Thin Films and Nanotechnology

Thin Films and Nanotechnology

  • Martin Gnauck added an answer:
    How to search data of xrd from JCPDS number?
    I want to know how to search data if I know JCPDS number.
    Example I knew my JCDPS number it's JCDPS #800075.
    I want to use data with my XRD research graph.
    Martin Gnauck

    Dear Elisban,

    I would like to compare the following JCPDS-cards:

    No. 32-0456,

    No. 51-1159,

    No. 25-0390 and

    No. 01-084-1385.

    Could you please send them to me or upload them?

    Many thanks in advance!

  • Devender Jalandhara added an answer:
    How can I calculate the band gap from UV-Vis absorption spectra of thin films consisting of TiO2 and other metal complexes?
    I have prepared thin films of TiO2 and other Metal complex with TiO2 on a glass substrate. I just need to calculate band gaps of materials on the glass substrate.
    Devender Jalandhara


  • Phuong Anh Ngoc Vo added an answer:
    What is the general resistivity range for cupric oxide thin films?
    Please consider the thickness of the film varies between 100-200nm.
    Phuong Anh Ngoc Vo


    It seems like this is a very late comment. However, I am working on this area, the electrical properties of copper oxide thin film, and I found that there was an inconsistence in the resistivity of Cu2O and CuO (sheet resistance also). In some articles, they reported that the resistivities of Cu2O and CuO are 10^3 - 10^8 and 0.01 - 1 in respectively  [1]. In other hand, some other articles which include Mr Yurity's recommended paper, the resistivities of Cu2O and CuO are around 250 - 550 and 31 - 192 [2]. In my case, I met the result as same as the former report, but I still feel so confused. Would you please share your experience on this case?

    + 1 more attachment

  • Shabana P S Shaikh added an answer:
    What is the difference between crystallite size, grain size, and particle size?
    How can we measure these sizes?
    Shabana P S Shaikh

    Thanks to all for sharing and discussing the crystallite particle and grain size which is most important characteristic in the field of nanotechnology

  • Malek Ayoub added an answer:
    How can we wet-etch a thin TiN layer deposited by sputtering ?
    We want to etch a thin TiN layer deposited by sputtering and using photoresist as a mask.
    Malek Ayoub

    What are the percent composition of Ammonium Hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide?

  • Shaker Ali added an answer:
    What is the reason for increase in the crystallinity of ZnO after Ti doping?

    I have doped Ti in ZnO using a chemical method. The XRD results are showing an increase in the intensity of ZnO peak after the Ti doping. These results are also supported by the results obtained through optical measurements. Can some one suggest me that what may be the possible reason for increase in the crystallinity of ZnO after the Ti doping? Thanks

    Shaker Ali

    Thank you Dr.Prabu Vsv

    I came back to literature but I don't find any related explanation, so the problem what I have is how I can justify my work.

  • Oktay Yarimaga added an answer:
    Any suggestion on post aluminum metal etch cleaning especially for submicron metal patterns on PECVD oxide layer?

    Hi all,

    Do you have any strategy to clean the aluminum etch residues on PECVD oxide layer? There is also a ARC TiN layer on Al. The etch gases are Cl2 and HBr. O2 plasma is applied right after metal etch.

    The focused ion beam inspection shows no residues but still have some leak current between the submicron metal patterns.

    I couldn't reach the paper 'Post Metal Etch Treatment for Submicron Applications'. It would be really appreciated if anyone who has the paper shares it.

    Oktay Yarimaga

    Thank you very much Talita.

  • Hamida Darwish added an answer:
    Can the perovskite of methylammonium tin iodide (CH3NH3SnI3) blended with Formamidinum Tin Bromide (H2NCH3NH3SnBr3) be prepared by spray pyrolysis?

    I cant to prepare a perovskite of methylammonium tin iodide (CH3NH3SnI3) blended with Formamidinum Tin Bromide (H2NCH3NH3SnBr3) by spray pyrolysis but i am not sure if this process will yied required results since i have not come across such process with perovskites

    Hamida Darwish

    I agree with Dr. Mirgorod

  • J.D. Desai added an answer:
    How to avoid powder formation during thin film deposition by Spray Pyrolysis?

    I am depositing pure metal oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis. I am getting good quality films. Whenever I am  trying with the doped metal oxides deposition with the same optimized conditions(distance between nozzle and substrates, molarity, solvents,quantity, temperature, air pressure and solution flow rate), films are not uniform. It is observed that after very thin deposition, powders are forming and it is in turn avoiding the deposition further. How shall I come out of this problem? What might be the effect of ultrasonic cleaning of thin films after deposition? Will it creates any defects in material and films?

