Posture and Balance

Posture and Balance

  • Marcelo Guimarães Silva added an answer:
    How can We measure muscle length in patients with upper cross syndrome?

    exact procedure with validity and reliability. 

    Marcelo Guimarães Silva

    Hi Mr. Urrehman,

    The most important assessment tool is static postural assessment, which will reveal the characteristic protracted scapulae, medially rotated humeri, hyperkyphotic upper thoracic spine, and an anterior head posture (hypolordotic lower cervical spine and a hyperlordotic upper cervical spine). Upon palpatory examination, tightness and the likely presence of myofascial trigger points (TrPs) will be found in the locked short muscles listed above.  So, I think that you should to measure from origin to insertion of the muscle you want taking it to measure that allows maximum stretch, or in the another preestablished measurement level. 

    I hope this helps.

  • Piet van Loon added an answer:
    What are the most common tests to measure the postural regulation and the balance regulation in sports and clinical assessment?

    I search for tests which con mesure these variables in laboratory and field conditions.

    Examles: Timed-up-and-go-test or Tetraxometrie

    Piet van Loon

    Good or normal balancing in otherwise healthy children is dependant on having a true optimal body posture and a optimal stretched nervous system that allows the complete ROM of the whole system. If you are "stiff" the balancing processes cannot achieve optimalisation.  The growth of both systems, the skeleton in its natural curved appearance and the CNS The majority of children do not reach both , mainly by the passive sedentary lifestyle from birth on ( discongruent neuro-osseous growth relations)  The spine as the chassis of our body cannot develop properly to the most natural curvature because of a lack in extension, stretching in backward direction leading to kyphotic changes in first the thoracolumbar spine.

    Along this line of anatomic -physiologic thinking ( Form follows function) there are some simple tests described that can offer insight in this widespread malalignement leading to the biggest socioeconomic burden in countries, where the "western lifestyle"with its chairs and electronic devices.

    We are now in a process to validate these ( simple clinical) tests :1. straight leg raising tests in children, separate and together( to test refectory spasm of the core muscles),

    2 sitting posture test of the trunk with stretched legs on a coach and sitting on the edge ( mobility and correct-ability of deformation)  

    3. bending test forward and assessment from lateral: finger -floor distance as a measure for neuromusculair tightness and assessing the form of the flexed spine< in modern youth almost 70% do have an abnormal  curvature with angular kyphosis ( wedged vertebrae) and round backs ( underdevelopment of the discs) . 

    There is world to be win to get proper balancing as the most natural proof of good postures and a optimal relaxation of the CNS back in growing children. The German orthopedic world around 1900 succeeded in this task by implementing orthopedisc schoolgymnsatics, orthopedic schoolfurniture and widespread knowledge on good bodily development  amongst all parents , schoolteachers and their strong preventive medical apparatus.

  • Amélia Pasqual Marques added an answer:
    Does anybody knows a posture analysis software?

    I am looking for posture analysis software. Kindly suggest me some posture analysis software which are freely available for use.

    Thank you in advance for your attention to this matter!

    Amélia Pasqual Marques

    There are a software free - SAPO

    You can see in  -

    Best wishes


  • Dragan Marinkovic added an answer:
    How can I measure static balance with Nintendo Wii Fit balance board ?

    I want measure static balance with stand on Nintendo Wii Fit balance board and evalate Center of  File ressure (COP)

    Dragan Marinkovic

    From my experience wii fit is very good measuring tool especially for children.   

    Hamdy Elsaid abd elhamed Elnawasry put some great article about using wii fit.

    wish luck in your research.


  • Anthony G Gordon added an answer:
    What are the signs of dizziness in an infant, and does this have serious developmental consequences?

