- Raj Ratna Goswami added an answer:anarchist anthropologyHi,
I am a social and cultural anthropologist with an interest in anarchism, peace, egalitarianism, and the anthropology of groups without government. Anyone among you or anyone you know with a similar interest?
Charles MSati-Pati movement was launched in 1930 at Songadh by some Bhil |Communities viz., the Gamits and Vasavas.. This spread in Mandavi, Songadh, Dangs and Dharampur region of South Gujarat viz., when the forest rules become wider and more harassing for forest dwellers. The prohibition on hunting games and cutting of wood made the whole of dwellers in India enemy of government. On one hand the mining activities and tree felling by contractors went unchecked poor tribal were prohibited even collecting fire wood. These made Sati Patis more popular as they forcefully broke the regulations and hunt animals and cut trees. In this many times armed conflicts between forest dwellers and guards broke out. Sati-Patis took advantage of it. But as it was an independent movement and had a very little followership, the other tribal preferred the government side which seemed them better and benefitting. Strangely this movement is still live. The followers silently disobey rules. They do not have Ration Cards, no entry in Electoral list and no demand for government help. They just use the forest products unhindered and not bothering for any rule.
This tribal movement in South Gujarat which resists associating itself with the administration, has been enrolled for the first time in the voters’ list and is likely to exercise franchise in the 2012 state assembly polls, officials said. The Sampradaya members have been enrolled in districts like Tapi, Dang, Narmada, Valsad, amongst others, and few have also been issued Electoral Photo Identity Cards enhancing probability of their participation in the elections. The tribal community takes pride in keeping themselves aloof from any of the government’s schemes. Dang, where around 90 per cent population is tribal, is considered to be base of Satipatis, with an estimated population of around 3,000 Satipati people.
In any respect it is a deep rooted habit of forest dwellers for dishonoring every order by political system taking it as a hindrance in their carefree life. They are real anarchists. Not like Maoist or Naxalies, who are part of political jargon of Eastern Indian lawlessness.Following
- Gyorgy Banhegyi added an answer:How reliable are numbers found in an anthropological studies, which are based mainly on cultural features and not on a history of culture of numbers?In western countries it is easier to trace the symbolism which numbers get. It is the result of Babylonian-Pythagorean-Christian tradition. So it directly related with philosophy and science in general.But there are other cultures who use numbers without influence of those factors which I have mentioned above in the Western culture. I mean is that possible to consider numbers absolutely independently from number theory approach and scientific achievements, just as the other elements of a culture? Or in any way numbers at the end lead to science? In this case is that right to consider numbers as the object of anthropology? Since they are the language of a science, but not the cultural feature.In my opinion the best approach to the "spirit" of mathematics is still that of Oswald Spengler (Decline of the West). His keen analysis shows that that mathematics is as much the integral part of the culture as religion or arts. He was not only a great philopspoher of history, but also a good mathematician, so he knew what he was talking about. Additionally he had a broad knowledge in law and arts. He knew the most about Greek, Arab and Western mathematics and he had deep insights into these disciplines. Unfortunately he did not have enough data at that time on Indian, Chinese, Maya or Egytian mathematics.Following
- Ninad Jhala added an answer:Does your university allow students from other institutions to intern in the history/ modern language departments and libraries?I'm looking to research gender, Mayan women, colonial Yucatan, and Medieval Spanish literature.Yes.Following
- Babak Rezvani added an answer:Where we are?Social and cultural anthropology: between empiricism exotistic and postmodernity?@ Kasi: "social and cultural anthropology remains as it is and also more vibrant by welcoming new concepts, themes and methods into its fold."
