Calorific value is the key data which is required to calculate electricity and thermal energy production potential from Municipal solid waste incineration. 

    Kindly share the good sources of references to obtain Low Heating Values of different fractions of solid waste (e.g. food, garden, plastic, paper, rubber waste) with respect to different countries.

    Manfred Fehr · Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU)

    Dear Nirmala,

    As this paper was published in 1996, I do not have it in digital format, and the journal does not provide virtual texts. If you give me a postal address, I can send you a hard copy by mail. Mind you, the text is written in Portuguese. I do not know where you are located and whether you can read Portuguese. Can you?



  • Ahmad Saleh Safi added an answer:
    Which measures may be efficiently in order to improve the correct separate collection of household waste?

    One of the main factors which cause low performances of current urban waste management systems in terms of recycling & treatment rates is the mixed collection of waste fractions despite of selective infrastructure. Frequently, unsorted recyclables and organic wastes from special containers are  disposed in landfills.. How people may be more responsible on this matter?

    Ahmad Saleh Safi · Al-Azhar University - Gaza

    While there is no blueprint to answer you question. But using a a set of measures including information, setting goals (clear commitment), feedback on progress, and utilizing peer educators (neighbors and community leaders) will significantly improve the public behavior in terms of waste segregation at source. For more empirical research on this read for Carrico, Abrahams, Steg, Winett, Van Houwelingen, and Cialdini.

  • Nicasio Sepúlveda added an answer:
    E-learning, online courses and webinars in groundwater and environmental problems?

    What is your opinion about e-learning, online courses and webinars in groundwater and environmental problems?  Are they worthy? Any suggestions?

    Nicasio Sepúlveda · United States Geological Survey

    Guidance on groundwater modeling is better when received 1 on 1 by an instructor because it is more difficult to pass on experience through these online classes that generally do not provide a way to teach the real experience and what to do in specific real problems.

  • Meena Potdar added an answer:
    How can we determine the impact of tourism on a waste management system from a city or rural region?

    Tourism may be a significant factor in local waste management plans in case of touristic regions across the world. What methods and tools should be applied in order to outline these complex implications? Please share your thoughts, papers, reports etc.

    Meena Potdar · Shivaji University, Kolhapur

    its very important issue in the development of tourism to assess the impact there are number of techniques and u can follow the guide lines given by OECD

  • Mahmoud Omid added an answer:
    How can we increase the awareness of the need for innovative solutions to the world's water problems?

    This year, Iran is facing dangerous water crisis as arid temperatures rise with the encroaching summer season. As summer presses and temperatures rise, water scarcity in Iran is becoming a national emergency.
    Who to blame? It is said that the water crisis in Iran is a two pronged problem. Global climate change (arguably helped along by the country's heavy GHG emissions) is intensifying the region's already arid climate. The other problem, and what many experts say is the most immediate problem, is the people of Iran themselves.Despite imminent shortages, water use in Iran remains inefficient, with domestic use 70% higher than the global average. Accordingly, experts say the Iranian people are to blame for this problem (with GHG emissions helping the crisis worsen).
    Other countries may be experiencing similar problems to my country. Remember that "as the world's population is expected to reach 9 billion by year 2050 and at the rate we are going there won't be nearly enough water for that many of us". Therefore, We must raise awareness and groom the scientists and professionals that we need for both today and tomorrow. Students in today's classrooms are the scientists and technologists of the future that we will need to meet this challenge. How can we inspire them? Overcoming fear of failure is a necessity to overcome crises and for success on any level.

    Mahmoud Omid · University of Tehran

    Virtual Water and Water Footprint, What are these?

    International trade in food and other products implies international flows of virtual water. Virtual water is the water that is virtually embedded in traded commodities. It refers to the water footprint of a commodity in the place of production.

    For water-scarce countries like Iran it can be attractive to import virtual water (through import of water-intensive products), thus relieving the pressure on the domestic water resources.

    Maybe these new ideas can help water scarcity to some extend. Looking for some references to know more about water footprint. 


  • Farnaz Amin Salehi added an answer:
    Does “waste hierarchy” policy really work across EU countries?

    This question derives from following link http://sciencealert.com.au/news/20140509-26134.html  which reveals that 99 percent of Sweden’s waste is now reused ! Ops… in Romania is quite opposite.. 99 percent of waste is disposed in landfills ?! ...The core issue is: how can New Member States face with the same EU requirements as old ones... which have many years of experience in the recycling & treatment sector  supported by a wealthy economy ? 

