Social and Cultural Anthropology

Social and Cultural Anthropology

  • Rosana Icassatti Corazza added an answer:
    How best can I do a systematic review?
    Any precise and concise steps would be very helpful.
    Rosana Icassatti Corazza

    I think the guide by Petticrew and Roberts is very elucidating for those who are starting a SR in the Social Sciences.

    Please, check the link bellow for the pdf version.

    I hope this can help you.


  • Beverlyn A Banks added an answer:
    Would someone talk to me concerning a phenomenological study on issues relative to African American Women in the workplace?
    My current challenge is how to select my participants and convincing them that they can trust me.
    Beverlyn A Banks
    Pamela, I am in the process of getting prepared for the Irr review. I don't have your email address. Please email me at All others feel free to email me also.. this will help a great deal. thanks
  • Leyla Tekul added an answer:
    Is there any research on differences between male and female academics, regarding differences in their inferences and approaches?
    Men and women may have different approaches to evaluating and assessing data, and conceptualizing their findings. Has there ever been research on gender difference in academics?
    Leyla Tekul
    Well, I always thought that there might be neuro-scientific differences in how men and women brains approach issues as well as "kind of" academic discrimination in giving chances to women. Since I am far away from being a hard core academic, I cannot have an input based on my experience. However, according to what I read and observe, I am seeing men being more effective in creating theories and challenging scientific facts.
  • Sp Singh added an answer:
    What tables can I get for making equations on anthropometric data collected from field? Specifically the formulas and procedures.
    I am preparing a report on "A study of health status among Jenukuruba" and I have collected many relevant data from field. I have also collected data with the use of anthropological measurements like stature, weight, age, gender, skin folds, and etc. Now I am stuck and need information on:
    1) What analyses can I make from that particular data?
    2) How can I calculate weight for age, height for age, skin fold thickness? I need a formula and procedure
    3) Which elements can I highlight and what are the possible tables I can get for my health report?
    Any other suggestions for preparing a report on health status would also be helpful.
    Sp Singh
    use Length/height-age, weight for height and weight-age standards which are available from WHO site for judging children who are stunted and wasted. Comparisons of different populations for triceps and subscapular skinfolds are usually made in order to know the situations of body fat.
  • Bridget Akin-Otiko added an answer:
    What are your fieldwork practice experiences?
    As a social scientist I do a lot of community based research work (interviews). Through my own experiences over 20 years I wondered how other researchers experience their research contexts. I find it difficult in South Africa to research in a variety of communities; example: (a) Affluent communities will generally tell you they don't have time for interviews; (b) Poor communities associate research with government agencies - so they will tell you; " people were here last week and you didn't deliver on the problems I communicated". (c) An amazing experience was when a group of us were doing water quality and water access research and a village chief in Kwazulu summoned us to his palace. He appointed one male figure among us as our spokesperson to ask all questions and the chief decided that he will respond to questions on behalf of all households (our sample unit) in his community and it was not negotiable. I can share many more stories but space here may not allow. So I wonder if field survey interviews are still working in your various contexts? Your own anecdotal experiences would help me understand these challenges from your perspectives. But do suggested mitigation strategies where possible.
    Bridget Akin-Otiko
    I used an action research approach which had elements of mixed methods and allowed the people to be part of the whole process from need identification, through data collection strategies and the intervention; they followed through and cooperated very well seeing the project as 'ours' and not 'theirs'. As much as possible, surveys in the communities should continue through intervention or resource-linking for intervention because people are tired of talking, they want results.
  • Charles Herrman added an answer:
    Can the Dyonisian and Apollonian relationships Nietzsche deals with in the Birth of Tragedy be related to the visual arts as well as music?
    I am currently studying the art of Barnett Newman and his theories upon Nietzsche's Birth of Tragedy in his artwork. Do you think that there should initially be a justification to tragedy being found in the visual arts? Nietzsche believed that tragedy was born out of music. How would you go about justifying that the visual arts can also produce tragedy? Are there any contemporary philosophers that have written upon the subject and attempted explanation?
    Charles Herrman
    I don't mean to seem overly pedantic, but it does bear noting that the crux of this question must revolve about the growth of Nietzsche's thought, for as begins with crude lapses of insight as to the binary approach, swears it off only to return in depth to the discussion in metaphoric guise in the Gay Science.

