Social Media

Social Media

  • Dora jimela Kialo added an answer:
    How would you define social media and what tools/platforms/networks/apps/ do you consider social media technologies?

    Most often, I see Kaplan and Haenlein's (2010) definition of social media cited in research articles: “A group of Internet- based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0 and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content” (p. 61).

    With respect to social presence and media richness, applications such as collaborative projects (e.g., Wikipedia) and blogs score lowest, as they are often text-based and hence only allow for a relatively simple exchange. On the next level are content communities (e.g., YouTube) and social networking sites (e.g., Facebook) which, in addition to text-based communication, enable the sharing of pictures, videos, and other forms of media. On the highest level are virtual game and social worlds (e.g., World of Warcraft, Second Life), which try to replicate all dimensions of face-to-face interac- tions in a virtual environment” (p. 63).

    Recently, Carr and Hayes (2015)  published a rather interesting article defining social media in such a way it would stick until 2035:)

    Carr, C.T. & Hayes, R.A. (2015). Social Media: Defining, Developing, and Divining, Atlantic Journal of Communication, 23:1, 46-65, DOI: 10.1080/15456870.2015.972282 

    The definition: "Social media are Internet-based channels that allow users to opportunistically interact and selectively self-present, either in real-time or asynchronously, with both broad and narrow audiences who derive value from user-generated content and the perception of interaction with others” (p. 50).

    Social Medium

    Social network sites (e.g., Facebook, QQ, GoogleC, YouTube, Yelp, Pheed) 
􏰀  Professional network sites (e.g., LinkedIn, IBM’s Beehive) 
􏰀  Chatboards & discussion for a 􏰀  Social/Casual games (e.g., Farmville) 
􏰀  Wiki “Talk” pages 
􏰀  Tinder 
􏰀  Instagram 
􏰀  Wanelo 
􏰀  Yik Yak 

    Not a Social Medium

    􏰀 Online news services (e.g., NYT online, 􏰀 Wikipedia 􏰀 Skype
􏰀 Netflix
􏰀 E-mail 􏰀 Online news 􏰀 SMS/Texts 􏰀 Oovoo 
􏰀 Tumblr 􏰀 Whisper

     I was surprised to see Tumblr on the list of “not a social media”. Should blogs not be included?

    Dora jimela Kialo

    That's right Jeannette. Tumblr is a blog site. where was it referenced?

  • Nurrun Muchammad Shiddieqy Hadna added an answer:
    Do you have any suggestion on how to measure a corporate reputation via social media?

    social media and corporate reputation experts

    Nurrun Muchammad Shiddieqy Hadna

     Hi Mas,

    I can suggest that you use sentiment analysis method to measure a corporate reputation via social media.



  • Debra Sharon Ferdinand added an answer:
    Does collecting responses through social media involve some more intricacies?

    I am working on a research related to the cooperative based microfinance. I have collected some opinions on a question posted on a specialized online group of microfinance professionals and researchers. I have a few queries regarding the responses collected through this medium.

    Is there a special name for opinions collected on a research topic over some online platform (say LinkedIn group)?

    Is this method alright or has some inherent weaknesses? Are their ways to overcome?

    Can we apply the same qualitative analysis tools to the responses or some specific techniques exist to analyze the responses collected on social media/blogs?

    Debra Sharon Ferdinand


    Here's a study on Social Media that can give an example of how to analyse your data.