  • Florin Constantin Mihai added an answer:
    Traditional vs integrated waste management system…who’s the winner in your country?

    Traditional waste management systems is based on landfill of waste (often non-compliant sites with environmental regulations) and mixed waste collection with poor facilities for recycling and waste recovery. On the other hand, the integrated waste management systems are based on separate collection, 3R policy (reduce ,reuse, recycle) and energy recovery. Which systems prevail in your country? And what are the proper solutions in order to provide the transition to an integrated waste management system?

    Florin Constantin Mihai · Romanian Environment Association (ARM-1998)

      @ Dear Rodrigo,

      Incineration a is very controversial topic because of environmental and health threats to surroundings areas outlined also by several papers in literature or media. Does household waste composition favor incineration process in Valencia region? What about composting and recycling facilities ?

  • Paul H. Brunner added an answer:
    Do you know of any qualitative recycling indicators?

    The EU and others prescribe quantitative recycling standards, e.g. xy % of the mass of end of life vehicles must be recycled. Such standards do not take into account environmental and health issues, e.g. they do not consider hazardous substances that are recycled back to the consumer. Hence, in addition to quantitative recycling standards we need some qualitative criteria that protect consumers and the environment from recycled hazardous substances. Have you ever heard of such indicators, or can you suggest some?

    Paul H. Brunner · Vienna University of Technology

    Yes, Slavisa, I am aware of the exergy concept, and am looking forward to see people applying it for qualitative recycling decisions. Until I have seen useful results, I remain sceptical about exergy as a metric for qualitative recycling.

    Best regards


  • Gbenga Odukale added an answer:
    What collection system should be more efficient in a rural mountain region? “Door to door” or through collection points ?

    While I was studying the illegal dumping issue in rural areas of Neamt County (Romania) I noticed that type of waste collection services may influence the behavior of inhabitants regarding the waste disposal. Frequently, the linear morphology of villages (built-up areas) along the rivers and tributaries favor the waste dumping on their banks near the households. In case the localities are served by sanitation services it seems that “ door to door” system is more effective than collection points. In the latter case the proper location of these points within a village is crucial in order to avoid the illegal dumping. Also, there can be a combination between these two systems..such as “door to door” system for mixed wastes and collection point for recyclables. What is your opinion about these collection systems ..? Which of those should be more effective in a mountain region?

    Gbenga Odukale · <GSO Systems Services>

    Dear Florin Constantin Mihai.
    Firstly, man creates its own problems; and secondly, makes himself miserable trying to solve them. You cannot apply, generally, any method of waste collection system develop for any particular set of people or for any particular region.

    Reason: difference in people's sense-of-decency, sense-of-orderliness, sense-of-hygiene, knowledge/understanding on consequences of bad practices and a ready-willingness to follow order. You cannot develop a system from thinking as if people live in a box. I am not too sure if rural settings were considered when developing the “Door to door” and "Collection Points" methods.

    If you need to collect waste in any particular way:
    Firstly, observe the target location and the manner/type of waste generation,
    Secondly, develop your model/method of collection for deployment to this location,
    Thirdly, educate the people concerned to gather their waste in that particular way.

    This is no rocket science. You are dealing with human beings with initiatives and capable of decisions. Don't just clone a method from one metropolitan location and then dump it in this rural mountain location.

    Don't just deploy a method. Deploy a SOLUTION with Love in your HEART.

  • Francine Vachon added an answer:
    Do you think that IT (Utilizing E-Commerce and M-Commerce Applications) would reduce ICT waste management percentage?
    When we talk global warming, it is a cumulative effect and reflection of many interactions, so the reduction of ICT waste management is a critical factor for global warming. Therefore, do E-commerce or and M-Commerce applications reduce waste management?
    Francine Vachon · Brock University

    I would suggest reading the following paper on the topic:

    York, Richard. "Ecological paradoxes: William Stanley Jevons and the paperless office." Human Ecology Review 13.2 (2006): 143.

    "Contrary to the expectations of some, computers, e-mail, and the World Wide Web, are associated with an increase in paper consumption."  (York, p. 145)

  • Saif Uddin added an answer:
    Could the addition of lignocellulosic feedstock to wastewaters be somehow beneficial to their stabilization in sewage treatment plants?
    I was wondering if adding a carbon source and increasing the total solids concentration could be beneficial to wastewater stabilization through anaerobic digestion processes. Easily degradable carbon compounds could be low in wastewaters, while recalcitrant (and environmentally undesirable) compounds may be relatively abundant. Could the addition of biomasses (high C/N ratio, low loisture content) increase the overall efficiency of the process? More in general, could the co-digestion of wastewaters (or wastes) and agricultural feedstock provide some advantages?
    Saif Uddin · Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research

    Thanks Salmon and Calt for your comprehensive answers.