    The only information I know on this is from West C Lectures on the Diseases of Infancy and Childhood, Lond Med Gaz 1847;39:881-5:

    "If the child be young it will often seem relieved by being carried about in its nurse's arms, and while she is moving will cease its wail for a time, but begin again the moment she stands still.  You will somtimes observe, too, that if moved from one person's arms to those of another, or even if its position be but slightly altered, a sudden expression of alarm will pass across its features; the child is dizzy, and afraid of falling".

    Have these observations ever been replicated?  Could such resistance to movement have serious developmental consequences?  Have similar abnormalities been noted in any specific developmental disorder?

    Anthony G Gordon

    What about long term effects in developmental disorders, other than congenital deafness, or even in the normal population?

  • Dragan Marinkovic added an answer:
    Are there any articles available concerning the use of a Vicon system in postural analysis?

    Interested in de psychometrics of the tool (validity, reliability, concurrent validity,etc....)

    Dragan Marinkovic

    There is great pepper in Aamir post.

  • David Quenzer added an answer:
    Could a posture chair (sitting at an angle of around 20degrees to open the hips and straighten the spine) directly improve condition?

    Moreover, not necessarily improve the condition but stop irritation and aggravation and thus improve the patients wellbeing and enabling recovery and strengthening of the supporting muscles. 

    David Quenzer

    20 degrees of trunk flexion or extension? However, the tall kneeling or standing posture chair i think you're talking about.

    "ergonomically designed kneeling chairs set at +20 degrees inclination do maintain standing lumbar curvature to a greater extent than sitting on a standard computer chair with an overall mean difference of 7.633 degrees ."

    Small study and sample of convenience but I'd agree with the author.

    Below are the effects of trunk flexion on IV discs(increases load due to increased posterior spinal column compression) 

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  • Sayantika Dhar added an answer:
    Are there any research literature on the relationship between menarcheal status and postural stability?

    I'm interested in investigating the effects of sensory systems manipulation on postural stability in two age groups of girls with different maturation status (pre-menarcheal & post-menarcheal).

    I would be grateful if someone introduces some related articles regarding this topic.

    Sayantika Dhar

    Hi. You might find the following sources useful.

    Estelle Palluel, Vincent Nougier, Isabelle Olivier. Postural control and attentional demand during adolescence. Brain Research; Volume 1358, 28 October 2010, Pages 151–159

    Also sending you a screenshot from a book which says "women with Parkinson's were found to have older Menarche age."

  • Dragan Marinkovic added an answer:
    Does anyone measure and analyse postural status of body with a 2D camera system?

    Does anyone measure and analyse postural status of body with 2D camera system and how?

    Dragan Marinkovic

    Dear Yijian,

    I am going to measure quiet standing and position of spine, legs in 2D so I need some protocol or position of the body, for testing.

  • Annette Bowen added an answer:
    How do I measure cervical lateral tilt and Axial rotation in spasmodic torticollis patient?

    I am providing physical therapy treatment in addition to Botox injection for a patient with Idiopathic Spasmodic Torticollis. I would like to know any valid method to determine the cervical lateral tilt and axial rotation..

    This patient presents with combination of right cervical lateral tilt with left rotation.

    I find difficult to measure it. since, it is not isolated movement.

    Annette Bowen

    Would the Halo digital goniometer be useful?    the laser pointers can help standardise the vertical or horizontal reference points.

  • Ana Kleiner added an answer:
    Which is the most accurate location to place an inertial sensor for measuring center of mass displacement?

    (considering that I use triaxial accelerometers) Some papers use L3 or L5 spinal process, but there is a lack of references about that parameter.

    Ana Kleiner

    Pelvis or center of L5/S1. I support what Alan said, the David Winter book is a very good reference. Also, if you like, take a look at this work:

    GALLI, M. ; KLEINER, A. F. R. ; GAGLIONE, M. ; SALE, P. ; ALBERTINI, G. ; STOCCHI, F. ; DE PANDIS, M. F. . Timed Up and Go test and wearable inertial sensor: a new combining tool to assess change in subject with Parkinson s disease after automated mechanical peripheral stimulation treatment. International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology, v. 4, p. 155-163, 2015.

