Thin Films and Nanotechnology

Thin Films and Nanotechnology

  • Gyorgy Banhegyi added an answer:
    What is the IR Vibration at 2000cm-1 on LaFeO3-xNx perovskite thin film?

    I've synthesized LaFeO3-xNx thin film by magnetron sputtering. The amount of nitrogen is very low (few %at). On FTIR measurements I observe a vibration mode position at around 2000cm-1, that I cannot attribute (vibration mode of the perovskite are situated from 100 to 600cm-1).

    This should be due to N=N link, but it has to be link with something to get a IR vibration.

    Do you have an idea to see such a vibration by other method (I'm currently doing RAMAN spectra)?

    Does anyone already observe similar vibration mode position in nitrogen containing sample?


    Gyorgy Banhegyi

    Dear Emile, I am not a practicing XPS spectroscopist, although I have been involved in project, where XPS has been heavily utilized. You should consult a "real" expert. Maybe it is possible to do the test at cryogenic temperature, where desorption is lower. You may also try to do UV-VIS test , as it also tells you something about the state of nitrogen in the sample. N15 NMR in the solid state is also an option. NQR (nitrogen quadrupole resonance) is also possible for N14 isotope. Maybe it is possible to extract information from EXAFS too, but I am not sure.

  • Simon Yang added an answer:
    Optical films coated on 45 degree mounted prism show low adhesion

    The prism is small, and have adjacent 2 face need AR coating at same time.

    So it had to be mounted as the coating surface is about 45 degree to incident film material flux. The coating is 2 layer, Ta2O5 and SiO2.

    The adhesion is bad, as it lost most of them after 2 hour boiling in wafer.

    Increase substrate temperature to 300°, and increase Ion beam aiding to highest voltage and current, still no help.

    Is there any one has meet this? Any suggestions?

    Simon Yang

    Thanks, that's interesting idea!

    We do have ion beam clean for the substrate before coating start.

    Trouble for adding Ta thin layer is that the initial evaporation material is Ta2O5 granule.  Maybe Al2O3 is better, as it is strong bonding to glass I think.

  • Bradey D. Schwartz added an answer:
    How low could you get for ITO thin film's resistivity by e-beam evaporation?

    Hi everyone,

    In my lab, I could only get 2.3E-4 Ω*cm by electron gun e-beam evaporation with IAD, or to say 23Ω/square for 100nm film.

    It seems get to its limit, though I want 10Ω for my 100nm ITO film.

    Is it possible to get to 10Ω or slightly higher for 100nm?

    Is anyone has get to this?

    How to get?

    PS: the transmittance is also key factor for me.

    Bradey D. Schwartz

    From what I have seen, the highest electron mobility has been produced with Mo doping.  W and Ti doping have also been used.   Here are two of numerous papers.

    Yoshida, et. al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2097 (2004)

    Partiban, et. al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 212101 (2009)

    + 1 more attachment

  • Marcin Nabiałek added an answer:
    What is the range of coercivity for hard and soft magnetic material?

    I have studied the magnetic property of the ni based film. its coercivity is 709G.Is it hard or soft magnetic material? Is there any range for hard and soft magentic material? I have attached the hysteresis loop. I don't know which type of magnetic material it is. For the super paramagnetic material how the hysteresis look like. please any one answer my question.

    Marcin Nabiałek

    Magnetic materials can be divided into two groups, as wrote. But they are not magnetic materials soft or hard. These are materials having magnetic properties, soft or hard and this is a difference, but it is small. Generally, the division applies:1 - 10 A / m - super-soft magnetics,10 - 100 A / m - very soft magnetics,100 - 1000 A / m - soft magnetics,above are semi-hard and hard magnetic materials.

    How can I define hard magnet and soft magnet? - ResearchGate. Available from: [accessed Nov 18, 2015].

  • Nils Ross added an answer:
    In Sentaurus TCAD, how can I define thin film RayTraceBC conditions on a device surface without declaring the outside air in sde?

    I'm using Sentaurus TCAD to simulate thin film solar cells in two dimensions. Using the natively one-dimensional TMM solver produces some convergence difficulties: presumably a single dimensional optical generation profile is insufficient in my structure.

    I can successfully introduce light into my system using Raytracing(), but I'd like to be able to at least try to include the thin film interference effect from my top layer (200 nm Zinc Oxide).

