Thin Films and Nanotechnology

Thin Films and Nanotechnology

  • Robert Bruce van Dover added an answer:
    How can I fabricate TiN and TaN by sputtering Ti and Ta with N2 gas?

    Dear All,

    I want to deposit TiN and TaN by Ti and Ta targets (magneto sputtering). I tried to fabricate it with different conditions of N2 gas during the sputtering and post annealing beside N2. But I did not get a good result. If any one could share his or her experience about this, I would appreciate it.

    All the best,


    Robert Bruce van Dover · Cornell University

    Just want to point out that you need high-purity N2 (99.999%) rather than the low-purity N2 that is more routinely available. The N2 needs to have as low O2 contamination as your Ar. An LN trap won't clean O2 from your your N2 (though it will do great for H2O and CO2.

    FWIW I've found that and Ar:N2 ratio of about 5:1 works well. That's just a starting point, but the optimum for your system should be around there. 

  • Vishal Sharma added an answer:
    How can I take the c-v characteristics of P3HT film deposited over glass substrate ?

    I am interested for capacitance voltage measurement of p3ht film. I am depositing aluminium dots above the p3ht film. But when i am measuring the c-v characteristics, am not getting the data as described in the articles.So can anyone please help me in this regard ? i have no glove box, so i did it in the open environment. I have tried at different frequency but did not get the expected result. Please suggest me how to measure the c-v characteristics of P3HT film ?

    Please take a look i have attached the plot here....and then suggest me

    Vishal Sharma · University of Delhi

    Dear Dr. Krishna

    Could you please send detail on


  • Vladimir Kibitkin added an answer:
    Measuring density of thin films - can anyone help?
    I’m making thin films (75 microns) of nanocomposites based on PLA using the solution dissolution method. I dissolve the PLA on a solvent and the nanofiller in the same solvent mix them and after I evaporate them into known conditions.

    This way I have PLA based nanocomposites with different amounts of nanofillers.
    The question is that I'm interested in knowing the density – or at least the relative density related to the PLA film - of these films. I've tried cutting the films with a mould to have exactly the same surface, measure the thickness of these pieces and after weight them.

    Unfortunately my guess is that cutting with the mould is not accurate enough, (maybe is for my lack of skill) since I can have a variation of 1% between films (for example the PLA film have a density of 1; and the nanocomposites ranging 0.95-099). I have not have success in my first attempt, but is a right way to proceed and I only need to “optimize” the cutting process or there is any other way?

    I know how much amount of mass I have in each film, but, unfortunately without the required accuracy (I estimate that the mass of my films is about 1.62 g +/- 3%) (they are 120*120 mm sized).
    Vladimir Kibitkin · Russian Academy of Sciences

    Ones more way is to use X-rays with energy about 0.01 keV -- 1 keV, measuring their reflection or use another particles.

  • Elisban Sacari added an answer:
    How to search data of xrd from JCPDS number?
    I want to know how to search data if I know JCPDS number.
    Example I knew my JCDPS number it's JCDPS #800075.
    I want to use data with my XRD research graph.
    Elisban Sacari · University of Chile

    hello Pushpakakant D.

    here is  jcpds 01-074-1604

  • K. Sreenivas added an answer:
    How can I measure the density of thin film?
    Which equipment can be used to measure this?
    How can I calculate the measurement?
    K. Sreenivas · University of Delhi

    Try to measure the weight of your substrate as accurate as possible.

    Deposit a thick film, and measure the weight. You must know the thickness of the film fairly accurately..

    This way you can get an approximate idea of the density of the film.

    K. Sreenivas

  • Weiwei Wu added an answer:
    Why does the layer of PS peels off from the glass substrate after a drop casting?How can I avoid peeling?

    I tried to prepare some PS films using drop casting method. I dissolved 0.1g PS in 10ml THF, heated in a water bath and then drop casted it over a glass slide. The layer gets peel off from the substrate after drying it. Can anyone help me to avoid peel off problem in my coatings?