    Always one for symbolic notability, what do you really suppose he meant by "Gay Science"? Has science so changed in a century that we can't see him juxtaposing or even intercalating the two as renditions of the former narrow and overly-clean cut versions of the Dionysian and Apollinian, respectively? Here's a portion of one of his poems, going to the metaphor of dance, which I do think is quite excellent to the purpose (Kaufmann's tr) at p. 373, Vintage, '74.

    To the Mistral - A Dancing Song

    Mistral wind, you rain cloud leaper,
    sadness killer, heaven sweeper,
    how I love you when you roar!
    Were we two not generated
    in one womb, predestinated [sic]
    for one lot for evermore?

    Here on slippery rocky traces
    I dance into your embraces,
    dancing as you sing and whistle:
    you that, shipless, do not halt,
    freedoms' freest brother, vault
    over raging seas, a missile.

    . . . . .

    Niettzsche, the Dionysic dancer, supposes now that the wind, musician of whistling, songs and roars - the Apollinian, are born of one germ and destined to reign together for eternity. Now you can modify details here as you will, but the point not to be glanced over is that he has radically altered his entire approach to the binary and has come to understand it correctly, and takes each as the broad generalities they must be in any binary analysis.

    Where at first he supposed Wagner to be Dionysian and thus in all parts the same Dionysic, a position destroyed for all to ridicule as he had to acknowledge Wagner's anti-demitism and sundry other faults (while impudently denigrating the artistic temperament of a Goethe as merely 'sentimental'), he now sees clearly that far from being polars they are similitudes trending to distinct but related ideas. In metaphysics this is called a 'paradigmatic' relation defined as one in which a dyad's components are seen as esentialistic to one another and required for each other's definition. They 'partake' of one another. This is the view Nietzsche arrived at, and it is the correct view.

    And you bothersome two who have no clue of the normative use of translations, don't even dare assert that my interpretation of the poem relies on faulty translations. I will call your respective institutions and ask them to reprimand their unruly children.

    Now the upshot of all of this pedantry will be far less pedantic once related back to the original question. When we evaluate any modality of art form using Nietzsche's binary, our very first question is NOT to inquire whether either is present, but rather which is present in what percent to the other, and in what way does each add to the content communicated, and why. The full answers to these questions encompass all that can be gleaned from the exercise.

    Your Ph.D's mean, Doctor of Philosophy. Though I am a metaphysician, the philosophic content requisite to the purpose that I here offer should have been plain without my assistance, translation or no.
  • Eshah a. wahab added an answer:
    What is the accurate theory to explain polarization in identity?
    There are multi identities identified among the Indian Muslims . Some want to retain their identity, some want to assimilate with the dominan, some want to be known with a new name.
    Eshah a. wahab
    Many thanks for the answers. I am looking on minority identity that is trying to be part of the majority due to similarities in custom, language and religion. Yet, they still retained their culture. Every minority including the majority has their own 'race' and is used officially to identified which ethnic they belong. So, it is impossible to change their race except through mixed marriage especially with the dominan. I am most welcome if you can provide the citation on intersectionality. Thanks
  • David John Derrick added an answer:
    Can someone recommend literature with the latest opinions on the theory of scularization?
    How does an interaction between state and religion transform and alter religion itself? Is there a theory tending to an increment of religion through secularisation?
    David John Derrick

    Charles Taylor is a leading authority on Secularisation.

