Spray Drying

Spray Drying

  • Hassan Mohamed added an answer:
    Would dodecane be a suitable organic solvent to spray dry with beta carotene? If not what is commercially used as the organic solvent?

    Beta carotene melting point 180 degrees celsius.

    Dodecane boiling point 220.

    Hassan Mohamed · Swansea University

    saraniya bharanthi , I know dodecane has optimum extraction of the algae biomass , but is it commercially used as a solvent for spray drying . And if so , wouldn't the temperature of the hot nitrogen cause the beta carotene to melt?

  • Patrick Druggan added an answer:
    What will be the suitable conditions for vacuum spray drying of concentrated fruit juice?

    I have carried out 50:50 (juice solid: maltodextrin solid) ratio, but the product, powder not free flowing. solidification/ coagulation  occur. What should be the suitable conditions? I am also doing my experiments in different proportions. 

    Patrick Druggan · Synergy Health, Chorley, United Kingdom

    Do you know what the chain length for the maltodextrin is? This could have an effect on your process.

  • Ashish Kumar added an answer:
    Which of these processes (Freeze Drying, spray drying and evaporation by heating) is best for nano suspension drying into nanopoweder?

    I had synthesized nanoparticles as nanosuspension. I want to convert the nanosuspension into nanopowder. I am thinking of one of these drying processes (spray drying and evaporation by heating). Accordingly, I am in need of advice about which process would be best in terms of the least affecting the size, properties and the dispersion of the nanoparticles. In other words the one with the least possibility of nanoparticles agglomeration into larger flocs.

    Thanks in advance  

    Ashish Kumar · Amity University

    Freeze Drying is the best technique. but is time and energy consuming. also only suitable for small amount.

  • Arjun Radha Krishna added an answer:
    How can I predict the Glass transition temperature of spray dried powder and Gordon taylor model?

    I perform DSC,  temperature  -60 to 120C, of my spray dried powder sample. But i cant set the base line which transition 1 or 2  will be the glass transition temperature Tg. When i set to base line i got onset, endset and midpoint temperature. Which one is the Tg. In Gordon Taylor model,  Tg, Tgs, and Tgware the glass transition temperatures of the mixture, solids, and water, respectively,xw is the mass fraction of water, and k is the Gordon-Taylor parameter, how can i predict. specially k value . my sample solid about 96% water 4%. 

    Arjun Radha Krishna · The University of Sheffield

    I agree with Piyush!

  • Md ZOHURUL Islam added an answer:
    Does anyone have the experiences of Vacuum Spray Drying (VSD) of Concentrated Fruit Juice ?

    VSD with low temperature treatment 40-60C.

    Md ZOHURUL Islam · Shahjalal University of Science and Technology

    @Mr. Jai Ghosh . Thanks for your suggestions. I am doing research on this topic. WE have designed the VSD. I just wanted to know if any one have the experiences then i will share my views.

    Thank you very much for your suggestions  @ Ghanshyam Tandon Sir.

  • Prashant Thankey added an answer:
    Is there research has done by the Vacuum Spray drying process? Can someone give me idea about this topic?

    Vacuum spray drying process.

    Prashant Thankey · Institute for Plasma Research

    Your question is not clear.

  • Ludwig Christian Ries added an answer:
    How can you achieve a zero emission level of SPM (Suspended Particulate Matter) during spray drying?

    We are manufacturere of Pigment. Right now we are achieve the SPM level <30% from Spray Drying. But we want to achieve the SPM level near about zero. Can any one suggest me the right direction?

    Ludwig Christian Ries · Umweltbundesamt, Germany

    Dear Mr. Gopal,

    the large amount of aerosols i would try to remove with an electro static method. This is proved since quite long in removing aerosols for example from coal firest exhaust. As i also have written in the beginning.

    For the rest filtering makes it possible to receive zero emission.

    It is also questionable whether it is possible to develop and use a 2 stage electro static method, which could increase efficiency and at the same time reduce load for the final filter. so the filter would keep longer.

    For my opinion i think that this is the way you could search for an technical solution.

    kind regards,

    Ludwig Ries

  • Md ZOHURUL Islam added an answer:
    How to spray dried soy sauce in higher TSS?

