Thin Films and Nanotechnology

Thin Films and Nanotechnology

  • Hoang nguyen van added an answer:
    How to search data of xrd from JCPDS number?
    I want to know how to search data if I know JCPDS number.
    Example I knew my JCDPS number it's JCDPS #800075.
    I want to use data with my XRD research graph.
    Hoang nguyen van · Ho Chi Minh City University of Science

    thank you Elisban Sacari.

  • Teju Tunde Olawumi added an answer:
    Which is the best way to get rid of copper residue on the back side of wafers following plating even after bevel edge clean and backside clean?

    Following electroplating of Cu, residues of Cu are seen on the backside of the wafer. Bevel edge clean and backside clean seem to make it worse. Probably increases the roughness of the backside thus creating good adhesion for Cu from subsequent metal layers to stick to the backside. How else can this Cu residue be removed without increasing front side defectivity and lowering yield?

    Teju Tunde Olawumi · GlobalFoundries Inc.

    Thank you for your answers. Does anyone know of any tools in production that make use of these chemistries that can be integrated for commercialization?

  • Edward Patrick asked a question:
    Has anyone ever used ETP's discrete dynode detectors for UV?

    The ones I have used (22 dynodes) in the past were specifically for ion and excited neutral detection and the dynodes were S.S. coated with Al2O3. I seem to recall a paper recently suggesting the sub-micron Al2O3 produced low work functions on some metals and substrates and I was wondering whether anyone had ever used such rugged multipliers as UV sensors and could relate their experiences.

  • Jitendra Nuwad added an answer:
    Is there a possibility of depositing free standing diamond films without the need of a substrate?

    Usually a silicon substrate is needed to deposit diamond using Chemical Vapour Deposition.

    Jitendra Nuwad · Bhabha Atomic Research Centre

    Yes Substrate is  essential for diamond thin film growth using CVD methods, as growing film need some template to follow (substrate). in CVD gas phase precursor eventually nucleates on energetically favorable site on suitable substrate. It can be either epitaxial (diamond substrate) or hetero-epitaxial growth  (non-diamond substrate)

    For hetro-epitaxial diamond film growth, there are few basic requirements of a substrate  using CVD method.

    1. Matching thermal expansion coefficient of the substrate with diamond

    2. Minimal lattice parameter mismatch with diamond

    3. Melting point of substrate should be higher than the deposition temperature 

    4. Matching surface energy etc

  • ‡Sergio Sergio H. Domingues added an answer:
    Why do some semi spherical particles aggregate on my graphene oxide sheets?

    In my samples TEM images, there are some aggregates of black nanoparticles mostly located on the edges and some of them are on the sheets...I guess they may be a little contaminants or may be amourph carbon nanoparticles....please advise.

    ‡Sergio Sergio H. Domingues · Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie

    Without any image I would suggest that is because some contamination.

  • Rm Madinah added an answer:
    How can I fabricate TiN and TaN by sputtering Ti and Ta with N2 gas?

    Dear All,

    I want to deposit TiN and TaN by Ti and Ta targets (magneto sputtering). I tried to fabricate it with different conditions of N2 gas during the sputtering and post annealing beside N2. But I did not get a good result. If any one could share his or her experience about this, I would appreciate it.

    All the best,


    Rm Madinah · Lappeenranta University of Technology

    Substrate too matters. Pre-cleaning the substrate by chemical pre-treatment and also ion cleaning will provide good adhesion.

  • Stefania Carmen Bobaru added an answer:
    Could you please recommend me a manufacturer/ vendor of the GLAD(Glancing Angle Deposition) system?

    Ideally we would like to buy a PVD equipment that can be used for the layer by layer and columnar growth.

    Stefania Carmen Bobaru · BSH Home Appliances Group - SPAIN

    Thank you both for the suggestions.

  • Yazan Maswadeh added an answer:
    What sequence should one follow for refining the parameters to get the best fit using Rietveld analysis?

    What sequence one should follow for refining the parameters to get the best fit using Rietveld analysis? I have bring down the value of chi2 to 12 (still too large).  Though its reported in literature that for nano particle cases the chi2 is expected to be more. How can I reduce the chi2 further? Moreover the position of the fitted peak was shifted in compare to experimental data. Am I following the right sequence of refinement?  Or the high chi2 may be due to the fact that I have not given any information of dopant in the input file?

    Yazan Maswadeh · Central Michigan University

    you are welcome, it is my pleasure.

