Solar Cells

Solar Cells

  • Ashkan Shafiee added an answer:
    How can I make effective electric contacts to carachterise organic solar cells?

    After having deposited all of the thin-films of photoactive materials on ITO/PET substrate to build a bulk-heterojunction solar cell (ITO/PEDOT/P3HT:PCBM/Al), I need to contact electrodes to make electrical carachterisation. It is easy to contact the outmost Al but: how can I contact the buried underlying ITO to make an effective electrical connection?

    Ashkan Shafiee · Wake Forest School of Medicine

    Using a little bit of the solvent of your active layer remove small part of the thin film. Do it very carefully. One probe on Al and the another one on the ITO. If you have different Al lines on the same substrate it means you have different cells there, so check each one of them. 

  • Bouraoui Ilahi added an answer:
    Did anyone work on 1D Drift Diffusion Model for Crystalline Solar Cells ?

    I was wondering if anyone has ever worked on Drift Diffusion Model for Crystalline Solar Cells finite element analysis on python. I am trying to write the code to do that and I am seeking for some help.

    Bouraoui Ilahi · King Saud University

     A COMSOL Tutorial in this issue is available freely in the web

  • Alexander N Titov added an answer:
    Is it possible to assemble perovskite solar cell without using vacuum depositing?

    The counter electrode is prepared by vacuum deposition of gold and is there any alternative method available instead of that.  

    Alexander N Titov · Institute of Metal Physics

    May be chemical sedimentation?

  • Leszek A. Majewski added an answer:
    What is the best way to deposit Al2O3 on one side of the wafer by ALD?

    So am depositing ALD for PERC cell and as an ARC and whenever I do the deposition there is some Al2O3 creeping on the other side of the wafer and cleaning process becomes difficult.Is there anyway to avoid this when depositing Al2O3 by ALD

    Leszek A. Majewski · The University of Manchester

    You could use a polymer photoresist which would be easy to remove after the deposition of Al2O3, i.e. dipping your sample in acetone would dissolve the photoresist film and lift-off the undesired Al2O3 layer from the other side of the wafer.

  • V. V. Kusnezh added an answer:
    How can we solve the matching problems of the heterojunction?

    In the solar cell the static electric field keeps main role to generate the (photo) voltage. The static electric field is been produced by carriers (electrons) transporting from one side to other side. I have prepared  heterojunction solar cells by chemical methods. There was no static electric field (as well as depletion region) in some heterojunctions. We had decided it was matching problems in the contact region of the materials (n & p type semiconductors).

    V. V. Kusnezh · Lviv Polytechnic

    Both deposition methods are "wet" ones. In film pinholes you have residuals of initial solution. The post deposition treatment and drying is wery important.
    You have heterostructure with uncontrolled electrolyte insite. When apply voltage a electrochemical reaction will start. The heterostructure current increase till 0.8 V (water decomposition). Bubbles occurs and break the electrical circuit.
    Individually films fabricated by "wet" method may have good performance but in heterostructures occurs problems of electrolyte residuals.

  • Jephias Gwamuri added an answer:
    Does the magnetic properties of a nanoparticle have any importance when used as the top layer of plasmonic solar sell?

    We have seen silver and gold nanoparticles have been used on top of plasmonic solar cell to increase the light absorption. Now, the magnetic properties of silver and gold have any effect on solar cell? What i mean, whether the material used on top of solar cell, it;s magnetic properties have any influence on solar cell?

    Thank you in advance

    Jephias Gwamuri · Michigan Technological University

    Interesting question, but I would like to agree with Nicolo on this one. Even if the Ag clusters do exhibit some magnetic properties, I am not sure this will affect the device performance. Generally, the B-field does not interact with light, the exception being only in the case of the Faraday rotation which requires  special crystals. With reference to solar cell, I doubt if this field is huge enough to interact with the e-h pairs significantly in the device.

  • Clifford Hansen added an answer:
    How can I measure sun light intensity in mW/Cm2 using light meter?

    How can I measure sun light intensity in mW/Cm2 using light meter?

