Social and Cultural Anthropology

Social and Cultural Anthropology

  • Emery Charles Graham Jr added an answer:
    Is anyone considering the relationship between culture as social facts and rational behavior?
    The fixities in our behavior can be conceptualized as being the outcomes of uncritical thought and rational thought, i.e., automatic behavior and behavior resulting from conscious considerations.
    Emery Charles Graham Jr · American National Red Cross, Southeastern Pennsylvania Chapter
    You have really posed some significant questions here. I will reread your comments and in the interim suggest that the instinctual nature of humans as learning animals and their ability to assume a behavioral structure that operates beneath consciousness points to the limits of conscious rationality. Models are after all tools to reduce analytic complexity. Let me share this link for your perusal:
    https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/
    and suggest that the content of the behavioral structure is under scientific scrutiny. I'd like to put together some articles for your consideration that might begin to shed some light on the emerging field of depth psychology as an extension of previous comments on Bourdier's concepts of 'habitus' and field and Durkhiem's notion of "social fact". Both terms point to behavioral fixities that operate beneath consciousness and serve as automatisms that guide our unthinking, conscious, behavior. The bounds of our rationality are being explored and in systems it is the boundary conditions, the interface between the system and the environment, that harbor system challenges. I suggest that your article may be seen as a specification of boundary challenges to accepted thought.
  • Janis Atwater added an answer:
    When doing observational/participation research should I develop a detailed disclaimer, or just a few sentences for each participant to sign?
    This is for an undergraduate Honors Thesis in Cultural/Linguistic Anthropology
    Janis Atwater · The University of Arizona
    Thank you all so much for your answers you've all really been a great help. My research is going to be going on here in the United States, but the study group is a sub-cultural group that is very adverse to authority and government. I've got an in with many of them since I was talking with many of them since before I decided to attend college. However, even though I do have an in with many, I still worry about having similar problems to the ones that Larisa brought up with the Soviets. I will definitely go to the library and look up the book you mentioned.

    My advisor gets back in town next week, and I have a ton of questions for him. And you all gave even more.

    Thank you. I will keep you all updated on how things are going.
  • Frans Couwenbergh added an answer:
    Can humanity be explained in evolutionary terms?
    Paleobiologists, paleoarcheologists and paleoanthropologists say: of course it can and in thousand books and video presentations we did clearly show it.
    Nevertheless I claim that they haven’t.
    What these respected scientists explain is our biological history (sequence of skeletal remains and contents of brain pans) and our cultural evolution (sequences of stone tool technologies, and so on). They explain the evolutionary transition of bonobos into ape-men. They even explain why and when the ancestral ape lice evolutionary split into our head lice and pubic lice, giving us an elegant dating more of this biological and cultural transition.
    But there is still one transition missing in their elucidations. What made one of those ancestral ape-men bands leave their normal animal path, and take a side path onto humanity? What made our ancestral ape-men ancestors develop such un-animal like behavior as fabricating stone tools, domesticating fire, acquiring spirit (mind, soul, you name it, Greek ‘nous’), becoming religious beings, in short, becoming human?
    Our scientists now take a deep breathe and try something as: they developed bigger brains that enabled them to such behavior. Knowing that this is a displacement of the question. And in their desperation they come to the most ridiculous explanations, such as the beloved Deus ex machina: the gen mutation, or even a cosmic ray-shower (Chomsky).
    But our scientists are excused: declaring this question is not their piece of cake.
    No (I hear some theologians hastily rushing in), no godly creation. It is a normal philosophic endeavor to explain humanity.
    Because our philosophers are in default until now (they never learned this work, they only learn philosophy) – and that is the reason why our scientists are in default too – I made my own reconstruction, be it in a ‘life-long’ work, of what is the essence of human communication (names for things), how it can possibly have begun (as a girl’s play); what having names for things does with an animal (a feeling of distance between the ‘namer’ and ‘the named thing’, between subject and object; feeling of power over the ‘grasped’ thing; and a few more consequences), that it is this feeling of power that our ancestors brought to the second ‘big jump’: domestication of fire; that this made them to H.erectus and enabled them to a first spread out of Africa – in short: see my website www.humanosophy.org
    In my reconstruction, the start of our ‘linguisticness’ was not an unavoidable outcome of being ape-men (evolution) but a casual girl’s play. With an equal chance we were still a population of ape-men in Africa now.
    I’m curious on your reactions.
    By the way, I just read the interesting article “Sex and the human revolution” by Professor Chris Knight. He starts from the same premise as I ... anyway, judge for yourself.
    http://www.cpgb.org.uk/home/weekly-worker/786/sex-and-the-human-revolution
    My website www.humanosophy.org works perfectly. The url to the article of Prof. Knight http://www.cpgb.org.uk/home/weekly-worker/786/sex-and-the-human-revolution is working perfecly also (I just tried both).
  • Robin Johnson added an answer:
    Simmel on the social self
    Can any scholar familiar with the writings of Georg Simmel help me to track down the original wording of a couple of sentences of his, for which I have only my own distant memory (and that based on a translation into English that may already be a distortion to some extent)?