  • M. R. V. Sahyun added an answer:
    How can I calculate the band gap from UV-Vis absorption spectra of thin films consisting of TiO2 and other metal complexes?
    I have prepared thin films of TiO2 and other Metal complex with TiO2 on a glass substrate. I just need to calculate band gaps of materials on the glass substrate.
    M. R. V. Sahyun

    All of the above is well and good but there are a couple of caveats:  (1)  In my experience most TiO2 preparations are indirect band gap, so the spectrum must be analyzed accordingly; (2) if the deposit is polycrystalline its extinction may include a significant scattering component so the observed spectrum may require Kubelka-Munk analysis to extract the "true" absorption spectrum.  

  • G. C. Nayak added an answer:
    How can I explain the capacitance value with the attached EIS data?

    I am working with the supercapacitors and studied with three of my sample with EIS in CH660D with a three electrode system and got the attached EIS. While the GA is just a combination of carbon and conducting polymer 2nd and 3rd contain some metal oxide. I got higher capacitance in  the third. How can explain the capacitance value with this EIS? 

    G. C. Nayak · Indian School of Mines

    Thank you very much and I will do the analysis below 1 Hz and try to find out the difference. But why for the same frequency range GNA possessed a very high Z' and Z'' value as compared to other two systems?

  • Devender Jalandhara added an answer:
    What are the factors that can affect the band gap of a material?
    What in-depth physical attributes apply to the change in band gap, and is it related to grain size, or particle size?
    Devender Jalandhara · Central University of Punjab


  • prof V.S Muralidharan added an answer:
    Which Wire is better to connect the electrode?

    I am fabricating the glucose biosensor based on ZnO nanorods over the gold thin film. I have to carry out the CV measurement. Can you please help me to know which wire (either Pt or Ti) should i use for the electrical connection. Thank you.

    prof V.S Muralidharan · Central Electrochemical Research Institute


  • Prakash Mahakul added an answer:
    How can I take the c-v characteristics of P3HT film deposited over glass substrate ?

    I am interested for capacitance voltage measurement of p3ht film. I am depositing aluminium dots above the p3ht film. But when i am measuring the c-v characteristics, am not getting the data as described in the articles.So can anyone please help me in this regard ? i have no glove box, so i did it in the open environment. I have tried at different frequency but did not get the expected result. Please suggest me how to measure the c-v characteristics of P3HT film ?

    Please take a look i have attached the plot here....and then suggest me

    Prakash Mahakul · National Institute of Technology Rourkela

    dear Krishna,

    my email id  

    Thank you for your timely response and suggestion

  • Vladimir Kibitkin added an answer:
    Measuring density of thin films - can anyone help?
    I’m making thin films (75 microns) of nanocomposites based on PLA using the solution dissolution method. I dissolve the PLA on a solvent and the nanofiller in the same solvent mix them and after I evaporate them into known conditions.

    This way I have PLA based nanocomposites with different amounts of nanofillers.
    The question is that I'm interested in knowing the density – or at least the relative density related to the PLA film - of these films. I've tried cutting the films with a mould to have exactly the same surface, measure the thickness of these pieces and after weight them.

    Unfortunately my guess is that cutting with the mould is not accurate enough, (maybe is for my lack of skill) since I can have a variation of 1% between films (for example the PLA film have a density of 1; and the nanocomposites ranging 0.95-099). I have not have success in my first attempt, but is a right way to proceed and I only need to “optimize” the cutting process or there is any other way?

    I know how much amount of mass I have in each film, but, unfortunately without the required accuracy (I estimate that the mass of my films is about 1.62 g +/- 3%) (they are 120*120 mm sized).
    Vladimir Kibitkin · Russian Academy of Sciences

    Ones more way is to use X-rays with energy about 0.01 keV -- 1 keV, measuring their reflection or use another particles.

  • K. Sreenivas added an answer:
    How can I measure the density of thin film?
    Which equipment can be used to measure this?
    How can I calculate the measurement?
    K. Sreenivas · University of Delhi

    Try to measure the weight of your substrate as accurate as possible.

    Deposit a thick film, and measure the weight. You must know the thickness of the film fairly accurately..

    This way you can get an approximate idea of the density of the film.

    K. Sreenivas

  • Weiwei Wu added an answer:
    Why does the layer of PS peels off from the glass substrate after a drop casting?How can I avoid peeling?

    I tried to prepare some PS films using drop casting method. I dissolved 0.1g PS in 10ml THF, heated in a water bath and then drop casted it over a glass slide. The layer gets peel off from the substrate after drying it. Can anyone help me to avoid peel off problem in my coatings?

    Weiwei Wu · Technion - Israel Institute of Technology

    I think that it depend on the density of the solvent. If the density is too large and  let your PS film float on it's surface, the film will be peel off from the glass surface.

