• Catalin Lazar added an answer:
    Does anybody know Lithoglyphus pygmaeus specimens (or ornaments manufactured from this gastropod) discovered in prehistoric sites?

    Does anybody know Lithoglyphus pygmaeus specimens (or ornaments manufactured from this gastropod) discovered in prehistoric sites?

    Catalin Lazar

    Dear Stefan,

    Thanks for your reply. The use of the L. naticoides by the prehistoric communities is well known. Please see one of my previous question from RG and the additional disscusions on that topic.

    However,  my concerns is only about the existence of the L. pygmaeus specimens in the archaeological sites from Paleolithic, Mesolithic or Neolithic.


  • Chun Liu added an answer:
    Are there any fossilized tools in any museums in the world?
    I'm looking for information on prehistoric hominid tools. If you happen to have any photographs to compare with my collections, I would really appreciate it!
    Chun Liu

    Dear Krishnan Umachandran

    Thank you very much for the information. I am interesting in the information about a fossilized tool extremely. But our government blocks my accessing to the website. So I cannot open the webpage.

  • Manuel A. Iturralde-Vinent added an answer:
    Can someone identify this Jurassic fern?

    This fossil Himenofitales fern was collected several years ago by R. Rojas and myself from a Jurassic pre mid-Oxfordian exposure of the San Cayetano Formation in western Cuba. Any suggestion as to species or genera or distribution in time and space?

    Manuel A. Iturralde-Vinent

    Another detail of the same taxon.

  • Stefan Wenzel added an answer:
    Does anyone know literature about well excavated tipi rings?

    I'm looking for literature about well excavated tipi rings or other ephemeral dwellings of North American Indians or of Siberian people, preferentially with individually recorded finds.

    Best regards,

    Stefan Wenzel

    Stefan Wenzel

    Dear Alwynne,

    many thanks for this wealth of information!

    Best wishes,


  • Ignacio Soriano added an answer:
    Do you know prehistoric graves of which the season of burial is known?

    I am looking for graves for which the season of burial is known. I am particularly interested in Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Age Europe, but will follow up any hints! Season should be documented by botanical remains, pollen, or other scientific evidence.

    Many thanks!

    Ignacio Soriano

    In Catalonia (NE Spain), a collective burial in a variscite (green mineral) mine shaft of Can Tintorer (C14 dated, Middle-Late Neolithic) shows evidence of funerary ritual burning wild olive tree and other plants, related with Autumn-Winter season. These are identified with anthracology. The paper it's in Catalan from the 90' but still really useful.

  • Claudia Cunha added an answer:
    Does anyone know of works on discrete dental morphology of Brazilian archaeological samples?

    Besides Turner's 1980's work on the dental morphology of archaeological series, I've found very little: Huffman's, Bartolomucci (LBG)'s and Neves & Powell's work. Does anyone know of anything else? Thanks

    Claudia Cunha

    Olá Gabriel,

    Caso possas enviar-me artigos vossos agradeceria muito!

    Vou mandar-te meu endereço de email por mensagem aqui.



  • Claudia Cunha added an answer:
    Could anyone suggest bibliographic references for paleopathology of pre colonial (amerindian) populations in the amazonian region?

    Could anyone suggest bibliographic references for paleopathology of pre colonial (amerindian) populations in the amazonian region?

    Claudia Cunha

    Yes, I know her work but it seems paleopathology is not one of her interests.

  • Jubin J. Cheruvelil added an answer:
    Has anyone has experience with commercial residue analysis labs, looking at lipids and other residues from archaeological ceramics?

    I have some ceramics from South Asia I want to quickly assess for potential preservation.

    Jubin J. Cheruvelil

    Kathleen. Michigan State has a lab that performs this service as well. Not commercial, but academic. I can forward you the relevant information, if you have not identified anyone else.

  • Stefan Wenzel added an answer:
    Is there a database of the locations of prehistoric dogs in Britain or even Europe?

    A list of where I can find info on prehistoric dog records would greatly speed up my dissertation, if such a document exists

    Stefan Wenzel


    here is an new paper (published December 22, 2014):

    Marie-Pierre Horard-Herbin, Anne Tresset & Jean-Denis Vigne, Domestication and uses of the dog in western Europe from the Paleolithic to the Iron Age. Animal
    Frontiers, July 2014, Vol. 4., No. 3, 23-31.

