Waste Management

Waste Management

  • Khandoker Mahmudur Rahman added an answer:
    Are there any papers on environmental auditing in area of EPR?

    I would be grateful for any authors/titles of research papers who/which checked on how the extended producers responsibility scheme is effective in packaging waste area. Thank you very much in advance.

    Khandoker Mahmudur Rahman

    You may be interested to check the following references:

    • Hage, O. (2007). The Swedish producer responsibility for paper packaging: An effective waste management policy?. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 51(2), 314-344.
    • Hanisch, C. (2000). Is extended producer responsibility effective?. Environmental science & technology, 34(7), 170A-175A.
    • Lifset, R. J. (1993). Take it back: extended producer responsibility as a form of incentive-based environmental policy. Journal of Resource Management and Technology, 21, 163-163.
    • Cahill, R., Grimes, S. M., & Wilson, D. C. (2011). Review Article: Extended producer responsibility for packaging wastes and WEEE-a comparison of implementation and the role of local authorities across Europe. Waste Management & Research, 29(5), 455-479.
    • Yang, W. S., Park, J. K., Park, S. W., & Seo, Y. C. (2015). Past, present and future of waste management in Korea. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 17(2), 207-217.
    • Marques, R. C., da Cruz, N. F., Simões, P., Ferreira, S. F., Pereira, M. C., & De Jaeger, S. (2014). Economic viability of packaging waste recycling systems: A comparison between Belgium and Portugal. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 85, 22-33.
    • Rigamonti, L., Ferreira, S., Grosso, M., & Marques, R. C. (2015). Economic-financial analysis of the Italian packaging waste management system from a local authority's perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production, 87, 533-541.

    Hope they help.

  • Guna Sekar added an answer:
    How can I classify FA and CA in C&D waste?

    construction and demolition waste. How can I classify FA and CA in C&D waste?

    Guna Sekar

    Thanks a lot sir

  • Tijjani Imam added an answer:
    What are the possibilities of using microbes for heavy metal removal from waste water?

    ​In the process ​we measured ​some of the ​factors like pH,​ temperature, ​electrical ​conductivity, ​concentration ​of iron and ​TOC and we ​found out that ​there is still ​heavy metal ​that is Iron (​Fe) in the ​treated water. ​The existing ​treatmnet ​procedures ​require a lot ​of expenditure ​to upgrade and ​modify.  I ​was reading ​that some of ​the microbes ​could do this ​job very easily.​ Can anyone ​guide me if we ​want to treat ​waste water ​containing iron,​ can microbes ​be used for ​this purpose? ​

    What are the ​different ​microbes to be ​used? I hear ​that F. ​thioxidans will ​remove Fe from ​waste water. ​Has anyone used ​this? Your ​experience much ​appreciated and ​will guide us. ​

    Tijjani Imam

    I will advise you to use macrophytes such as Pistia stratiotes, Eicchornia crassipes or Lemna minor when you want large scale remediation within a certain period.

    Because bacteria act relatively slowly, and maintenance of the culture is cumbersome.

    You can read the attached work fyi.

  • Sandip Kuthe added an answer:
    Are expired chemicals treated as hazardous waste?

    Can some one suggest industry guidelines on disposal methods for expired chemicals? Is there any complience requirement to ISO14001 considering "handling of expired chemicals" till it is safely disposed?

    Chemicals used in the laboratory to analyse effluent water chemistry ( for scaling ions and corrosive elements)  are  considered for disposal after its expiry date is reached.  "Safe storage" is a factor of concern till its being disposed off. Since most of the reagents used in water analysis are quite stable we do not expect it becoming "hazardous" within short period after expiry. Solvents having such properties needs more attention. Need expert advice on this.


    Sandip Kuthe

    Thank you all for your replies. It really helped solving the hazardous waste management.

  • Mohan Thampi added an answer:
    Which are the most efficient municipal collection systems for plastic waste from households?

    1. Apart from the collection of plastic packaging in a conmingled recyclables bin and deposit systems for PET-bottles, which other schemes for plastic waste (packaging and non) collection exist? I am looking for other collection systems, which may also enhance the recycling quote of plastic.

    2. There are still huge amounts of plastic waste in the residual bin. Which could be a way to lead the population to not dispose plastic waste in residual waste but in the separate collection systems?