    Taylor, C. 2007 A Secular Age, Harvard University Press
    Smith, JKA, 2014 How (Not) to be Secular: Reading Charles Taylor, Eerdmans Publishing Company

    Many writers now see that we are in a Post-secular Age!
    Mavelli, L: Petito, F 2014|, Towards a Post-secular International Politics: New Forms of Community, Identity and Power, Palsgrave Macmillan

  • Ildefonso Marqués-Perales added an answer:
    What are the variables for measuring cultural capital?
    Except degree of education and people's reading hours
    Ildefonso Marqués-Perales

    Books, credentials and some practices (theatre,music)

  • Alain Robert Coulon added an answer:
    Do you think that eastern cultures are, in general, more meditative, contemplative, and philosophical than current western cultures?
    Do you think possible that eastern cultures, being more inward looking, do not understand well the extreme activity (hyperactivity) in contemporary western societies and consequently cannot follow it, and sometimes cannot tolerate it ?
    Alain Robert Coulon
    Thanks for the exchange of ideas on this wonderful site.

    About weather, climate, I agree entirely, this is always very important.
    And I believe also there was probably a supercontinent : pangaea. Plus other lands, or smaller continents, all lost in the immense sea.

    Thinking about this after reading your message, I realize that logic alone can be useful to prevent mistakes.

    For instance, can we say there was one cradle only for mankind, or several, or hundreds ? Probably there was one, or several ones, a main one, and secondary ones.
    Life and some kind of civilizations could arise separately in several places, but not in too many places. To draw a parallel about researches and discoveries, it has been very often noticed that an invention was "in the air" of the times, and consequently appeared simultaneously in several countries because it was ripe. The French, always so self-centered, are used to say that Henri Poincaré who died in 1912 anticipated Einstein, or could have been an Einstein. However there has been only one Einstein.

    There is a kind of Asian factor which I call X factor and if this Factor X is also present in indigenous people, in the old cultures of the Andes, it is even better. I know by experience it is also present in some parts of Africa. It is an old element, an archaic element in mankind.

    I believe it is indeed present in all of us, in any human being in any culture, but it is hidden, or repressed, or under developed. It is potentially present. I cannot sum up in a few sentences what is written in some chapters, or here and there, in "the Sherpa and the white man" (in free access on my profile in my own clumsy and imperfect translation).

    I say this is a bio-psychological factor. Not of course an anatomical factor, but biology is to be taken in account.
    It is the way the nervous system, the brain waves are used, and able to function. It is a way to restrict the expansion of the body at will. A way not to dilate human flesh, that is to say to control life, to master living power in oneself. It is biological, psychological and ethical at the same time.
    It is also a way not to speak too much, because the power of speech is too precious to be wasted, and because very probably low loquacity is changing the mind, and giving rise to other energies (in archaic times, the power of speech may have been close to sorcery - this being obvious in monosyllabic languages, like Chinese, Thai and others - and consequently used with great care - more researches have to be made on the origin of languages, and the origin of grammars, especially a very fluid and quasi nonexistent grammar like the Chinese one)

    Recently, three persons who know me very well, an university professor, a philosopher, and my own brother and sister, both told me that if I was living in the countryside, not in a big city, the human environment would be quite different. Of course it would be different, but this is for me a subsidiary factor. Saying that, they only show that they do not grasp at all what I am talking about. They did not live a long time in an entirely different culture.
    It is true that the differences between the urban life and the rural life is important ; it has common characteristics in all developed countries ; it may be increasing now a lot in China (and by the way, we can ask why human beings are now concentrating more and more in the same spots, this has to have a philosophical and historical meaning ...).

    My main point is that some cultures are more awake, or more awakened than others - so they have an advantage.
    This is especially true of Asian nations who developed very quickly, due to the fact that the scientific and technological discoveries in sciences and technologies have been done already painstakingly during centuries elsewhere, but also due to their own possibilities and abilities : very old civilizations and their own great gifts.
    Universal brotherhood is our aim, but to be true brothers and sisters, we have to face differences, not to erase them quickly inside a grey universalism. Asian cultures studied Western cultures more than the reverse. Western cultures have now to reciprocate.
    This is the title of conferences made in Paris recently : "Multiculturalism "complicates" universality".
    This seems to mean : things are more complicated than we thought before, and it disturbs our comfortable old ways of thinking ...

