Jenya Iuzzini-Seigel added an answer:Is apraxia of speech (AOS) the same as language delay?
Is apraxia of speech (AOS) the same as language delay? and what are the most featured phonological patterns that characterize apraxic people?
Is there a specific battery used to diagnose apraxia of speech? and in case there is not, what are its symptoms?
Greetings! Our new research on Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) is showing that there is a very high rate of comorbid language impairment among children with CAS. In addition, children with CAS+language impairment perform differently on speech perception tasks compared with those who have CAS-only (speech symptoms only). CAS on its own is considered a motor speech disorder, however, given the high rate of comorbid language impairment, it is essential that this is well evaluated and treated appropriately.Following
Lauren C. Schauf added an answer:Can anyone recommend a platform for building (or know of an existing) listening span task that can be acoustically manipulated?
I'm studying the effects of unfamiliar-accented speech on verbal working memory. I believe the task that best suits my experiment is a listening span task (LSPAN). I am interested if anyone has experience using these tasks and, in particular, if anyone has manipulated the acoustic boundaries of the stimuli. If so, can you offer advice or models for creating such a task (or point me towards one that currently exists that I may be able to use and adapt?)
Rather than rely on accented-speakers to record the LSPAN stimuli, I'd like to control for the exact acoustic features.
Rahimi and Alexandre - thank you both! I appreciate your help - all these sources seem like exactly what I need.Following
Amaury Lendasse added an answer:What is the best available toolbox for implementation of Deep Neural Networks (DNN)?
There are plenty of toolboxes offering functions for this specific task, so it would be great if we could all contribute and conclude about the best available DNN toolbox to this date (mainly for speech applications).
It will be great if we can give the pros and cons of using any toolbox and at the end we will conclude from the top voted answers.
Brenda Vigil added an answer:Can you recommend readings on Bakhtin and genre theory?
I am reading Bakhtin's "Problem of Speech Genre" and his Philosophy of the Act in the hopes of gaining a better understanding of his views on genre. Can anyone recommend additional readings, whether by Bakhtin or about his thought?
My favorite go-to for Bakhtin is Discourse in the Novel. He talks about genre, jargon, social layering, time periods and generations which all relate to genre writing.Following
Monika Połczyńska added an answer:Are there any neurolinguistic and psycholinguistic proofs on part of speech and syntactic position?
I think part of speech has a close relation with syntactic position. But I don't have any proof on this issue, especially proofs from neurolinguistic and psycholinguistic study. Can anybody help me with this?
There have been a number of fMRI studies on parts of speech and syntax, including (but not limited to) canonical versus non canonical word order. Here are a few articles that might be useful: Bornkessel et al. 2005, Be-Shachar and Grodzinsky 2004, Mack et al. 2013, and Meltzer-Asscher et al. 2015
Here you have PubMed links to these publications:
Best of luck!
Corinne Seals added an answer:How can I improve speech and language communication in children that have English as an additional language ?
Hope you can help me
Recent research suggests that a Flexible Multilingual Educational policy may be best - allowing children to codeswitch between their home language and the language they're learning (English) to build strength in all of their languages simultaneously. The new book on Flexible Multilingual Education for children by Jean-Jacques Weber (2014) does a fantastic job explaining this.Following
Akpan Jimmy Essien added an answer:What are the Spectral and Temporal Features in Speech signal?
IN speech signal processing, i am getting these two terms more and more. what are they actually?
The most common spectral feature used by beginners in the study of sound is the direction of frequency modulation, rising, level or falling. This helps in the study of tone and intonation. In music or speech acoustics, a Fourier transform produces the harmonic components of the sound called the spectral structure of the signal. This can be displayed in various ways as Caka pointed out above. Thus, in a periodic signal where the vibrations repeat over time, if the first harmonic partial is 100 Hz, for example, the following ones will be 200, , 300, 400, 500, etc. But this is rarely the case in naturally produced sounds. Please note that there is no established law linking spectral components or features to the reality that we here when we experience sound.Following
beh zad Ghorbani added an answer:Is the "musical noise" generated by some Speech Enhancement algorithms uniformly distributed across the spectrum?