    Mohan Thampi

    Some links below:











    See also some UN publications on waste management at links below. Comes down to policy and implementation and attitudes:






  • Mark Yuschak added an answer:
    What are the cheap alternatives and sustainable options available for cleanup of large-scale oil spills in developing countries?

    Sustainable development assessment.

    Mark Yuschak

    I don't think we need to bring in political will to address the question. There are a number of ways to clean up oil spills. First, depending on the location and quantity of oil spilled you could leave it alone. It will break down by natural processes. With the combination of wind, sun, and ocean current, which includes wave action, the oil will disperse and evaporate.

    Second, contain the spill with booms and use a collection method ,such as skimmer equipment. But this could be hampered by strong winds and currents.

    Third, use dispersants...this is a process that I'm against because of the environmental damages of the dispersants. Using dispersants must be done within a few hours of the spill. And not all oil is appropriate for the use of dispersants.

    Fourth, you can introduce biological agents which will hasten biodegradation. If the oil washes up along the shoreline it can be broken down by using bacteria and other microorganism which will breakdown the oil into harmless fatty acids and CO2. Also, the use of human hair packed into pillow will aid in the absorption of the oil.

    All these suggestion are depending on the environment you are trying to address. The effectiveness of the techniques depends on the factors of the environment where the spill occurs.

  • P. Girardi added an answer:
    How do you model material upcycling in LCA?

    Material recycling is of high relevance for LCA of Waste management systems. Lately, the material "upcycling" term has been voiced by a variety of stakeholders. How do you deal with it while modeling your e.g. MSW management system?

    P. Girardi

    The standard method to take in to account recycling and "upciclyng" into LCA is making a so called system expansion. System Expansion in a closed or open loop depending on the characteristics of the re or up- cycled product. System expansion explained better in ISO 14044 than in ISO 14040 but I can suggest also to read the following:

    Weidema, Bo. "Avoiding co‐product allocation in life‐cycle assessment."Journal of industrial ecology 4.3 (2000): 11-33.

    Cederberg, Christel, and Magnus Stadig. "System expansion and allocation in life cycle assessment of milk and beef production." The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 8.6 (2003): 350-356.

  • Om Prakash Sinha added an answer:
    Is high temperature smelting reduction of industrial waste possible?

    High temperature smelting reduction is possible or not?

    Om Prakash Sinha

    Plasma  have high temperature zone may dissociate oxide phase into their metal phases or reduced by presence of reducing environment which could be maintained .

  • Md Tanvir Alam added an answer:
    Usage of Non-Conventional Material in making Fly Ash & Bottom Ash Bricks?

    I am working on Fly ash & Bottom Ash Brick without using sand. Can anyone suggest any non-conventional/waste material-replacing sand in the making of brick and resolve its shrinkage property?

    Md Tanvir Alam

    You can use rice husk

  • Dora jimela Kialo added an answer:
    What are the biggest waste management challenges in solar PV cell production?

    I'm trying to find some more information on current and emerging waste management processes in Solar PV cell production beyond dealing with Acid Waste Neutralization and the minimization of silicon dust through more efficient saws. I'm having a hard time finding reliable sources of information on different processes and the challenges or opportunities they present to the industry. 

    Dora jimela Kialo

    Hello Brandon,

    I am not an engineer but from the top of my head and from reading Sci-Fi , Check out the SoLAero technologies on Google. Then you go to products, Application, Technology, news and events for examples and data sheets PDF are also displayed for your convenience.


  • Claudio Acuna added an answer:
    What are your suggestions in designing a paper deinking flotation cell?
    I am working to gather information about different kinds of laboratory deinking flotation cell sand choosing one of them. Any experience in this respect is also welcomed.
    Claudio Acuna

    One of the simplest equipment to implement are column flotations

    (porous sparger)

    for example (forget about the aerosol, that was a different test)