    Clifford Hansen · Sandia National Laboratories

    Short answer - you can't with any precision.  Illuminance, in lux, is the integral of power density (power at wavelength) weighted by the luminosity function (see wikipedia articles on 'lumen' or 'luminosity function'  It is impossible to precisely map illuminance back to irradiance but some kind of approximation may be possible.  However, a light meter is almost certainly, at its core, a photovoltaic device, which measured W/m2 (at some spectral response) so it might be hacked if one could get at the internal circuitry.

  • Abdelhalim Zekry added an answer:
    I have fabricated a DSSC. How can I now fill factor (FF), Short circuit current (Isc) and Open Circuit Voltage using Electrochemical workstation?

    Using multimeter I measured the output voltage and output current while exposing in sunlight. I can't able to find the fill factor using that. We have an electrochemical workstation with us. How to calculate the fill factor of the solar cell? 

    Abdelhalim Zekry · Ain Shams University

    Adding to the above, from the principle point of view there is no difference  for measuring  the I-V characteristic of any solar cell. They are two terminal devices. They have an anode and a cathode and you measure their terminal characteristics. The solar cells operate in the Fourth quadrant of the I-V diagram when they are illuminated. To get the fill factor you  have to scan the whole I-V curve from the short circuit to open circuit conditions by connecting variable resistive load between the anode and he cathode.

    In DSSC as a photoelectrochemical cell, it has a working electrode , which is the photo electrochemical electrode, a counter electrode and may have reference electrode. The reference electrode i used when determining the characteristics of the electrodes. An electrochemical electrode constitutes a half cell. The cell is composed of  the working and the counter electrode.

    These are just basic definitions to put things into order as we follow the concept: you measure as you define.

    Then you may also use the method in the paper:

    wish you success

  • Elena Diana Giol added an answer:
    How do you dissolve polyethyelene terephthalate (PET)?

    I'm trying to dissolve PET to make a film out of it. I'm having a hard time finding good solvents and procedures online and would appreciate any help I can get.

    Elena Diana Giol · Ghent University

    PET dissolves at room temperature in halogenated strong acids such as trifluoroacetic acid (either pure or as mixtures with dichloromethane).

  • Amin Bennouna added an answer:
    What are the designing features I can implement to decrease the cost of solar pannels?

    If I want to prepare a solar pannel which can produce 1.5kw . But the cost would be around 70.000 rupees. Will it be possible? Can I use mirrors for reflections?

    Amin Bennouna · Cadi Ayyad University


    Your question lacks of clarity:

    1- Needs: Mention if you intend to generate 1.5KW of electricity or heat,

    2- Wording: avoid using the word "panel" which is generic while "module" is clearly for PV and "collector" is clearly for solar thermal. Your personal topics include both solar thermal and PV and do not help to understand which one you are talking about.

    3- Power is meant, at a system output or the solar generator ("panel") output: Specify if you expect this 1.5KW as an output from the overall system or only from the "panel".

    4- Conditions: Mention the conditions under which you expect your "panel" to generate 1.5kW. is it for any specific condition for solar thermal ? Or is the STC power for solar PV (in this case the right unit abbreviation is Wp) ?

    If, as I understood, 70'000 Rupees count for 1'015 Euros:

    - PV market: 0.676 Euro per Wp is very near to the present Asian retail prices,

    - Solar Thermal: 2m² count currently for 1.4kW and your budget fits almost this.

  • Bellel Nadir added an answer:
    What is the best DC/DC converter to use for a PV panel for a microgrid application?

    I am working on load power balancing for a migrid renewable energy system. I have developed a model of a PV panel with a short circuit current of 8.63A, and an open circuit voltage of 21.06Volts. I need to connect this a microgrid network of 230V 50Hz AC bus.