  • Lynn Egan added an answer:
    How can you digest/dissolve plant matters with acids?

    Is it possible for H2SO4-HNO3 solution dissolve/digest small debris of dried plant matter, and how long it takes to completely disintegrate them? Will heating helps to digest the plant matter with this acid solution?

    After some trials, I found that the plant matters are tough to be digested although both acids are strong corrosive agent. Someone suggested me to use Piranha solution, but H2O2 is not available is my lab and it is quite expensive.

    For your information, I'm trying to remove those plant materials present in my beach sand samples to recover microplastics particles. I think that Piranha solution may digest the microplastics

    Appreciate your feedback. Thanks.

    Lynn Egan · Hach Company

    This one looks even better, if you have not seen it:


  • Serafin Filomeno added an answer:
    What are urban-rural relations in your country concerning the waste management sector?

    New regional waste management systems include both urban and rural areas and their cooperation on this matter may provide significant improvements concerning the effectiveness of waste management options adopted. There is any support in your country for such collaborations ?
    Please reveal case reports , studies or share your experiences /opinions from field observations …

    Serafin Filomeno · Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonía Peruana

    Waste management sector is very important in Peru and has a great potential for CDM projects. A number of industries located in urban or peri urban or rural areas have no management waste as a policy. For exemple, sawmills in the amazonian basin, rice mills in the andean basin, and other procesing industries (fruits and coffee  procesing waste). Abandoned waste in open areas provoque GHG emissions.

  • Prakash Mallappa Munnoli added an answer:
    What are some waste management options for sugar cane bagasse?
    I am doing my honours research in the management options of sugar cane bagasse. I'm still in the planning phases and would appreciate any help or input.
    Prakash Mallappa Munnoli · S D M College of Engineering and Technology

    Sugar cane bagasse, filter mud, trash are successfully utilized for vermicomposting

  • Michael Afanasyev added an answer:
    How much depth of soil can photosynthetic bacteria survive in?

    For bioremediation of soil I want to use a photosynthetic bacteria. But how much depth of soil can photosynthetic bacteria survive in?

  • Florin Constantin Mihai added an answer:
    What according to you are the factors that affect the placement or location of a waste collection bin?

    I want to collect your views on this.

    Florin Constantin Mihai · Romanian Environment Association (ARM-1998)

    Besides these technical questions mentioned above ..it must be taken into account also the local ( city or rural area ?!) geographical features ( natural and socio-economic factors)... GIS techniques applied at micro-scale (districts) based on several scenarios it will help to choose the optimal decision

  • Robert Hurter added an answer:
    What are your suggestions in designing a paper deinking flotation cell?
    I am working to gather information about different kinds of laboratory deinking flotation cell sand choosing one of them. Any experience in this respect is also welcomed.
    Robert Hurter · HurterConsult Incorporated

    Mehdi - I suggest that you contact Med Byrd at NC State University (NCSU) who may be able to guide you on this - med_byrd@ncsu.edu  NCSU has extensive P&P labs and a pilot plant.

  • Huub J. Gijzen added an answer:
    Can anyone help me to specify optimal conditions in hydrolysis tank at two-stage AD?

     What's the optimal temperature, pH, gas composition (oxygen content) etc.? Can you recommend some literature?

    Huub J. Gijzen · UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education

    Hi Pavel, in my previous work I developed an approach to look for existing natural microbial ecosystems that are efficient in biodegradation. For instance, for cellulosic waste I looked at the the microbial ecosystem in the rumen of cattle. The rumen is a very efficient bioreactor for the degradation of cellulosic waste (to an extend that it is 20 to 50 times faster than man made bioreactors). Factually the rumen is a microbial hydrolosis system, as it converts biopolymers to simple organic acids like acetic, propionic and butyric acids (which constitutes the main food for the cattle). Besides anaerobic bacteria, highly specific protozoans only found in ruminants play an important role in hydrolysing cellulose and other biopolymers. The conditions of the rumen are: pH neutral, oxygen - very low, T 38 C. I managed to simulate the microbial acidification process in a reactor, but due to the efficiency and rapid production of the mentioned organic acids, a second (methanogenic) reactor needed to be coupled to this in stage 2 to convert the acids in methane. otherwise the reactor 1 would acidify and the process would stop. The effluent of reactor 2, after removal of acids, would then go back to reactor 1, so a closed cycle could be generated. This 2-stage system is referred to as RUDAD (Rumen Derived Anearobic Digestion), and you can find further information and papers on this in my publication list. I then also looked at other natural systems, such as the hindgut of cockroaches! this revealed other anaerobic microbial systems that are highly effieint in the digestion of biopolymers. My advise, look at natural systems, as these have millions of years of experience!