I am trying to assess the degree of degradation that "musical noise" causes in the low frequency bands of the spectrum of speech signals. Perceptually (playing back the treated signal) this artifact is stronger in mid and high frequencies (over 700 Hz), however I need an objective way to confirm or disprove this.
Does anyone have information on this subject or knows a way to evaluate the amount of musical noise present in a signal?
Thank you very much.
I can improvement the musical noise with perceptual frequency masking filter.Following
Jonathan Arthur added an answer:How do I proceed in case of normal pure tone and speech audiometric results but complaint of difficulty hearing under background noise?
An adult person complaints of difficulty hearing in background noise. Pure tone audiometry and speech audiometry reveals normal findings with good speech discrimination scores. ABR and OAE results normal. What can be the further investigations required? and possible interventions
Diagnosis of APD is probably more straight forward than the rehabilitation in my opinion. I agree with Alan around using specific rehabilitation for these types of patients, hearing therapy / auditory rehabilitationist (depending where you are based) would be useful. More recently I have advised lipreading classes by a qualified lipreading teacher. Another possible helpful solution would be to use a hearing aid set with zero / minimal gain connected to a wireless lapel microphone to improve the signal to noise ratio for certain 1 to 1 listening situations. Re-sound can supply these. Often an explanation of the condition can help too.Following
Kuruvachan K George added an answer:Where can I find the methods that find the silence intervals of speech?
Because the result of noisy speech filtering strongly depends on the silence intervals problem solution.
Such algorithms are part of Voice Activity Detectors (VAD), used to detect the silence segments in the speech data. Various techniques such as, signal energy, zero crossing, spectral centroid.. are used to in those algorithms. One of our papers is also attached.Following
Sruthi Janardhan Rao added an answer:Is there a speech assessment for cleft palate children?
What is the ideal age for speech assessment for the cleft children?
What are the measures of speech assessment that can be done in day to day practice?
How soon after cleft palate surgery should the speech assessment be done?
There is a comprehensive method of assessing speech in cleft patients that I regularly use. You can read the same in this article:
Henningsson G, Kuehn DP, Sell D, Sweeney T, Judith ET, Whitehill TL. Universal parameters for reporting speech outcomes in individuals with cleft palate.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2008; 45:1–17Following
At L Hof added an answer:What is the typical lung pressure for normal human phonation/speech?
I need the value of lung pressure to set up the boundary condition for the inflow for a 2D vocal fold simulation for a normal phonation condition.
You may try to consult the thesis of Harm Schutte at
César Asensio added an answer:How can one use posterior probability of Gaussian mixture model using matlab?
In my work, I want to use Gaussian mixture model in speaker identification. I use Mel frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC) to extract the feature extraction of the training and testing speech signal and I use obj= fitgmdist(X,K) to estimate the parameter of Gaussian mixture model for training speech signal. I use [p, nlogl]=posterior(obj, testdata) and I choose the minimum (nlogl) to show the maximum similarity between reference and testing models as shown in matlab attach file.
The problem in my program is the minimum nlogl changes and it recognizes different speaker even if I use the same testing speech signal. For example, when I run the program for the first time, the program recognize that the first testing speaker has the maximum similarity with training speech signals (I=1) and If try to run the program again for the same testing speech, I will get the five testing speaker have the maximum similarity with training model . I do not know what is the problem in the program and why the program gives different speaker when I run the program for three times for the same testing speech signal .can any person specialize in speaker regonition system and Gaussian mixture model answer about my question
With best regards
I would suggest to test prtools toolbox for matlabFollowing
Nikola Ilankovic added an answer:What is the etiological relationship between MMS immunization and leasio of internal ear (laesio cochleae and n. cochlearis) by children?
What are the consequences on the speech development? What is the connection with autistic development?
Thank You Vladimir. But the Morbilli are in over 90 % very light illnes by little children! The complications are most frequently by adults. Why is then necessery the immunisation?? THe immune rection after infection and or immunistion can delay 6 and more months.Following
Alexander I. Rudnicky added an answer:Is there any effect of speech signals volume on the performance of speaker recognition systems ?