I think in this way: You can say that Social Cultural anthropology is in crisis because it is losing its identity, or you can say it is improving by broadening its horizon, the fact remains that the boundaries between social sciences are getting blurred day by day.Following
- Arghavan Pournaderi added an answer:Are there any communities who have been forced to immigrate (to an area with a difference of culture) by a government or another state?For instance in Iran during the Safavid dynasty some of the Armenian of Jolfa had been made to settle in Isfahan (the capital city of the time), furthermore a certain district had been built for them. I wonder if there are such examples before or after industrial revolution.Thank you very much for the helpful information. I am looking for the communities which remain together as a group after their migration; are these cases the same or can they be tracked in some specific areas (to be considered as a sort of subculture preserving their ethnic culture)?Following
- Siddhartha Shankar Ray added an answer:Decolonization of Indian Health CareI am just starting research focused on the decolonization of tribal healthcare as a means to improve tribal health disparities. This article will be helpful since there is a dearth of information on the topic in the primary care realm. Integrated (biopsychosocial) care is always the ideal. If anyone out there has information on any pilot programs or individuals who are doing work in this area, please let me know!Thanks Mary;
I have just received the Tribal Health Bulletin, a biannual publication on Tribal Health and found one article Tribal Inequality: the challenges remain by M. Muniyandi & Neeru Singh which might be of interest to you. The text may be sort of popular article but the reference part is quite informative. Today,I had a mail exchange with Dr. R.K. Sharma, their Library Officer & I learnt from him that all the issues of Tribal Health Bulletin are available in their website. Besides, the Anthropological survey of India too are doing little bit research on Tribal Health as I just learnt from their newsletter. You may try that too if you feel like.
Siddhartha S. Ray,.Following
- Jonas Hill added an answer:The Impact of Pornography upon Society – the anthropological, cultural and economic aspectsWhat is the role of pornography upon society? We will discuss, among other issues, the correlation and the impact of pornography with and upon culture and arts in general. The arguments, pro and contra, should bring light upon acceptance and rejection of porno material within different cultures. The effect of legislation in different countries will be discussed as well. The economic impact makes also a major part of the subject. The scientific community is invited with their comments, opinion and contribution. TV/cable networks and Internet, as major carriers of such material represent a great source of income. What is the future of the pornography? Is it uprising or falling / downsizing?
PS) Please do not forget to vote member's comments / posts / participation. This encourages other RG members to participate as well.Some great answers which really open the discussion. I think we are concerned about, or interested in, pornography because we perceive a recent explosion of porn availability and institutionalisation and because we fear it permeating society uncontrollably. And we conduct our thinking as if there were a possibility of porn not existing, as if fantasy and objectification is not an essential part of the human psyche. I think it is interesting to begin from the obverse assumption (as Niklaus points out) that porn has a history so long that it is irreducible from the human experience.
What do we get from this view? If we are concerned that porn will somehow change the human experience, alter who we are as a society, we need to admit that sexual fantasy is more real than the 'individual' ego we perceive ourselves to be. Porn -- as a physical manifestation of sexual fantasy -- comes before society, is a precondition of society. Hence Lacan's infamous statement that "there is no sexual relationship" (only fantasy). Sexuality is most 'honest' and 'natural' in masturbation, because there is no imposition of fantasy on the other (the sexual partner). We have to rethink the Kantian position: is porn more truthful because it acknowledges the lie on which it functions? As uncomfortable as it seems, in this view, porn exposes the lie of the physical sexual relationship.
Nonetheless, I have to agree with my Kantian colleague Bill Johnston, above, because the human mind is not predisposed to truth, the 'objectification' in pornography will unlikely reveal neither the reality of fantasy nor the fantasy of reality, but will be taken on as a new reality -- i.e. that the paradoxical truth revealed in porn will lose its paradox and therefor its value.Following
- Pere Torán added an answer:Decolonization of healthcare.Yet another question: looking at the decolonization of healthcare in tribal health, US and Canada. Thoughts? Very little in peer-reviewed journals.At the level of care (I am family doctor ) a part of the solution lies in the focus on the patient centered care under the classical principles:
Patient-centered concepts incorporate 6 interactive components. The first component is the physician’s exploration of both the patients’ disease and 4 dimensions of the illness experience including: their feelings about being ill, their ideas about what is wrong with them, the impact of the problem on their daily functioning, and their expectations of what should be done. The second component is the physician’s understanding of the whole person. The third component is the patient and physician finding common ground regarding management. In the fourth component the physician incorporates prevention and health promotion into the visit. The fifth component is the enhancement of the patient-physician relationship. Finally, the sixth component requires that patient-centered practice be realistic.Following
- Charles Emlet added an answer:Courtesy stigma on family members with kin sick of tuberculosis. Is this feasible?I am working with my thesis and the area that I am very interested about is active tuberculosis courtesy stigma and its impact on the family members. I chose this topic because TB here in the Philippines is still a major health problem and one contributing factor that I observe restricts full TB control is that family, which suppose to be a good form of social support, is less studied and less regarded on anti-TB campaigns.There is , as you might know a strong TB-HIV co-infection issue around the world. You can find quite a bit of my stigma work on ResearchGate.Following
- Shawna Buchholz added an answer:I would like to dialogue with individuals currently involved in CBPR with indigenous populations.I'll be looking more at social and historical determinants of health disparities, but I am even more specifically interested in looking at "upstream" issues (to coin John Snow!) that are perhaps more rooted in history and culture, resulting in what is today an abysmal situation for Native Americans.I have a little background paper for you, vague but I think you will get most points. I am not certain how much you may already know about this history, so you may know some.Following
- Robert Levy added an answer:Can anyone recommend any article/ book about ethnographic research of public transport in urban context?I am trying to formulate my phd proposal about racism in public spaces, and it seems that public transport is a quite neglected area, from anthropologists' point of view.Two books by Marc Auge: "In the Metro" and - very important - Non places.Following
- Paola Villani added an answer:How can we explain the role of ideology in theorizing built environment or urban design?I am exploring the role of ideology in theorizing built environment. It means that in monotheistic religions that involve a large part of the world population (Christians, Muslims, Jews) have same faith unlike differences.