    Weiwei Wu · Technion - Israel Institute of Technology

    I think that it depend on the density of the solvent. If the density is too large and  let your PS film float on it's surface, the film will be peel off from the glass surface.

  • Jules Lloyd Hammond added an answer:
    How do you get an uniform, 50nm film thickness of SU-8 direct on the glass substrate?
    For nanofabrication I need to have a less than 50nm film thickness of SU-8 on the glass substrate. I've tried with spin-coating but it seems that this method doesn't work. Can anyone help me please? Thanks.
    Jules Lloyd Hammond · University of Bath

    Mai, I only just stumbled across this question, did you manage to achieve the 50nm films?

    As Parikshit mentioned, cyclopentanone is the solvent to use in order to dilute SU-8 photoresist.

    I have had varying success diluting SU8-2 [MicroChem] but below 250 nm I have found the stability of the film becomes an issue and this may cause you a problem. The spin speed seems to make little difference (I typically used between 3000rpm and 5000rpm). A slow initial spin (500rpm for 5 to 10s) gave me more reproducible results.

    I use the following formula (originally suggested by Mark Shaw [MicroChem] on the forum MEMSnet:

    (1)     (Starting Solid % / Final Solid %) * Starting Volume = Final Volume

    (2)     Final Volume - Starting Volume = Solvent Addition

    Some 'Solid %' values (I usually plot then interpolate/extrapolate):

    2 um: 29%

    1 um: 25%

    700 nm: 21%

    *500nm: 14.3%

    100nm: ~5%

    *MicroChem have recently added a SU-8 2000.5 resist to their product range and their data sheet confirms 'Solid %' as 14.3%. 

    Hope this is useful to someone.

    Demis, thank you for mentioning Microposit LOL1000 - looks interesting.

    Kind regards,


  • Shahid iqbal Iqbal added an answer:
    How can i dissolve the template of alumina to have nanowires?
    I fill the pores of alumina with nano wires but i cant have only nanowires
    Shahid iqbal Iqbal · International Islamic University, Islamabad

    Dear all: Please assist me with your kind advice on the following:
    We have prepared AAO templates in phosphoric acid by two steps anodization. And we have deposited NiZn by electropolishing. Now we are unable to prepare our samples for SEM analysis because when we try to dissolve AAO templates, it causes our NiZn to dissolve. Please advice me how to prepare our sample for SEM. Any method?

  • N. Casañ-Pastor added an answer:
    Why I can not find a UV-Vis band for polyaniline?

    I am preparing AgNPs/PANI nanocomposite. I can see the brown yellow color of AgNPs during synthesis and the green-violet color of PANI (emeraldine) after precipitation with ethanol. I can also see a pure uniform silver metal after ethanol precipitation. I can detect the UV-Vis band for AgNPs in aqueous solution but I cannot detect a UV-Vis band for emeraldine either in ethanol or in water. 

    N. Casañ-Pastor · Materials Science Institute of Barcelona

    If the composite is conducting, the bands suffer from relaxation, and you have them as a wavy baseline

  • Nilesh Kulkarni added an answer:
    Any insights on the comparison between Vantec 500 (Bruker), Pilatus 100K (Rigaku) and PIXcel 3D (PAN)?
    May I get your opinion on 3 type detector above? I need feedback from researcher, not manufacturer.

    Nilesh Kulkarni · Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

    I can comment on 1D detecor Xcelerator from Panalytical. I have been using this detector for last 11 yrs and performance is awesome. Pixel 3D is next generation from Panalytical and it is superior to Xcelerator.  I have not used Vantec / Pilatus.

  • Sai Jiao added an answer:
    Can anyone help me find magnetron reactive sputtering information on group III-Nitrides?

    Is there anyone who have experiences using DC Magnetron Reactive Sputtering Systems from the Germany based Company Singulus? What about their AlN ability specifically? and Could you give me some typical material properties if you are one of the users of Singulus Systems? Thanks.

