Sustainable Rural Development

Sustainable Rural Development

  • Wameq A Raza added an answer:
    What statistical analysis tool can be used to determine the socio-economic impact assessment of a road expansion project?

    The road expansion project is designed to include a railway in the middle of a 10-lane expressway from a 6-lane expressway. Is it possible to use a regression analysis to analyze the questionnaire?

    Wameq A Raza · Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam

    There are a number of things to consider before undertaking this activity. It really depends on what you're looking for. Preferably you'll have longitudinal data to help you with the analysis. If you look at the project as an intervention, get some data on counterfactuals and there are a range of outcomes you can look at. 

    One of the best options would be using a HIES style dataset for the area and a comparable one. Simple matching techniques followed by DiDs should give you answers you're looking for. As I mentioned above, the impact of projects such as these take a while to kick in, so ideally you have some distance before you undertake your analysis. 

  • Gráinne Dwyer added an answer:
    What is the role or contribution of community-based enterprise towards rural development?
    Rural industry and entrepreneurship.
    Gráinne Dwyer · University of Limerick

    Hi Choen,

    My recently published thesis may be of interest for you to read, see here:

    My thesis focused on community collaboration to develop a walking tourism product. My results section (chapter 5 onward) highlights the perceived benefits that the community list as a result of the walkway.

    Kind regards,


  • FC Prinsloo added an answer:
    Do you have experience developing a rural microgrid system and with commercialization models that benefit the community at the site of installation?

    In our study, we are developing a combined heat and power system with microgrid interfacing. It will be interesting to learn from researchers in Africa, India, China, Brazil, Mexico, etc. how off-grid microgrid technology are commercialised to the benefit of the community it serves. 

    FC Prinsloo · University of South Africa


    Firstly, a favorable regulatory environment and rural electrification plans needs to be implemented to promote adoption of microgrids in the private and commercial sector for which customers in shacks or rural villages can pa or barter trade to get access to electricity or to power generated renewable energy.

    Technology cost of renewable energy to electrical power conversion can be used as a commercial model, as the technology owners needs to recover the cost of the equipment at least. 

    A company Ellies started selling low cost solar PV equipment is the hyperstores and this opened opportunities for many individuals from rural areas to set up their own supply units at their homes and in some cases share the power with paying neighbors.

    The African concept of stokvel savings to implement rural microgrids based on renewable  energy may become very important in Africa in the future as a way of communal investment in decentralized rural power infrastructure. 


  • Daan Francois Toerien added an answer:
    If robots increase agricultural production efficiency will the increase in value be greater than the social cost of unemployed labor?
    Both technological efficiency and price efficiency are required for economic efficiency. Many so-called economies of size and scale do not satisfy this condition.
    Daan Francois Toerien · University of the Free State

    Dear Bill

    Thanks for your answer.  I agree that technology is an externality that needs consideration. However, I am hesitant about the tax idea, and for at least three reasons.

    The first is that it would not reflect an understanding of how competitive advantages are created. Michael Porter has a long time ago identified the basis of sustainable competitiveness: for commodities you have to be the cost leader (or at least have cost parity), and for differentiated products you have to have uniqueness. Since most agricultural products are commodities, it means that price is a very important issue in most of commercial agriculture. Levying an additional tax on agriculture would place most countries' farmers in a disadvantage in a global world. In fact, many developed countries subsidize their farmers in order to keep them on their farms. From this perspective an additional tax would not fly.

    The second reason is historical. At the start of the Industrial Revolution some 80% of the people countries such as the USA were involved with agriculture.  Now less than 3% of Americans produce enough food to feed ta much larger nation and also to export a lot. So for centuries better technology has continuously pushed up agricultural productivity. Would a tax stop this process?  I don't think so.  

    Thirdly, Acemoglu and Robinson in their book about the reasons why nations are poor or rich, show how in many countries extractive politics and institutions have been used to enrich small elites at the expense of the poor.  In this process the politicians of many countries (e.g. some in West Africa) have interfered in markets and taxed their farmers excessively. This has enhanced poverty. The book of Acemoglu and Robinson raises many questions about the factors contributing to poverty, and is well worth reading. 