    Best regards,


    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: During the last decade social media has grown exponentially. With increased accessibility to internet, people nowadays tend to socialize through social mediums rather than face to face mode. More than 1.2 billion people use Facebook regularly according to numbers released in October 2013; a recent report by Business Insider reported 2.7 billion people — almost 40% of the world population— regularly use social media(NMC Horizon-2014). Social media is the current trend with which our lives are presently defined. Social media has invaded in all aspects of human lives. Learners of all levels, be it the school level or the higher education level are using social media tools like Face book, You tube, Twitter etc. to communicate with their peers and teachers. Horizon report 2014 and other trend setting documents forecast increased presence of social media for educational purposes in the current year. National curriculum framework 2005 has emphasized the need of social constructivist approach in the education system. ICT policy in school education 2012 also envisages enhanced availability of ICT infrastructure in schools. . Research evidences suggest that Social media has the potential to tap the resources available to the fullest extent. Social media has the potential to catch the very nature of social constructivism by allowing learners to become active participants in knowledge construction rather than passive consumers of content. Hence the learning process becomes more participatory and collaborative. Due to the ability of social media to enhance connections by making them easily accessible, social media can yield many benefits for the young, including providing a virtual space for them to explore their interests or problems with similar individuals, academic support, while strengthening online communication skills and knowledge. However, in a country like ours there is a need to devise a framework which can answer the issues related with using social media in classrooms. The present paper intends to discuss the approaches and challenges which are associated with using social media in classrooms.
      International Educational conference 2015 Learning Technologies in Education, Jamia Millia Islamia; 02/2015
  • Mergen Dyussenov added an answer:
    Is using Google search a viable research method to track the impact of social media on corruption?

    Is using Google search as part of my PhD dissertation a viable research method to track the impact of social media on corruption?

    Mergen Dyussenov

    Thanks everyone for sharing your inputs! 

    I have utilized Factiva software for analyzing social media sentiments and planning to combine it with Google search as both sources appear to produce generally comparable (and adequate) measures of corruption trends.

    Please do take a look at my new piece uploaded on applying a new attention cycle model to corruption (technical report) and comment! 

  • Uma jebamani Deaver added an answer:
    How can social media be used to promote childrens physical activity thru the parents?

    I'm working in collaboration with another study to improve physical activity and nutrition behaviors in children. My arm of the study will be using social media to communicate the health messages and physical activity challenges to the family. We will collect accelerometer data for both the parents and the children. What other outcomes can I use to measure how effective our intervention was at improving health behaviors in the children?

    Uma jebamani Deaver


    I see your point, through social media you want the parents to get ideas to make their children active., in that case I have answered few questions . please see that it helps you.

    How much time parents spend with their children?

    my sister adopted a very good strategy, she said whenever i watch TV , my sons also join and watch, so  i decided not to watch TV( when they are around) instead she plays with them outdoor games like badminton, cricket etc. 

    How many parents plan the daily activities for their children and follow them strictly? 

     children can be made to get into habit only if they are regularly made to do similar activity daily for long time. As they grow automatically without saying they do, again my sister send her children to grocery stores only on theiir bicycle, 

    The parents when they go for walking or jogging must take their children along with them

  • Wendy Oludhe added an answer:
    Interested in participating in a Social Media Semantic Analysis survey?

    Dear Participant,

    I am currently pursuing my MSc. in Information Systems Management from the University of Liverpool. As part of my dissertation research, I would like to help us discover the market’s sentimental mood from micro-blogging posts through identified text clustering and lexical analysis algorithms.

    To begin the survey;

    1. You will access the following page
    2. Login using either your Facebook or Twitter account to access social media content.
    3. Go to the following link which will give you further instructions to proceed.

    What you’ll experience will be a simulation of the identified algorithms at work which automatically mark text comments as very negative, negative, neutral, positive and very positive. Your participation in the remaining part of the survey will help us establish how these algorithms can further be used to improve market research in terms of effectively analyzing the market's response to corporate social media posts.

    All information collected as part of this research will strictly be treated in confidentiality with individual firms or people not identified.

    Thank you for your consideration, your feedback is important.

    Yours Sincerely,

    Wendy Oludhe

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    Wendy Oludhe

    Hi Rajeev,

    Sorry for the error, these are the correct links




    + 1 more attachment

  • Giuseppe Aceto added an answer:
    Is there any way in which we can find out the total number of times access to social media is denied to individuals because of government censorship?
    There has been a recent trend in Pakistan and other developing countries of banning social media websites on one pretext or another, thereby deniying the populace from access to such common sites like youtube, facebook etc. Can there be an software to detect the number of times this happens so that we could inform the public and the government of the total losses occured
    Giuseppe Aceto

    There are different censorship enforcement techniques, and detecting censorship is not trivial. To have a broader understanding of this you can read the recent survey I've authored  specifically on this topic (attached).