    J.D. Desai

    I suggest, If you try lower concentration of the solution.

  • Xinyang Li added an answer:
    How can I explain that the O1s XPS of TiO2 i prepared is deconvoluted to two O1s peaks at 529.4 and 529.9 eV, respectively?

    The referenece showed that "O 1s signal shows two contributions at 530.1 and 532.3 eV after peak modeling. The main peak at ca. 530.1 eV could be ascribed to lattice oxygen in TiO2, while the signal at ca.532.3 eV could be associated to surface hydroxyl groups". but the results i got is very different from the reference. How to explain to my results that the O1s XPS of TiO2 i prepared is deconvoluted to two O1s peaks at 529.4 and 529.9 eV, respectively?? 

    Xinyang Li

    Dear Jeffrey J Weimer, Thank you so much for the reply. i got it. 

  • Md. Shamim Ahsan added an answer:
    Could you give me an advice for patterning ITO electrodes on PET substrate?

    I am currently trying to pattern the concentric rings with 1um gap on PET substates with coventional photolithography.

    With commercially avaiable ITO deposited PET film, I have tried to produce pattern but failed.

    In order to promote adhesion between ITO and PR, I tried to use uv ozone, heating for water evaporation, but everything was useless.

    Also, I split my photolithography recipe to optimize process condition with no success.

    Is there any tips for photolithography process of ITO deposited PET

    Md. Shamim Ahsan

    I never tried photolithography. Howeveer, femtosecond laser can pattern 1 um in ITO or any other substrate. 

  • Michael Rappaport added an answer:
    What is the problem of my Chrome thin layer?

    I have deposited a thin layer of 70nm Chrome on the surface of Si3N4, and the Chrome will be used as mask in the future. However, when I detect its thickness two weeks later, the thickness reaches to 160nm. Before that, I had used the O2 plasma to do descum on the Chrome layer. I think the Chrome layer has been partial oxidized. When I use the Cl2 and O2 to dry etch it, it seems the etch rate is very low. Can any one help me to figure out what is going wrong with my Chrome layer?

    Thanks  a lot!

    + 2 more attachments

    Michael Rappaport

    I evaporated Cr onto glass and then heated it in air until it became transparent. (Unfortunately, I didn't measure the thickness after baking.) I then heated the transparent film in hydrogen and it again became metallic. You could try this reduction process and remeasure the thickness. This would be a pretty clear indication whether the extra thickness was due to oxygen. The other option is to use some kind of surface analysis technique, such as SIMS.

  • Michael Schmitt added an answer:
    How can I disperse ZnO nanoparticles in Butanol?

    I want to disperse ZnO nanoparticles in a polymeric matrix. Firstly, they should be dipersed in butanol but because of the great agglumeration between nanoparticles, dispersion cannot take place by normal methods such as ultrasonic. I think this work requires surface modification. Please, help me in this way.

    Michael Schmitt

    You have to control the surface modification. It is possible to optimize the modification of ZnO, compare to the Publication.

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: The migration and transport of polymerization initiators are problematic for commercially used polymerization procedures. For example, UV printing of packaging generates products with potentially harmful components that come in contact with food. Enlarging the size of the initiator is the only way to prevent contamination, e.g., by gas phase transport. In this manuscript, the synthesis and advanced and full analyses of novel nanoparticle-based types of non-migration, fragmenting and non-fragmenting photo-initiators will be presented in detail. This study introduces non-fragmenting/“Norrish type II” and fragmenting/“Norrish type I” ZnO nanoparticle-based initiators and compares them with two commercial products, a “Norrish type I” initiator and a “Norrish type II” initiator. Therefore, inter alia, the recently developed analysis involves examining the solidification by UV-vis and the double bond content by Raman. Irradiation is performed using absolute and spectrally calibrated xenon flash lights. A novel procedure for absolute and spectral calibration of such light sources is also presented. The non-optimized “Norrish type II” particle-based initiator is already many times faster than benzophenone, which is a molecular initiator of the same non-fragmenting type. This experimentally observed difference in reactive particle-based systems without co-initiators is unexpected. Co-initiators are normally an additional molecular species, which leads to migration problems. The discovery of significant initiation potential resulting in a very well-dispersed organic-inorganic hybrid material suggests a new field of research opportunities at the interface of physical chemistry, polymer chemistry and engineering science, with enormous value for human health.
      Nanoscale 04/2015; 7(21). DOI:10.1039/C5NR00850F
  • Shiqi Xiao added an answer:
    Is there any method to grow large area BN on the SiO2 substrate?