    A last idea - could redistribution in the form of taxing the rich more heavily and governments providing more aid to the poor (promoted by Brynjolfsson and Macafee) perhaps provide part of the answer?

  • J Perriot added an answer:
    How can the new sustainable development goals (Post-2015) reflect child poverty?

    A key issue that I would like to highlight is that child poverty is distinct from household poverty, although they are often related. With this in mind, eradicating extreme poverty ($1.25 a day) is only relevant to child poverty insofar as households invest in their children, but is not a direct indication of whether a child is poor or not. Indicators to measure child poverty in a multidimensional way can be derived from the Convention of the Rights of Child, in areas such as nutrition, healthcare, education, leisure, information, (no) exploitation, among others, and measured with the use of household surveys. This would allow us to capture the multiple dimension of poverty, and to do it in a way that is relevant for children, and not only for adults or households. Taking this into consideration is essential to tackle child poverty reaching all children.

    J Perriot · Conseil general du Puy de dôme

    Very interesting Ljubomir...the economic crisis is not good for the weakest particularly the younger (but also older, women or less educated)... The more you are powerful and rich the more you become rich and powerful but the more you are weak and poor and the more you become poor and weak...

  • Dian Ekowati added an answer:
    Is technology that is deployed in rural areas sustainable?
    Rural areas have received a lot of attention by researchers proposing ICT solutions for their problems. Do rural people really need such technologies, such as computers; Ipads; e.t.c.
    Dian Ekowati · Center for International Forestry Research

    I have witnessed technology that sustains in rural communities in Indonesia, not necessarily in the form of Ipad. It is micro-hydro for electricity. They built it by themselves (imitating neighboring village) and get electricity for their remote village.
    Rural community is also not a homogeneous entity within them and between communities. The use of technology as you mentioned (ipad or computer) might useful (and sustain) at one place and not the other place, or might be useful for some part of the rural community, but not for other.

  • Frank Kabuya added an answer:
    What is the indicator for measuring either local or rural income distribution?
    How to measure local or rural income distribution?
    Frank Kabuya · University of Swaziland

    One should describe the kind of income as there are different forms of income. In addition to the Gini coefficient, which is the most used indicator, there are other indicators such as the 20/20 ratio, the Palma raio, the Theil Index and the Hoover index.

    The 20/20 ratio compares how much richer the top 20% of populatios are to the botton 20% of a given population. The Palma ratio is the ratio of the richest 10 % of the population's share of gross  natonal inocme divided by the poorest 40 % 's share. The  theil index is an entropy measure indicating the distributional redeundancy  of a system; whereas the Hoover index is the proportion of all income which would have to be redistributed to achieve a state of perfect equality.  However, the choice of these indicators depends upon the locations or target populations.  

  • K. M. Singh added an answer:
    Are there any value chain studies on rice in India??

    Looking for value chain studies on rice in different Indian states, any publications which deal with methodological issues are welcome. Also if data of area, production and yield along with marketed quantities if available, are welcome. Thank you in advance.

    K. M. Singh · Indian Council of Agricultural Research

    Thanks Dr Dubey, for this link.


  • Monica Opole added an answer:
    Is indigenous knowledge retrogressive and anti-development?
    There are notions in certain quarters that indigenous knowledge cannot serve any useful purpose for human progress at this time. Those who seek to valorise this form of knowledge are tagged as backward! However, the rise of post modernism is one of the best things that have ever happened to local knowledge. So, if local knowledge truly has a significant role in sustainable rural development, how can we make it happen?
    Monica Opole · Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Products and by-products

    My lifetime experiences have taught me and  made me discover that there is a "school culture" that when attended one is assumed to be educated, and that there exists " an  indigenous- community based  village culture". In the field of knowledge know-how one is educated first by the community on relevant survival skills,  communal etiquite and domestic etiqute/ manners as part of normal survival knowledge and that not all knowledge is useful sustainable survival knowledge. Yet even now most developed communal cultural knowledge  are currently classified as ignorance.

  • Nathan Kerrigan added an answer:
    Can anyone demonstrate the understanding of the effects of community culture on sustainable residential properties development?

