Software Engineering

Software Engineering

  • Gerro Prinsloo added an answer:
    How can I work with (ANFIS ) in Matlab to generate fuzzy rule base for fuzzy controller ?

    I know there are many ways to define fuzzy rule base for a fuzzy controller and the most common one is the user's experience ,except that ,as you know Matlab has this ability to generate fuzzy rule base , want to know how I can use it and is it functional for all kinds of rule bases applied to fuzzy controller?  I'd be so glad if you give me other methods as well.

    Gerro Prinsloo · Stellenbosch University

    Dear Saman, have you seen the development on this site yet:

  • Nick Battle added an answer:
    What are the major issues that the software engineer encounters while integrating formal methods in industrial projects?
    Formal methods have mathematical foundations. They are based on algebra or finite state machines. Are they practical? Do they justify their costs?

    Is it better to use light-weight implementations of formal methods in industrial projects to reduce costs and increase flexibility and practicality?
  • Tick József added an answer:
    Who has an experiment design for Software Architecture BSc students?

    This year, I give a lecture on software architecture for BSc students. I'm still looking for some "action" for the students, and I want to replace 2-3 exercises (4-6 hours) by an experiment. Does anybody has a design for an experiment on UML modeling? For instance, an experiment that waits for replication?

    Thanks Marco

    Tick József · Óbudai Egyetem

    Dear Marco,

    I recommend you Prof. Russell C. Bjork's ATM example in UML. The case study is complete from the analyses to the working system. You find it

    Best regards, József

  • Anthony Nash asked a question:
    Has anyone seen this error when Gaussian crashes after specifying SCF=InCore?

    Hi all,

    I've decided to try some bench marking with respects to performance and given that I have plenty of memory to play with I thought I would start by preserving all of the integrals using SCF=InCore. 

    The way the cluster that I use works requires the Gaussian memory request to be in a separate "job" file. So the regular %mem is not present. Either way I specified 16GB. This caused Gaussian to crash complaining about not enough words. After speaking with our IT guys I used the command export GAUSS_MEMDEF=4000000000. This did the trick and I wasn't getting any error message with regards to memory. 

    However, I was getting the following error message:

    Integral symmetry usage will be decided dynamically.
    397174 words used for storage of precomputed grid.
    Keep R1 ints in memory in canonical form, NReq=1352910536.
    Contradictory integral options passed to UseFC.
    Error termination via Lnk1e in /shared/ucl/apps/Gaussian/G09_C01_L/g09/linda-exe/l502.exel at Fri Sep 19 07:44:11 2014.
    Job cpu time: 0 days 0 hours 0 minutes 0.1 seconds.
    File lengths (MBytes): RWF= 172 Int= 0 D2E= 0 Chk= 1 Scr= 1
    failed to open execfile

    Any thoughts of what this could be?


  • Cristian Chilipirea added an answer:
    Do you think " cloud computing " will replace " data center " for backup data?

    Hello , big companies that has data center are they going to shift from keep a backup of their data in "data center " to upload all backups to the cloud or something like that , please do share your opinion.
    thanks in advance

    Cristian Chilipirea · Polytechnic University of Bucharest

    I assume you are talking here of a public cloud or any type of cloud offered by a different company then the one that needs to do the back-up. Any "cloud" owned by the company doing the backup has the same requirements as a data center because it basically is a data center.

    There are 2 things to consider:

    1. From a business perspective: the size of the company matters a lot. If a company is indeed big enough, and it generates enough data, the price of owning a data center is far smaller then renting space in a cloud. (There are a lot of things to consider here like: can a company buy hardware and electricity at prices comparable or smaller then the cloud provider?)

    2. Security: can the cloud provider access my data? can I encrypt it so that my data can only be accessed by me? what are the processing costs of this encryption? what happens if the cloud provider loses my data or goes our of business? do I need to store data in multiple geographical locations?

    So the answer is that it really matters on the data and on the constraints that come with it.