  • Lelde Timma added an answer:
    What feedback have you found missing in principal models of waste collection schemes?

    Me and my colleagues recently studied one of the oldest centralized collection programs for waste portable batteries, named also as, single organization model, which is in operation in Belgium since 1996. The collective battery management program is monitored by the Belgian battery organization (BEBAT).

    The operation of BEBAT is financed by a government mandated fee or levy, which is set by law and is included in the price of the battery. Consequently, it is paid by consumers.

    Although, the BEBAT achieved 84 % of public participation in 2012 and a dense network of collection points (on average one active collection point for 450 residents), the collection ratio of portable waste batteries has remained stagnant at around 50 %. The data showed that the dynamic problems present in the sector: despite increasing public awareness the collection rate is not increasing.

    Therefore we developed a system dynamics model to sheds light on the structure of the system and the system’s behavior. The model allows examining how the physical processes and information flows interrelate in the structure of a dynamic system, and how this structure generates dynamic behavior over time.

    We found out that important feedbacks are missing in the collection scheme:

    • the level of the levy on the price is not linked to the achieved collection goal.
    • effectiveness of the information campaign and the costs related to these awareness-increasing activities are not linked.

    The presented model can be adapted for other types of batteries’ collection models. In the context of the Europe Union the developed model can be used by member states to align with the collection targets set in the Directive 2006/66/EC on batteries and accumulators and waste batteries and accumulators.

    Our model and results are presented in Journal of Cleaner Production (Elsevier) under title “Dynamic modelling of a collection scheme of waste portable batteries for ecological and economic sustainability”.

    What feedbacks have you found missing in other principal models of collection schemes (state fund models, competing organizations models, and models without organizations (more details about principal models can be found in the supplement))? What are your thoughts and observations?

    Lelde Timma · Riga Technical University

    Dear all, thank you for your answers. I hope that our research can be a good building block for the development of more transparent waste management system.

    Couple of points I would like to add: 

    - the rest of batteries (not collected) are mostly going to municipal solid waste. In Latvia municipal solid waste is landfilled. EU directives obliges to introduce the units for segregation of waste materials, but, as far as I know, currently in Latvia these units are not in place yet or installed and struggling with technical difficulties. 

    - from sustainability point of view it is always better to properly collect waste at the source, in this case at the end-consumers; therefore I believe that specific policy should be devoted to create awareness of the problems that waste batteries create to living conditions and health. I observed some kind of trend that those collection schemes which involved school children usually got batter collection ratios much faster. I believe it is because children are more elastic to the development of new habits - in this case collection of waste batteries; and finally children involve all family members. 

    - transparency is also an issues, because when spending and income of waste management system is not available to public, this destroys trust and willingness to take part in separate collection.

  • Shashikant Kumar added an answer:
    Is anyone concerned about geographical implications when a landfill site should be located and designed?

    Stupendous...a landfill site from mountain region ( Mestecanis-Pojorata area, Suceava County ) is located on the ridge (near the Mestecanis pass) in a touristic area. Attention, this location is approved by European Comission. What a joke!


    Have you in mind others bad selections for landfill sites across the world ?…feel free to share links, papers , reports etc

    Shashikant Kumar · Arvindbhai Patel Institute of Environmental Design

    Two important concerns for locating the site, (a) Population and (b) Water Resources. Both with high sensitivity, related to hygiene, and health concerns. You cannot have site where there is potential to transfer the diseases from site to neighborhood, ensure less population within perimeter, protect site from such incidents and monitor health. Check topography if the leaching is going to penetrate to under ground resources, likely possibility of surface run off to the water resources, avoid high grounds and stay away from water logged areas. Have scientifically designed sites which can prevent ground water pollution and reduce the potential of health hazard. You need to conduct social and environmental impact assessment before you finalize the site. There has to be consent of locals to setup the landfills. Avoid large distance transfers since that may also lead to unsafe disposal methods in case not protected. Each site needs to be analyse from its geographical context, choose the best options available, but do not avoid the landfill you need to convince the community for its ultimate utility. 