It is possible that a built environment theory can be produced according to these similarities?Churches, places of worship and religious buildings come in all shapes and
sizes; they are often united by superb architecture employed in homage to the
deities and beliefs worshipped within. In the centuries in which religion has a significant weight, the mosque, the Church, places of worship, are large and majestic. In eras where there starts to atheism, public buildings and private buildings will be beautiful as a place of worship. In Italy from the Communes (10th century) came the first sign: from the steeples of churches has that first single, after became twofold, indicating the Administrative power and the power of the Church. But in Genoa, St. Lawrence Cathedral, the Church tower was built higher.Following
- Farzad Navabakhsh added an answer:How can we relate morality and law ?Explaining law or its formation based upon moralityHere are all the responses and views on religion and the law is written, read it carefully.
Here's an important point neglected
And it is written in the point of view of religion is a modern look, And also look at religion in a modern society is so different about the traditional concepts of religion and the law is not rational.
While religion has traditionally belonged to the world, so when you say religion is in fact referring to the fact that the traditional world of the invention is to organize social relations.
From this angle, the function of religion in the traditional world of crystals by physical laws, and these are the origin of sin and transgression
But the man-made abuses by majority of people and it is a crime, not guilt. Ground and not the sky. The law is flexible and strong, but religion is absolute and unchangeable.
And very different from other religions to convert a traditional community development block.
There is also an obstacle oriented and rule of law is so synonymous with tradition and religious backwardness and modernity are compatible with the rule of law. Traditional society against the resistance.
Ethics and Humanity is on the clothes of religion, society and totalitarianism and backwardness imposed on society and seriously hamper the development of any changes.
But the law needs to be changed and Antbaq any society, whether it is developed or whatever.
Ethics and Humanity is on the clothes of religion, society and totalitarianism and backwardness imposed on society and seriously hamper the development of any changes.
But the law needs to be changed and Antbaq any society, whether it is developed or whatever.Ethics and Humanity is on the clothes of religion, society and totalitarianism and backwardness imposed on society and seriously hamper the development of any changes.