    The phrase was, in effect:
    "..... that man (sic) has the ability to divide himself "(ie: conceptually) "into different parts; and to see any of these parts as representing his true self. Thus the tension between the individual and society can be experienced as the tension between different parts of his own self...."

    My main area of interest here, incidentally, is in the sociology of mental health. I trust the connection will be obvious...
    Robin Johnson · Nottingham Trent University
    Thanks again, Timo - I do appreciate the suggestion. But I am afraid even with such a hint, so much technical German is beyond me - epecially granted the number of possible synonyms. If anyone recognises the phrase and can point me to the particular phrase, that is what I think I will need.
  • Diah As added an answer:
    What are the best methods and measurements in measuring students' cognitive progress?
    I am observing some students' cognitive progress while they're learning a translation subject. As ESL students, they have attained different progress in their cognition. This deals with their products in translation. What are the factors that have influenced this fact?
    Diah As · Universitas Negeri Surabaya
    Should I use some authentic learning materials too, Monica Butnariu?
  • Peter Myers added an answer:
    What is the latest information about the etiology of Alcoholism?
    Alcoholism has been identified as an illness in the past. Although the use of alcohol has had different meanings in diverse cultural contexts.
    Peter Myers · Rio Salado College
    I am not fond of the current governmental characterization of addictions as a "brain disease", given the incredible cultural variation, documented extensively since the mid 20th century. And, as Hiram summarizes well, the interplay of family dynamics, biological substrates, developmental factors, etc.

    Peter L. Myers, Ph.D.
    Editor in Chief, Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
    www.incase.org
  • Raj Ratna Goswami added an answer:
    anarchist anthropology
    Hi,
    I am a social and cultural anthropologist with an interest in anarchism, peace, egalitarianism, and the anthropology of groups without government. Anyone among you or anyone you know with a similar interest?
    Charles M
    Raj Ratna Goswami · Archaeology Museum, jamnagar
    Sati-Pati movement was launched in 1930 at Songadh by some Bhil |Communities viz., the Gamits and Vasavas.. This spread in Mandavi, Songadh, Dangs and Dharampur region of South Gujarat viz., when the forest rules become wider and more harassing for forest dwellers. The prohibition on hunting games and cutting of wood made the whole of dwellers in India enemy of government. On one hand the mining activities and tree felling by contractors went unchecked poor tribal were prohibited even collecting fire wood. These made Sati Patis more popular as they forcefully broke the regulations and hunt animals and cut trees. In this many times armed conflicts between forest dwellers and guards broke out. Sati-Patis took advantage of it. But as it was an independent movement and had a very little followership, the other tribal preferred the government side which seemed them better and benefitting. Strangely this movement is still live. The followers silently disobey rules. They do not have Ration Cards, no entry in Electoral list and no demand for government help. They just use the forest products unhindered and not bothering for any rule.
    This tribal movement in South Gujarat which resists associating itself with the administration, has been enrolled for the first time in the voters’ list and is likely to exercise franchise in the 2012 state assembly polls, officials said. The Sampradaya members have been enrolled in districts like Tapi, Dang, Narmada, Valsad, amongst others, and few have also been issued Electoral Photo Identity Cards enhancing probability of their participation in the elections. The tribal community takes pride in keeping themselves aloof from any of the government’s schemes. Dang, where around 90 per cent population is tribal, is considered to be base of Satipatis, with an estimated population of around 3,000 Satipati people.
    In any respect it is a deep rooted habit of forest dwellers for dishonoring every order by political system taking it as a hindrance in their carefree life. They are real anarchists. Not like Maoist or Naxalies, who are part of political jargon of Eastern Indian lawlessness.
  • Gyorgy Banhegyi added an answer:
    How reliable are numbers found in an anthropological studies, which are based mainly on cultural features and not on a history of culture of numbers?
    In western countries it is easier to trace the symbolism which numbers get. It is the result of Babylonian-Pythagorean-Christian tradition. So it directly related with philosophy and science in general.But there are other cultures who use numbers without influence of those factors which I have mentioned above in the Western culture. I mean is that possible to consider numbers absolutely independently from number theory approach and scientific achievements, just as the other elements of a culture? Or in any way numbers at the end lead to science? In this case is that right to consider numbers as the object of anthropology? Since they are the language of a science, but not the cultural feature.
    Gyorgy Banhegyi · Bay Zoltán Nonprofit Ltd. for Applied Research
    In my opinion the best approach to the "spirit" of mathematics is still that of Oswald Spengler (Decline of the West). His keen analysis shows that that mathematics is as much the integral part of the culture as religion or arts. He was not only a great philopspoher of history, but also a good mathematician, so he knew what he was talking about. Additionally he had a broad knowledge in law and arts. He knew the most about Greek, Arab and Western mathematics and he had deep insights into these disciplines. Unfortunately he did not have enough data at that time on Indian, Chinese, Maya or Egytian mathematics.
  • Ninad Jhala added an answer:
    Does your university allow students from other institutions to intern in the history/ modern language departments and libraries?
    I'm looking to research gender, Mayan women, colonial Yucatan, and Medieval Spanish literature.
    Ninad Jhala · Institute Of Language Studies And Applied Social Sciences
    Yes.
  • Babak Rezvani added an answer:
    Where we are?
    Social and cultural anthropology: between empiricism exotistic and postmodernity?
    Babak Rezvani · University of Amsterdam
    @ Kasi: "social and cultural anthropology remains as it is and also more vibrant by welcoming new concepts, themes and methods into its fold."