  • M. van Praagh added an answer:
    What approaches, methods and tools should be used in order to provide a coherent municipal waste management system at different geographical scales?

    National, regional and local waste management plans must be correlated and adapted to geographical features (natural & socioeconomical) which varies across a country. In case of EU countries... the EU policies must be implemented from an international to a local level. In this context.. waste management systems must be coordinated through various scales of administrative territorial units (example: EU 28 – Romania- Development Regions –Counties- cities –communes and villages). How can we deal with this serious challenge?

    M. van Praagh · Lund University

    From my experience, the national implementation of the EU WFD should be accompanied by clear technical and legislative guidelines for stakeholders (adjacent governmental agencies, municipalities, industrial branch organisations, NGOs etc), issued by the competent authority (environmental agency on behalf of competent ministry or the like). Then the crucial issue is to strengthen the local administrative level and to involve stakeholders actively at the local and regional level, for example through participatory workshops and public discussion of local and regional MSW plans. The choice of technical tools (database and MSW production and management figures, as required by EU WFD, GIS for planning and survey, LCA for decision on waste management system) should be adjusted to the prerequesites and situation in the country, as well as the EU WFD requirements and complementary requirements from the accession agreement. A feasable way forward is to amend the national SWM-plan with an action plan with concrete milestones and critical design requisites for the different parts and geographical levels and a thourough environmental and social impact assessment and broad public participation.

  • Prakash Mallappa Munnoli added an answer:
    How flood wastes can be estimated, managed and prevented?

    This question is mainly addressed to the household/agricultural wastes which are illegally dumped on rivers / creeks / their river banks or floodplains …locations which are often predisposed to flash floods being transported to downstream localities

    Prakash Mallappa Munnoli · S D M College of Engineering and Technology

    Dear Florin

    I will go through your published paper and give you feed back

  • Monica Malhotra asked a question:
    Is there someone who can post research paper on soil waste management.

    I am working on analysis of soil containing municipal waste.

    I wanted to collect information of all the work done on soil waste management. 

  • Margarete Maria Kalin added an answer:
    Does anyone need a fast growing high biomass selenium or nitrate hyperaccumulator for environmental cleanup?

    We have access to a Brassica species and a grass species that can be used for soil or water remediation.

    Margarete Maria Kalin · Boojum Reseach Limited

     this is an aquatic plant.. so it works on water not in soil - essentailly it puts the contaminat into the sediment.. where in most cases it gets biomineralized.. if you want a publication... let me know by e-mail margarete.kalin@utoronto.ca  have a nice sunday

  • Ravi Mohan added an answer:
    Can anyone tell me the thirst area in research?
    Am interested know the thirst area in research which I could select for the study.
    Ravi Mohan · Gulbarga University

    Selecting a thirst area in research is a very crucial step in research.Selection of thirst area depends on The working Lab and Facilities available and the interest of a mentor (Guide).It also depend on the area of ur expertization and interest  .

  • Florin Constantin Mihai added an answer:
    Do governments have more of a role to introduce recycling in the society or NGOs?
    I am trying to find more information about successful activities or experiences for establishing recycling in different societies and also know more about others knowledge in this area.
    Florin Constantin Mihai · Romanian Environment Association (ARM-1998)

    You may have a look of this paper which analysis the difficulties of a new EU member in order to comply the EU regulations on urban waste management (including recycling sector...)


    Government has useful tools ( laws, budget, administration etc) in order to improve the recycling sector within a country....the NGOS may to "catalyze" these efforts and to raise the civil responsibility.

  • Florin Constantin Mihai added an answer:
    What opinion do you have on modern incineration? Is it a technology that should be embraced world wide to tackle the waste management crisis?
    Waste-to-energy or recycling or composting?
    Florin Constantin Mihai · Romanian Environment Association (ARM-1998)

    Beside technical and economic approaches…geographical context ( natural and social features) and waste composition influence the predisposition of a city or region for this option. In Europe there are major disparities concerning municipal waste management systems …
    Incineration are not a reliable solution for municipal wastes in case of southern & eastern countries of EU …they may be suitable only for big cities ( over 1 million inhab. ) but such facilities are used for hazardous and industrial wastes .The surroundings of these facilities may face heavy pollution and serious health issues.

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