    I am trying to develop soy sauce powder by using spray dry and using modified starch as filler.

    The initial TSS (total soluble solid) of soy sauce is 32. Then I mixed soy sauce (60%)  with modified starch (20%) & water(20%) until I got TSS 36. The result is well enough although the flavor isn't strong enough.

    Next, I was trying to increase the TSS by removing additional water. Soy sauce (75%) was mixed directly with modified starch (25%). The final TSS before spray drying was 49. However, it resulted coarse powder.

    This coarse powder also happened when I spray dried chicken extract under the same TSS, which was 49 - 50.

    Usually, the spray dry is set under T inlet = 145 - 155 C and T outlet = 95 - 100 C

    I don't have a good basic knowledge about spray dry, so I'm really confused about it.

    The questions are:

    1. How to produce nice spray dried powder in higher TSS for example 50 or higher  without making it coarse?

    2. Somehow when I try to spray dried slurry with TSS 50 (under the same temperature as I explained above), the upper chamber becomes wet which means the powder isn't dry enough. But the same problem doesn't exist when the TSS is around 35-40. How to avoid this wet chamber? Why does it occur?

    3. How to strengthen the powder flavor besides by reducing the filler in slurry?

    Thank you for any comments!

    Md ZOHURUL Islam · Shahjalal University of Science and Technology

    I am Agree with Mr Marali. It is very common if you increasing the TSS and feed rate final product quality will not good. Better to decrease the TSS (30-35%). To retain the flavor you should need to low temperature treatment. Then you can try Vacuum drying process. If you want to spray drying please find out the proper filling ratio, lower the feed rate, increase the atomizer pressure or speed (rpm). Thank you.

  • Marcelo Pagnola added an answer:
    What is the best way to do powder coating?

    I need to use a sintering aid and it is important to have a uniform coat over grains to achieve better microstructure. What is your suggestion? Would you please introduce a good reference?

    Marcelo Pagnola · University of Buenos Aires

    You may too turn to chemical coating method : Spontaneous Polimerization

  • S. Sadeghzadeh added an answer:
    What is the usual methods for granulating the silica gel in industry?

    I know that some methods such as oil-drop and spray drying may be used in industry to granulate the silica gel. I want to know which method is used really in industries?

    S. Sadeghzadeh · Iran University of Science and Technology

    Thank you very much Elena.

    That's very good. Do you know any about the  "air granulation" mentioned there?

  • Shi Yiing Tang added an answer:
    Can anyone help me to check this protocol for probiotic microencapsulation?

    I did the experiment a number of times buy am still not able to obtain the expected result. I would like to seek help from everyone. The protocol as follows:

    1. Dissolve 1%maltodextrin and 1%CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose) separately in sterile distilled water.
    2. Centrifuge probiotic culture and wash with PBS.
    3. Dissolve pellet with 1% maltodextrin and follow by CMC, stir using magnetic stirrer for 5 minutes.
    4. Perform acidity test for the mixture.

    Result obtained: survivability of control sample is higher than malto+CMC encapsulated sample at pH1.5 for 90min.

    May I know which step went wrong? Or, is it a MUST to perform spray drying process in order to obtained the encapsulated cells?


    Shi Yiing Tang · Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman

    Thanks for all the suggestions. Do you think spray dry process must be perform to complete the microencapsulation? I meant, do you think the cells will be better encapsulate if perform spray drying after mix with the encapsulated agents? Thanks

  • Xianqian Zhu added an answer:
    How can I form a stable emulsion of fish roe that can be spray dried?

    I have tried solubilizing the fish roe in dilute salt solutions. But that still forms 2 separate layers. How do I form a stable emulsion?

    Xianqian Zhu · Massey University

    Try colloid mill to make the particle size smaller

  • Natasha Nayak added an answer:
    What is the effect of inlet air temperature on the morphology of powder particles using protein as a carrier?
    I am using protein as carrier in spray drying of juice powder.
    Natasha Nayak · Indian Council of Agricultural Research


    I am not sure whether protein can be used as a carrier. Usually, its the other way around. That is protein is spray dried along with carriers like sucrose, trehalose. This is done to prevent agglomeration/unfolding  of the protein and to increase its storage stability.