  • Reinhard Schwarz added an answer:
    What are the attributes/characteristics/factors to measure the quality of the software development process?
    For example, we need to know the attributes/characteristics/factors to measure the quality of the agile development approach during the development process.
    Reinhard Schwarz · Fraunhofer Institute for Experimental Software Engineering IESE

    As mentioned by others, the answer to your request strongly depends on the kinds of characteristics you want to measure.

    If you are interested in Security Metrics, then you can find some background information in our ARES2012 paper:

    Manuel Rudolph, Reinhard Schwarz:
    A Critical Survey of Security Indicator Approaches.
    Seventh International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES), Prague, August 2012
    pp. 291--300
    DOI: 10.1109/ARES.2012.10

    A long version, a technical report, is available here:

  • Saeed Siddik asked a question:
    Software Test Case Prioritization Dataset

    Currently I am studying on software test cases prioritization as my graduation thesis. However, I need some data-sets containing software test cases, requirements, and source code. It will make me very pleased if any one provide those. 

    Thank you. 

  • Pudu Atchutarao asked a question:
    Why do we get harmonics in port signals, working on cst software?

    Dear all,currently i am working on CST software. I got harmonics in port signals in 1D-results,when i was simulating a power divider(using micro striplines). Can you please help in this regard, why we are getting these harmonics even port is matched(approximately) and how to eliminate it. Thank you.

  • Lito Perez Cruz added an answer:
    Is there a software engineering methodology for functional programming? What method do you use to craft software using functional languages?
    It is a well established fact that for OO languages there is the Unified Software Development Process/RUP. I am looking for a discipline/method that is appropriate for building software using functional programming.
    Lito Perez Cruz · Monash University (Australia)

    Thanks so much Jan, that is a nice touch on FP.


  • James Hardy added an answer:
    Does providing VPN access to the cloud require re-encrypt what's already encrypted?

     Is it really "VPN "  affect work of cloud's security in general ?

    James Hardy · University of Derby

    Agree with Denis. Although it is convenient to think of a vpn as a form of dedicated point to point circuit, it is simply a packet with a source and destination. The source encrypts the original packet and the destination decrypts it. The source does not regard the data as anything more than bytes of data; the source encrypts the bytes when sending to the destination irrespective of whether it is already encrypted.

  • Victor Lopez-Cabrera added an answer:
    How do you identify the ability of the practitioner of software project management for efficient decision makings?

    Software project management generally is a process of proper decision makings. Thus, for an experienced person how it is possible to identify this ability as a simple set of criteria to see whether a subject (project manager) has that ability or not. By this question I want to know based on what facts a decision model for a project manager could be an efficient one.

    Victor Lopez-Cabrera · Universidad Tecnológica de Panamá

    PMI has said that Soft Skills are the core of best PM, imho, being an excellent communicator is the most important attribute of all.  

  • Abdulmunem Khudhair added an answer:
    How can you adopt Software Product Lines to an existing code base?

    Hello, If I want to adopt the SPL concepts to an existing code base. (I want to shift it from a single product to a product family with different features). what are the ways I can utilize to transfer the models to code (mainly core assets) to be used later? Is there an automated way? How about managing the variability? Only wrappers and ifdefs are used at the code level?

    appreciate your feedback. 

    Abdulmunem Khudhair · Dijlah University College

    What about inheritance , that allow you to re-factor your code from single to a family code with control of it.

  • Denis Havlik added an answer:
    How do you randomize a 9 x 9 grid with 81 cells to populate between 10 and 21 numbers in Visual Basic?

    I am trying to populate a Sudoku grid by placing randomized numbers between 1 to 9 throughout the 81 celled grid. I already have a solver that solves a puzzle but I want to use a button to randomly populate the grid to start a new puzzle each time the button is clicked. I am not fluent in VB code and I have been searching for an algorithm to complement my needs. I used backtracking to solve the puzzle but I need to use random to populate the grid for the beginning of the game. I have attached a copy of my public class and my backtracking algorithm. How do I get random numbers to populate my start button?