    Using RayTraceBC{ TMM () } is straightforward for internal interfaces. But since ZnO is my top layer, I have no 'reference=' material to provide the TMM boundary condition.

    I have not defined the outside air explicitly when I build my structure in sde. I have at one stage tried to add a layer of material="Gas" above the ZnO (and its cathode contact), but doing so seems to open up another round of convergence or simulation issues [the issue is unclear but I have no helpful error message, just a generic failure message].

    The Raytracing solver itself understands that the surrounding material is air, by default. Does this default region have an internal region or material name that can be used as the 'Reference=' material in the TMM RayTraceBC? Or is there some other way to declare device-surface thin film interference effects in the Raytracing optical solver?

    Nils Ross

    As an update, the convergence issues I was experiencing with the gas layer could be solved by explicit declaration of the complex refractive index (there appears no default behaviour). This question is therefore more of a point of interest, although I have a slightly related one for which I will start a new thread.

  • Vlad Stolojan added an answer:
    Is there a way to quantify the extent of alignment of fibres within a matrix?

    I would like to measure whether there is any overall alignment of fibres along a particular direction for a matrix of nanofibres. Are there any computational or experimental ways of doing so?

    Vlad Stolojan

    You need an imaging technique that resolves the nanofibres (eg SEM) and then Fourier Transform analysis (eg. via ImageJ). Polarised optical microscopy is a good start, but some polymers depolarise the light/laser

  • Santhosh Kotni added an answer:
    What is the best method to estimate the QD concentration or excitonic concentration per unit area in a thin semiconductor film?

    What is the best method to calculate the number of QDs in a QD sensitized solar cell. What is best method to estimate number of excitons in a QD sensitised solar cell.

    Santhosh Kotni

    Measure the absorption spectrum of the thin film, and get the value of first exciton band maximum. Once you know the wavelength of the band first exciton band position, following certain equation in the below link, you can arrive at the QD concentration. But I have to mention here that, the equations are only for CdS, CdSe and CdTe.

    good luck

  • Thripuranthaka M Nagaleekar added an answer:
    Do you know how to remove adhesive from SiO2/Si substrates?

    I used scotch tape technique to transfer thin layers MoS2 on SiO2/Si substrate. Then I measured  the thickness of these layers using AFM. However, the adhesive from scotch tape that also glued on the substrate affected the measuring results. Does any one help me remove it without destroying thin layers MoS2 on the substrate?  Thanks a lot!

    Thripuranthaka M Nagaleekar

    Hi Pham Xuan Thi,

    I guess you could try baking the sample at about 150 deg C (As PMMA has melting point at 160 deg C) for about 5 min and inspect under microscope. I expect that the adhesive would evaporate at this temperature.

    All the best...

  • Pu Zhang added an answer:
    Can we excite bulk plasmon by any kind of EM wave like TE mode ,TM mode , TEM mode, etc.?
    Pu Zhang

    If one considers evanescent wave, it is possible to excite plasmons in metal. 

  • José de Queiroz added an answer:
    Can someone suggest a better substrate for silica based thin films for studies in aqueous medium?

    I have to prepare silica based thin films by solgel method. The sample has already been calcined on high temperature.  I have tried glass substrate but they are not binding to it well. Can someone suggest me a better substrate for their study in aqueous medium or some binder that can help their binding to substrate. 

    José de Queiroz

    There are silane coupling agent and resin adhesives used on silica based materials that can help you! However, I don't know if you could use only reading your question...

  • Wisam Al-Shohani added an answer:
    How do you calculate multilayer structures with nanomaterials?

    I've been using effective medium theories to represent an array of nanomaterials in a layer of glass as an approximate, homogenous medium.  This actually works quite well for our intents and purposes, but it got me thinking that if pressed, I wouldn't know how to ascertain the optical properties (reflectance, transmittance etc...) from a multilayer structure if I couldn't homogenize each layer with an effective medium theory.

    My first thought is that one could use a brute force calculation (FDTD, BEM, DDA) to approximate all of the nanomaterials, and this would probably be a huge endeavor.  Furthermore, since the nanomaterials in the layer (for me anyway) are arranged in a predictable, periodic fashion, it would be excessive to compute the simulation for a big layer of nanoparticles, because the layers are symmetric and the nanomaterials are patterenened. Therefore, the light transmission through even a small region of the multilayer should be the same at any small region, therefore, could be calculated on a smaller scale.