    I think in this way: You can say that Social Cultural anthropology is in crisis because it is losing its identity, or you can say it is improving by broadening its horizon, the fact remains that the boundaries between social sciences are getting blurred day by day.
  • Arghavan Pournaderi added an answer:
    Are there any communities who have been forced to immigrate (to an area with a difference of culture) by a government or another state?
    For instance in Iran during the Safavid dynasty some of the Armenian of Jolfa had been made to settle in Isfahan (the capital city of the time), furthermore a certain district had been built for them. I wonder if there are such examples before or after industrial revolution.
    Arghavan Pournaderi · Art University of Isfahan
    Thank you very much for the helpful information. I am looking for the communities which remain together as a group after their migration; are these cases the same or can they be tracked in some specific areas (to be considered as a sort of subculture preserving their ethnic culture)?
  • Siddhartha Shankar Ray added an answer:
    Decolonization of Indian Health Care
    I am just starting research focused on the decolonization of tribal healthcare as a means to improve tribal health disparities. This article will be helpful since there is a dearth of information on the topic in the primary care realm. Integrated (biopsychosocial) care is always the ideal. If anyone out there has information on any pilot programs or individuals who are doing work in this area, please let me know!
    Siddhartha Shankar Ray · Centre for Studies in Social Sciences, Calcutta
    Thanks Mary;

    I have just received the Tribal Health Bulletin, a biannual publication on Tribal Health and found one article Tribal Inequality: the challenges remain by M. Muniyandi & Neeru Singh which might be of interest to you. The text may be sort of popular article but the reference part is quite informative. Today,I had a mail exchange with Dr. R.K. Sharma, their Library Officer & I learnt from him that all the issues of Tribal Health Bulletin are available in their website. Besides, the Anthropological survey of India too are doing little bit research on Tribal Health as I just learnt from their newsletter. You may try that too if you feel like.

    Sincerely,

    Siddhartha S. Ray,.
  • Marie-Claude Dionne added an answer:
    Culture/Cultural Anthropology...Need help regarding some good authors and their books/papers for reference..
    Doing a small study on making of 'a public space' to 'place' and role of local culture and Urban Design in doing so. Understanding culture and its relation with Urban Design here is quite important in the first place, which I am finding quite difficult to do so right now. might be in the process I would be able to develop a perspective towards it. Getting guidance and viewpoints would be great.