Is there any effect of speech signals volume on the performance of speaker recognition systems? For example, if the audio files used in the learning stage have a larger volume than those used at the test step, is this difference of volume will affect the performance of the speaker recognition system?
Well, if the data are too loud and it will be distorted. So first make sure there's no clipping. Also note that the source of the loudness makes a difference. Is it because the gain was too high, or were people shouting? Other things being equal the training data ought to be reasonable similar to the test data; the end this is still a pattern matching problem.
Note that techniques such as CMN (spectral mean normalization) are useful. In our own work we haven't observed much effect of normalization: the features are spectral, so as long as that information is reasonably there, things should should work. If anything, we've noticed that attempts at normalization usually degrade performance.
Of course what you should do to find for sure in your situation, simply do different trainings and see what happens.Following
Iman Esmaili added an answer:Does using speech samples with SNR < 0 make my recognition less accurate?
I am doing isolated word recognition based on MFCCs. some of my samples revealed to have SNR < 0, should I use them or simply delete them?
Of course using low SNR data degrades your recognition accuracy But to use the low SNR data or not depends on your recognition plan. we have clean speech recognition and noisy speech recognition. If you have no restriction in environment just use the clean speech but if your system must work in different conditions you must use all of your data and you have to find some way to deal with noise.
for example: spectral subtraction is a simple and efficient way to deal with white noise.Following
Chilin Shih added an answer:How can I estimate a person's vocal tract length, using a recorded audio file?I'm performing some experiments that require a vocal tract length change, but I need to know the original one.
I'm aware of the formula: L = c / 4F, where the "c" is the speed of sound (34029 cm/s) and "F" is the first formant frequency. I'm also aware that I should use vowels closest as possible to an unconstricted vocal tract.
However, I made a few experiments with the software program Praat and I got rather different and difficult to interpret results. In a single vowel, I get a large range of frequencies (1st formant ones), so I thought I should focus on the average? Is that correct? Moreover, among different vowels I get very different results. Is that normal?
Thanks in advance!
Alternatively, we got reasonable measurement using two microphones, one placed at the mouth and one at the throat outside the glottis, and estimate the distance by the time it takes for the acoustic wave to travel from the glottis to the opening of the mouth. The technique is described in "A quasi-glottogram signal", JASA 2003.
Mihai Prunescu added an answer:Can somebody give me some examples of phonemic variations in a language and the probable reasons for such variations?
In Ghana, I have observed that the phoneme /j/ is realized as /dz/; /y/ or /Ʒ/ in speeches by individuals. I have also noticed that the difference in the realizations depends on either the absence or the presence of the target phoneme in the learners’ speech (i.e. transfer errors). Where it is present but the realizations are not the same, the learner tries to articulate the phoneme as a phoneme he/ she already knows. Where the target phoneme does not exist in the already known languages of the learner, he or she tries to make a substitution with another phoneme that exists in his or her linguistic repertoire. Can someone share with me some example of phonemic variations that he or she has noticed in their students’ speeches? Are the reasons for the variations different from what I have stated?
Some of such variations are determined by areas of speakers. The romanian word "pe" (on) is spoken around Bucharest like " pă". There are towsends of such area dependent prononciations in many languages. In German, the past perfect particle "ge" is spoken in the Berlin area like "ie" (written je). The expression "Hast du jedient" ("Have you served in the army?") instead of "Hast du gedient?" is classical.Following
Peggy Katelhoen added an answer:How are verbs of communication used to introduce Direct Speech in different languages?
I am exploring the use of verbs of communication (verba dicenda) across languages and genres. My main aim is to see whether typological differences across languages (as described by Talmy) are maintained in the domain of communication. I am particularly concerned with how different languages use VoCs to introduce (and reconstruct) Direct Speech in written narratives and the rhetorical implications of this use, but I am also interested in their use in oral contexts. Any research dealing with this will be much appreciated.