    You can try using maltodextrin with or without the protein powder to spray dry the juice.

    Since your formulation is something I've never worked with cant really comment on its morphology of the powder, that can be only found out using SEM.

  • Ehsan Oskoueian added an answer:
    What are the economic, easy and novel techniques to harvest the microbial mass from media in industry?

    Freeze-drying and centrifuging are expensive techniques, spray drying has its own challenges and I guess the ultrafiltration might be challenging as well. Is there any other option?

    Ehsan Oskoueian · Putra University, Malaysia

    Dear Istvan Balogh

    I got the point. Thank you for the helpful information.

  • Matthias Steiert added an answer:
    I am looking for possible methods of drying drug loaded nanoparticles (polymeric nanoparticles) apart from freeze drying. Can someone suggest?

    There are very few methods in literature for drying nanoparticles - mostly freeze drying is used, few others are spray drying, oven drying, evaporation etc. However, these often lead to agglomeration/change in size and also in some cases properties. I am interested in a simple and effective method of drying.

    Matthias Steiert · University of California, Los Angeles

    Spray drying might be another option. This link is just to get your started looking into it http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nano_spray_dryer

  • Carlos Alberto Fuenmayor added an answer:
    Newbie here: How to determine Encapsulation Efficiency of an encapsulated hydrophobic antioxidant
    I am thinking of encapsulating a hydrophobic antioxidant (lets call it A) using a spray dryer.
    Since it is hydrophobic, i was thinking of dissolving A with a vegetable oil, maltodextrin as a wall material and gum arabic as surfactants in water. This emulsion is then spray dried.

    However, I am not too sure how to determine encapsulation efficiency. Any advice?

    *sadly i do not process a spray dryer capable of handling solvent.
    Carlos Alberto Fuenmayor · University of Milan

    Sure there are other ways. You can check which is a good solvent for your compound (ethanol, methanol, usually work well for hydrophobic phenolics, but I don't know the entity of "A"). 

    First of all you have to extract A from the encapsulating matrix. You can try to do it directly in the solvent, however maltodextrin can be tough to release its cargo when  it is dispersed in a non polar solvent. One possibility to tackle this is to grind the capsules very well prior to the extraction and to do the extraction for a long period. 

    Consider also where would you want A to be released (if you encapsulate it, I guess you want to release at some point). In that case what you can do is to perform release experiments in the medium that your are interested, i.e., water at a certain pH (no matter if it is acqueous phase, aftwerwards it has to be released there) and then measure how much is actually released to that medium. At some point there will be equilibrium, and the maximum amount that is released can be considered for calculating and "Effective Efficiency Ratio". Meaning that even if you have more compound encapsulated inside, it won't be released, so you can consider it "lost".

    If you really want to calculate how much is encapsulated, though, the most accurate thing to do is thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). You can read further about it, there is plenty of information online and probably someone in your university has one TGA instrument (Chemistry or Chemical Engineering Departments usually do).

    Remember you are encapsulating an antioxidant, so instead of measuring the concentration (for example with chromatography), you can use the classical Folin, DPPH, ABTS or any other simple in-vitro antioxidant capacity test!

    Now good luck with your experiments!!

  • Nabajyoti Biswas added an answer:
    How to dry a sample solution?
    I have a solution of protein hydrolysate and I want to dry the solution without changing the peptide activity. Freeze drying unit isn't working and I need another method of drying the sample. Can I use a spray drier? What will be the protocol.
    Nabajyoti Biswas · Government of West Bengal
    Amit Taneja
    Spreay drying is of course a good option but whether in that high temperature the peptide activity remain same? I know that peptides are stable compounds only but not sure whether its activities reman stable too?
  • Olivia Ho added an answer:
    Can someone help me with my surfactants questions?
    So I've just started looking at surfactants, emulsions etc.

    I've been looking at some journals on emulsion/dispersion for spray drying etc. and all, but without much success.