    Is there any method to grow large area high quality BN on the SiO2 substrate?To the best of my knowledge, high quality BN can only be got by mechanical exfoliation. This top-down method is not appropriate for mass production!

    After grown of BN, I want to grow a layer of graphene on BN by CVD, is there any possibility?

    Thank a lot!

    Shiqi Xiao

    You can grow BN on other substrates.

  • Rajesh Babu Bitra added an answer:
    Can anyone explain how to calculate the composition of LaAlxFe12-xO19 (X=0.0-1)?
    How can we calculate amount of nitrates of lanthanum, aluminium and iron which is used to prepare LaAlxFe12-xO19 (X=0.0-1) and precursor is iron nitrate hexahydrate, lanthanum nitrate hexahydrate, Aluminium nitrate and citric acid.
    Rajesh Babu Bitra

    Edward is right. Be cautious while measuring if you are using hygroscopic chemicals

  • Hadi Parsamehr added an answer:
    How can I fabricate TiN and TaN by sputtering Ti and Ta with N2 gas?

    Dear All,

    I want to deposit TiN and TaN by Ti and Ta targets (magneto sputtering). I tried to fabricate it with different conditions of N2 gas during the sputtering and post annealing beside N2. But I did not get a good result. If any one could share his or her experience about this, I would appreciate it.

    All the best,


    Hadi Parsamehr

    Thanks a lot everyOne. The Best sweep for making TaN was 2:5 N2:Ar and needed to annealing at 600'C for one hour beside N2.  

  • Reed Schmell added an answer:
    Why is etch Ni rate so slow?

    I have 20nm Nickel evaporated on SiO2 layer.

    TFB was used for wet etch. According to its data sheet, a 25 A etch rate should be achieved, which means an etch time of 40 second.

    However, after 10 mins my shiny Nickel layer is still there.

    I also tried concentrated Nitric acid. After around ten minutes, it still doesn't work.

    What is wrong?

    Reed Schmell

    Possible oxide layer on your NI. Ni needs to be passivated so oxide layer does not form.

  • Adam Lapicki added an answer:
    Why gold micro-structures prepared by laser ablation method shows very high resistance?

    I have purchased 20x25cm gold sputter coated PET sheets from a commercial supplier. The thickness of gold layer is 10-20nm thickness and it is very smooth by AFM. The resistance of the sheets across of the diagonal corner is ~35 to 40 Ohms. I have produced 1mm and 2mm width tracks of varying lengths from 25mm to 100mm by laser ablation method. All of them showed infinite resistance (> Mega Ohms). For comparison, I have prepared few lines of (roughly)1 and 2mm width and lengths from 25mm to 200mm using scalpel. All of them showed very good conductance.

    I am looking for your suggestions, why gold microstructures prepared by laser ablation method shows very high resistance?

    Adam Lapicki

    Agree with Shavkat that you may need to optimize the laser parameters but the pulse duration is not necessary the limit, with the local power density regulated by external focusing usually being the primary control. Nanocrystalline gold.will show higher resistivity than quoted for polycrystalline films. Annealing may also help if permitted by applications. 

  • Preeti Khare added an answer:
    Optical Conductivity
    Dear All

    Can any one explain the term Optical conductivity?

    Preeti Khare

    can anyone tell me how to calculate optical band gap and optical conductivity theoretically by means of DFT?

  • Reed Schmell added an answer:
    Is there a possibility of depositing free standing diamond films without the need of a substrate?

    Usually a silicon substrate is needed to deposit diamond using Chemical Vapour Deposition.

    Reed Schmell

    Put it on a water soluble material such as a salt substrate and then dissolve it in water.

    This is how we made Langmuir films for R&D purposes.

  • Samar Tarish added an answer:
    Is there any software to calculate the thickness and the refraction index of a thin film from transmission data?

    I have the transmission measurement of ZnO thin film, I'm looking for a software or equation to get the thickness and the refraction index.

    Samar Tarish

    I think I have the same problem ,where I need database for the refractive index as a function of wavelength for ZnO from (200-1000 nm),please if any help or suggestions

  • Peter Edward Diehr added an answer:
    Is there anyway to enhance the attachment between the glass substrate sample and TEM grid?
    We prepared TEM sample (Si or Glass substrate) by FIB then loaded it to TEM Cu-grid. Unfortunately, the glass substrate sample seems doesn't well attached to the grid, and may flew away/dropped during loading it to the holder or TEM. This problem never happen for Si substrate sample. Is there anyway to enhance the attachment between the sample and the grid? Thank you.
    Peter Edward Diehr

    PELCO colloidal silver paste; the supply houses who sell TEM grids usually carry a similar product.