    DOI: 10.2527/af.2014-0018

    Best regards,


    • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: PDF at :[-3]=&searchType[-3]=Any&search[-2]=horard&searchFields[-2][Author]=Author&searchType[-2]=Phrase&search[-1]=&searchFields[-1][Title]=Title&searchType[-1]=Phrase&volume=&issue=&year=&first-page=&journal[af]=af&search[0]= This paper reviews the knowledge of the history of the dog in western Europe acquired through archaeozoology. The first part examines the question of domestication of the wolf during the Upper Paleolithic, by highlighting the sometimes contradictory archeological and genetic findings. It also briefly lays out the different controversies regarding the site or sites of domestication of the dog in the world and the presumed dates of this major phenomenon in human history. The second part deals with the evolution of canine morphology from the Paleolithic to the Iron Age, integrating, for example, the latest discoveries regarding domestic coat colors in the Mesolithic. Finally, the presumed and attested uses of dogs throughout European pre- and protohistory are presented, including certain practices that lasted over time.
      06/2014; 4(3):23-31. DOI:10.2527/af.2014-0018
  • Simone Cagno added an answer:
    How can I compare data between Bruker Tracer III-V+ and Tracer III-SD?

    Has anyone tried converting data obtained with a Bruker Tracer III-V+ pXRF to be comparable to data obtained with the new Tracer III-SD? I'm working on obsidian and I have tried both compressing and expanding the spectrum but the numbers do not even come close to being comparable.

    Simone Cagno

    Dear Kristine, as said before, from the data in the xls I would argue that the conversion (1024 to 2048) has worked, and the data are comparable, although there is only one peak that can be compared (Fe), for which you have good statistics. But anyway, it is probably a good idea to contact Bruker to have further suggestions. 

  • Preslav I. Peev added an answer:
    Does anyone know any analogies from south-eastern European prehistory?

    This zoomorphic figurine - a lion - alabaster made, is a fortuitous find on a chalcolithic tell settlement (Gumelnita, ca. 4000 BC) in Teleorman county, southern Romania. This is a quite unusual representation for this period.

    Preslav I. Peev

    Dear Pavel, OK but now I'm at the excavations and I'll send the scans at the end of week.

  • J.M.Q. Ventura added an answer:
    Can anyone help with bone projectile points of the near eastern PPN and PN?
    I'm looking for evidence for bone projectile points in Neolithic pre-pottery and pottery of the Near East. Can anybody point out relevant literature?
    J.M.Q. Ventura

    Not direct injuries, but some studies on neolithic arrows from central Portugal here

    Sadly only in portuguese.

    Will try to translate it into a more common language, and updated with most recent findings.

  • Catalin Lazar added an answer:
    Does anybody know red ocher beads from neolithic or other prehistoric periods?

    In the summer of 2014, we discovered a new Eneolithic cemetery at Sultana (Romania), and near one of the skeletons we identified a fragment of red ocher bead.

    Does anybody know other similar artefacts from prehistory or other time periods?

    Thanks in advance.

    Catalin Lazar

    Dear Stefan,

    Thank you for the information.

    Best wishes,


  • Julio Miguel Román Punzón added an answer:
    How are the deep "pear-shaped" pits interpreted in the european Neolithic and Eneolithic?

    I am studying an archaeological site (ca 4600-4200 cal BC) where two, up to 2m deep pits were discovered, which are broader towards the bottom and narrower at the level from which they were dug.

    If I remember correctly from some lectures and papers, these are usually interpreted as storage pits. One of the pit from our site (see attached file) had a burnt layer (or several layers) 10cm thick with a lot of charcoal at the bottom. The whole pit was subsequently filled with dirt containing pottery. The fill can be separated into an upper and lower layer (one 70, other 90cm deep), which are separated by a 20-30cm thick layer containing no pottery. This is quite an interesting deposition and would require a lot of attention.

    What is the usual interpretation of pits of such shape? Were they primarily storage pits, used later for other activities such as for firing, disposing of refuse etc? Are there any good comparisons in the European Neolithic and Eneolithic? I am interested in any literature dealing with these pits specifically, but also any good references for how to deal with the deposits in these pits. Any ideas?

    Julio Miguel Román Punzón


    Although the Copper Age, it would be interesting to consult this article, an original proposal:

    Eloísa Bernáldez Sánchez; Esteban García-Viñas; Miguel Gamero-Esteban y María Bernáldez Sánchez, 2014: Campos de compost en la Edad del Cobre del SO de la Península Ibérica. Una nueva propuesta. VI ENCUENTRO DE ARQUEOLOGÍA DEL SUROESTE PENINSULAR, pp. 927-939

  • Julie Hruby added an answer:
    How can we tell the pylos tablets were once only air dried after they have thorougly been baked in the final fire w/o archaeometrical investigation?