    Well to start of, I am proceeding with a few hypothesis..
    1. Culture is an extension of habit or discipline from an individual to a group of people or society practicing it for mutual benefit.

    2. Public ‘places’ tend to develop different activities due to involvement of various factors and participation of various stakeholders over a period of time. These activities associate themselves with built, open, shaded areas, movement, color, clothing, food, location and many such elements and develop as patterns, which grow with time. When such a pattern is accepted and practiced by many, it evolves into a ‘culture’ (generally accepted and appreciated by all).

    3. Urban Design becomes a tool to work towards this making, helping cultural aspects & spaces to evolve above those patterns which are developed because of factors like lack of co-ordination, knowledge and sensitivity and mutual understanding of stakeholders.
    Marie-Claude Dionne · Laval University
    Again, trying something here. It wouldn't have anything to do with Urban Design per se but you could read Brian Osborne on landscape and places. http://canada.metropolis.net/events/ethnocultural/publications/putinden.pdf There should be something in there that could answer your questions regarding how places evolves within a society, within culture.
  • Benoit Vermander added an answer:
    Can one speak of "non bloody sacrifices", especially offering of cereals, in Buddhist popular rituals?
    I am conducting a research on "wheat and religions", and am interested in cereal offerings in the larger context of defining the nature and rationale of non bloody sacrifices in different religious settings.
    Benoit Vermander · Fudan University
    Will, so many thanks for a very informative and thoughtful answer. As to the use of the term "sacrifice", and other possible terms, see the first exchanges about these questions.
    I wrote above:
    "My point of departure is the following: I have been asked to follow how wheat (and by way of comparison other cereals) have been included into a variety of rituals and symbolic representations - including in regions where their cultivation was imported like in Latin America. Buddhism developed as a non sacrificial religion, refusing especially "bloody": sacrifices (that was the case also of Taoism during the Han dynasty at the same time Buddhism was entering China.) Still, "offerings" developed in various contexts, and I am trying to investigate whether these offerings were including cereal offerings in some Buddhist countries (this is for instance the case in Tibet with millet) so as to enrich data on historical evolutions and transmission of rituals. It is true that an opposition between "bloody' and "non bloody' sacrifices is too simplistic, but the anti-sacrificial (bloody sacrifices) motive has been strong in some cultures, and cereal offerings was sometimes complementing sometimes substituting blood offerings. (...) Obviously, in a field studies one should start form the lexical field determined by the practitioners. In comparative studies, concepts such as the ones I mentioned are a legitimate starting point, provided there is a working definition that is both precise and encompassing (as the four goals of "sacrifice" that I mentioned.) Local terms can prove to (a) correspond more or less to the range of meaning of the term used for comparative purposes, or (b) correspond to part of its meaning (as if the case if one term is specifically used for feeding the god), or (c) challenge the category by opening up a worldview that escapes the basic tenets of the the term used for comparative purposes, which may lead or to limit the use of this term to a defined array of cultural contexts or to rework its definition. This is at least how I see the comparative endeavor, but I recognize the epistemological and lexicographic problems raised by the whole issue, and would like to hear about possible alternative approaches."
    I do know the limitations of the vocabulary here employed, and I thank you for these examples that enrich and specify the terminological debate.
  • Miranda Yeoh added an answer:
    What parallels do you see between the invention of the internet - the 'semantic web' and the invention of the printing press?
    Gutenberg's press probably influenced fundamental shifts in general literacy, social structures and the loci of political power as well as subsequently influencing other major changes in society.
    Miranda Yeoh · Kolej Matrikulasi Selangor, MALAYSIA (Selangor Matriculation College)
    @Colin Mercer, Thanks for your contribution to this column and the article that you attached. I have downloaded a copy. I also thank the other contributors of this column.
  • Jonas Hill added an answer:
    The Impact of Pornography upon Society – the anthropological, cultural and economic aspects
    What is the role of pornography upon society? We will discuss, among other issues, the correlation and the impact of pornography with and upon culture and arts in general. The arguments, pro and contra, should bring light upon acceptance and rejection of porno material within different cultures. The effect of legislation in different countries will be discussed as well. The economic impact makes also a major part of the subject. The scientific community is invited with their comments, opinion and contribution. TV/cable networks and Internet, as major carriers of such material represent a great source of income. What is the future of the pornography? Is it uprising or falling / downsizing?