    Anyway, I am interested in learning this process; who is doing these calculations, what techinques do they employ, etc..?  Can anyone direct me to relevant terminology and resources?


    Wisam Al-Shohani

    Thank you very much Adam...

  • Yang Gan added an answer:
    How can I remove/detach TiO2 nanotubes (annealed) on top of Ti substrate and to transfer onto glass or quartz?

    I synthesized TiO2 nanotubes on top of Ti substrate (and it is annealed). How to remove this Nanotubes from this metal substrate and to transfer onto a transparent glass or quartz substrate? All your suggestions are welcome, thank you

    (I knew few like, two step anodization or Methanol bromine, but other than this, simpler one.?)

    Yang Gan

    Hi Rajesh,

    There are quite a few methods for doing this. Have a look at this nice review by A. Haring, et al, Controlling Morphological Parameters of Anodized Titania Nanotubes for Optimized Solar Energy Applications, Materials, 2012, 5, 1890-1909.

    In page 1901, the authors stated "Titania nanotube arrays have been removed from the Ti by dissolution in a bromine/methanol solution [82], aqueous HCl [59,83], solvent-evaporation of methanol [84], ultrasonication in water [46], acetone [85], ethanol/water solutions [86], and drying in air [31]".

    So I suggest you may have a closer look at these cited papers for more details.

    Hope this helps.



  • Thomas Walther added an answer:
    What is the difference between crystallite size, grain size, and particle size?
    How can we measure these sizes?
    Thomas Walther

    Peter Dier's  rule "crystallite <= grain <= particle" is OK in practice as long as the material has been properly heat-treated and so is in a (near-)equilibrium state without any amorphous grains. With amorphous grains, which are not crystallites by definition, the situation becomes a little more complicated if these are non-negligible in size. You then may have glass inclusions in a polycrystalline matrix or a glassy film on top of a poly-crystal. The latter can happen if the thin film is rapidly cooled after deposition.

  • Shen-Ming Chen added an answer:
    Is their any possibility to know solubility of Au-pd nano composite or core shell formed by chemical method without carbon support ?

    Nano composite bimetallic or core shell formed by multi step chemical reduction method . To test the activity, nano composites must be dissolved in a suitable solvent. But is there any procedure to dissolve formed nano composite with out  any carbon support or any support .

    Shen-Ming Chen

    Atomic Structure of Au−Pd Bimetallic Alloyed Nanoparticles
    J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2010, 132 (35), pp 12480–12486

    This paper Used a two-step seed-mediated growth method to synthesize bimetallic nanoparticles with a gold core and a palladium shell.

  • Sweety Deswal added an answer:
    How to estimate the thickness and interface roughness of thin films using X-ray reflectivity spectrum?
    I have deposited CuS thin film on glass substrate and recorded the XRR spectrum. I herewith attached the image of the spectrum. Could anyone suggest me how to calculate the film thickness and interface roughness using the recorded XRR spectrum?
    Sweety Deswal

     Hello Dr. claudia,

    Im also willing to learn parratt32. I ll be highly obliged to you if u could help me i  learning this. my email :

  • Naveen Agrawal added an answer:
    Can someone help me calculate the electron and hole mobility from R-T measurement?
    I have prepared a polymer composite film. I want to compare the charge mobility.
    Could somebody please help me with some references?
    Naveen Agrawal

    You can not measure the charge carrier mobility with the help of R-T measurement for that u need Hall measurement.

  • Hamida Darwish added an answer:
    How can I inject hole in a material such as pn junction?

    we know the injection of electron by the anode .This is the normal way but Ineed to know how to inject hole 

    Thanks to response me

    Hamida Darwish


    A p–n junction is the interface between two types of semiconductor materials, p-type and n-type. It is created by doping, such as ion implantation, diffusion of dopants, or by epitaxy (growing a layer of crystal doped with one type of dopant on top of a layer of crystal doped with another type of dopant). and you can find more if you have seen the attached link.

    Best regard

  • Salahuddin Nur added an answer:
    How does/can thermal annealing effect uniformly doped silicon?


    I am using a chip from a silicon substrate uniformly doped with phosphorus (~10E15 cm-3) to make devices by FIB milling. After milling I am using thermal annealing for treating the damages. Can anyone please suggest what kind of effect shall I expect from the donor distribution? Is there any chance of redistribution of active donors? Could you please suggest any relevant literature/study if you aware of one.

    Thanks in advance.