    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Aerosol-enhanced flotation deinking of recycled paper Silicone oil offers an effective way of forming a layer on the bubble surface TEXT SIZE bigger text smaller text By: C.O Gomez, C. Acuña, J.A. Finch and R. Pelton 2001-10-02 Flotation has been used in the mining industry for more than a century to separate minerals. This process is based on the collection and removal of hydrophobic particles by rising air bubbles. If the hydrophobicity of the mineral is not natural, this condition may be achieved with the help of added chemicals. In wastepaper deinking, the pulp includes naturally hydrophobic ink particles and hydrophilic pulp fibres and minerals (fillers), and flotation offers an effective means of separation. Although the concept of flotation for wastepaper deinking was developed in the 1930s, major innovations in flotation technology specifically for the pulp and paper industry have come about only in the last 20 years [1]. Today, flotation is recognized as the process of choice for removing ink from re-pulped paper. There are three consecutive stages in flotation: particle-bubble collision, attachment of hydrophobic particles to the bubble during collision, and transport of the bubble-particle aggregate to the froth product. As in any process involving consecutive stages, the process efficiency is a direct function of the individual stage efficiencies, which are greatly dependent on bubble and particle size. Flotation machines generate bubbles and create hydrodynamics favouring bubble-particle collision while, at the same time, minimizing detachment during transport of the bubble-particle aggregate. Attachment, which mainly depends on the surface properties of particle and bubble, is less affected by hydrodynamic conditions. Particle collection in flotation has been extensively studied. Examples of approaches used to model the processes involved include Weber and Paddock [2] and Schulze [3]. Particles approaching a bubble follow fluid-stream lines around the bubble. Gravity and inertia forces move the particle towards the surface of the bubble. A particle will attach to the bubble when the liquid film between the particle and the bubble thins and ruptures forming a three phase (solid/liquid/air) contact line. A new concept to facilitate particle attachment has been devised and tested based on coating bubbles with a layer of an insoluble hydrophobic oil [4]. If it is easier for the particle to break the liquid film on a bubble covered by an oil layer than on a clean bubble, then the ink flotation rate will be increased. The testing of this concept required a method for coating bubbles with insoluble oil. It was demonstrated that it is possible to form bubbles covered with a layer of an insoluble liquid (silicone oil) by dispersing air containing small droplets of the liquid (aerosol) [4]. Moreover, coated bubbles showed an increased deinking ability when used on a model deinking system consisting of carbon black particles dispersed in water. The term aerosol-enhanced flotation refers to the use of this aerosol to form oil-coated bubbles. The objective of this work was to test aerosol-enhanced flotation in an industrial environment. The testing site was Bowater's Gatineau, QC, mill, where column flotation testing facilities have been installed and continuously used for several years
      Pulp and Paper Canada -Ontario- 10/2001; III(102:10):30.
  • Charles Anukwonke added an answer:
    Can anybody tell me different types of chemical treatment for waste management of pharmaceuticals from hospitals world widely?

    Waste management specifically related to expired medicines and empty vials, syringes, gloves, cottons, bandages etc?

    Charles Anukwonke

    go by  Incinerator. I second J.A. van Houwelingen 

  • Kostyantyn Pivnenko added an answer:
    MFA-studies of e-waste quantities in households' closets, garages, attics etc.?

    I am looking for MFA-studies making inventories/estimations of the amounts of hibernating (i.e. not in-use) e-products in people's homes. My specific interest lies with survey/questionnaire-based bottom-up studies (preferably on rare earth metals). Recommendations on how to engage with this methods-wise are also greatly appreciated, i.e. what to think of when designing a questionnaire, pitfalls in making the quantitative estimations and so on.

    I know of a few already (see below), but please provide me with more!

    • Chan, M. Hibernating Copper in Connecticut Residences and Corporations. Master’s Thesis, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 2004.

    • Lin, C., (2008) "A model using home appliance ownership data to evaluate recycling policy performance" Resources, Conservation and Recycling 52 1322-1328.

    • Milovantseva, N., and Saphores, J-D. (2012) “Time bomb or hidden treasure? Characteristics of junk TVs and of the US households who store them”, Waste Management 33(3) 519-529.

    • Murakami, S., Oshugi, H., Murakami-Suzuki, R., Mukaida, A., Tsujimura, H. (2009) “Average lifespan of mobile phones in in-use and hibernating stocks in Japan”, Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, Japan 5(1) 139-145. In Japanese.

    • Ongondo, F.O., and Williams, I.D. (2011) "Greening Academia: Use and disposal of mobile phones among university students" Waste Management 31 1617-1634.