    Literatures suggest the use of a DC/DC converter for maximum power transfer of a PV system before it is connected via an inverter to the AC bus. Please i need advise on how to implement an efficient DC/DC converter. What i have done so far is to use a buck converter with a PID controller which changes the duty cycle, BUt i am still getting a change in voltage, current and power transfer to the DC output of the buck converter when ever i change the load resistance

    Bellel Nadir · University of Constantine 1

    DC / AC Interface storage system coupled to the DC bus. Both cases will
    - Case of a DC / AC inverter with a single interface;
    - Case of a DC / AC interface with multiple inverters in parallel.
    • DC / AC Interface storage system coupled to the AC bus.
    Of previous work GREEN and other laboratories have shown
    the interest of the control strategies using the concept of differential flatness systems
    [SHA 11] - [ZAN, 10] - [PAY, 09]. Power structures used were
    DC / DC isolated or non-isolated converters. We propose to apply this technique to
    case of DC / AC converters interface. The main advantage of this technique is
    that it is possible to know even transient, the trajectories of
    the system state variables.

    let me suggest you this THESE

  • Rakhi Grover added an answer:
    Will the electrolyte content of Dye sensitized solar cells change over time?

    I am asking about the electrolyte of dye sensitized solar cells. I prepared this using potassium iodide and iodine in ethylene glycol, can I use it for long time or must I prepare it fresh prior to doing an experiment? Will the electrolyte content change with time?

    Rakhi Grover · National Physical Laboratory - India

    Thanks to all foe such valuable discussions

    i just wanted to know, what  changes in electrolyte are usually observed over time. 

  • Pavel A Troshin added an answer:
    How can we find the optimum thickness of the solar cells to get the maximum efficiency?

    The thickness of solar cells should be less than the diffusion length of the induced carriers. To avoid the unnecessary resistance and to reduce the production cost thickness should be equal or less than the width of the depletion region. Much smaller thickness produces weak static electric fields in the depletion region.  

    Pavel A Troshin · Russian Academy of Sciences

    Dear Waranatha, 

    please, look up publications of Atilla Mozer and his colleagues. People from Konarka (C. Brabec as coathor) also did some work in that direction. 

    And also please follow the citattions for early reports in the respective publications of A. Mozer. 

  • Łukasz Skowroński added an answer:
    What is the maximum thickness value reached of thin layer anti-reflective used in the solar panel system and the reasons for use on these cells ?

    Value that can be up to them if you use a layer in the way pressing powders in the process of synthesis

    Łukasz Skowroński · University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz

    In the attachment you have the simulation of the R spectra of TiO2 layers on Si (different thickness of titanium dioxide layer).

  • Messaoud DJEDDOU added an answer:
    What is the temperature global factor correction to obtain a normalized corrected peak sun hour?

    In a common PV design, the engineer uses the PSH (peak sun hour) of the place, to estimate the energy from the PV module during a day, month or year. But the PSH obtained from GHI (global horizontal irradiance) in a place, dont take into account the ambient temperature correction, because at a certain irradiance and temperature, the PV module adquire a temperature higher than the STC. If we know a global temperature correction factor to apply in  PSH, the calculation for the design must be easier than the value obtained with complex calculations or more reliable than the value obtained with the simplest calculations. If someone knows a previous work related with a global correction factor, please advice me with the refferences to search it. Thanks in advance. I am trying to obtain this factor with measurements and equations if someone is interested in work and share with us, is welcome. Best regards,

    Messaoud DJEDDOU · Larbi Ben Mhidi University

    Dear Martinez,
    I find your work very interesting, i would just like to contribute with my Added link to this estimate pv.

    I would like to work on prediction of pvgis and Solar Global Irrdition using ANN  in specific regions.

    Best regards

  • Farzaneh Arabpour added an answer:
    In multilayer PV solar cells, how can I choose the materials (gap and contact type) in order to increase efficiency ?

    When the PV solar cell is used in a multi layer form, the goal is to benefit of a large interval of solar radiations. I think that the gap and the contact of different layers must have certain properties. How to choose the different materials for this application: (gap and type of contact) ?

    Farzaneh Arabpour · Tarbiat Modares University

    Dear Kebbab

    Band engineering of nanoparticles such as QDs can be useful for fabricating multilayer structures.

  • Minu Mohan added an answer:
    How do I etch In2O3/Au/Ag coating from an optical grade polyester (PET) film?