    In the same way we have many colors in a rainbow, it is a great chance to have so many different cultures in the world, many worlds inside one world, and instead of being jealous and antagonistic, it would be better to work toward general harmony and general cooperation. This implies openness and study, not closeness and laziness.
  • Renzo Taddei added an answer:
    Study of tribal or indigenous people has been one of important element of Anthropology, but how can we justify Tribal study in today's globalized world?
    Study of tribal or indigenous people has been one of important element of Anthropology, but how can we justify Tribal study in today's globalized world?
    Renzo Taddei
    Have you seen the book "The Falling Sky", by David Kopenawa Yanomami and Bruce Albert? In the book, a representative of one of the most famous "tribal" societies in anthropology, the Yanomami of the Amazon, gives his answer.
  • Anders C. Haugen added an answer:
    Cultural relativity in the diagnostics of autism?
    Do you think it is possible that the "scientific" definition of autism might be dependent, secretly and unwillingly, of narrow values in contemporary Western societies, and consequently, that its diagnostic could be erroneous, and its therapy harmful in the context of Asian (and Slavic) societies, or communities?
  • Peta Averil Jones added an answer:
    What are the socio-cultural values that develop in the practice of biotechnology vs. organic agriculture?
    Environmental safety, effects on health, yield productivity, nutritional benefits, economic impacts, funding and support--all of these are issues associated with the practice of biotech and organic. But what if we talk about another issue? The impact of these agricultural practices on the socio-cultural values of a society. Is it true that societies dependent on biotechnology are more complacent, have a notion of abundance and security, are more wasteful and more of a welfare society rather than a proactive one? And is it true that those practicing organic are stubborn and not able to adapt to new innovations but are more hardworking, are good stewards of natural resources, and are more content with what can be produced? Is there a sociological or anthropological explanation for this? and do we even take "sustainable values" into consideration when we practice and promote a certain agricultural system?
    Peta Averil Jones
    I would say economic rather than socio-cultural, at least in the poorer parts of the world, where labour is more accessible than finance. Inorganic fertilizers as well as GM seeds are well beyond the means of smallholder farmers, who only need to know more about organic techniques so that they may practise them properly. Unfortunately, extension officers and academic institutions, not to mention the political bureaucracy, are too firmly focused on the expensive alternatives, including mechanization.
  • Babak Rezvani added an answer:
    Could anyone suggest a student-friendly academic journal (or two)?
    I am looking to publish two papers but am not certain where to submit my work. One is a comparative work on the Hindu diasporas of Nashville, TN and Singapore. The other looks at gender as a lens through which to view the Sri Lankan civil war.
    Babak Rezvani
    Our Journal "Forum of EthnoGeoPolitics" will be glad to consider your papers for publication. The themes are interesting to us. We are an author friendly journal. The reviewers' comments will be published publicly and the author gets a chance to respond to them. We encourage debate and discussion rather than pursuing hidden agenda's or accepting or rejecting articles based on personal taste. We are open-access but do not charge the authors. We try to publish the accepted articles as soon as possible. Please contact me if you are interested.
  • Kwabena Darko Akuamoah added an answer:
    What cultural traditions are associated with north Ghanaian textiles?
    A college student from Ghana is doing research on a traditional robe his father has bestowed on him. Since the student has been away from Ghana since he was 10, he has no context for understanding the meaning or heritage of this garment.
    Kwabena Darko Akuamoah
    Hi, If you talk about Northern Ghana it is made up of there regions thus upper east and west and northern region proper. and they are made up of about six major ethnic groups with various traditional textiles industries.please
    read the following
    Songsore J & Denkabe A. 1995:Challenging Rural Poverty in Northern Region: The Case of Upper West Region .Report No. 6/95, Reports Messages from the center for environment and Development(SMU), Trondheim;University of Trondheim.
    Dickson, K.B 1963: Background to the Problem of Economic Development in Northern Ghana. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 58
  • Yoshinori Shiozawa added an answer:
    What is the role and what can we learn from the many failures of and in 'development'?
    A recent article from the New York Times ( suggests that failures can be catalysts for innovation and improvement in development. However how do failures weigh in, when we consider wider discourses, relations of power and political operations that cannot be disconnected from development? Are failures symptoms of wider, underlying issues? Or they do they distract us from wider, deeper issues?
    Yoshinori Shiozawa