    • Saphores, J-D. M., Nixon, H., Ogunseitan, O.A., Shapiro, A.A. (2009) ”How much e-waste is there in US basements and attics? Results from a national survey. Journal of Environmental Management 90(11) 3322-3331.

    Kostyantyn Pivnenko

    Feng Wanga, Jaco Huismana, Ab Stevelsb, Cornelis Peter Baldéa, Enhancing e-waste estimates: Improving data quality by multivariate Input–Output Analysis. Waste Management (2013). The authors provide no quantification, but an estimation approach that could be useful in your case.

  • Hadi Nasiri added an answer:
    How can I remove ethanol from water rom water waste from a petrochemical company?

    We have been asked to research the removal of ethanol from water waste from a petrochemical company. They only want the water as the ethanol can be disposed of.  Will RO or hyperfiltration membranes remove ethanol? We need to retain the water and not damage the membranes in any way. Salt, or sulphur ethanol-removal processes may not be viable options.

    Hadi Nasiri

    I made a pilot plant to separate ethanol from dilute mixture by pervaporation and it works well.

  • Luz Elena Vinasco added an answer:
    Is it possible to apply the lean six sigma methods to waste management?

    I'm interested to conduct a research of a lean six sigma method on the waste management especially on e-waste management.

    Luz Elena Vinasco

    Six Sigma is a methodology for troubleshooting no matter what the type of problem to be addressed, it is important to know the methodology applied step by step through each of its stages, defining the problem and the goal to achieve in your If quantify residues that are currently being generated, that is, make a diagnosis of the current state of the company in terms of waste generation, then you have to prioritize which of your processes or threads is where it is generating this problem, after that cuantifiques your problem in terms of quantity of waste (use of statistical tools) must quantify the costs and losses there can set a goal to reach with your Six Sigma project.
    Then follows the step of measuring where data must be obtained to identify all the variables involved in the problem, analyze where use of statistical tools to analyze information gathered). brainstorming is done with the staff involved in the problem by defining all possible causes, identify root causes, having identified the causes improvement proposals arise and are implemented, this is the stage better. Then follows the collection of new information after the implementation stage and perform the deVerificar where you apply statistical tools by comparing the before vs after implementation, finally at the stage where we let controar writing and must continue smuggling.

  • Gunda Mohanakrishna added an answer:
    Is it possible to remove pesticides from water-logged soils using microbial assemblages?

    Looking for viable options for remediation of pesticide-contaminated water-logged soils.

    Gunda Mohanakrishna

    Here I can suggest bioelectrochemical system (BES) for the treatment of the recalcitrant and toxic compounds. This is the novel system where the complex mechanisms works for the degradation of organic molecules. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), one of the applications of BES that treats organic pollutants and simultaneusly generates bioelectricity. Many recalcitrant organic pollutants including, chemical wastewater, distillery wastewater, dye wastewater, pesticide wastewater, phenol related wastewaters were stuided for the suitability to use as substrates. A large array of articles can be find in literature. 

    As the MFCs were found to perform very good in sediments and water-logged soils, MFCs is best option to work for the pesticides degradation. 

    Even though, the energy/bioelectricity produced is less, when the major aim is pollutant degradation, MFCs perform good. The energy input for MFC operation is minimum. 

    Few articles that cited below can give youbasic information






    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) have been employed for various applications in recent years including energy production, wastewater treatment, electrosynthesis and desalination. The present chapter emphasizes the advantages and potential applications of BES for the remediation of recalcitrant pollutants present in various types of wastewaters. Bioelectricity generated from the treatment of these wastewaters is an additional energy output from the process along with the possible environmental solution. Since, the treatment mechanism of BES is combination of both microbial and electrochemical reactions, the process can be termed as microbial electroremediation. The current chapter depicts the principles of bioelectrochemical remediation, possible mechanisms at anode and cathode. Further, a comprehensive overview on different types of wastewater as well as nutrients, pollutants and toxic substances, utilized as electron donors or acceptors for their treatment, is discussed in detail under different categories. Microbial electroremediation is still an emerging field of science aimed at harnessing energy from wastewater treatment and it has a potential to boon the waste remediation with net positive energy gain.
      Applied Environmental Biotechnology: Present Scenario and Future Trends, 1 edited by Garima Koushik, 03/2015: chapter 10: pages 145; Springer., ISBN: 978-81-322-2122-7