    Salahuddin Nur

    Hi Tanuj,

    Thanks a lot for your reply and useful info. I am using Ne-FIB milling silicon. In principle Ne should have less chance of getting trapped and damaging silicon. I haven't found much information/data about Ne milling damage of silicon to compare. Could please let me know if you have any info regarding damage caused by Ne milling.

    Thanks again,


  • Closed account added an answer:
    How to control the thickness of thin film?

    What is the processes usually used to control the thickness of thin film? Can the sputtering process do it?


    Current and value of angle 

  • Ankit Goyal added an answer:
    I noted reduction in grain size of Silicon thin film after sintering at 700 C compared to un-sintered Silicon powder. How is it possible? reference?

    Grain size is calculated using deby-scherrer formula.

    Ankit Goyal

    Dear All,

                     Thanks a lot for your valuable comments. 

    @Dr. Tanuj...Film was grown on glass substrate by just spraying and then i did the sintering.

    @Dr. Walid... Can you send me your thesis or some related part to learn?

    @Dr. Mustafa and Dr. Andrew .... I repeated the experiment and got the same results.

    @Dr. Chu ...Annealing was done at 700 C in argon atmosphere. I didnt try TEM yet. 

    Can presence of any metallic impurity be the possible reason for it?

  • Hyun-Gil Kim added an answer:
    How to make a fractured cross section of an oxidized samples?

    I have an oxidized Cr coated Zircaloy sample (1micron Cr thin film) that I would like to see its cross section. The way that I made the cross section is to cut a cross section, and put the sample into the epoxy, and polishing the cross section after the epoxy is hardened. However, I did not have a good image from SEM. 

    From some papers, they observed the fractured cross section and they have a pretty good image. I believe they did not polish the cross section, judged from the morphology of cross section. So my question is how to make a fractured cross section? or how to improve the cross section quality with respect to preparation. The fractured cross section SEM image is attached, and it is oxidized FeCrAl. The source is Mennicke, C., et al. Oxidation of metals 49.5-6 (1998): 455-466.

    I need to see from the surface to over 50 microns deep, so I did not use FIB for the cross section

    Thank you.

    Hyun-Gil Kim

    If you prepare a sample for cross-sectional observation using SEM, you can try two methods. Of course, the target for observation is limited to the fractured surface. 

    The first is use of polishing method. During the polishing you can use the 1200 grit sandpaper, the important factor is rotation speed of pohisher. The very high rotation speed is necessary and the sample is contact on the sandpaper in a short time. In this case, the coated layer will be broken from the substrate, and it is possible to see the broken area of coated layer.

    The second is direct broken method. In this case, import factor is how to remove the substrate from the coated layer. This case is more accaptable in the thick coated layer. In the case of Zr alloy substrate, Zr alloy can be easily remove by a etching. After the remove the Zr substrate the remained coated layer easily broken. And the cooling using liquid N is useful to get a sharp fractured surface.

  • Rasheed Mohammed added an answer:
    how to find r.i (n) of thin film from A, R%,T% data?
    I have absorbance, reflectance% and transmittance% data. How to calculate refractive index from this.
    I tried with R = [(n - 1)^2 + K^2 ] / [(n + 1)^2 + K^2] where K is extinction coefficient.
    Calculation was done by numerical method. It shows large deviation from reported value.
    Kindly suggest how to proceed.
    Rasheed Mohammed

    Please Mr. Sanjay Kumar do you have any paper about this relation


  • Yuri Mirgorod added an answer:
    Is it a perfect crystalline nano silver formed as a shining silver coating on the walls of the beaker in green synthesis?

    previously I, synthesized silver nano particles confirmed by uv- visible data . but it is difficult to isolate nano siver in cristalline state from aqueous black brown solution via centrifugation . so that solution  is placed in hot air oven at 60 degree temperaturefor 4 days  then shining silver coating is formed on the walls of the beaker. but crystalls of silver nano is not formed . is there any method for easy to isolate nano silver in crystalline state.

    Yuri Mirgorod

    Dear Dirc Sais: All nanoparticles are combined due to the high surface energy of Gibbs. This energy tends to decrease in the spontaneous process.

    Best regaeds,

    Yu. Mirgorod

  • Sasmita Mishra added an answer:
    How to search data of xrd from JCPDS number?
    I want to know how to search data if I know JCPDS number.
    Example I knew my JCDPS number it's JCDPS #800075.
    I want to use data with my XRD research graph.
    Sasmita Mishra

    can anybody send me the JCPDS reference file of polyurethane?