    Let's say I want to create an O/W emulsion (wherein a hydrophobic substance in an aqueous phase contains maltodextrin).

    What I am not sure about is:

    1) Some papers just use 1 surfactant like Tween 80; whereas some use 2 or more surfactants. For O/W, must I use 2 surfactants or is just 1 kind enough? I see HLB values being mention for emulsion. So how come some just use 1 surfactant?

    2) Where do I dissolve the surfactant for O/W? For example, Tween 80 and Span 20.
    Is it all in water? Or is Tween in the oil phase and Span in water phase? Or is it only after dissolving maltodextrin in water or before dissolving maltodextrin?

    Are there specific steps I should follow?

    I've been googling but I can't really get any answers. Sorry for the stupid questions.
    Olivia Ho · Monash University (Malaysia)
    Thanks guys for the input!

    Will try out in the lab
  • Jeffrey G. Tait added an answer:
    Does anyone know of an aerosol device able to spray small quantities of liquid nano-microlitres?
    We would like to apply small quantities of liquid as an aerosol to specific objects.
    Jeffrey G. Tait · imec Belgium
    Along with Emanuele, our group uses ultrasonic spray coating for a multitude of materials and solvent systems. Another option you may consider if the Aerosol Jet system from Optomec. These operate with either ultrasonic atomization or pneumatic, and print lines on the order of 10um wide with a precise deposition control system for the volumes you are looking at.
  • Jeffrey G. Tait added an answer:
    Can anyone shed some light on how to go about doing a co-current spray dryer design to manufacture detergents?
    The spray dryer is using a pressure nozzle.
    Jeffrey G. Tait · imec Belgium
    Depending on your design requirements, and if you are considering ultrasonic atomization, I have successfully used concurrently pumped nozzles from Sono-tek. With some design alterations it is possible to control the exact solution meeting point within the horn, or at the nozzle tip. I have used these nozzles for spraying a variety of different surface tension and viscosity inks in the field of organic photovoltaics.
  • Closed account added an answer:
    Which is best to use, Tween 20 and Tween 80?
    I'm wondering if its possible to use Tween 20/80 as a carrier/solubilizer to dissolve a hydrophobic substance. So far, I tried heating either Tween to around 70C, and it manage to dissolve my hydrophobic substances. But when I remove it from the heat plate, it starts to turn into like white solid like ghee, which I guess happens because of the decrease in temperature to the cloud point?

    I'm trying to understand the differences in both Tween. I read somewhere that tween 20 is better to emulsify small amounts of lighter oils; whereas Tween 80 to emulsify larger amounts of heavier oil.
    Then I check the HLB value (wikipedia) in which:

    12 to 15: detergent
    12 to 16: O/W (oil in water) emulsifier
    16 to 20: solubiliser or hydrotrope

    Tween 20 (16.7) seems like a better choice as it can act as a solubiliser or O/W emulsifier compare to Tween 80. But then other sources said tween 80 is better to emulsify larger amount of heavier oil?Which sounds like its better to solubilised my hydrophobic substances.

    Erm. Do correct me if I'm wrong.

    In order to use either tween 20 or 80 y have to look for pH of te midium each one works in different situation pH, type of oil, amount of olis.......etc
  • What is the best fluorophore for the labeling of a spray dried chitosan?
    In my lab work, I dissolve Chitosan in 1% acetic acid to be applied in spray drying.
    For the characterization of the spray dried product (Chitosan Acetate), I need to label the chitosan with suitable fluorophore. That means this fluorophore should work in acidic medium and is convenient for spray drying application.
    Shaban Ahmed Ali Abdel-Raheem · Agricultural Research Center, Egypt