    Please if you know some articles in this area, I will appreciate

    Nathan Kerrigan · Coventry University

    My research study looks at a similar issue. Coming from an environmental criminology perspective, specialising in the examination of the socio-spatial worlds of rural areas and criminological issues of discrimination. My study concludes that community action towards sustainable development derived from active informal controls processes, or the need to protect local identity.

    Take, for example, a rural community. Rural areas are renown fir vie secular architecture . The sameness of buildings promote homogenous norms and values amongst the lifelong residents of the community. However, when external threat is high from wider forces of social change such as creeping urbanisation; the development of more 'polite' architecture (professional planner designed buildings) then the local community are more inclined to take local action.

    In the context of my study this fear of the erosion of local character made the lifelong residents, in accordance with The Localism Act (2010), designed a 'Neighbourhood Plan' which clearly set out an agenda regarding preserving the local character - developing housing estates so that they use the local 'red brick' of the area, fir instance. I theorised that these processes of preserving local character can have racist outcomes. For instance, the wanting to per serve traditionalist vernacular architecture promotes ideological controls of 'Englishness' (buildings made from the same local materials = homogenous attitudes of the local environment which have tended to theorised as being 'English' - see Chakraborti and Garland 2004), Because of this, ethnic residents articulated emotional feelings of exclusion by, for example, not connecting with the local landscape.

  • How does social capital work in rural development, and how can we build it?
    Importance of social capital
    Gonzalo Galileo Rivas Platero · Instituto Interamericano de Cooperación para la Agricultura

    The territorial approach to rural development highlighted in particular the relevance of human capital, being necessary to have individuals endowed with knowledge and values ​​that enable them to express their developmental potential and desire to excel. To this must be added the dimension of Social Capital is reached when it has these socially organized actors, democratically represented and willing to be agents of their own transformation.

    When the dynamics of development in rural areas are analyzed, the first thing that jumps out is the diversity of actors and institutions involved; initiatives which take advantage of the opportunities offered by the labor market or to engage in business or professional enterprise, there are a myriad of public and private institutions (city councils, councils, communities, peripheral regional administration agencies, financial institutions, religious bodies , ...) and collective actors (political parties, business organizations, professional associations, trade unions, cooperatives, irrigation communities, groups and networks of rural development, women's or youth, cultural / recreational associations, ...) whose goal is somehow involved in development strategies, accompanying the various individual initiatives, supporting with grants and economic incentives to entrepreneurs, providing services of various kinds, participating in leadership training or acting as real stars in those areas where individual initiatives are absent or lacking the necessary push to be the engine of development. Good relationship between collective actors, institutions and individuals-that entrepreneurs say, the system of "governance" - depends on the success of the development process in rural areas.

  • Choen Krainara added an answer:
    What is the role of social business in rural development?
    Importance of social business
    Choen Krainara · Asian Institute of Technology

    Dear Chandra, Thanks for your insight. It seems social business work in rural development across countries.

  • Is there any methodology for rural settlement agro-ecological planning at the landscape level?

    I've been working in a peasants community that had no land to cultivate (67 families), and now the government is creating a rural settlement where they will live.  I'd like to ask if there is any methodology for planning the settlement at landscape level (the hole area has 1500 ha), for better use and preservation of natural resources, such as water and vegetation.

    I have already made some maps of the area, such as: land use/cover, topography, euclidean distance from the rivers, riparian forest, land use around the springs and the division of the lots .

    Now we shall try to design resilient agroecosystems  and to plan a better way for land and water use, but I have no idea from where to start. Anyone had done it? Any article?

    Thanks for helping!

    João Arthur Pompeu Pavanelli · National Institute for Space Research, Brazil

    I thank you all for contributing and I share this article with those who still don't know it.

    "From climate-smart agriculture to climate-smart landscapes"

  • Wenze Yue added an answer:
    How do you view the prospects of land creation in china's mountain city?

    Yesterday, A comment titled "China’s land creation project stands firm" was published in Nature, I think any threat of collapse of soft-soil deposits has been eliminated by repeatedly compacting the relocated soil in layers, particularly for Yan’an city, the project has created flat ground by leveling hills and filling valleys, was carefully planned by the local government after thorough feasibility testing by geoengineers, hydrologists, water conservationists and ecologists. I hope we have an academic exchange in our interesting field. Thanks.