    A list of tools is reported and discussed, specifically designed for detection: no need to create your own, or if you want, better check what are the resources and the knowledge already available on censorship detection.
    This is my active research field so I'm glad to help if more info is needed.

  • Emad Abu-Shanab added an answer:
    What are the benefits and limitations of the current use of Web 2.0 technologies? Do the benefits of these technologies outweigh the limitations?

    Consider the importance of social media and other Web 2.0 technologies in the context of cultural heritage.

    Emad Abu-Shanab

    I guess that we need to look at technology as Sara Baase proposed "a gift of fire" as all technologies have benefits and problems... how would we handle such thing...? I guess we need to raise awareness of their downsides... still benefit from them

  • Ljubomir Jacić added an answer:
    Are there any theories related to social media?
    Theorizing Social Media
    Ljubomir Jacić

    Dear @Anam, here is the link to the more than 1000 publications about the social media theories, available here at RG data base. Good luck.

  • Alaa Aldahdouh added an answer:
    Which Theoretical Framework and Method would be best for a study of Social Media based library outreach?

    I'm going to propose a PhD study on " Role of Social Media in Academic Library Outreach in Developing Countries" and choose exploratory sequential mixed methods design of Grounded theory. I'm still confused what theoretical framework would be best fit for this kind of study.

    The study will explore the real situation of academic libraries on the ground in selected developing countries, to develop guidelines for successful outreach through social media, and to contribute to the progress of a stronger theoretical framework to support the development of information services within those countries and beyond. 

    Alaa Aldahdouh

    I also recommend Connectivism theory. Please see our state-of-the-art study, it will give you a good insight about what Connectivism is really about with concrete examples

    AlDahdouh, A. A., Osório, A. J., & Caires, S. (2015). Understanding knowledge network, learning and connectivism. INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY, 3.

  • Miranda Yeoh added an answer:
    Do you notice that your students spend a lot of time on social networks? What are the effects that you noted on them?
    My students spend a lot of time on FB. When I asked, "Do you get into FB everyday?"; a student responded, "Every hour, madam".
    What are the effects on them that you noted? What is our role as educators, in this matter? (Please share your experiences.)
    Miranda Yeoh

    Dear Ljubomir, thanks for the link.  In this age, avoiding cybercrime, avoiding being a victim is utterly essential.  Have a look at this paper that I retrieved.  Thanks.  (I'm busy with writing.  It's also prayer and fasting weeks before Christmas. I will connect with friends by email and on FB.)

  • Jeremy Harris Lipschultz added an answer:
    In the UK, there are social media prosecution guidelines. Can we learn something from them?
    Jeremy Harris Lipschultz

    The U.S. First Amendment reflects a different balance of interests, such as with privacy.

  • Iris Steenhout added an answer:
    How can we get data from Twitter (for discourse analysis)?
    I need such data for my project.
    Iris Steenhout

    I wrote a webapp to keep following topics through Twitter, based on the hashtags. You can use it for educational purposes. Results are downloadable as json or csv and images go in a seperate directory. Of course, you plug in to the stream from the moment you start following (and then 7 days backwarck, the maximum the Twitter Api allows), but the search is repeated on regular basis through cronjob and saved in DB so you can follow for a longer period.

  • Alejandro Valencia Arias added an answer:
    Can anybody suggest me research articles about DIGITAL MARKETING?

    Research articles about digital marketing:

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Background: Research exploring the association between digital alcohol marketing and alcohol use in young adults is limited. Furthermore even less research has explored how this association is affected by the simultaneous presence of user-created alcohol content. In response, this study explored young adults’ awareness of, and participation with, digital alcohol marketing and user-created alcohol content, and what influence, if any, this had on young adults drinking. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 18-25 year olds (n=424) measured awareness of nine traditional marketing channels, and awareness of, and participation with, eleven digital marketing channels and eleven examples of user-created alcohol. Frequency of alcohol use, typical number of units drunk in a drinking session and frequency of high episodic drinking were measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test – Consumption (AUDIT-C). Results: Respondents, on average, were aware of four traditional and six digital alcohol marketing channels and seven instances of user-created alcohol content. They also participated, on average, with two digital marketing channels and four instances of user-created alcohol content. Average awareness of digital marketing was higher than average awareness of traditional marketing and awareness and participation with user-created alcohol content was higher than the comparable estimates for digital marketing. Nonetheless, multidimensional scaling demonstrated respondents’ experienced simultaneous exposure to digital marketing and user-created content. Linear regressions indicated exposure to alcohol marketing and user-created alcohol content was significantly associated with scoring on all three items of the AUDIT-C. In each model awareness of digital marketing had a stronger association with alcohol use than awareness of traditional marketing, and awareness and participation with user-created content had a stronger association than awareness and participation with digital marketing. Discussion: Digital marketing was more successful than traditional marketing in reaching young adults and influencing alcohol use, suggesting more action is needed to reduce the exposure of new drinkers to alcohol marketing. Second, user-created content played a crucial role by receiving greater awareness and participation from young adults and exhibiting a stronger influence on alcohol use than digital marketing. There is, however, a responsibility gap in understanding which stakeholders are responsible for reducing the harm generated by such content.
      UKCTAS Early Career Meeting, University of Bristol; 09/2015

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    Alejandro Valencia Arias

    Dear Nikos Antonopoulos,

    I suggest these academic publications

    Kind Regards

    Alejandro Valencia Arias

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  • Henry Boachi added an answer:
    Do you think the use of mobile devices for civic and political engagement leads to slacktivism?

    Slacktivism is defined as "actions performed via the Internet in support of a political or social cause but regarded as requiring little time or involvement, e.g., signing an online petition or joining a campaign group on a social media website" (Oxford). 

    Do you think that civic and political engagement via mobile device will ultimately promote slacktivism? 

    Henry Boachi

    The medium (repertoire of contention) used for activism may or may not have a direct bearing on the outcomes of an activist cause. Confusing and sometimes equating a medium with the cause is what I believe has led to most of these arguments about the (relative) effectiveness or otherwise of new mobile technologies in activism. I insist that there have always been, and there will always be, people who want to be seen as part of a cause but who will actually contribute relatively little to it, whether they are doing so on a mobile device or in real life (read about the free rider problem for more). The argument then remains, what is little, and what is much, contribution? If all I do is share an activist post, that then ends up being 're-shared' by 200 other people who saw me share it, which ultimately raised awareness about the cause, is my contribution worthwhile or not? What if that singular act of sharing brought the issue to the attention of someone from (for instance) law enforcement (on my timeline), who chose to act and change the situation; would my action be considered "slacktivism"? It would help to avoid labels; successful activism is (in my opinion) the aggregate of several "small" efforts. My mobile device does not necessarily make me lazy; in fact what I see on it might well inform my decision to join a street protest, which is not necessarily a stronger activist 'action'. What if my friends and I sent ten thousand emails each from our respective smart phones from our living room couches to jam the email server of a company polluting the environment, and succeeded in halting the company's operations for some days, within which time the appropriate authorities took action; is that a slacktivism? Let's keep the discussion going.

  • Hom Nath Chalise added an answer:
    Anyone interested in participating in CFP: Ageing in a Network Society ?

    We’re pleased to announce an upcoming issue of Networking Knowledge: Journal of the MeCCSA Postgraduate Network

    In the new global and network society, greater challenges have been posed by demographic changes in the labour workforce and in the complexity of social interactions and neighbourhood ties (Bond, Peace, Dittmann-Kohli, & Westerhof, 2007; Bowling, 2005).

    Previous studies (e.g. Costa, 2013; Cabrera, & Malanowski, 2009; De Schutter & Vanden Abeele, 2008; Felsted, & Wright, 2014) have suggested that Information and Communication technologies have a crucial role in overcoming these challenges by facilitating the meaning attributed to information and thus strengthening age identity (Hubble, & Tew, 2013) and encouraging prosocial behaviors, the sense of social connectedness and of purposefulness. In fact, increasingly mobile network societies have been suggested to change the way people exercise their minds (Johnson, 2006) and how they communicate.

    Although these networks tend to bring flexibility, adaptability and global transformation (Castells, 2001), intergenerational gaps in the access of information and social digital divides are likely to persist.