  • Steva Levic added an answer:
    What is the most suitable solution for bacterial cell release after spray drying immobilization?
    I am working with alginate and chitosan immobilization of bacterial cells. I am experiencing some difficulties in the assessment of the process yield, in what concerns to determining the viable number of cells after spray drying. I am now resuspending the spray dried product in NaCl 0,85% and make successive dilutions for spreading. However, after 24h, few cells have been released.
    Steva Levic · University of Belgrade
    1. Alginate should be soluble even in water (without NaCl). But in this case NaCl is necessary for bacterial cell osmotic stability.
    2. Chitosan is soluble in diluted acids (HCl or acetic acid).
    3. Do you see any visual changes in your suspension upon addition to NaCl solution? Are particles completely disintegrated. If not, try with magnetic stirrer to break particles.
    4. Are you used proven protocol for spray drying of bacterial cells? Conditions during spray drying are critical for cells viability.
  • Ravi Kant Upadhyay added an answer:
    Anyone an expert on Antioxidant Assay (ABTS)?
    I'm a total newbie on antioxidant assay. Trying to determine antioxidant activity of an encapsulated polyphenolic compound

    So I was looking at some journals for ABTS Assay procedures, and got quite confused as below:


    2) http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/18%20(04)%202011/(32)IFRJ-2011-023.pdf

    This is the confusion part for me:
    For (1), 7mM ABTS solution mixed with K2S2O8 solution. In that mixture, the concentration of K2S2O8 is 2.45mM.
    Whereas for (2) equal amount of 7mM ABTS solution is mixed 2.45mM K2S2O8 solution. Doesnt that mean the final concentration of K2S2O8 in that mixture is 1.225mM.

    Is (2) correct. Are they trying to get final concentration of 1.225mM. Or am I reading it incorrectly?
    Ravi Kant Upadhyay · Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gorakhpur University

    Methods of assessing antioxidant behaviour fall into two broad categories reflecting the focus on activity in foods or bioactivity in humans. In the case of food systems, the need is to assess the efficacy of an antioxidant(s) in providing protection for the food7 against oxidative spoilage. A sub category involves measurement of activity in foods, particularlyfruits, vegetables and beverages, but with a view to predicting dietary burden and in vivo activity. Reference is Antioxidant capacity of reaction products limits the applicability of the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay. Mariken J T J Arts, Guido R M M Haenen, Hans-Peter Voss, Aalt Bast

  • Oleg Gusev added an answer:
    What is the main difference between gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in relation to desiccation tolerance?
    I would like to make a comparison between gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in relation to desiccation tolerance.
    Oleg Gusev · Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University
    Oh, interesting, is the Mn(II) story is taking place in the taxa other than Deinococcus ?
  • Stephen Warren added an answer:
    Has anyone (else) used dry-spraying of a nitric acid solution to obtain gas-phase nitric acid?
    We used it for generating the highly adsorptive nitric acid vapor as an alternative for the permeation tube (discussed by Karl Cammann in these topics).
    It is briefly described in
    Artefacts in the sampling of nitrate studied in the “INTERCOMP” campaigns of EUROTRAC-AEROSOL
    M. Schaap et al
    Atmospheric Environment. 12/2004; 38(38):6487-6496
    Stephen Warren · Marlow
    Harry - I was director of the environment lab for the UK water authorities from 1980 -1987. Acid rain was a minor problem for them and we avoided it because it was a crowded field already. in 1982 I was asked to chair a government committee because the state electric power company was at war with the state-funded environment laboratories. My job was to keep the peace while we produced a report. I was a neutral with a background that meant I could pick up the science as we went along. We finished in 1984 and I left the subject then but had learned a lot and not all to do with acid rain! I left the water research centre in 1992 after the govt privatised the water authorities and spent the next 18 years working as a consultant in former communist countries, on EU, WB, or nationally funded projects.
  • Katerina Simkova added an answer:
    Unstable spray in spray drying - can anyone help?
    Can someone please share some thoughts on why do I get an unstable spray in spray drying? The spray is pulsating (looks like it is spitting). It does not matter what kind of solvent/solution/suspension/emulsion I am feeding, the result is always the same. The system is Büchi P-290.
    Katerina Simkova · University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland
    Hello Alen, so we had our spray dryer checked last week and it seems that it helped (but I didn't try so far anything else than water). We had problem with the most inner part of the nozzle and with the cap that you put on as first when you assemle the whole nozzle. Thus the nozzle's inner part was not symetrically positioned in the cap where it comes into conntact with the atomizing gas. Regards, Katerina

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