  • Jules Lloyd Hammond added an answer:
    How do you get an uniform, 50nm film thickness of SU-8 direct on the glass substrate?
    For nanofabrication I need to have a less than 50nm film thickness of SU-8 on the glass substrate. I've tried with spin-coating but it seems that this method doesn't work. Can anyone help me please? Thanks.
    Jules Lloyd Hammond · University of Bath

    Mai, I only just stumbled across this question, did you manage to achieve the 50nm films?

    As Parikshit mentioned, cyclopentanone is the solvent to use in order to dilute SU-8 photoresist.

    I have had varying success diluting SU8-2 [MicroChem] but below 250 nm I have found the stability of the film becomes an issue and this may cause you a problem. The spin speed seems to make little difference (I typically used between 3000rpm and 5000rpm). A slow initial spin (500rpm for 5 to 10s) gave me more reproducible results.

    I use the following formula (originally suggested by Mark Shaw [MicroChem] on the forum MEMSnet:

    (1)     (Starting Solid % / Final Solid %) * Starting Volume = Final Volume

    (2)     Final Volume - Starting Volume = Solvent Addition

    Some 'Solid %' values (I usually plot then interpolate/extrapolate):

    2 um: 29%

    1 um: 25%

    700 nm: 21%

    *500nm: 14.3%

    100nm: ~5%

    *MicroChem have recently added a SU-8 2000.5 resist to their product range and their data sheet confirms 'Solid %' as 14.3%. 

    Hope this is useful to someone.

    Demis, thank you for mentioning Microposit LOL1000 - looks interesting.

    Kind regards,


  • Shahid iqbal Iqbal added an answer:
    How can i dissolve the template of alumina to have nanowires?
    I fill the pores of alumina with nano wires but i cant have only nanowires
    Shahid iqbal Iqbal · International Islamic University, Islamabad

    Dear all: Please assist me with your kind advice on the following:
    We have prepared AAO templates in phosphoric acid by two steps anodization. And we have deposited NiZn by electropolishing. Now we are unable to prepare our samples for SEM analysis because when we try to dissolve AAO templates, it causes our NiZn to dissolve. Please advice me how to prepare our sample for SEM. Any method?

  • N. Casañ-Pastor added an answer:
    Why I can not find a UV-Vis band for polyaniline?

    I am preparing AgNPs/PANI nanocomposite. I can see the brown yellow color of AgNPs during synthesis and the green-violet color of PANI (emeraldine) after precipitation with ethanol. I can also see a pure uniform silver metal after ethanol precipitation. I can detect the UV-Vis band for AgNPs in aqueous solution but I cannot detect a UV-Vis band for emeraldine either in ethanol or in water. 

    N. Casañ-Pastor · Materials Science Institute of Barcelona

    If the composite is conducting, the bands suffer from relaxation, and you have them as a wavy baseline

  • Nilesh Kulkarni added an answer:
    Any insights on the comparison between Vantec 500 (Bruker), Pilatus 100K (Rigaku) and PIXcel 3D (PAN)?
    May I get your opinion on 3 type detector above? I need feedback from researcher, not manufacturer.

    Nilesh Kulkarni · Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

    I can comment on 1D detecor Xcelerator from Panalytical. I have been using this detector for last 11 yrs and performance is awesome. Pixel 3D is next generation from Panalytical and it is superior to Xcelerator.  I have not used Vantec / Pilatus.

  • Sai Jiao added an answer:
    Can anyone help me find magnetron reactive sputtering information on group III-Nitrides?

    Is there anyone who have experiences using DC Magnetron Reactive Sputtering Systems from the Germany based Company Singulus? What about their AlN ability specifically? and Could you give me some typical material properties if you are one of the users of Singulus Systems? Thanks.

    Sai Jiao · Tohoku University

    Thanks Hamida, Actually, What I was looking for was some process and equipment settings for specific Reactive Magnetron Sputtering System from Singulus Technology (DE). Cause apparently they claim to have the ability to install this kind of system for Nitrides Deposition. but I couldn't find any public document for it.

    Anyway, thanks a lot for your attention.  

  • Hamida Darwish added an answer:
    Is it logical to use Ti-Nanoxide-HT (Solaronix) for solution state quenching studies?

    The Commercially available Ti-Nanoxide-HT from solaronix brand containing an organic binder. If we use it for quenching studies, will the binder influence our result? What I am thinking is that we are coating the Ti-Nanoxide-HT (containing the binder) on FTO or on glass plate either by using doctor blade or spin coating method followed by annealing. After sensitizing it we are carrying out thin film photophysical studies. For investigation of solution state photophysical properties between the sensitizer and the nanoxide it is logic to use the same material i.e. with binder. It should be the actual condition. Am I right? Please give me your suggestions.

    Hamida Darwish · King Abdulaziz University

    Yu can try and see the results. I think the best way to do experiment.