    Sai Jiao · Tohoku University

    Thanks Hamida, Actually, What I was looking for was some process and equipment settings for specific Reactive Magnetron Sputtering System from Singulus Technology (DE). Cause apparently they claim to have the ability to install this kind of system for Nitrides Deposition. but I couldn't find any public document for it.

    Anyway, thanks a lot for your attention.  

  • Is it logical to use Ti-Nanoxide-HT (Solaronix) for solution state quenching studies?

    The Commercially available Ti-Nanoxide-HT from solaronix brand containing an organic binder. If we use it for quenching studies, will the binder influence our result? What I am thinking is that we are coating the Ti-Nanoxide-HT (containing the binder) on FTO or on glass plate either by using doctor blade or spin coating method followed by annealing. After sensitizing it we are carrying out thin film photophysical studies. For investigation of solution state photophysical properties between the sensitizer and the nanoxide it is logic to use the same material i.e. with binder. It should be the actual condition. Am I right? Please give me your suggestions.

    Hamida Mohammed Bakr Darwish · King Abdulaziz University

    Yu can try and see the results. I think the best way to do experiment.

  • Ali Bakly added an answer:
    Is there any method to find the thickness of a thin film using UV-VIS-NIR transmission spectra (From the undulation obtained)?
    I need to find the the thickness of the films to know the other things.
    Ali Bakly · The University of Manchester

    Cheers, really all of above were in non-ill conditions

  • Zbyněk Večeřa added an answer:
    Any suggestions on the identification of nanoparticles in organs?

    At this time we are dealing with problem of identification of nanoparticles of CdO, PbO, MnO.Mn2O3 and TiO2 in mice organs and on erythrocytes (acute inhalation process (72 hours) and chronic inhalation experiment (60 and 90 days). From chemical analyses we know concentration of above mentioned elements, we have the TEM, STEM of "organs" where we can see objects "above mentioned nanopasticles". When we compare STEM, TEM control sample of mices´organs with organs the mice undergoes inhalation procedure at two levels (high concentration ca 10x6 particles/cm2 and low concentration 10x5 particles/cm2 in inhalation air)we can clearly see the difference in amount or "nanoparticles). But our STEM Edx was not able to identify the composition of nanoparticles, mainly if the elements are Cd, Pd, Mn or Ti.
    Do somebody to know the solution? If yes, there is possibility to do this procedure at some of this workplace and under which provision. We are ready to
    deliver samples of organs: control, "low" concentration and "high" in condition after TEM procedure.

    Zbyněk Večeřa · Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic


    thank for your answer and questions. I am going to phone you.


  • K. Sreenivas added an answer:
    How to avoid powder formation during thin film deposition by Spray Pyrolysis?

    I am depositing pure metal oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis. I am getting good quality films. Whenever I am  trying with the doped metal oxides deposition with the same optimized conditions(distance between nozzle and substrates, molarity, solvents,quantity, temperature, air pressure and solution flow rate), films are not uniform. It is observed that after very thin deposition, powders are forming and it is in turn avoiding the deposition further. How shall I come out of this problem? What might be the effect of ultrasonic cleaning of thin films after deposition? Will it creates any defects in material and films?

    K. Sreenivas · University of Delhi

    I feel using a good atomizer during spray deposition is very important.

    Do not continously spray the solution. Wait for the some time till the sprayed solution on the heated substrate to react, burn the organics away, and turn into a good transparent layer. The spray again another thin layer and repeat in case you wish to build your film thickness. the solution viscosity and the chemical structure should play a vital role. If the process is too fast, you will end up with clusters after the deposited product converts to an inorganic product, and then it will become powdery.

    K. Sreenivas

  • Daniela Gogova added an answer:
    How accurate the EDX analysis can be in the case of nano sized precipitates of Nb with 10wt%Zr and 5wt%Fe in zirconium matrix containing 0.3wt%Nb?