    Sarika Bansal 's report  is a valuable one. We must learn from failure and be open to speak out about our failure. The FAILFaire is also an interesting idea. This kind of media is necessary to be open to failure. In this regards, I have to thank Ritu Verma for making me aware of Sarika Bansal 's report.

    Each project has its own failure and we should detect it. However, as Ritu Verma suggests, there are so many failures and we must question if there are some structural problems. In this regards, we must question the current state of three fields:

    • development economics
    • development studies
    • international economics (trade theory in particular)

    Development economics started 1940's and 50's. At that time, structuralists were prevalent. Although they were too much inclined to central or government planning, they were right in stressing the lack of social and economic conditions that a market economy works well and normally. With the arrival of neoclassical revolution in development economics, the economists who work on development started to think with macro data and reasoned that the market failure is a result of regulations. They recommended market-friendly policies. I agree that there are many unnecessary regulations but we must also see that some of them are crucial to the well-being of the people and the latter is the very basis of economic development.  We should question the state of the art of development economics.

    Development studies seems to have started with some discontent vis-à-vis development economics dominated by neoclassical  economists. Development studies include varied fields. I am interested Discourse Analysis but this is not our subject now. Although they are not uniquely responsible, development studies remained rather separated from development economics. This indifference towards economics implied (with no intention) the indifference towards examining conditions for economic development.

    International trade theory is important, because no country or area can be separated from the world economy, if you like it or not. Many of successful Asian economies used foreign trade strategically. There are wide spread understanding that these economies adopted free trade policy. Except the case of Singapore and  Hong Kong, this is a kind of urban legend and false. We must learn more closely the secrets of successful countries such as Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Malaysia and others. Why could they get a (relative) success in their economic building. With this regards, a thorough re-examination of  trade theory is necessary. Export oriented policy was successful, but we should know the conditions that it  would be successful.

    In general, I feel there is a lack of interests in theory. I am now discussing the reason

    Why did Eaton and Kortum model perform so badly?

    but there are very few reaction to this kind of questions. This facts may indicates a kind of apathy in theory. It is a shame.  

  • Maureen Fuary added an answer:
    What are the different trends/debates in the social sciences towards the study of climate change?
    Looking at the involvement of social scientists in the study of climate, where exactly have they come in, and what role have they come to play.
    Maureen Fuary
    There are some really interesting papers on the 'social' and climate change in the special issue of the journal 'Theory, Culture and Society' 27, March/May 2010 entitled 'Changing Climate' available online at their home page: (from there go to the issue).

    In their Introduction, Bronislaw Szerszynski & John Urry argue that the climate change debate is dominated by three discourses: scepticism, gradualism and catastrophism. The'social' they say was largely ignored in the climate change literature because of the ways in which the economy took centre stage vis-a-vis the notion of environmental danger. The articles in 'Changing Climate' are designed to respond to and counteract this economic focus by bringing " concerns into climate change science and politics, and into debates about thinking what a low carbon economy and society could be like." (Szerszynski & Urry 2010: 3).
  • John Boswell added an answer:
    Gender-sensitive addiction treatment programs in various countries?
    More specifically, are there any inpatient or outpatient addiction treatment programs for men only or women only in your country? Are you aware of programs which cater to specific treatment needs of men and of women? I wonder particularly if in the Nordic countries the quest about gender equality hampers gender specific treatment modalities.
    John Boswell
    Dear Harald
    I will email you some information regarding Brian Sullivan PhD. In the meantime you might want to look at the Duluth Model - Domestic Abuse Intervention Programs. Quite probably you know all about it already.