    + 3 more attachments

  • Edward Calt added an answer:
    What is the environmental impact of sugar cane bagasse on soil and water pollution?
    I am currently looking into the potential impacts of open field burning /stockpiling and landfilling of excess bagasse on soil and water pollution.
    Edward Calt

    Integrated BioChem has found most cellulosic feed stocks yield approximately 80% water, 6% methane, 4% carbon dioxide, 4% protein, 2% lipids, 2% volatile fatty acids, and 2% ash.  The residual water is processed through zeolite to produce a slow release fertilizer that captures the residual phosphate and nitrate.  The protein produced contains twice the protein of soybean meal.  The lipids can be used for the production of biodiesel or separated into multiple applications.

  • Omaima Sayed Hussein added an answer:
    What is the LJ characteristic length for limonene?

    Can anybody suggest me a reference in which i can find LJ Characteristic length for Limonene ?LJ

    Omaima Sayed Hussein

    Dear Dr. Sumanth

    This book is about medicinal plants and may be useful for you. Author : Dr. Shafik Balba.


  • Pouneh Shahrouz Ebrahimi added an answer:
    Can you suggest sources for decomposition of wet paper waste after compaction?

    I am trying to develop a waste management model to support and prove the following. I am having difficult sourcing relevant literature. 

    1. That source separation/recycling at source results in higher quality paper products and more paper overall that can be recovered/recycled (i.e. as the paper has not decomposed or been damaged). 

    2. That various waste paper products rapidly decompose and lose significant value after becoming wet, dirty and compacted. 

    For context, the paper waste being recycled is taking place in a tropical country. Humidity rates (70%), paper moisture content rate (50%). 

    Pouneh Shahrouz Ebrahimi

    The type of fiber affects decomposition. Short cellulose fiber papers include newspapers. Office paper consists of long cellulose fiber papers. Cellulose is a chemical found in plant cell walls. The difference between the fiber types is that long cellulose fiber papers can be recycled more times than short and can be used for several different types of products. Short cellulose fiber products do not have this same quality and can deteriorate more quickly in landfills.

    The results of the experiment reveal that the computer printer paper decomposed the most, followed by the magazine paper, and the newspaper. The results reveal that the paper towels decomposed the least.

    Recycled paper and nonrecycled paper can become a variety of products. Regardless of the type of paper, coatings, adhesives and other materials can affect decomposition. Coatings such as you would find on a page in a magazine provide a barrier that can slow the breakdown of the paper, as can adhesives or other materials. Their presence affects the quality of recovered paper.

    Even paper that cannot be recycled into paper anymore can become fuel, insulation or roofing. In many ways, recycled paper does not decompose as paper because it is used for something else.so for having a good composite i suggest that separate papers because some papers can't get decomposited.

  • Rama Kant Dubey added an answer:
    Can you suggest a suitable plant for phytoremediation of pesticide-contaminated soils?

    We are looking to model phytoremediation techniques for the remediation of soils contaminated by huge agricultural pesticides but, are looking for previous studies carried out in similar environments.

    Rama Kant Dubey

    Dear Fredrick,

    More specifically it will depend upon the type of contamination in the soil, In general you can use the Leucaena leucocephala, Jatropha curcas, Ricinus communis, Withania somnifera, Spinacia oleracia for the better uptake of the pesticide from contaminated soil.

    For more detail kindly go through the following link.

    Good Luck.

    + 2 more attachments

  • Nirmala Menikpura added an answer:
    Should a small island state choose a plasma gassification waste to energy plant or undertake a national zero waste initiative?

    The small  island state is rapidly running out of landfill space, and there is a risk of nitrates entering the water supply.

    Nirmala Menikpura

    As correctly pointed out by Cebrian, gasification and pyrolysis technologies are not mature as of yet and many cities are facing problems with those technologies. Integrated waste management seems to be the most appropriate technique moving towards zero waste. Incineration with energy recovery (cogeneration) seems to be a good option, however it should design carefully to match with local conditions. Organic waste which has high moisture content should not use in incinerators as it reduces energy recovery potential. Therefore, organic waste should be separated as source and can be used to produce energy using anaerobic digestion technology or can be used as a feeding materials at animal farms (if available) .