    Denis Havlik · AIT Austrian Institute of Technology

    Ha-ha, sounds like fun. According to some web articles, it may be enough to generate just one valid solution and then shuffle it according to a couple of rules in order to generate other solutions. See e.g.:

    Generating one particular solution is really easy, see Wikipedia article (last part):

    So it's basically "start with this solution, shuffle according to the rules above for a while and that's your starting point". I wonder if one can generate ALL possible Sudoku puzzles starting from a single solution or just a subset?

    (If not, the "backtracking" algorithm seems to be straightforward.)


    From there on it's a question of taking some of the numbers away and making sure the puzzle can still be solved in only one way...


    Yo may also find this paper interesting - it describes how to give a rating to a puzzle

  • Mehdi Dadkhah asked a question:
    Advanced in software engineering Lession

    Hi dears;

    I need slide of "advanced in software engineering lesson". i need slide for each chapter. have any one it?

  • Pradeep Gupta added an answer:
    How can we differentiate between TRUETIME & REALTIME simulation in MATLAB ?

    In simulation time may increase or falls short of real time, and therefore the TRUETIME mean simulation in exact time equal to true.

    Pradeep Gupta · Jaypee University of Information Technology

    True Time - Imagination of married life before marriage with your girlfriend

    Real Time - Life after marriage, with your girlfriend.....

  • Stefan Gruner added an answer:
    Forthcoming ECIS 15 ISD

    The track shall consider information systems development (ISD) from a software engineering point of view. All corresponding aspects are of interest. A special focus is on the architecture of information systems, on business apps, on modeling information systems, and on transforming such models to more specific models and finally to code. Contributions with a solid formal basis are of particular interest. The call for papers will be released soon.

    Stefan Gruner · University of Pretoria

    Follow the link below to see further details about how to submit papers:

  • Abdulmunem Khudhair added an answer:
    What are the popular effort estimation techniques used to estimate the effort of mobile applications?
    Abdulmunem Khudhair · Dijlah University College

    Effort Estimation Mobile Techniques  give technical and non-technical people fast accurate effort estimations without having to complete complex forms and models. 

    Use Case Points (UCP) is famous of calculate effort estimation for software and app. 

  • Muthanna Khudhair added an answer:
    Is there another way to generate a report for Visual Studio 2010 the same as reports generated by CRYSTAL?

    I keep facing the .mht file that told me to download CRYSTAL report for my VB studio ,and  i installing  & reinstalling Crystal Reports, This happened for  64-bit installations.

    what should i do ?

    Muthanna Khudhair · Dijla University College

    I think it would be nice to have a "crystal Report(s)for your  Project". 
    Since I'm using Maven, it is easy enough for me to create a project and  reports but "out of the box" , so try to use MAVEN.

  • Ken Robinson added an answer:
    Is it possible to do a software cost estimation before requirement collection?
    Software development is a big issue in the price of the software. For example, say someone asked how much money it took to make a shop management software (or any software). They did not say anything about this software but asked only how much it cost (without requirement). But what could be the answer, because without the necessary information it can't be answered. In the case of software development many have a cost estimation but have no way to do a software development cost estimation without requirement collection. Is this also a problem you have come across? What is your advice on this situation?
    Ken Robinson · University of New South Wales

    Let me add a comment that doesn't strongly depend on the process used, or alternatively perhaps the process doesn't matter.

    I don't have recent data, but not that long ago somewhere around 85% of very large software projects (we're talking $multimillion) failed due to failure to satisfy the requirements.  Essentially this means that many projects proceed without precise requirements; most likely some vague ideas about what is required.  Further, requirements are informal, but there satisfaction needs to be able to be verified in the implementation.  The latter is, of course, usually not done effectively.

    It seems to me that this can only be effectively done using rigorous, formal verification.  But that is rarely done.  For a technique that could be used, see Event-B.

  • Pedro M. Wightman added an answer:
    How can I prove the improvement in energy consumption on any protocol in WSN?

    I would like to know what are the standards that should be used to compare between any protocol and improvement on this protocol in wireless sensor network.