    All the best,
  • Dirk vom Lehn added an answer:
    I have recently started research into carboot culture, has anyone heard of any similar studies or of any carboots worth visiting?
    I'm interested in both the buyers and sellers, their methods, how they react to 'outsiders' or 'newcomers', special tactics used etc. This follows on from a study I did ten years ago and I wanted to note the changes over the decade.
    Dirk vom Lehn
    Mandi, please drop me an email as well. I'd like to hear more about what you are doing.
  • Susan Walker-Meere added an answer:
    What is nutritional anthropology and how is it related to food ecology?
    Himalayas and northern plains of India
    Susan Walker-Meere
    Food Ecology looks at contemporary human health in relation to ideal nutrition which includes not only the foods we choose to eat but how they are grown and what impact this has on the environment. Food Anthropology takes a long look at contemporary and previous cultures of human populations with respect to foods they consumed and how they were prepared. I have a personal interest in this. I focus on biochemical aspects of food preservation & preparation, human assimilation and health benefits based on ethological research.
  • Kwabena Darko Akuamoah added an answer:
    Will some help me find references on this topic the socio-political complexity of the koma stone burial mounds of the northern ghana.
    this is a PhD topic i plan to defend soon
    Kwabena Darko Akuamoah
    Hi sorry i never got to say thank you for your help.its being 2 years please for give me
  • Martijn Koster added an answer:
    Does anyone know of any research done about generation relationships in family farm business?
    I am doing a research about generation relationships in family farms during the generation change process using life course/life span method. Interested to find similar research if there is any.
    Martijn Koster
    You're welcome.
    Good luck with your research.
  • Kishan Gopal Ramawat added an answer:
    Which plant is mainly used for making Bansuri flutes?
    Which species of Bamboo?
    Kishan Gopal Ramawat
    you can write article yourself on the varieties of plants used for flute making. The condition is the stem should be hollow.
  • Emery Charles Graham Jr added an answer:
    Is anyone considering the relationship between culture as social facts and rational behavior?
    The fixities in our behavior can be conceptualized as being the outcomes of uncritical thought and rational thought, i.e., automatic behavior and behavior resulting from conscious considerations.
    Emery Charles Graham Jr
    You have really posed some significant questions here. I will reread your comments and in the interim suggest that the instinctual nature of humans as learning animals and their ability to assume a behavioral structure that operates beneath consciousness points to the limits of conscious rationality. Models are after all tools to reduce analytic complexity. Let me share this link for your perusal:
    and suggest that the content of the behavioral structure is under scientific scrutiny. I'd like to put together some articles for your consideration that might begin to shed some light on the emerging field of depth psychology as an extension of previous comments on Bourdier's concepts of 'habitus' and field and Durkhiem's notion of "social fact". Both terms point to behavioral fixities that operate beneath consciousness and serve as automatisms that guide our unthinking, conscious, behavior. The bounds of our rationality are being explored and in systems it is the boundary conditions, the interface between the system and the environment, that harbor system challenges. I suggest that your article may be seen as a specification of boundary challenges to accepted thought.
  • Robin Johnson added an answer:
    Simmel on the social self
    Can any scholar familiar with the writings of Georg Simmel help me to track down the original wording of a couple of sentences of his, for which I have only my own distant memory (and that based on a translation into English that may already be a distortion to some extent)?

    The phrase was, in effect:
    "..... that man (sic) has the ability to divide himself "(ie: conceptually) "into different parts; and to see any of these parts as representing his true self. Thus the tension between the individual and society can be experienced as the tension between different parts of his own self...."