But the law needs to be changed and Antbaq any society, whether it is developed or whatever.Following
- Gavin Daker-White added an answer:What do you believe the main impact of the internet has been upon the production and publication of socio-cultural academic research?Ideally aimed towards researchers who have been published both before and after 'Web 2.0', but open to everyone. I would love to gain an understanding into any major differences in research/publication practices that have come about as a result of the internet, as well as your opinion on how resources like ResearchGate have impacted on you as a researcher. Any personal accounts/anecdotes welcome!Following
- M. Smith-Dalton added an answer:Societal belief in the supernaturalI am looking for either theoretical work, or fieldwork, or both, in any culture.I have found the books of Catherine L. Albanese very helpful; she is Professor of Religious Studies and J.F. Rowny Endowed Chair in Comparative Religions at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Her recent publications include A Republic of Mind and Spirit: A Cultural History of American Metaphysical Religion (Yale University Press, 2007) and Reconsidering Nature Religion (Trinity Press International, 2002). I consulted her books in writing my own latest book, A History of Spiritualism and the Occult in Salem, just published by the History Press.Following
- Colin Mercer added an answer:How?How to benefit from anthropology and sociology in the analysis of literary text?I'd recommend Franco Moretti's work, especially his 'Signs Taken for Wonders'.Following
- Linda Ashley added an answer:Hi...Is it possible to combine ethnography and grounded research?I’ve done my research with ethnography and found several themes. From those themes, I want to construct a substantive theory. Then the next step was to process ethnography data used grounded research. I still hesitate....Is it possible? is anyone has suchlike experience?Hi Atiek. I find your research area fascinating and perhaps my doctorate inquiry may be of relevance to you. I ran an ethnographic investigation using GT to analyse and interpret the data I collected. The thesis is entitled "Teaching dance form contextual perspectives in the New Zealand Curriculum..." Also the cultural/spatial aspects of your topic may have some small overlaps with mine. You can find the thesis on
I also endorse the advice given by the other commentators above and am really enjoying this exchange with people scattered around the globe.
Other dance research using GT for data analysis can be found in these journals if helpful:
Bannon, F. (2004). Towards creative practice in research in dance education. Research in Dance Education, 5(1), 25–43.
Wilson, M. (2009). Dance pedagogy case studies: A grounded theory approach to analysing qualitative data. Research in Dance Education, 10(1), 3–16.
Well we seem to have given you plenty to think about. My website, if you wish to contact me further is
Best with your studies!Following
- Shalome Kim Felder added an answer:How do environments influence intelligence and coping in regard to attaining good mental health for all racesI am studying mental health with the open university and i am presently looking at racial discrimination and how it has affected non-english people in england. Racist views in the past have discussed such offensive things such as less intelligence and other hurtful opinions. I am looking for evidence to substantiate my belief that all people are created equal and that any inability to cope is purely individual.Take a look at trauma in the context of urban poverty. There is a white paper titled Understanding how trauma and poverty impact family systems.Following
- Sayedul Islam Montu asked a question:Why the people specially the politicians of Bangladesh influenced by the mystic's?The Influence of the mystic's on the peoples specially the politicians of Bangladesh is well documented. Politicians visit mystics regularly in regards to personal guidance as well as to improve current socio-political conditions.Following
- Flavia Chevez added an answer:Any one else study geomythology ?Stugy of Mths that relate to natural eventsThere's a myth called The " Arbolarias" for a windy storms and they (Las Arbolarias) are responsible for take a lagoon from the original place and put it inside a volcano crater. They carried the lagoon inside a egg shell. I don't remember well but I can do a little research.
- Lucas Melo added an answer:What's the best theory to research on leisure, spaces of sociability in an urban city?I'm doing some research on spaces of sociability like sporting clubs. And I chose to investigate the foundation, the peak and the decline of these spaces. But what theory is the more approchable to explain that?thanks Alfredo!Following
- Larry Carlson added an answer:How have anthropologists studied 'struggles' (be it social, political or economic) of communities they engage with?Anthropological query into the whole matter of 'struggles'of people (be it social, economic or political) is quite different from that of other social sciences disciplines. With approaches like ethnography and participant observation, anthropologists seem to understand people and their everyday lives better.Perhaps the phrase "might makes right" is ironic, not only because it shows that morality is only defined by those biased few who are in power, but because those in power are so often in the wrong. Though justice is supposed to be blind, it often ends up turning a blind eye on the injustices perpetrated by powerful Sophists and focusing instead upon the pecadillos of a few underlings. Not to be too political, but a quick case in point is the three strikes law here in the U.S. when applied in a world where fraudulent CEO's get off with a slap on the wrist with wet spaghetti: Leandro Andrade, some 30 years later, received two consecutive 25 year sentences in California after stealing 9 videotapes from two different K-Mart stores in a two week period, or the life sentence going to a shoddy repairman in the case of Rummel v. Estelle, cases upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court.Following
- Larry Carlson added an answer:What role, if any, did other religions (Mithraism, Zoroastrianism, the cults of Osiris, Dionysius, Adonis) have in the development of Christianity?This question bears on the anthropology of religionIt is difficult to know what is speculative and what might reasonably accepted as fact. Freud claimed Moses was influenced by the monotheism of the Egyptian pharoah Akhenaten, but there is apparently no archeological evidence that Jews were even in Egypt or moved into Canaan (under the leadership of Joshua). Apparently there is evidence t mhat David existed but not kingdom. There is evidence that Solomon existed, but not that he orchestrated the building of the temple.. Also, he would have worshiped other gods besides Yahweh, so he wasn't even monotheistic. Anyway, the Zoroastrian of the Persians, who overran Babylon and released the Jews, encouraged a more dualistic approach to their religious thinking, as far as I can tell.Following
- Dammar Lohorung asked a question:Social psychology in a contemporary societal contextGroup psychology is something which shapes a society in its progression. So, explanation to its (psychological) phenomena is a must for the future shaping of a society. Therefore, to know the societal context and its functioning becomes a must.Following
- Raj Ratna Goswami added an answer:Looking for destruction myths that can be easily paired with creation myths – both well documented from oral traditionMy name is Yaniv Messinger and I'm a PhD student in the Jewish and Comparative Folklore Program at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. I'm writing a dissertation titled "Creation Myths and Destruction Myth – Classification and Possible Connections" and I'm trying to build a corpus of stories to use in the research.