    PS) Please do not forget to vote member's comments / posts / participation. This encourages other RG members to participate as well.
    Jonas Hill · Griffith University
    Some great answers which really open the discussion. I think we are concerned about, or interested in, pornography because we perceive a recent explosion of porn availability and institutionalisation and because we fear it permeating society uncontrollably. And we conduct our thinking as if there were a possibility of porn not existing, as if fantasy and objectification is not an essential part of the human psyche. I think it is interesting to begin from the obverse assumption (as Niklaus points out) that porn has a history so long that it is irreducible from the human experience.

    What do we get from this view? If we are concerned that porn will somehow change the human experience, alter who we are as a society, we need to admit that sexual fantasy is more real than the 'individual' ego we perceive ourselves to be. Porn -- as a physical manifestation of sexual fantasy -- comes before society, is a precondition of society. Hence Lacan's infamous statement that "there is no sexual relationship" (only fantasy). Sexuality is most 'honest' and 'natural' in masturbation, because there is no imposition of fantasy on the other (the sexual partner). We have to rethink the Kantian position: is porn more truthful because it acknowledges the lie on which it functions? As uncomfortable as it seems, in this view, porn exposes the lie of the physical sexual relationship.

    Nonetheless, I have to agree with my Kantian colleague Bill Johnston, above, because the human mind is not predisposed to truth, the 'objectification' in pornography will unlikely reveal neither the reality of fantasy nor the fantasy of reality, but will be taken on as a new reality -- i.e. that the paradoxical truth revealed in porn will lose its paradox and therefor its value.
  • Cecil Chabot added an answer:
    To what extent does post-colonialist literature and discourse reinforce polarized colonialist paradigms?
    The scrutiny of 'settler' and colonial actions, discourse, perceptions and prejudices (vis-à-vis indigenous populations and cultures) has been far more intense than the scrutiny of indigenous actions, discourse, perceptions and prejudices (vis-à-vis non-indigenous populations and cultures). This is perfectly justifiable, given the ongoing imbalance of power. However, I find that some critics make an illegitimate jump from scrutiny proportionate to power and influence to scrutiny proportionate to a supposedly greater tendency for harm or evil, possibly inherent to the culture or even the race of those criticized. This jump is most often implicit, but it is sometimes made explicit. At best, it is inadvertently communicated by the juxtaposition of the worst of settler actions and prejudices with the best of indigenous ideals. At worst it is articulated as an explicit inversion of the old "Indian-savage versus White-civilized" paradigm. In either case, the "us-versus-them" paradigm is reinforced, however it might be expressed ('Indian v. White,' 'Native v. European,' etc.). Revising dominant settler and colonialist narratives remains a crucial task, even from a purely academic and detached point of view, but it seems to me that some revisionist efforts themselves are in need of revision. To what extent this is true is not clear to me, but the problem has certainly boiled to the surface in a number of academic contexts I've been in recently. I would like to know to what extent others see this as a problem and, if so, how widespread it is in their contexts. Also tied to this issue are what I view as problematic notions of culture. I addressed these concerns in an article published in the Canadian Journal of Native Studies in 2010, which is attached below.
    Cecil Chabot · University of Ottawa
    Thank you Richard for you contribution and the reference to Bruckner's 'Tyranny of Guilt.'
  • Pere Torán added an answer:
    Decolonization of healthcare.
    Yet another question: looking at the decolonization of healthcare in tribal health, US and Canada. Thoughts? Very little in peer-reviewed journals.
    Pere Torán · Institut Universitari d'investigació en Atenció Primària "Jordi Gol"
    At the level of care (I am family doctor ) a part of the solution lies in the focus on the patient centered care under the classical principles:
    Patient-centered concepts incorporate 6 interactive components. The first component is the physician’s exploration of both the patients’ disease and 4 dimensions of the illness experience including: their feelings about being ill, their ideas about what is wrong with them, the impact of the problem on their daily functioning, and their expectations of what should be done. The second component is the physician’s understanding of the whole person. The third component is the patient and physician finding common ground regarding management. In the fourth component the physician incorporates prevention and health promotion into the visit. The fifth component is the enhancement of the patient-physician relationship. Finally, the sixth component requires that patient-centered practice be realistic.
  • Charles Emlet added an answer:
    Courtesy stigma on family members with kin sick of tuberculosis. Is this feasible?
    I am working with my thesis and the area that I am very interested about is active tuberculosis courtesy stigma and its impact on the family members. I chose this topic because TB here in the Philippines is still a major health problem and one contributing factor that I observe restricts full TB control is that family, which suppose to be a good form of social support, is less studied and less regarded on anti-TB campaigns.
    Charles Emlet · University of Washington Tacoma
    There is , as you might know a strong TB-HIV co-infection issue around the world. You can find quite a bit of my stigma work on ResearchGate.
  • Mary Elizabeth Jude added an answer:
    Can anyone point me to some innovative healthcare delivery models for Native Americans?
    I'm particularly interested in models that blend components of both physical and spiritual/traditional healthways.
    Mary Elizabeth Jude · Husson University
    Thanks so much for your help! Really looking forward to checking these out! emjay
  • Mihai Stelian Rusu added an answer:
    Which is the most important book in memory studies?
    Social sciences recently experienced a "memory boom." Collective memory is the new en vogue concept, generating much theoretical discussion. Within the memory studies books, which one stands out as must read? Which title is on the way of becoming a classic of memory studies?