    Wenze Yue · Zhejiang University

    Hi Liu Laoshi, I am from the department of land management, Zhejiang university. Despite whether the land creation project is a wise choose the paper published in Nature is kind of 'eyeball' paper, which just highlights personal opinion without a careful survey and a thorough assessment. 

  • Glenn Teves added an answer:
    What agricultural extension approach would you recommend as effective to meet the needs of subsistence farmers in the pacific island countries?
    Pacific island countries are small and isolated and the transportation cost is high.
    Glenn Teves · University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa

    I want to add that the type of training given extension individuals and their strengths need to be matched to the clientele. It may not be enough just to give a farmer the answer, but to lead them to the answer so they 'find' the answer themselves. Teaching a system of diagnostics to their survival is critical versus teaching to be dependent on the extension worker. There's too much emphasis on specialization when the extension worker needs to be a generalist with strong science and communication skills. Teaching interdependence between farmers in an area is very important, but sometimes you have to run the gauntlet of animosities similar to the 'Hatfields and McCoys' where long-standing disputes and family indifferences overwhelm community unity, and cut through this for the common good of all. Sometimes, its difficult to help farmers unless they're hurting and are more open to suggestions for change. Culture is the base to which you start from, and all other systems and technologies for change come later..

  • Paul Davis added an answer:
    What are the factors influencing either failure or stagnation of SMME's in rural areas?
    My concern is particularly in the Free state rural areas, where government and the private sector has no option but to source suppliers from neighboring towns due to unavailability or failure of SMMEs in rural areas.
    Paul Davis · Dublin City University

    an observation - what happens if they do not want to grow but are happy to exist in servicing just the local economy - findings from work i have carried out suggests that SME's particularly micro enterprises have little or no interest outside their local (this area can be defined) region

  • Manoj Bhatt added an answer:
    Can social entrepreneurship be developed as a model for sustainable rural development?
    Developing solutions for sustainable rural development
    Manoj Bhatt · Uttarakhand Open University
    Dear Sir,
    Your efforts in developing a course on this subject are commendable! Our academic institutions (Schools and Universities) should reorient themselves to produce a new breed of social entrepreneurs and not just job seekers. The current trend in which the reputation of an institution is judged by the package its graduate commands has started a herd mentality among the students and institutions alike. This trend is disturbing and oblivious to the needs of the society and the nation. The developing nations like ours cannot achieve the goal of inclusive development unless our valuable human resource is properly trained. We have to develop and teach such courses and set up cell/labs in our institutions where a breed of social entrepreneurs can be mentored.
  • Romulus Okoth Okwany added an answer:
    What role can indigenous knowledge system play in sustainable development?
    Local people are believed to possess unique knowledge which can be utilized in helping them sustain their livelihood.
    Romulus Okoth Okwany · International Water Management Institute, Kathmandu, Nepal
    Denis, your clarification does make a lot of sense and makes your observation that much clearer. That sure is a block even with quite well developed and educated societies so long as opinion leaders are not willing to facilitate the dialogue for change. It is a major challenge to the extent that success is never single dimensional but multidimensional. You may have to address a lot more than your intended question to even get to a foothold on a starting point. But then you realize that the problem is not actually the beliefs but the cultural system that is maintained most likely not by the majority but a few elites who use it as a method to maintain control and derive benefits from the general populace. All said, I fully agree with you in concept.
  • Venkatrao Y Ghorpade asked a question:
    For my Ph.D thesis - ICT and Rural Acceptance - I have identified 15 independent variables. What would be the optimum number for proper analysis?
    ICT Acceptance is the dependent variable; and the independent variables are:1) Attitude 2) Perceived Ease of Use 3) Perceived Usefulness 4) Self Efficiency 5) Perceived Credibility 6) Subjective norm 7) Transactions 8) Performance Expectancy 9) Effort Expectancy 10) Social Influence 11) Facilitating Conditions 12) Anxiety 13) Management Effectiveness 14) Program Effectiveness 15) Behavioural Intentions.