There is an older publication (German and Spanish): Hernández, Eduardo Jorge (1993):
Verba dicendi. Kontrastive Untersuchungen Deutsch-Spanisch. Series: Hispano-Americana. Frankfurt/M., Berlin, Bern, New York, Paris, Wien,
and my own book: Katelhön, Peggy (2005): Das fremde Wort im Gespräch: Rededarstellung und Redewiedergabe in italienischen und deutschen Gespächen, Berlin: Weidler Verlag (discourse representation in spoken Italian and German languages),
For German I found out that there are verbs like "kommen" (come) that can indroduce an DS with an implicit negative valutation....Very interesting are also such forms without a verb "e lui/e lei" and "ich so, er so" o with the verb "fare" make" in Italian...Examples and bibliographie you can find in the book
With best regards, PKFollowing
Eddy B. Brixen added an answer:Acoustic analysis of speech - recommendations for lapel mics?
I am planning a series of 'field recordings' of speech. An individual speaker per recording - to be conducted in 'a quiet indoor space'. Planned analyses include format tracking (F0-3).
Researchers in the field of acoustic/phonetic analysis of speech: What lapel mics do you use? What are your experiences with different models? Do you have recommendations for particular models currently available? Would prefer an economical solution (for multi-site testing), but open to suggestions.
The distance and the axis is important. We have seen discussions on different LTASS profiles in different languages - and the discussion was really about the placement of microphones. A perfect microphone is the DPA4060. Remove the grid and you have a flat frequency response, low noise, and low distortion mic.
But placing the microphone on the chest makes you loose approximately 10 dB at 3-4 kHz!! (check this paper: Brixen, E.B.: Spectral degradation of speech captured by miniature microphones mounted on persons heads and chests. AES Convention no. 100, Copenhagen, Denmark. Preprint 4284.
A headset microphone that works is DPA d:fine 66. The level is 10 dB higher "at the edge of your smile" compared to the chest mounted mic. And this provides you with 10 dB less background noise......
T. Nagarajan added an answer:Why is it necessary to have a restriction of minimum-phase signal to use modified group delay?
The group delay function can be effectively used for various speech processing tasks only when the signal under consideration is a minimum phase signal.
Yes, it is compulsory. The group delay is, to certain extent, similar to the magnitude spectrum of the signal. Those spikes are due to wrapped phase and not actual, and it has to be avoided.Following
Gregorio Rodríguez Herrera added an answer:Is there a corpus with whistled speech tokens from Silbo Gomero?
I am looking to do research with a learning experiment that requires whistling tokens. Specifically, my past research has focused on Silbo Gomero, so I am now in need of access to sound bites from that language. If there are Spanish translations to accompany the whistled sound bite, that would be ideal! Thank you!
I think these woks of M. Trapero may be interestFollowing
Michael Clarke added an answer:What are the main differences between children and adult speech?
I know that this question is too general, but I want to get opinions on the possible ways to split these differences into several groups, eg. “Acoustic and linguistic differences”.
Thank you very much in advance.
I am sure I am not telling you anything you already do not know. Speech awareness and production change as the childs aerodigestive tract and articulatory structures grow neurologically and physically. The more complex articulatory motions develop in skill last. That is why so many SLPs in the school sytem are working on remediating pronunciatieon of /s/ /r/ /l/ and why the general population still does not accurately pronounce /z/ at the end of words. Children living in the Midwest United States in Kindergarten and first grade are not fully expected to have mastered /r/ produciton. Competence goes in grossly predictable patterns. (/m n ng p f h w/, /b d g k r/, /t th L v/, /sh ch dg/) In addition illness of childhood compromise pronunciation. We have a life style that aggrigavates sinus mucosa and so velar valving for non/nasal produciton is frequently a contrast between the young and old (the older population have less of a problem with this). The same problems are agrivating eustation tube function so middle ear problems and hearing of low frequency sounds is often poor in the younger population. Confusion of sounds is common.
Gross Linguistic factors have to do with onset of various linguistic development of referrent (word appoximations) based on frequency of useage, contrast of nasal and stops, starting with higly visible-labilal sounds (eg:mama, papa, baw/ball), gross differnetiation of place/manner/ voicing( gawgy.doggy), simplificaiton of articulation (Is/Its),
semantic (phrase) development and
syntactic development with semantic markers of plural /s,z/; gerund/ infinitive marking (-er), verb modifier (ly). Early errors will occur due to the complexity of the linguistical formulation the child is attempting or the communicaiton load put upon them. (eg: my son's use of CRACKIE: confusing COOKIE and CRACKER. thinger/finger) and early onset dysfluency .