  • Ravi Ananth added an answer:
    Is it possible to measure film thickness by AFM?
    I need an alternative to ellipsometry measure the coating thickness of my film formed over glass substrate by Spin coating technique.
    Ravi Ananth
    1. "alternative to ellipsometry" for measuring "the coating thickness of my film formed over glass substrate by Spin coating technique" is NDE real time XRR or X-ray Reflectivity, a "no brainer". This technique is fairly well tried and tested over nearly a century since the Braggs :-)
    2. "Is it possible to measure film thickness by AFM?" Not without destroying the very sample by "scratching". Creating "steps" using masks is a common alternative. A transverse section may be needed at the point where thickness is desired. Sample prep is not trivial.
    3. BTW what is the typical film thickness in your case?
    4. See example of NIST 2000 SRM below!

    + 6 more attachments

  • Bernhard Wessling added an answer:
    How can I dissolve PVDF/CNF completely? What type of solvent is required to completely dissolve CNF/PVDF? For Electrospinning process?

    As a part of developing nanofiber composite sensor. I Need to disperse CNF completely in PVDF (i tried up using results poor dispersion) so suggest some good solvent to disperse CNF completely in PVDF for electrospinning process

    Bernhard Wessling

    Vignesh, please don't mess up the terms "dissolve" and "disperse". You do not want to "dissolve" the CNF, but "disperse" them in a PVDF solution. Prepare a dilute (!) PVDF solution first, then add CNF stepp by step small amounts of CNF, maybe preptrat them with a suitable tenside.

    I assume that ultrasound is not suitable, it may destroy the CNF, but vigorous stirring is a must, maybe you try ultraturrax.

  • James E. Downes added an answer:
    Any advantages of using a magnetized NdFeB sputtering target over a non-magnetized one?
    I want to buy a NdFeB sputtering target and the manufacturer asked whether I'd like the magnetized or the non-magnetized version. So if I buy a magnetized target, shouldn't I need to do high temperature annealing of sputtered samples (since the material is already in its magnetic phase)? On the other hand, will magnetized targets cause sputtering difficulties?
    Any input is highly appreciated.
    James E. Downes


    If you heat your magnet above its Curie temperature (typically 80-200 ºC) and then cool it you should mostly 'demagnetise' it.  What you are really doing is partially scrambling the preferred magnetisation direction of the domains in the magnet - it is still 'magnetised', just not in any preferred direction.

    If you want to use this as a sputter target (as in the original thread) then there a few things to note:

    You should do this heating in a controlled atmosphere or you will likely change its composition.

    Does your 'magnet have a nickel coating?  If so you likely want to remove the nickel coating before using it in a sputter gun.... or you'll just get a nickel film!

    Finally - the 'demagnetised' magnet is still ferromagnetic and will likely interfere with the operation of a standard sputter gun... but the best bet is to use as thin a target as you can find - certainly a quarter inch thick target would be preferred over a half inch one.

  • Dominik Ziegler added an answer:
    How to etch a platinum nanofilm?
    A platinum nanofilm which is deposited on FTO substrate.
    Dominik Ziegler

    Should work very well. 

  • Vaishali Bisen added an answer:
    How can I calculate the band gap from UV-Vis absorption spectra of thin films consisting of TiO2 and other metal complexes?
    I have prepared thin films of TiO2 and other Metal complex with TiO2 on a glass substrate. I just need to calculate band gaps of materials on the glass substrate.
    Vaishali Bisen

    i would like to calculate the band gap of polymer sample using simple uv visible spectrometer. is it possible to calculate using following graph....

  • Alexander Kozhanov added an answer:
    Why is the side wall of my 400nm grating with 300nm deep so bad?

    I am trying to fabricate a 400 nm Si3N4 grating with 300nm deep. The mask is a layer of 20nm Chrome, and the etched layer is Si3N4. The recipe is as follows:

     Pressure: 40 mTorr.

    O2: 20sccm. SF6: 20sccm.

    ICP: 100W. RIE: 75W.

    Time: 1minute48seconds.

    Attached is the AFM and SEM image of my grating structure.

    All I need is a beautiful vertical side wall, but the reality result is not good.- -#

    Anyone can give me some advice?

    Thanks a lot!

    Alexander Kozhanov

    if it's impossible to cleave across your grating then FIB is the solution. 

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