    Mihai Stelian Rusu · Babeş-Bolyai University
    Hello Monika,
    I know the book, I found some of the texts very useful in fashioning my own view on cultural memory, especially Aleida Assmann and Jan Assmann's contributions on the relationship between canon and archive, and on the distinction between communicative and cultural memory respectively. By the way, I have a sociological anchorage, and maybe this is why I think that this collective volume is to spread all across disciplines (from the psychology of memory to literary criticism). I do not consider this book to be "interdisciplinary" as it is claimed in the title, but "multi-disciplinary", i.e. lacking internal coherence and too inclusive. In my opinion, a field of study, however interdisciplinary aspires to become, must exclude some approaches. Otherwise it will tend towards totality.
    I think that a really useful edited volume is "The Collective Memory Reader," which can be used both as a bibliographical tool, and as a guide in the ever expanding field of memory studies.
  • Kalaya Yar added an answer:
    When did the human mind become religious?
    Understanding self and the phenomena like birth and death need a mental faculty. There must be some connection between the evolution of religious thinking and development of various faculties in the brain. Can anybody throw some light on the subject?
    Kalaya Yar · Loei Rajabhat University
    When human start to walk the way of life have good and bad thing to meet. They can learning more than in the class uniti die. I think "MONEY AND THE MEANING OF LIFE"
  • Ahmad Raza added an answer:
    Is culture a large prison for individuals?
    We are born in to a culture. This cultural context of our birth does not leave us at any moment for the rest of our lives. Our tastes, our dresses, our likes and dislikes, our morals and views of the world are perpetually shaped and reshaped by our culture. This also perpetuates stereotypes about other cultures. Are we then prisoners of culture and nothing more?
    Ahmad Raza · University of Management and Technology (Pakistan)
    Dear Volkan Great the way you put up two cases for the culture is quite interesting..But the problem is not that simple.Even in simplest societies,there are multiple rules of games in their social systems.There are shamans who control access to the supernatural and then hunters who control access to what is to be hunted and what is to be avoided.For an outsider, e.g., an ethnographer may perceive a 'simple culture' owing to his unique training( academic assumptions about simple culture). so there is no such case of a simple and unique culture.Your use of word " unique" already confuses culture with precision and clarity.Every society is troubled with multiple cultures.Just take one organization.You will come across different "cultures" prevalent there.The case2/part1 and part2 fully accord to the notion of culture as prison.
    Chelsea agency is social misconstruction of social structure of human relationships.Those who claim that they are free social agent can not demonstrate their claim.But that does not imply determinism. It means that social is complex web of construction of rules,meanings,attitudes,behaviors and beliefs. The complex social web can not be lived consciously.It can only be "faced" and "faced" again.As far as feminist notion of agency is concerned,it is their epistemological determination without which feminism can not stand up to the objective constructivist narratives of social and natural sciences. Peace,A
  • Shawna Buchholz added an answer:
    I would like to dialogue with individuals currently involved in CBPR with indigenous populations.
    I'll be looking more at social and historical determinants of health disparities, but I am even more specifically interested in looking at "upstream" issues (to coin John Snow!) that are perhaps more rooted in history and culture, resulting in what is today an abysmal situation for Native Americans.
    Shawna Buchholz · BC Centre for Disease Control
    I have a little background paper for you, vague but I think you will get most points. I am not certain how much you may already know about this history, so you may know some.
  • Magda Saura added an answer:
    Does anybody know of any texts on a historiography built around 'Cultural Relevance Theory'?
    This theory has grown from development, ageing and linguistic studies, but it seems extremely useful in the development of 'client' populations within a dominant social paradigm (specifically southwestern latino culture within the wider US).
    Magda Saura · Polytechnic University of Catalonia
    It started in the turn of the XXth century in the Warburg, "school" of Art History. Nowadays you may read M. Baxandall. As an architectural historian and environmental designer, I still do research on cultural relevance theory for architectural education: www.arquitectonics.com
  • Robert Levy added an answer:
    Can anyone recommend any article/ book about ethnographic research of public transport in urban context?
    I am trying to formulate my phd proposal about racism in public spaces, and it seems that public transport is a quite neglected area, from anthropologists' point of view.
    Two books by Marc Auge: "In the Metro" and - very important - Non places.
  • Linda Ashley added an answer:
    http://www.archdaily.com/238248/survival-architecture-workshop/<br /> A cross-disciplinary mix of environmental art, architecture, sociology and survi...
    http://www.archdaily.com/238248/survival-architecture-workshop/
    A cross-disciplinary mix of environmental art, architecture, sociology and survival, The students were given a task to make a personal nomad shelter and collectively to build a movable Nomad Sauna on skies and an Aurora Observatory. Under the ice there were beautiful salmon related fishes – trout and arctic char. Local Knowledge was needed in order to get them up. The farmers around the lake were generous in helping the students and more than that curious to see if they could manage in the demanding Nordic winter conditions. For the course the survival was not enough – the students had to manage to construct in 1:1 scale and find beauty through their actions in the frozen environment.
    What is the question?
  • John Voris added an answer:
    How to motivate a person, who has the capability and potential to succeed but prefers spoonfeeding at all times?
    In a community where assistance is available at all times, the needs for survival and competition become less important.
    John Voris · Authentic Systems LLC
    Carol,