    In so called fully-transformed by prolonged heat treatment below-near 580oC zirconium with 2.5wt%Nb-0.1wt%Fe alloy the Nb particles precipitate with the expected concentration of 10wt%Zr and 5wt%Fe. The particles are between 100 nm and 5 nm in size and zirconium matrix contains 0.3wt%Nb and no Fe. Is it possible to determine the concentration of Nb and Fe in such particles by EDX in analytical electron microscope? What the accuracy can be for particles having 100 nm size compared to particles of 5 nm size? How many particles one should analyze to obtain good representation of such precipitates in the alloy? What corrections are absolutely necessary in the analysis of EDX spectra in such system?

    Daniela Gogova · Central Lab of Solar Energy and New Energy Sources at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

    I agree with Daniele.

    In TEM microscopwill be easier


  • Oleg Anokhin added an answer:
    Why the Color of TiO2 nanotube arrays which I tried to fabricate via anodic oxidation is not white ( but blue, purple,..) ?

    I followed  published papers in  high impact factor Journals to fabricate TiO2 nanotube arrays but the color of the formed films was not white. The white color does not appear only if the  film get etching and then the powder start falls down

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  • Don Wilson added an answer:
    Reliable protocol for mercapo-silanes on glass?
    I am trying to bind gold nanoparticles to functionalized glass surfaces (optical fibers in particular) and the simple protocol I use works GREAT with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilanes, but fails regularly with 3-mercaptapropyltrimethoxysilane! The protocol is as follows:

    Clean fibers in pirhana (30min)
    Rinse with anhydrous ethanol.
    Immerse in anhydrous ethanol, add MPTMS/APTMS at 1% by volume for 1 hour.
    Remove and rinse with ethanol.
    Store fibers in ethanol until use.

    The weird part is I've had at least one trial where the MPTMS worked great. (I evaluate the efficacy by monitoring nanoparticles depositing on my fibers in realtime with UV-Vis). I am amenable to any suggestions and really have no idea why this protocol worked really great once, but mostly fails. I have tweaked most parameters such as immersion times, heating vs. non-heating etc.

    It's really confusing to me why this doesn't work since the only difference in these molecules is the headgroup.
    Don Wilson · Zorbtech Environmental Solutions

    try ....3-trimethoxysilpropyl dietthylene tiamine   TMSPETA

  • Moaz M Altarawneh added an answer:
    How can I remove the offset resistance of superconducting sample?

    I measured superconducting film sample by PPMS with DC four point method.
    (Input current and pick-up voltage)

    But always there is some non-zero resistance after transition happen.
    This non-zero voltage difference is removed when I turn-off current source.

    Anybody can give me a answer for this problem?
    Should I need AC measurement to get correct measurement?

    Moaz M Altarawneh · Mu’tah University

    If not interested in absolute values use Tunnel Diode Oscillator for mapping Hc2.

  • Ramachandran A V added an answer:
    How can I extract the values of data plotted in a graph which is available in pdf form?
    Ramachandran A V · SASTRA University

    You can take screenshot of the Graph plotted and feed it as a image to Origin (or any other plot digitizer).

  • Pritam Ghosh added an answer:
    Are there any methods that could be used to measure the state of Fe/Fe3C during the CNT synthesis process? Is XPS suitable for this?

    To measure the state of Fe/Fe3C during the CNT synthesis process, can we just use XRD instead of XPS?

    Pritam Ghosh · Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute and Jadavpur University

    XPS can be applicable easily,,,,


  • Zacharias G. Fthenakis added an answer:
    How can I simulate the folded layer of graphene ?

    Has anyone done that work? Which kind of software can do that job? Crystalmaker or ? See appendix for reference file. Thank you.

    Zacharias G. Fthenakis · Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas

    You can use classic potentials, but for the interactions between graphene sheets you need a Van der Waals like potential. I do not know what exactly you want to do, but maybe you can distinguish in plane (strong) and out of plane (Van der Waals) interactions.

  • Martin Joseph added an answer:
    How can I use Beer-Lambert’s law for film thickness determination on glass?