    The biscuit baking of clay is to avoid damage during the baking process I understand. Letting clay dry before a first low temp  burning is part of this. I also understand that w/o further examination from just plain sight it is impossible to state whether a piece of clay has been burned once or twice, the highest temperature will leave ist mark and overshadow previous baking. Is that correct? If so, how do we know the Pylos tablets were only air dried and not (half) baked?

    Thank You

    Julie Hruby

    No problem.



  • Thomas J. Loebel added an answer:
    Evidence for functional usage of Manganese dioxyde (MnO2)?
    Within the Mousterian record of western Europe, we have evidence for usage of black pigment made from MnO2 by Neandertals (50 000 years old at Pech-de-l'Azé I for instance). I've been using the analogy with the ethnographic record as well as some preliminary experiments to argue that they might have been used as dye stuff/stain (see Soressi et D'Errico, 2007 as well as Soressi et al 2008). Would anybody know of usage of MnO2 pigment for other purposes than body decoration/symbolic purposes?
    Thomas J. Loebel

    I recommend reading:

    Mandl 1961 Collagenases and Elastases. Advances in Enzymology 23 164-264

    Velo 1984 Ochre as a Medicine: a Suggestion for the Interpretation of the Archaeological Record, Current Anthropology 25(5)674.

    much work has recently been done documenting the functional use of of minerals in the "ochre" family, ie any of those containing iron oxide or iron hydroxide such as hematite, goethite, and liminonites.

  • Pál Sümegi added an answer:
    Does anybody know beads made of Lithoglyphus sp from Neolithic or other prehistoric periods?
    In 2003, we discovered a necklace made of Lithoglyphus sp, in the tell settlement of Sultana-Malu Roşu, Romania. In 2013 we discovered another necklace made of Lithoglyphus sp in grave 74 from cemetery that belonging to the settlement.
    From a chrono-cultural point of view the cemetery and the tell settlement belongs to the Gumelnița culture (ca. 4600–3950 BC) part of the large Eneolithic cultural complex Kodjadermen-Gumelniţa-Karanovo VI from Balkans.
    Does anybody know other beads made of Lithoglyphus sp from prehistory or other time periods?
    Thanks in advance.
    Pál Sümegi

    Yes, I analysed some Late Neolithic jewelleries from Polgár Csőszhalom and Polgár Ferencihát, where the Lithoglypus naticoides shells were used.

  • Nelum Kanthilatha added an answer:
    sediment analysis
    I am doing prehistoric sediment analysis. I would like to share your experience....
    Nelum Kanthilatha

    Thank you very much, Popovici. I want to prove the human behaviours identified already by macroscopic artefacts using sediments.

  • Oliver Nakoinz added an answer:
    What is a good publication on iron age settlement patterns in Pleistocene coversand area's in Lower Saxony?
    I'm writing my thesis on iron age settlement patterns on the Drenthe Plateau in the north of the Netherland. Besides comparisons with other pleistocene covers and area's in the Netherlands I would like to compare it with those in the north of Germany. Since I'm not that well read in German research I would like some help with titles that give an overview of the patterns (preferable in relation to the landscape). I would prefer publications in English, but titles in German are welcome too.
    Oliver Nakoinz

    The book from Ingo Eichfeld might be useful

  • Christine Mcdonnell added an answer:
    Is Canada balsam appropriate to mount permanent microscope slides for ancient starch analysis?
    Does Canada balsam presents any biological contamination? Which resin or other means would be appropriate to mount permanent slides in Archaeobotany?

    Thank you very much.
    Christine Mcdonnell

    Canada balsam is too thick to maneuver on slides so I used immersion oil. Does anyone know the correct citation for Perry on her methodology?

  • Antonio Montelongo Franquiz added an answer:
    What is the evidence for early (initial colonization) access to subterranean freshwater in the Pacific and Southeast Asia?
    I'm looking for early constructions of wells, sumps, etc. or pit features used for agriculture in coastal environments.
    Antonio Montelongo Franquiz

    I'm working on the subject area of ​​the Atlantic Ocean. I think they are first natural deposits offered by nature in a process of initial colonization, then after the settlement and the need for a greater amount of water resources involve building nearshore deposits, mainly wells, especially on islands besides those spaces inside water capacity enough.

  • Chun Liu added an answer:
    Do you think there are some fossilized tools that were judged mistakenly as lithic tools in historic archeology?

    My personal view, hominids could use bones, horns, sticks and so on as tools. Just as these attached in the image.