I am sure their are early education, preschool, and school therapist who can amplify this explination if not to give you better examples..
Adults of various(and varying from sinus porblems) skill levels may have difficulty with polysyllabic coarticulation/sequencing, maintaining voicing/developing enough intra oral pressure for voicing and so symplify or revert to poorly learned patterns and phoneme sequences (Black dialect has formatlized one of theses into using AX/Ask. This also occurs in simplification or undershoot in pronunciation of blends like [n/-nd], sibilants [s/-sts], or voiced sibilants s/-z, -sh/-ch.
The low income population can have missing teeth or low grade pain that distract oral feedback of pronunciation.
Persons with GERD may have a loss of molars and restricted breathing from abdominal pain. Any recent change to the articulators will have an immediate though usually temporary affect on pronunciation. Just think of the last time you had novocaine at the dentist office.
The elderly have problems not so much from hearing loss (bone conduction for auditory feedback is often better than the acoustic signals for conductive loss -low frequency sounds, likley equvialent for high frequncy sounds -sibilants fricatives, affricates). The more frequent problem is from poorly fitting dentures. Articulatory accuracy suffers especially for sibilants that require a fine airstream to be broken against the teeth. Also range of motion and rapid articulatory motion are hampered by a restricted tongue that is using the lateral tongue often to hold the dentition in place. The least thought of is .. age or illness related muscle weakness (sarcopenia) waisting most profoundly found in bedbound elderly. Muscle wasting can occur after 4 days of inactivity./ in bed especaily orally with oral -throat soreness from cancer treatment on alternate feeding.
Masoud Qanbari asked a question:How can i find 300 or 600 bps speech codec source codes?
need help in very low bit rate codec.Following
Fernando A. Marengo Rodriguez added an answer:Speech to text software
I am looking for a free speech to text (STT) software for writing technical documents (BSc, MSc, PhD, etc). I've found a list here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_speech_recognition_software
Which STT software do you recommend and why?
Thank you very much in advance.
Thank you! Then, which software package do you recommend Jan?Following
Tanja Golja added an answer:Do you know an expert in learning analytics?
I would like to know who can give a great speech about learning analytics in the contexts of k-12 school or higher education. I am preparing an international forum about learning analytics in Seoul, South Korea. Could you recommend an expert whom I can invite for the forum?
Professor Simon Buckingham Shum
Emilia Iglesias Fernández added an answer:Is there any way to detect anxiety or stress cues from language (e.g. a text corpus or a speech)?
I'm talking about things like themes, but also cooccorrencies count etc. I can't seem to find any literature.
In an observational study of an simultaneous interpreting corpus of the European Parliament original English speeches, one Spanish interpreter`s input displayed a high degree of anxiety: I measured with PRAAT for clusters of speech rate, pitch range, pitch contour and disfluencies. The finding showed a high degree of coarticulation (morphemes and words uttered on top of each other), less number of pauses, higher speech rate and higher intensity (Iglesias and Gaedeke 2012)Following
Xaver Koch added an answer:Can we measure the amount of stress required to produce speech?
In particular, during voiced speech production? I am looking for understanding the process of speech production in detail.
As a starting point:
Effect of vocal effort on spectral properties of vowels by Jean-Sylvain Liénard & Maria-Gabriella Di Benedetto, JASA 1999Following
Claire Colombel added an answer:Who knows where databases for language recognition can be obtained?Also, I'm looking for the speech databases (or databases of speech features) of different languages: european, asian, etc.
You may also try childes
Juan-Manuel Lopez-Muñoz added an answer:When does a speech act begin?
Physically and linguistically, a speech act begins when a speaker utters the words. But the planning and organization of the phonological, semantic, syntactic and pragmatic components of the utterance are always in process while speaking. Should they be seen as part of a speech act? And if so, should the linguistic planning be seen as the beginning of a speech act? Thanks
Usually a speech act precedes another; if not, a speech act is preceded by a gesture, especially a movement approach towards someone. I think it is not a question of borders but continuum of communication.Following
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.