    For making flexible solar cell, I need to etch some portion of the PET film coated with In2O3/Au/Ag. I prefer wet etching. Which chemical can be used as etchent?

    Minu Mohan · Indian Institute Of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram

    Thank you Nikhil.

  • Saranya Ram added an answer:
    Is plasma treatment of ITO/PEDOT:PSS absolutely necessary to produce average quality organic solar cells?
    I am trying to fabricate p3ht:pcbm solar cells to obtain a reference efficiency for my future research. However, my photocurrents have been extremely low. From what I've read, ITO cleaning procedures are absolutely vital to making these devices work. I was wondering if ultrasonication in acetone, alcohol, DI water for 10-15 minutes each would be sufficient to produce a good PEDOT:PSS layer? Also, I've noticed my ITO is extremely hydrophobic. Is there a better cleaning method that is fairly universal?
    Saranya Ram · Indian Institute of Technology Madras

    How effective is the RCA-1 and RCA-2 cleaning of ITO substrates followed by O2 plasma treatment? Won't there be any improvement in hydrophilicity?

  • Shaikat Debnath added an answer:
    Is there any way to check the potential of a bimetalli nano-cluster for solar cell and catalysis application with DFT calculation?

    I want to know the potential of a nano-alloy for solar cell and catalysis application. I don have any experimental set up and can only do DFT calculations. So, I have picked a 7 atoms structure of that nano-alloy. I have done calculations on binding energy, ionization potential, electron affinity, homo-lumo gap and mullikan charge distribution. For optical part, I did calculation of absorption.

    With my software I can't run calculations for nm sized large particles. So, I have to do calculations only for this small clusters with my preferable doping ratio as a quantum model.

    So, if I want to know whether this nano-alloy can have potential in plasmonic solar cell, catalysis, optical sensor or, any biological application, is it possible to predict actually by some DFT calculation? If possible, what properties I need to check of that bimetallic cluster?

    Thanking you in advance

    Shaikat Debnath · University of Malaya

    Professor Patricia M. A. Farias

    Thank you very much for your suggestion.

    I am working on theoretical studies only. Yes, I am aware of the change of properties with the change of nanoparticles size and shape and I am doing various calculation to make a relation with size and shape.

    Thank you again for your comment

  • Il Jeon added an answer:
    What causes instability of perovskite solar cells?


    Many reports have been written about PSCs that work for only a few days or even less under illumination in ambient air.

    However, in some articles PSCs are stable for 100s of hours. Does this mean stability is not an issue any more?

    See e.g. the recent paper using a PSC without hole conductor, with TiO2 mesoporous scaffold.

  • Khursheed Ahmad added an answer:
    What's the major challenge of perovskite solar cells?
    It is such a hot topic these days. What's the major challenge in this field? Is it really going to be a mainstream technology?
    Khursheed Ahmad · Chonbuk National University

    Organo metal halide perovskite are the best to date in photovoltaic devices, but why could oxide perovskites not in the same manner?e.g. CaTiO3?

  • Sheela Pavithran added an answer:
    How is degradation of dyes possible using CuO nanoparticles?

    How can we prepare and use CuO nanoparticles in degrading dyes? What is nanocatalysis? What are it's uses? What are it's biological uses? What is photocatalysis? How can I prepare solar cells from it? What are it's future uses? What are the implications of the study?

    Sheela Pavithran · Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre

    Thank you Dr. Omorogies for your answer.

  • Vladimir Chukharev added an answer:
    Is it possible to deposit ITO or FTO as an transparent electrode over the organic film?

    In OPV, ITO is mostly used transparent electrode which is always deposited on glass substrate. Has any one tried to deposit the ITO or FTO over the organic film?

    Vladimir Chukharev · Tampere University of Technology


    You state in your question "ITO ... is always deposited on glass". This is incorrect. ITO on plastic, e.g. PET, is quite a common, commercially available substrate, too. Search for "flexible organic solar cell" to find hundreds of publications with this kind of the bottom electrode.

    The topic of ITO as the top electrode is already covered by others.