    The question is to facilitate meaningful statistical analysis to finally arrive at the Alpha - Value, I have to zero in on the number of independent variables for the final analysis. This selection will define the scope of the questionnaire for the field study / survey, and the questions can be prepared to cover each of the selected independent variables, accordingly.
  • Anil Kumar Saini added an answer:
    Cow Dung and Sustainability
    Excessive use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides, and dependence on one or two crops are major factors responsible for environment degradation in terms of air and water pollution, soil degradation as well as increasing health problems. It also resulted in increasing input and decreasing production.
    Most of the farmers hold animal for milk and agricultural purpose. A farmer having two animals can replace the harmful chemical fertilizer system with bio-manure and contribute in the development of organic farming.
    The role of farmer, having two animals, for the development of organic farming and benefits with this project is given below:

    One animal produced approximately 20 kg dung every day. So in 365 days two animals will produce approximately 146000 kg dung. We will get approximately 14400 kg manure that cost approximately Rs. 2000/-. If we produce vermin compost from the same quantity of dung we will get approximately 6000 kg vermin compost that will cost approximately Rs. 18000/-.
    Now the total profit of farmer is total cost of vermin compost – project cost, i.e. 18000-1640= 16360.
    In this way, a farmer gets approximately Rs. 15000/- profit. Except vermin compost, verms get doubled in every 45 days cycle. That means farmer will hold approximately 2560 kg verms that will cost approximately Rs. 768000/- in market. Farmer also gets better quality of bio-manure. He can manage 1 hectare of land with produced bio manure without using any chemical fertilizer. In the next three years he can make his farms totally organic means sustainability.
    Anil Kumar Saini · Government PG College, Gopeshwar, Uttarakhand
    this is my rough estimate based on our experience. kindly add yr comments...
  • Anil Kumar Saini asked a question:
    Women worker
    Hi Kavita,
    it is a very good theme to work and draw attention of researchers and scholars who are working in this field. no doubt, the condition of women worker not only rural settings but also in urban setting is very poor.
  • Anil Kumar Saini added an answer:
    Bio-pesticides and sustainable rural development
    Dear Members,
    thanks for being member of this group. i am back after long time.
    i wish to draw your attention towards some facts related to sustainable rural development. agriculture is backbone of rural society. excessive application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides destroying sustainability. regarding this bio fertilizers and pesticides is necessary condition for sustainability. in this direction cow can play crucial role. but very few are aware about that. cow dung and urine provide best pesticides and manure. i am trying for the development of GOSALA in rural settings. so i need some suggestions and ideas related to development of GOSALA in rural settings.
    Anil Kumar Saini · Government PG College, Gopeshwar, Uttarakhand
    Thanks for the suggestion and cooperation. we organize a seminar on such topic every year since last five years. this year i would like to do sth special. in this regard give yr valuable suggestions.
  • Dr BOUTTI Rachid asked a question:
    Sustainable Development in the event of Renewable Energy
    We rely heavily on your participation in our pro-activeinternational symposium Mediterranean in its second edition with a carrier theme "Sustainable Development in the event of Renewable Energy in Agadir (Grenier Global Sustainable Development) from April 11, 2011 .

    Please also ensure wide dissemination in the Mediterraneanscientific event in its second edition.

    Subject: International Congress of the MediterraneanRenewable Energy
    Grand Prize: Oscar for associative Mediterranean AGR RES
    Grand Prize: Oscar for businesses Mediterranean EnR
    Location: Agadir, Morocco North Africa
    Date: April 11 to 14, 2011

    Conference Chair: Rachid BOUTTI
    Holder of the Chair of the Euro-Arab Sustainable Development
    Again many thanks.
    Greetings Agadir
  • Anil Kumar Saini asked a question:
    Sustainable Rural Development and Organic Farming
    since green revolution input of Chemical fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides has increased manifold but not production. imblance use of Chemical fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides also distrub the soil structure and ecological system. it also resulted in increasing health problems. for all that government and many NGOs are working for the development of organig farming. we are also working for the awareness about the balance use of fertilizers and benefits of organic farming. how can we do better for this?

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