  • Ana Jiménez Rivero added an answer:
    Is anyone familiar with Material Flow Analysis method for electronic waste?

    MFA is a structured material flow analysis and systematic waste management as a model elemental composition of waste and material management performance evaluation of recycling facilities and management. I want to know how the application of this method in the management of electronic waste.

  • Amit Roy added an answer:
    Is plasma gassification considered a proven and sustainable technology?

    The island of Barbados, which has a reasonably successful national recycling program, is proposing to construct a Plasma Gassification Waste to Energy Plant. 

    Amit Roy

    Plasma Gasification now is in commercial use because it has many advantages like clean destruction of hazardous waste, no harmful emission of waste except high initial cost.

  • K V V Sagari Kudaligama added an answer:
    How does the UK particularly manage used engine-oils generated from vehicle garages, ship yards and industrial sites?

    Interested in understanding how sustainable use of hydrocarbons are carried out to avoid environmental pollution.

    K V V Sagari Kudaligama

    We have developed a low cost sealant using used engine oil, rubber and china clay. It also has adhesive properties

  • Marcell Nikolausz added an answer:
    I'm looking for the methanogenic potential of sugarcane residue or straw (Nm3Ch4/tTS)? Can someone help me?
    I am trying to determine the energetic power of sugarcane straw in my region, but I can't find the biogas potential.
    Marcell Nikolausz

    You may check this article as well:


  • Manfred Fehr added an answer:
    Does it make economic sense to subsidize waste items at the wholesale level in order to stimulate reverse logistics?
    A questionable alternative is to hand out direct financial support to recyclers.
    Manfred Fehr

     Dear Somnath,
    Thank you kindly for your ideas.. You are right with the comparison of prices between virgin and recycled material. I was thinking of the costs of collection, tipping and landfill maintenance. If they are higher than a subsidy aimed at getting the materia out of town, then the subsidy seems to make sense from the point of view of the municipa budget.. Where the subsidized material would end up is another question that I have no answer for at this time. I am studying the problem and any input is welcome. 

  • Arun Babu Vathsalan added an answer:
    I m looking for any paper or formula which can provide me detail to carryout waste collection point and their mapping as a part of urban design?

    We are carrying out a research on planning waste collection points at a city. So we wanted to know if any formula is there to formulate at what distance this waste collection centre can be adopted? If any guideline on the same is available? Please let me know

    Arun Babu Vathsalan

    Dear Avic

    pls see the links. it may be useful for you

    + 1 more attachment

  • Dushyant Panwar added an answer:
    Does anyone know how to fix the matter with floating particles in COD test?

    Hi All, I will appreciate if anyone could share his/her experience or any info about this matter with me. I am doing COD test on some industrial waste samples. to make it economic, i make reagents solution by  myself by following the standard method. after all sample and standards preparation, two hours digestion in oven , and cooling down to ambient temperature, when i was gonna transfer samples from cod vials  to spectrophotometer cuvette to read the absorbency, the problems with floating particles in cuvette comes out (sedimentation). no one has faced this matter and if you know the reason or anyway that can fix it. Actually i am not using the ready COD vials with solution which is in market (like Hach) and i dont have COD spectrophotometer that be able to put COD vial directly inside to read the absorbency. i just have a general use spectrophotometer that just support its own cuvette. 

    Dushyant Panwar

    I am not sure about the problem because i never face this type of problem...I am also determine the COD of industrial effluent with the help of close reflux method in this method i ti-trate the solution with FAS after 2 hour digestion,  u can try this to follow APHA.

  • Charles Anukwonke added an answer:
    What are the affordable soild waste managent systems for low income groups?

    Research papers those are already working on it

    Charles Anukwonke

     Ketan the low income group is an issue here... Integrated Solid waste management incorporates a lot of factors including governance where the entire members of the public must be involved via campaigns/ public enlightenment and other means  that facilitates attitudinal change for better and improved solid waste management in a an area.

    There is also the concern on the aspects of management of the informal participants in waste management in form of scavengers to actively participate in the quest  for the zero waste control and other approaches within the integrated framework. 

    Pls go through some of the files that have been sent to you above. some of them are so useful

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