    If the generation who lived with ‘old media’ (i.e. cable TV, radio, press) are now ‘digital immigrants’ (Prensky, 2012) overcoming generational learning, communication and authority gaps,  the culture of new media (i.e. Internet, iPTV, video games) will need to be rethought in terms of accessibility as a participatory culture (Fisk, Rogers, Charness, et al., 2009; Sixsmith, & Gutman,2013), one that is in demand of both the convergence of media and of generation networks. In this special issue, we seek to explore the role of information and communication technologies in encouraging the development of networked older adults. Towards this aim, we invite submissions in the following (non-exclusive) list of topics:

    -       The use of social media in late adulthood

    -       Age-friendly technologies

    -       The power of networks in ageing

    -       Older adults’ interactions with new media

    -       Networked video games for the older adults

    -       Ageing in networked and smart cities

    -       Caregiver social networks

    -       ICT-based solutions to the demands of an ageing society

    -       Accessibility

    -       The digital divide

    -       Intergenerational learning

    Hom Nath Chalise

    Great ! all the beat !!

  • Jesse Fox added an answer:
    Facebook's policy with regard to sharing content (gathered via the Facebook Graph API) as a public corpus?

    Dear all,

    does anybody know about Facebook's policy with regard to sharing content (gathered via the Facebook Graph API) publicly as a corpus?

    We created a corpus that contains the raw message text of the posts of an open Facebook group, i.e. the messages are visible to anybody who visits the group. We also do not share any other metainformation such as the author's name or the date of the post.

    I am, however, a little reluctant to publish the corpus on the web, as I have not come accross many publicly available Facebook corpora so far. In addition, I know that other social media services, Twitter in particular, have rather strict rules of the road that do not permit to share Tweets outside the Twitter platform (the only workaround is to share a list of Tweet-IDs, as e.g. at

    Kind regards

  • Arghya Ray added an answer:
    Are there Arabic mommy blogs written by Muslim women, and if so, have any scholars written about them?

    Mommy blogs are common in Europe, the US and South East Asia. I have not read about an Arabic equivalent, although a decade ago, I know Persian was in the top ten language blogs were written in. Does anyone know of work on this?

    Arghya Ray

    I don't think any mommy, in or from the Arabic world, would be allowed to blog by the authorities or male guardians they have in whatever manner. If you wish to research this subject area, I wish you all the best. I think you are going to explore a huge gap in our social media knowledge. Conversely, the research question can be set like: Why don't Muslim mothers (in the Mid East) get active on social media even when there are certain illegal ways to do so; and what is the specific scenario with blogging by Arabian background mothers?

    Please also see the links I found ... it is not specific but interesting.

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  • George Stoica added an answer:
    Social media: Downvoting and degrading in social networks – What are the reasons? - What are the reactions?
    We have recently seen a lot of down-votings in some threads. We also saw different kinds of reactions on this phenomenon. I would like to ask a question about these reactions.

    First I assume that there are several possible reasons for downvotings: dissent – misunderstandings – misuse of buttons without knowing it– a social scientist who writes a paper about the reactions – a test carried out by RG – some technical problem, etc.

    I would like to have a discussion about the reactions on the part of researchers. We have seen calls to ban down-voters or to cancel their anonymity. Elections in democracies are anonymous and there are good reasons for this. I think most of us agree about some basic traits of democracy, the right to stay anonymous is among them. What about these basics in social media?
    George Stoica

    Dear Ljubomir,

    The main reason is that the down-voters did not like my answers & explanations. What's strange, is that I have been downloaded for mathematical solutions to my own problems (which are correct, because I made those problems), or even for the problems themselves! For this ones, I have no explanation. 

    Sincerely, George

  • Martha Trudeau added an answer:
    Can anyone recommend good resources for improved patient outcomes as a result of social media campaigns?

    I am working on a project to show how social media can be used to improve patient outcomes, specifically in community health centers.

    Martha Trudeau

    My Health eVet (MHV)     MHV is the gateway to veteran health benefits and services.