  • Firman Mangasa added an answer:
    What changes will be exhibited in amorphous structure if we doped it with a compound?
    For example, Si amorphous is doped with pentavalence element such as As and P.
    I know that there will be charge effect contribution due to this doping (according to its Kroger Vink Eq.)

    What I am not sure is what happens with the structure itself?

    As we know, if it is in crystalline state it is either doped with As or P, and we can easily know that there should be changes of lattice parameter. But for amorphous state what will happen?
    Firman Mangasa

    @Nantakan Muensit

    Thank you for the comment.

  • Sundarrajan Parani added an answer:
    How can I avoid wettability of PVDF membrane at high temperatures?

    I have prepared PVDF membrane by NIPS method. I obtained good hydrophobicity. (When the water is dropped on the PVDF membrane it is rolling). But the membrane is soft and it is easy to tear. The thickness of membrane is about  500 micron.  When cold saline water is circulated on the the Feed side, no water drops are coming out from the permeate side which indicates that the hydrophobicity remains. But the feed is hot saline water (60-80 C), it passes through the membrane, made the membrane hydrophilic and everything gets collected from the permeate side. The contact angle greatly reduced after hot water circulation.

    At high temperatures, the hydrophobocity greatly reduced, the membrane pores gets wetting nature.

    The mechanical strength of the membrane is very poor.

    How to avoid these problems so that it is usable for DCMD applications?

    Sundarrajan Parani

    Dear Fang Li

    NIPS is Non-solvent Induced Phase Separation method used to separate the PVDF from its solution. During Phase separation, PVDF is formed as membrane with pores. It may be flat sheet or fibers. My case is Flat sheet.

    The crystal formation of hot saline water at cold PVDF surface is possible at nearly saturated concentration. I am using only 1 % NaCl which is very dilute. So fouling at dilution is not possible.

    I agree that the surface tension decreases with increase in temperature. I checked the contact angle of PVDF membrane before and after heating to 80 C. The contact angle greatly reduced.

    Another possible reason is pore size.

    The pore size of the membrane may be high so that water enters easily.  So i am attacking these problems.

    Also i want to know, is there any additive to increase the mechanical strength of polymer.  


  • Charles Opoku added an answer:
    Do you know how to remove adhesive from SiO2/Si substrates?

    I used scotch tape technique to transfer thin layers MoS2 on SiO2/Si substrate. Then I measured  the thickness of these layers using AFM. However, the adhesive from scotch tape that also glued on the substrate affected the measuring results. Does any one help me remove it without destroying thin layers MoS2 on the substrate?  Thanks a lot!

    Charles Opoku


    May I also add oxygen plasma treatment. This will eradicate any organic residue form your substrate surface. Although, this treatment is likely to modify (electronically) the material you are intending to measure.

  • Kunpeng Jia added an answer:
    What is the physical mechanism behind graphene/metal contact resistance exhibiting clear gate dependence?

    And having the maximum value at Dirac point.

    Kunpeng Jia

    Thanks Pratap,

    Can you explain your viewpoint in detail?  Thanks a lot.


  • Teju Tunde Olawumi added an answer:
    Which is the best way to get rid of copper residue on the back side of wafers following plating even after bevel edge clean and backside clean?

    Following electroplating of Cu, residues of Cu are seen on the backside of the wafer. Bevel edge clean and backside clean seem to make it worse. Probably increases the roughness of the backside thus creating good adhesion for Cu from subsequent metal layers to stick to the backside. How else can this Cu residue be removed without increasing front side defectivity and lowering yield?

    Teju Tunde Olawumi

    Thank you for your answers. Does anyone know of any tools in production that make use of these chemistries that can be integrated for commercialization?

  • Edward Patrick asked a question:
    Has anyone ever used ETP's discrete dynode detectors for UV?

    The ones I have used (22 dynodes) in the past were specifically for ion and excited neutral detection and the dynodes were S.S. coated with Al2O3. I seem to recall a paper recently suggesting the sub-micron Al2O3 produced low work functions on some metals and substrates and I was wondering whether anyone had ever used such rugged multipliers as UV sensors and could relate their experiences.

  • ‡Sergio Sergio H. Domingues added an answer:
    Why do some semi spherical particles aggregate on my graphene oxide sheets?

    In my samples TEM images, there are some aggregates of black nanoparticles mostly located on the edges and some of them are on the sheets...I guess they may be a little contaminants or may be amourph carbon nanoparticles....please advise.

    ‡Sergio Sergio H. Domingues

    Without any image I would suggest that is because some contamination.

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