By "destruction myths" I mean authoritative stories relating the past destruction of humanity, the world, or a significant part of either. So eschatological stories, for example, don't qualify. The biblical flood story is a good example, but the means of destruction doesn't have to be water.
By "creation myths" I mean any story telling about the beginning – not necessarily a story with an active conscious creator, not even necessarily a story in which the world comes into existence from nothing or from a small nucleus.
By "easily paired" I ideally mean two stories that were told by the same teller to the same recorder at the same session or sequence of sessions, but I would settle for any two stories that can be shown to have authority in the same community at the same time. If the same story relates both the beginning of the world and its (or humanity's) destruction – that's great, too.
That part – the paring – is the trickiest. There are many sources for creation myths and for flood myths, and even a few places one can look for other destruction myths, but finding a creation myth and a destruction myth told by the same teller, or at least belonging to the same community, is more complicated – and that's why I'm looking for your help.
By "well documented" I mean that the highest the documentation standard, the better. I wish I could have all the stories recorded and transcripted with both word-for-word and more readable translations, but again – I'll settle for less, if I have to, as long as the source is first-hand and reliable.
I'd really appreciate any help!
YanivThere is a mythological story too, which refers the incarnation of Vishnu, the great Hindu God, who saved the earth during the great flood as a giant fish, better named as the Matsyaavtaar.All these can be read on line. There are sites, by tags of Kalpa, Manvantras, Matsyavatara and Hindu theory of Yougas.Following
- Charles Macdonald added an answer:Do institutions have an identity ?If I look at the aspects of identity of human beings, I find many things about personal identity, constructed through relations to groups (friends, family, ...), social norms within a given culture (or several cultures). But I wonder about these facts can be applied to institutions. Take for example an university. It has to communicate (web site, corporate communication), to exist within an environment (scientific, administrative, politic), and to interact with other actors (others universities, people, etc.). It also has an history, from a birth, to (maybe) a death or a fusion into something larger. All of these parameters allow interpreting that such an institution has in itself an identity (feeling of unity, feeling of being different from another one, feeling of being one entity from birth to end, etc.). But it cannot be the same as the identity of a person. Does anyone has an idea about that ?An institution or group with a collective identity is called a "corporation". it is endowed with a quasi-personal identity. The French have good word for it. In French law this is called a "personne morale" (a moral person) as opposed to a "personne physique" (like an individual person). Defining a collective entity as a person or quasi-person is basic to the creation of what we call a "social" organization.
Collective, person-like entities have been discussed by anthropologists under the caption of "corporate groups". See Fortes and Radcliffe-Brown on this.Corporate groups are defined by a certain number of traits, like having a center of authority, a common property, a territory, etc. but, as Henry Sumner Maine wrote long ago, such quasi-persons "never die" and members of such collective entities derive part of their own identities from it. One such corporation could be General Motors or a country, or a political party, a family, a kingdom, a sports team, a congregation, etc.
One more point: corporations are (supposed to be) eternal (exist in perpetuity) and live on a higher plane than the simple people (physical persons) who belong to it. However they endow their members with certain traits or qualities that are essential to their individual definition. In other words they possess transcendence. Maybe you don't understand transcendence. Try "alienation". Alienation refers to something or someone "else" or "alien" (Latin alius). Alienation means the self is defined by someone or something other than the self.