    It provides access to health information, links to Federal and VA benefits and resources, the Personal Health Journal, and VA prescription refills. It is a powerful health management tool. It is transactional (used to make appointments) and transformational (helps change health behaviors.) MHV allows the care team to track patients’ conditions and proactively call to schedule appointments or home visits.​health/​services/​primarycare

  • Patrick Mauder added an answer:
    Is there a database which collects social media statistics?

    I am looking for a database where social networking sites statistics such as facebook, twitter etc are available for Australian companies. Has anyone an idea whether something like that exists and/or if there is a software which will extract that data? 

    Patrick Mauder

    Thanks Rogier and Eyad, I came accross which also looks good so I'll give a few of them a shot. 

  • David L Morgan added an answer:
    How shall I develop measurement items for an acceptance study using Technology Acceptance Model?

    Most of the technology acceptance studies adapt measurement items from previous validated questionnaires. How shall I develop a measurement for a latent construct which has almost never been studied using Technology Acceptance Model.
    It is "professionalism concern on the use of social media network".

    David L Morgan

    Khandoker Mahmudur Rahman mentioned focus groups, and these are quite commonly used for the development of questionnaires.

  • Mari Galiher added an answer:
    How have you seen individuals self-disclose on Facebook, Twitter, or YouTube?

    I'm interested in research on: individuals with mental illness, self-disclosure, social media networks.  

    Mari Galiher

    Mahalo nui loa (thank you very much in Hawaiian), Dr. Alhaddad and Rozalia, for your feedback! 

  • Debra Sharon Ferdinand added an answer:
    Can anyone recommend any research on the use of social media with ELLs or students who receive special education services?

    Papers can be theoretical or empirical. 

    Debra Sharon Ferdinand

    Perhaps this research on helping Creole language students to write and speak English for the purposes of exams can be helpful:

    Best regards,


  • Emmanuel Mogaji added an answer:
    Is it possible to capture a company's stock performance by social media sentiment?

    I am interested to see if I can validate the positive sentiment in social media for a particular company by any financial measure (Stock!). As far as I know, stock prices are quite sensitive by many factors such (expanding markets which in Apple Co. Case the market expansion in china was the main reason for its stock price jump).

    So the question: Is it possible to reduce other major factors that affect stock prices and explore the relationship of the remaining fluctuations with social media sentiment?

    Emmanuel Mogaji

    Seems that can be possible, I think justifications for the tweets ( to analysis) will however be of an issue. Tweets from the company, tweets from the public or interaction between both, what time are you going to capture the tweets, just before a product lunch? Hope this help.

  • Emmanuel Mogaji added an answer:
    Has anyone done an interpretative phenomenological analysis on tweets before?

    Can anyone share their experience or recommend any literature about IPA on tweets or other social media messages? Thanks :)

    Emmanuel Mogaji


    Like Tony as earlier said, I am not sure if IPA can work, however, I have done a thematic analysis which I found more practical and easy to do. Just like analysing hundreds of short interview responses from your participants.Hope that helps.

  • Faizul Nisha added an answer:
    Should social media metrics (e.g. using third party data from Twitter, Slideshare, Mendeley) be counted towards your scholarly reputation?

    In other words, is altmetrics useful for building academic reputation?

    Faizul Nisha

    Altmetrics is a diverse tool for  measuring research visibility and impact.

  • Tanager Tanager added an answer:
    Anyone know of any research on bilingualism on Twitter?

    I'm looking for research on how Twitter users negotiate which language to use when tweeting. Does their choice of language depend on the topic of the tweet? Does it depend on their audience? 

    Tanager Tanager

    There is some ongoing research about codeswtiching and bilingualism on Twitter in the Phillipines -

    And I have done research on language use on twitter in Berlin, Germany. However, without a qualitative study into the factors behind people's language choices, I can only make educated guesses into this choice. I would agree that it is audience dependent. As all Tweets are public, it is difficult to determine who one's intended audience might be. 

  • Chris Chrissy added an answer:
    Futhering the terrorist agenda through social media?

    i am doing some research on social media and terrorism and also cyber terrorism. could anyone share with me any helpful pointers or articles i can use. also,what theory(political science) would be best in explaining terrorism or cyberterrorism?

    Chris Chrissy

    yes..they would be very helpful. thank you'!

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