    I understand your frustration. My clients are those who are frustrated in not knowing what they want to do in life and who are also frustrated with our Personality and Aptitude Profile tests. I also have ADHD and understand how this may compound his resistance.

    While many of my clients are high school students, my last 12 clients have been attorneys, so no one is immune to this lack of focus. My career counselors have abandoned the traditional personality profiling tools for our Life Theme Assessment. We assess the identity behind the personality of their clients which is why our findings are sustainable throughout a life time.

    Rather than giving up on him, I would like to assess your client at no charge.

    This is done through a three-way conference call with him, you and me. We will learn of his primary motivator, his preferred way to absorb information, if he is after physical or abstract results, how he engages socially with others, and the form of production that best brings contentment into his life. This is followed by him filling out a workbook and a follow-up meeting to verify our findings. Following verification, we generate a written report describing his challenges to be given to him. I then send you another report including how to overcome those challenges.

    I have used this system for 30 years and I have been assessing others for 12 years.

    If this interests you, just email me at john@authentic-systems.com and we will begin the process. Regardless, of your decision, I will send you a copy of my book when it is available later this year.

    I am confident that with your expertise, this information will finally take you over the edge.
  • Paola Villani added an answer:
    How can we explain the role of ideology in theorizing built environment or urban design?
    I am exploring the role of ideology in theorizing built environment. It means that in monotheistic religions that involve a large part of the world population (Christians, Muslims, Jews) have same faith unlike differences.

    It is possible that a built environment theory can be produced according to these similarities?
    Paola Villani · World Road Association
    Churches, places of worship and religious buildings come in all shapes and
    sizes; they are often united by superb architecture employed in homage to the
    deities and beliefs worshipped within. In the centuries in which religion has a significant weight, the mosque, the Church, places of worship, are large and majestic. In eras where there starts to atheism, public buildings and private buildings will be beautiful as a place of worship. In Italy from the Communes (10th century) came the first sign: from the steeples of churches has that first single, after became twofold, indicating the Administrative power and the power of the Church. But in Genoa, St. Lawrence Cathedral, the Church tower was built higher.

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