  • Khursheed Ahmad asked a question:
    Organo metal halide perovskite are the best to date in photovoltaic devices, but why could oxide perovskites not in the same manner?e.g. CaTiO3?

    solar cells 

  • Atharva Sahasrabudhe added an answer:
    How can I prevent electrolyte bubbling during electrochemical impedance measurements on sensitized solar cells ?

    I have tried performing electrochemical impedance measurements on quantum dot solar cells (2 electrode device). However, each time I see some bubbling from the electrolyte which eventually rips off the TiO2 film and the counter electrode from the conducting substrate. I have tried using different electrolytes viz. polysulfide in water and polysulfide in water+methanol mixture (1:1). The measurement parameters that I use are : bias voltage (0 to 0.5 or 0 to -0.5 V), AC signal amplitude (10mV), frequency (1 MHz to 0.1 Hz). Measurements are done under dark conditions. Also, when I measure with the 3 electrode set-up under otherwise identical conditions, I face no issues like electrolyte bubbling. How can I get around this ?

    Atharva Sahasrabudhe · Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata

    For all those following this question, I figured it out after all. It was nothing more than a faulty connection with the reference electrode. Thus, effectively I was connecting my device with the counter and the working electrodes which made the potentiostat supply uncontrolled voltages and burned my device !! 

  • Seoyeon Cho added an answer:
    How can one make perovskite a solar cell?

    I made a perovskite solar cell. But it is the wrong cell. So I checked my cells with SEM, XRD. Sem image show bl-TiO2(50nm), TiO2 paste(250nm). XRD show (110),(220) peak.

    I use TiO2 Paste DSL 18NR-T(dyesol), P3HT as Hole Transport Layer, Aluminium(70nm) as Electrode.

    I have no idea why this cell doesn't work. 

    Thank you for your help

    Seoyeon Cho · Inha University

    Thanks! Everybody

    I am going to experiment again

    'Cell is wrong' means that it is not working as 'Solar cell'

    For example Fill Factor pass over 100%

  • Ankur Solanki added an answer:
    Why is there a linear I-V curve of solar cell under illumination?

    I have fabricated a Solar cell which has diode like behavior in darkness, but has linear I-V curve in 1 sun illumination. What could be the reason of this linear IV curve under light? 

    Ankur Solanki · Nanyang Technological University

    Hi Asad, Can you check your electrodes. Sometimes if cathode peneterates into the active layer than it makes short to the counter electrode and a straight line kind of behaviour is observed, as you found. In another case, too thinactive layer is  also show the similar trens.

  • why does the spiro-ometad solution with LiTFSI and tert-butyl pyridine turn red in colour with time and stirring?

    Spiro OMeTAD solution made for Perovskite solar cells are turning red in color when taken inside a glove box or when they are stirred excessively. Can anyone please let me know the mechanism involved?

    Shaban Ahmed Ali Abdel-Raheem · Assiut University

    Ok. The attached paper may help you

  • Zamin Mamiyev added an answer:
    What are the basic requirements to make p-i-n heterojunction in photovoltaic devices?

    What are the basic requirements to make p-i-n heterojunction in photovoltaic devices?

    Or which materials can make p-i-n heterojunction with each other?

    Zamin Mamiyev · Institute of Physics of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences

    Thank you very much Dear Dr. Abdelhalim Zekry

    I have begun to read the first one. it is very interesting and useful. Thanks.

  • Charles Yousif added an answer:
    The IR radiations are harmful for the performances of photovoltaic solar cells; how is-it possible to eliminate these kind of radiations ?

    Among the parameters which decrease the efficiency of the photovoltaic solar cells, we can note the solar IR radiations. This kind of radiation increases the temperature and then disturbs often the good operation of solar cells. How is-it possible to eliminate them ?

    Charles Yousif · University of Malta

    If one considers the most popular silicon cell PV modules, then it is known that IR only contributes to heating up the cells, thus reducing efficiency. They don't really harm the cells but only reduce the efficiency due to heating up. The glass of the PV module may be made with a coating that filter off IR but the costs will be high when compared to the gain. Therefore, the best is to have free ventilation under the modules to cool them as much as possible.

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