The whole social fabric in which we all live today is premised on this implicit theory of transcendence of and alienation by the corporate. Transcendence of the corporate principle is a most interesting illusion, probably the biggest con game of human history.
The answer to the question "do institutions have an identity" is YES. The answer to the question of "what is this identity made of" is: the human capacity for alienation.Following
- Alicia J. M. Colson added an answer:what is Generation ‘Y’ in New Media plese let me knowChandra sekharFollowing
- Anupam Anand added an answer:Food Advertisements targeting ChildrenI am trying to put together an essay on food advertisements targeting children. Can anyone help me go about this topic using an anthropological approach. Thanks^ True ... Unless you are an american and biased towards an imaginary 'white race' identity.Following
- Jim Hickey added an answer:Are we at the dawning of the Age of Robots?Robots are taking over the battlefield, especially the air (drones) but increasingly land and water as well. Already the drones in the air are weaponized, and have been used by the U.S. for many strikes against persons, especially in the Afghan, Pakistan theater.
It is only a matter of time before the land-based systems are also weaponized. Right now, they are supposedly used for things like defusing explosive devices and for recon, but I would make a very large bet that they soon are armed.
Right now, the U.S. military is saying that there would always be a human being making the decision to kill ... but this will change as well. Ethicists are working away on proving that robots can be programmed to act on rules that make them more ethical than humans on the battlefield. (Of course the semantics of this assertion is debatable, along with the claim itself.)
So much for the military. That aspect will soon be a fait accompli, and no one will weep for robots destroyed in combat.
Then there is this amazing story from industry: Foxconn, a manufacturing firm (that makes iPhones), will be implementing 1 million robots over 2012-2015 to replace human workers, and of course to reduce labor costs. What makes this truly amazing is that Foxconn is in Taiwan, and its average monthly wage is just US$280. Wow. If the robots work economically at this wage scale, then America, Europe and Japan are compelled to follow the same policy, and soon. Of course, it has already begun in all three areas, especially in industries such as automotive, but I think we are talking about replacing almost any job that is the least bit repetitive, even including many of the service jobs. (Can a robot flip burgers?)
Science Fiction writers have warned for years that there may come a day when robots become "smarter" than humans ... and when / if that day comes, as the robots continue to evolve at the speed of Moore's Law, some fear it will become impossible for humans to comprehend how smart they are.
Are we at the dawning of the Age of Robots?
--------------Regards, JamesOla, Italo!
Your suggestion would make an amazing novel. Are you a writer? I sense a certain je ne sais quoi in your expressions that suggests a literary bent.
I'd love to stay in touch, in any event. Whether we will or no, transformational times are upon us. If you're not familiar with the music of Manu Chao, I highly recommend "Politics Is."
The Grateful Dead, with whom you may or may not be familiar, also have a song that expresses what I'm asserting. "New Speedway Boogie" includes these lines:
"Who can deny, who can deny, it's not just a change in style?
One step down and another begun and I wonder how many miles.
...You can't overlook the lack, jack, of any other highway to ride.
It's got no signs or dividing lines and very few rule to guide.
I saw things getting out of hand, I guess they always will.
Now I don't know but I been told
If the horse don't pull you got to carry the load.
I don't know whose back's that strong, maybe find out before too long.
One way or another, one way or another,
One way or another, this darkness got to give.
"One way or another," something's got to give, though the shift needn't be helpful or sweet. In order for human benefit to result, we have to find a way to work together. That's what seems the case to me, anyway.
Solidarity! Keep me posted, and
Ciao for now,
- Uma Chandru added an answer:Does anyone know any theory related to the idea of cultural invasion?I'm doing a research about cultural invasion within masculinity. thanks a lot :)For a critical theoryl framework on the problem of cultural invasion in education and significance of language and speech look at Education and Cultural Invasion: Critical Social Theory, Education as Instruction, and the "Pedagogy of the Oppressed" by Dieter Misgeld in Critical Theory and Public Life, edited by John Forester. 1985 MIT PressFollowing
About Social and Cultural Anthropology
This is a group created to discuss the state of art in Social and Cultural Anthropology.