    I have a copper film (Metal or oxide or mix) on a glass substrate. I measure transmission, reflection and I want to determine the film thickness.
    How I can do this with the Beer-Lambert’s law, or other?

    Martin Joseph · Christ College of Engineering & Technology

    use airwedge or michelson interference method to find the thickness of the coated film. or take TEM (CROSS SECTIONALLY.)

  • Fenglong Wang added an answer:
    How to make a uniform thin film with titanium dioxide nanoparticles with size around 30 nm? Which solvent and surfactant should I choose?

    I want to make titanium dioxide thin films for the sum frequency generation measurement with nanoparticles ca. 30 nm. What method should I choose? What solvent and surfactant should I use to get the uniform dispersion? Thanks guys. I need a uniform thin film.

    Fenglong Wang · University of New South Wales

    OK, thanks Rajesh and Luis, I will try the method you suggested above.

  • Amipara Manilal D added an answer:
    Is directivity and beam width the same for different unit cell (shape) metamaterial slabs having the same negative refractive index ?

    Suppose we have three different kind of negative refractive index metamaterial slab having different unit cell shape but all three have same refractive index. What would be directivity and beamwidth of all three metamaterial slab? Are they same or different because of different unit cell shape ?l

    Amipara Manilal D · Balaji Institute of Engineering & technology, Junagadh

    There is no direct relationship between numerical value of refractive index and beamwidth/directivioty. Directivity or beam width depends upon the current distribution in a slab.

  • Elena S. Davydova added an answer:
    How explain the oxygen Reduction Reaction in Pd nanoparticles electrodeposited on graphite?

    it is easier to reduce oxygen to produce the oxygen peroxide with palladium nanoparticles  ???
    taking into account that I want to form large amount of hydrogen peroxide in my experience on graphite electrode modified by palladium nanoparticles.
    thank you

    Elena S. Davydova · Russian Academy of Sciences

    Why cannot you just add H2O2 to your solution?

  • Soraya Sadeghi added an answer:
    How could I characterize the conductivity of the films produced by electrospining?

    How could I characterize the conductivity of the films produced by electrospining ? I prepare a polymeric solution , use different additives that increase the conductivity of solution ,put the prepared solution on stirrer and then use this solution in electrospinnig device . I use the hole effect test but the films show the same conductivity even the pure one it was 10 ^(7-) S/cm . I use another test of power supply and ameter . This test show no current and an open circuit sign appears.Is there another test or there is a mistake I dont notice? may I do some thing to know the conductivity ? I wish you help me....with my best regards.

    Soraya Sadeghi · Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute

    If the polymer that you used is a conductive polymer you can have conductivity through your unwoven mat. Besides, you used the additives to increase the conductivity of the polymer solution for better electrospinning and after that when solvent was evaporated, you may have not conductivity at all, if the polymer is not conductive. One way to measure the conductivity of a film is using AFM in contact mode. By using a conducting cantilever,  current can be passed through the tip to probe the electrical conductivity or transport of the underlying surface.

  • Kenneth M Towe added an answer:
    What is the difference between crystallite size, grain size, and particle size?
    How can we measure these sizes?
  • Ranjit Patil added an answer:
    Why is etch Ni rate so slow?

    I have 20nm Nickel evaporated on SiO2 layer.

    TFB was used for wet etch. According to its data sheet, a 25 A etch rate should be achieved, which means an etch time of 40 second.

    However, after 10 mins my shiny Nickel layer is still there.

    I also tried concentrated Nitric acid. After around ten minutes, it still doesn't work.

    What is wrong?

    Ranjit Patil · National Dong Hwa University

    I agree with Yuriy and just want to add little more details.

    It is true that, Ni is easy to get oxidize in the atmosphere also formation of hydroxide layer takes place if it is exposed to atm. air. I suggest you to examine the sample by XPS before etching to make sure that you still have film of Ni.

    FYI NiO is highly stable in the atmosphere and can withstand even in a corrosive atmosphere for a long period of time.

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