  • Ali Bakly added an answer:
    Is there any method to find the thickness of a thin film using UV-VIS-NIR transmission spectra (From the undulation obtained)?
    I need to find the the thickness of the films to know the other things.
    Ali Bakly · The University of Manchester

    Cheers, really all of above were in non-ill conditions

  • Zbyněk Večeřa added an answer:
    Any suggestions on the identification of nanoparticles in organs?

    At this time we are dealing with problem of identification of nanoparticles of CdO, PbO, MnO.Mn2O3 and TiO2 in mice organs and on erythrocytes (acute inhalation process (72 hours) and chronic inhalation experiment (60 and 90 days). From chemical analyses we know concentration of above mentioned elements, we have the TEM, STEM of "organs" where we can see objects "above mentioned nanopasticles". When we compare STEM, TEM control sample of mices´organs with organs the mice undergoes inhalation procedure at two levels (high concentration ca 10x6 particles/cm2 and low concentration 10x5 particles/cm2 in inhalation air)we can clearly see the difference in amount or "nanoparticles). But our STEM Edx was not able to identify the composition of nanoparticles, mainly if the elements are Cd, Pd, Mn or Ti.
    Do somebody to know the solution? If yes, there is possibility to do this procedure at some of this workplace and under which provision. We are ready to
    deliver samples of organs: control, "low" concentration and "high" in condition after TEM procedure.

    Zbyněk Večeřa · Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno


    thank for your answer and questions. I am going to phone you.


  • J.D. Desai added an answer:
    How to avoid powder formation during thin film deposition by Spray Pyrolysis?

    I am depositing pure metal oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis. I am getting good quality films. Whenever I am  trying with the doped metal oxides deposition with the same optimized conditions(distance between nozzle and substrates, molarity, solvents,quantity, temperature, air pressure and solution flow rate), films are not uniform. It is observed that after very thin deposition, powders are forming and it is in turn avoiding the deposition further. How shall I come out of this problem? What might be the effect of ultrasonic cleaning of thin films after deposition? Will it creates any defects in material and films?

    J.D. Desai · Sharadchandraji Pawar College,Jejuri Tal:Purandar Dist:Pune 412303.

    Temperature increase can be a solution

  • Daniela Gogova added an answer:
    How accurate the EDX analysis can be in the case of nano sized precipitates of Nb with 10wt%Zr and 5wt%Fe in zirconium matrix containing 0.3wt%Nb?

    In so called fully-transformed by prolonged heat treatment below-near 580oC zirconium with 2.5wt%Nb-0.1wt%Fe alloy the Nb particles precipitate with the expected concentration of 10wt%Zr and 5wt%Fe. The particles are between 100 nm and 5 nm in size and zirconium matrix contains 0.3wt%Nb and no Fe. Is it possible to determine the concentration of Nb and Fe in such particles by EDX in analytical electron microscope? What the accuracy can be for particles having 100 nm size compared to particles of 5 nm size? How many particles one should analyze to obtain good representation of such precipitates in the alloy? What corrections are absolutely necessary in the analysis of EDX spectra in such system?

    Daniela Gogova · Central Lab of Solar Energy and New Energy Sources at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

    I agree with Daniele.

    In TEM microscopwill be easier


  • Oleg Anokhin added an answer:
    Why the Color of TiO2 nanotube arrays which I tried to fabricate via anodic oxidation is not white ( but blue, purple,..) ?

    I followed  published papers in  high impact factor Journals to fabricate TiO2 nanotube arrays but the color of the formed films was not white. The white color does not appear only if the  film get etching and then the powder start falls down

    Oleg Anokhin · Personal High-Tech solutions

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  • Don Wilson added an answer:
    Reliable protocol for mercapo-silanes on glass?
    I am trying to bind gold nanoparticles to functionalized glass surfaces (optical fibers in particular) and the simple protocol I use works GREAT with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilanes, but fails regularly with 3-mercaptapropyltrimethoxysilane! The protocol is as follows:

    Clean fibers in pirhana (30min)
    Rinse with anhydrous ethanol.
    Immerse in anhydrous ethanol, add MPTMS/APTMS at 1% by volume for 1 hour.
    Remove and rinse with ethanol.
    Store fibers in ethanol until use.

    The weird part is I've had at least one trial where the MPTMS worked great. (I evaluate the efficacy by monitoring nanoparticles depositing on my fibers in realtime with UV-Vis). I am amenable to any suggestions and really have no idea why this protocol worked really great once, but mostly fails. I have tweaked most parameters such as immersion times, heating vs. non-heating etc.

    It's really confusing to me why this doesn't work since the only difference in these molecules is the headgroup.
    Don Wilson · Zorbtech Environmental Solutions

    try ....3-trimethoxysilpropyl dietthylene tiamine   TMSPETA

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