    Pedro M. Wightman · Universidad del Norte (Colombia)

    Hello Moahmmed. One key issue related to energy consumption in WSN is the topology of the network: how many active nodes and active links the network has at a given moment. Controlling and reducing the topology to an acceptable level of service by keeping nodes in deep-sleep mode or by reducing the transmission range are feasible solutions to this problem, plus it keeps resources to extend the lifetime of the network. Check on topology construction and topology maintenance and you'll find many techniques to do this.



  • Stefan Gruner added an answer:
    What precautions should a researcher take while interpreting findings?
    What precautions should a researcher take while interpreting findings?
    Stefan Gruner · University of Pretoria

    The answer can be found in Chapter #15 ---"Concluding"--- of Volume TWO of Bunge's double-book "Philosophy of Science"; see the attached link below.


  • Stefan Gruner added an answer:
    How can I learn more about the application of reverse engineering?
    I want to know about the application of reverse engineering. Are there any standards and methods to be followed for reverse engineering.
    Stefan Gruner · University of Pretoria

    Reverse engineering is closely related to refactoring. The principle and goal is always the re-construction of higher-level abstractions from lower level descriptions or implementations, which can be achieved by a variety of different means and methods, including graph transformations, etc. Standards and methods, about how to do this in a systematic manner, are already known since quite a long time --- see for example Katja Cremer's book from the year 2000; see attachment below. Moreover, it will be helpful for you to look into the recent refactoring-literature, too.


  • Uli Abelein added an answer:
    How can I report and formulate a research question of retrospective study design?

    I want to do a case study to validate my method. I'm planning to use an existing real life project context, but as it is not possible to apply it on the ongoing project, I will "simulate" the method within that context and then ask project participants for their feedback. However I'm not sure how to report and formulate research questions on this research design. Therefore I'm looking for examples of papers that use the same approach. Furthermore it would be helpful if anyone has idea how this specific design is called.

    Uli Abelein · Universität Heidelberg

    Thanks a lot for your answers, but does anyone know papers or PhD thesis (ideally from the software engineering or information technology field) that used that design so I can see how they reported on it?

  • Yong Bakos added an answer:
    What are the factors that influence the effectiveness of a virtual team in global software development projects?
    Being the project manager of a team that includes remote members has additional challenges compared to managing co-located team members. There are many problems that need to be addressed when establishing a globally distributed development team, such as language and cultural differences, trust factors, communication across temporal and spatial distances and a lack of shared contextual awareness.
    Yong Bakos · Southern Methodist University

    For a casual perspective outside of scholarly literature, check out REMOTE ( May give you some other ideas to research.

  • Deniz Kilinç added an answer:
    How to be a good software tester?

    Currently i am working on software testing. Basically i work theoretical analysis of different aspects of software testing for my academic purpose.

    But i want to know how should i prepare myself for real world(in job)? What are the basic concept or technique should i master?

    Deniz Kilinç · Celal Bayar Üniversitesi

    Hi Muhammed,

    Before academic world, I was working as a software department director. I founded the testing department from scratch.

    Suggestions for a Tester's RoadMap

    1. First Step (PRINCIPLES)

    You must have your own test principles. Print seven test principles below and hang it on the wall.

    1) Testing shows presence of defects: Testing can show the defects are present, but cannot prove that there are no defects. We cannot say that the product is 100% defect free. Testing reduces the number of undiscovered defects remaining in the software but even if no defects are found, it is not a proof of correctness.

    2) Exhaustive testing is impossible: Testing everything including all combinations of inputs and preconditions is not possible.

    3) Early testing: In the software development life cycle testing activities should start as early as possible and should be focused on defined objectives.

    4) Defect clustering: A small number of modules contains most of the defects discovered during pre-release testing or shows the most operational failures.

    5) Pesticide paradox: If the same kinds of tests are repeated again and again, eventually the same set of test cases will no longer be able to find any new bugs.

    6) Testing is context depending: Testing is basically context dependent. Different kinds of sites are tested differently. For example, safety – critical software is tested differently from an e-commerce site.

    7) Absence – of – errors fallacy: If the system built is unusable and does not fulfil the user’s needs and expectations then finding and fixing defects does not help.

    You'll understand better each principle as time goes with experience.