    + 5 more attachments

    Chun Liu

    the evidences are also overlooked.

    + 2 more attachments

  • Michael Buchwitz added an answer:
    Is there a database/source for dinosaur DNA and/or protein sequences?

    I want to study specific protein sequences to better understand their functional properties. I think that such information from this group of animals may help in this understanding.

    Michael Buchwitz

    See also this recent paper about the persistence of ancient protein molecules (uploaded to RG this week), including examples from dinosaur fossils:

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Advances in resolution and sensitivity of analytical techniques have provided novel applications, including the analyses of fossil material. However, the recovery of original proteinaceous components from very old fossil samples (defined as >1 million years (1 Ma) from previously named limits in the literature) is far from trivial. Here, we discuss the challenges to recovery of proteinaceous components from fossils, and the need for new sample preparation techniques, analytical methods, and bioinformatics to optimize and fully utilize the great potential of information locked in the fossil record. We present evidence for survival of original components across geological time, and discuss the potential benefits of recovery, analyses, and interpretation of fossil materials older than 1 Ma, both within and outside of the fields of evolutionary biology.
      Analytical Chemistry 07/2014; 86(14). DOI:10.1021/ac500803w
  • Jean-Loïc Le Quellec added an answer:
    Is there any data on how humans used cosmetics and body painting during the pre historic time?
    I'm doing research on cosmetics and body painting during the pre historic time (like 100,000 years ago up to 5,000 years ago). I've found some information about using red ochre and decorative shells and related speculation; but apparently I need more data; especially based on cave art or something like that.
    Jean-Loïc Le Quellec
    A good reference for Niola Doha : Simonis, Roberta, Guido Faleschini, & Giancarlo Negro 1994. «Niola Doa, "il luogo delle fanciulle" (Ennedi, Ciad).» Sahara 6: 51-62.
  • Jiri Unger added an answer:
    Does someone know Central European Late Bronze Age burials in pits laying in order position N-S or E-W and equipped with artifacts?
    In the region of Czech Republic, it is not so unusual find skeleton burials in the storage or trash pits in Late Bronze Age open settlements, especially it is characteristic for urnfield Knoviz culture, which has its ordinary burial rite as the cremation in urns. Usually it seems like the body was just thrown to the pit without any rigorous care and it is not any exception to find more bodies or only their parts laying on each other in "breakneck" position (see examples in fig. 1 + 2).
    HOWEVER there is one burial group which seems to be unique one, because the bodies are strictly oriented N-S or E-W, laying on the backs with hands next the body or put in the lap. These burials are always equipped with ceramic pots and more rarely with bronze artifacts such as earrings or knives. Attribute sui generis is the location of some of these artifacts directly under the head, especially in the case of miniature vessels (see examples in fig. 3 + 4).
    I have found some similar skeleton burials in Czech republic, containing 5 graves + 4 new ones from my 2013 excavation, but then I hit the similar indications in the area of Austria and Germany - for example sites Biblis (Starkenburg) or Köchen, where some of the bodies are buried in stone cists graves, richly equipped and again with typical miniature vessel under the head.
    From my point of view it seems that this is a specific burial practices among the urnfield cultures in Central Europe and I would like to ask for help to finding more of these burials. Thank you in advance!
    Jiri Unger
    Dear collegues,

    thank You all for so helpfull and fruitfull answers!

    I am happy to say, that the analysis of mentioned skeletons are in progress and we do analyse of teeth isotops for residential mobility and as well DNA analysis of selected individuals are on the way.

    For sure I will keep You updated via this conversation.

  • Muriel Louâpre added an answer:
    Hello, did you hear about this french theory on prehistoric art called "theorie des ombres" (the shadow theory)
    It was published recently by two non-specialists and suggest cave painting art could have included the use of cast-shadows. French specialists are not amused by the idea, and I wondered if abroad the idea was greeted in the same way. The XVIIIth century is far away, when amateurs could give a hand to scientists!
    Muriel Louâpre
    Very interesting, thanks for this reference.
  • Siniša Krznar added an answer:
    Can anyone recommend some literature on the residential burials?
    I am working on Early Iron Age at Lower Danube, where in almost completely excavated settlements we have discovered a lot of infra mural burials. For understanding and finding a good explanation of this phenomenon I need to compare it with similar discoveries from different ages and areas.
    Siniša Krznar

    Dear Sorin-Cristian,

    are you maybe  published an article about  medieval burials in settlements from Babadag and Enisala ? 

    I would be very grateful on this article.

    Best regards,


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