    My main area of interest here, incidentally, is in the sociology of mental health. I trust the connection will be obvious...
    Robin Johnson
    Thanks again, Timo - I do appreciate the suggestion. But I am afraid even with such a hint, so much technical German is beyond me - epecially granted the number of possible synonyms. If anyone recognises the phrase and can point me to the particular phrase, that is what I think I will need.
  • Raj Ratna Goswami added an answer:
    anarchist anthropology
    I am a social and cultural anthropologist with an interest in anarchism, peace, egalitarianism, and the anthropology of groups without government. Anyone among you or anyone you know with a similar interest?
    Charles M
    Raj Ratna Goswami
    Sati-Pati movement was launched in 1930 at Songadh by some Bhil |Communities viz., the Gamits and Vasavas.. This spread in Mandavi, Songadh, Dangs and Dharampur region of South Gujarat viz., when the forest rules become wider and more harassing for forest dwellers. The prohibition on hunting games and cutting of wood made the whole of dwellers in India enemy of government. On one hand the mining activities and tree felling by contractors went unchecked poor tribal were prohibited even collecting fire wood. These made Sati Patis more popular as they forcefully broke the regulations and hunt animals and cut trees. In this many times armed conflicts between forest dwellers and guards broke out. Sati-Patis took advantage of it. But as it was an independent movement and had a very little followership, the other tribal preferred the government side which seemed them better and benefitting. Strangely this movement is still live. The followers silently disobey rules. They do not have Ration Cards, no entry in Electoral list and no demand for government help. They just use the forest products unhindered and not bothering for any rule.
    This tribal movement in South Gujarat which resists associating itself with the administration, has been enrolled for the first time in the voters’ list and is likely to exercise franchise in the 2012 state assembly polls, officials said. The Sampradaya members have been enrolled in districts like Tapi, Dang, Narmada, Valsad, amongst others, and few have also been issued Electoral Photo Identity Cards enhancing probability of their participation in the elections. The tribal community takes pride in keeping themselves aloof from any of the government’s schemes. Dang, where around 90 per cent population is tribal, is considered to be base of Satipatis, with an estimated population of around 3,000 Satipati people.
    In any respect it is a deep rooted habit of forest dwellers for dishonoring every order by political system taking it as a hindrance in their carefree life. They are real anarchists. Not like Maoist or Naxalies, who are part of political jargon of Eastern Indian lawlessness.
  • Gyorgy Banhegyi added an answer:
    How reliable are numbers found in an anthropological studies, which are based mainly on cultural features and not on a history of culture of numbers?
    In western countries it is easier to trace the symbolism which numbers get. It is the result of Babylonian-Pythagorean-Christian tradition. So it directly related with philosophy and science in general.But there are other cultures who use numbers without influence of those factors which I have mentioned above in the Western culture. I mean is that possible to consider numbers absolutely independently from number theory approach and scientific achievements, just as the other elements of a culture? Or in any way numbers at the end lead to science? In this case is that right to consider numbers as the object of anthropology? Since they are the language of a science, but not the cultural feature.
    Gyorgy Banhegyi
    In my opinion the best approach to the "spirit" of mathematics is still that of Oswald Spengler (Decline of the West). His keen analysis shows that that mathematics is as much the integral part of the culture as religion or arts. He was not only a great philopspoher of history, but also a good mathematician, so he knew what he was talking about. Additionally he had a broad knowledge in law and arts. He knew the most about Greek, Arab and Western mathematics and he had deep insights into these disciplines. Unfortunately he did not have enough data at that time on Indian, Chinese, Maya or Egytian mathematics.
  • Ninad Jhala added an answer:
    Does your university allow students from other institutions to intern in the history/ modern language departments and libraries?
    I'm looking to research gender, Mayan women, colonial Yucatan, and Medieval Spanish literature.
    Ninad Jhala

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