    2. Second Step (PHILOSOPHY)

    All software projects need "early testing philosophy". Testing is not the last phase of SDLC (even in Agile increments).

    Testing should start at the begining in all minds. You must always defend this philospy.

    3. Third Step (MANUL TESTING)

    Learn how to do "Manual Testing", I offer you to learn:

    - Smoke Test (E.g. Try to blow up screens, functionalities etc.)
    - Functional Test (You need test cases, so you have to have well defined use cases)
    - Regression Test

    4. Fourth Step (KNOWLEDGE AND SOCIAL)

    - You have to learn the software product at least business analyst. It will be your power.
    - You need to have good communication with Developers. They won't like you since you will find their mistakes. AND NO DEVELOPER WRITES CODE HAVING WITH ERRORS :)

    5. Other Issues

    If you have technical background it will be bonus for you:

    - Able to write test scripts
    - Having database know-how (Primarly writing SQL)
    - Having mobility know-how
    - Having server configuration know-how (E.g. Apache, IIS)

    In addition to these, ISTQB Test Engineer Trainings may be useful for you.

    I did not write anything about test automation. Becase it is the second phase for you.


  • Nordin Zakaria added an answer:
    What are the latest developments in green software engineering and sustainable software engineering?

    Recent research in green and sustainable software engineering.

    Nordin Zakaria · Malaysia

    The traditional concerns of research in computing - speed, memory efficiency, better cache performance,  lower data transmission size, fault tolerance, software maintainability, etc. - all these can actually be linked to "Green Computing" or "Green Software". So how much of a field on its own actually is Green Computing?

    Most papers that deal with Green Computing are to do with: data center's power efficiency,  improving battery requirement of mobile applications.  My own research group has some dealing with Green Computing in the context of grid computing in the tropics, with the aim of distributing jobs to a distributed grid while reducing air-conditioning requirement. So, my thinking is that Green Computing can be a field on its own, but within very specific contexts - Big data center, grid computing, and mobile computing.

    Just some thoughts...

  • James H. Christensen added an answer:
    What can be the input and output schemes of a function?

    Hello Scholars,

    I am trying to make a common domain for input and output of a function. I divide this domain in input scheme and output scheme.

    Input scheme contains a set of possible inputs of a function and output schemes contain a set of possible outputs of a function.

    For example: function parameter, global variables, inFile pointer are members of input scheme and return variable, reference variable, outFile pointer are member of output scheme.

    My question is what else can we add in this domain? These members can be dependent or independent.

    Can i add i/o device in this domain?

    James H. Christensen · Holobloc Inc

    You might want to look at the IEC 61499 Standard for function blocks. There, the proper uses of inputs, outputs, state machines, and algorithms are clearly delineated. A good, newly updated introductory book to these concepts is "Modelling Control Systems Using IEC 61499" by Alois Zoitl and Robert Lewis, ISBN 978-1-84919-760-1 (hardback) and -8 (PDF).

  • Nane Kratzke added an answer:
    Do you think file level software dependency data is useful?

    While developing software we use files but we generally talk not about files but classes, but files construct the software, we use not classes but files in configuration management, and files are reused not classes, one file can carry many classes. Can I have your thoughts on this issue? 

    Nane Kratzke · Luebeck University of Applied Sciences

    Lets think it into one extreme. Think about an imaginary programming system capable to develop very large software systems handling its source code into one simple file.

    I think you run into very potty troubles with that type of system because you have to load this one huge source code file into an editor. I think that this editor must have an impressive memory footprint and probably has the tendency to be not very reactive and fluid in its user experience.

  • Sudhir Warier added an answer:
    What are the benchmarks and metrics for large-scale testing of android mobile apps in the cloud?
    Cloud computing is the dynamic provisioning of resources from a large pool of computing resources. Hence the power of cloud can definitely be harnessed to test a wide array of multi-platform mobile apps.
    Sudhir Warier · Cognitio

    Try the following links

About Software Engineering

Software engineering and the application of knowledge-based, simulation-based, data-driven, human-centred and automated approaches.

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