    Good luck with your studies!

    With Kindest Regards,


  • Piet van Loon added an answer:
    In order to identify individuals who have poor posture, which diagnostic method is available?

    To measure the effectiveness of the use of a corset, first we want to identify individuals with poor posture. We need a reliable diagnostic method to do so, the risk groups are often Kyphosis individuals.

    Thank you in advance for your reply.

    Piet van Loon

    dear Tugba,

    van Wingerden is right in advising looking for causes.Poor posture has as the first and the most important characteristics, that the thoracolumbar spine is kyphotic starting at a young age , first while sitting ( like Gameboyback,) . The deforming power of sitting and slumping becomes a hot topic now. Other characteristics are the slumped shoulders and the ears hanging in front of the center of the shoulder. Also the neuromuscular tightness ( bending test, SLR test ) show deficits. Depending on age and seriousness exercises in extension or correction at the TL spine in braces ( children) of corsets with this TLI principle .

    In contrast with earlier believes, this type of bracing or corset does not diminish muscle activity , while it resets especially the abdominal muscles into physiologic pretension needed for proper function. as it does to the diafragm. Full muscular activity is preserved in walking .  We described some tests on tension and on the etiology.

    Good Luck

    piet van Loon

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  • Shirin Yazdani added an answer:
    What are the latest hypotheses and publications on the cerebellar postural control for bipedal stance?

    Neurological control of bipedal posture

    Shirin Yazdani

    as you know, cerebellar control of posture is mainly based on the coordinated activity of the cerebellum, brainstem reticular formation and vestibular systems, providing the control of  posture and body balance.Cerebellar damage in humans results in increased standing postural sway, hypermetric postural responses and prolonged muscle activity.
    Previously, we assessed the postural control of patients with low back pain and healthy controls by altering the systems involved in balance control (eyes open vs closed , vestibular and properiocetion manipulation) before and after the 3 months balance training and therapeutic exercise.

    In recent researches, perturbation-based balance training for preventing falls, movement strategies for maintaining standing balance during arm tracking in people with multiple sclerosis, effects of a predefined mini-trampoline training program on balance, mobility and activities of daily living after stroke, and so etc.... were done.

  • Priscilla Morais added an answer:
    Do you have experience using inertial measurement units to assess postural balance and center of mass displacement? Where do you place the sensors?

    I'm trying to assess postural balance without using force plates and IMUs seem to be a good choice, but we don't have plenty of publications about this method.

    Priscilla Morais

    Thank tou very much, Markus!

  • Rodrigo Almeida added an answer:
    Is balance training important in non-athletes adults?

    It is widely studied the importance of balance training in older people, but what evidence is there to train balance in youth and adult non-athletes? Any paper to review it? Thank you so much.

    Rodrigo Almeida

    Maybe is almost all issues comments here. I can complement saying that Is a important pedagogic strategy to prepare the players , mental and physically, to the next training sessions. 

    Best regards.

  • Piotr Gawda added an answer:
    What is the gold standard method for spinal curvature measurements?

    There are many methods for measuring the spinal curves such as radiography (Cobb angle), flexible ruler (flexicurve), Spinal mouse, and etc. Also there are many publications about the validity and reliability of the measuring methods. However, it has been mentioned some negative points about using them. So, what is the best and safest method for spinal curves measuring, specially in person with spinal postural deformities?   

    Piotr Gawda

    Considering the methods of spinal curvature measurements I agree that radiographic (Cobb angle) one is widely used in practice however this method gives incomplete data about spatial orientation to call it "gold standard method".In my opinion combination of radiographic measurement and postural characteristic (COG sway velocity) is good enough to properly asses spinal deformities

  • Pedro Berjano added an answer:
    Is there any way to measure anterior-posterior pelvic tilt and when to see it as normal or as related to lordosis - kyphosis ?

    I have seen a lot of people have anterior pelvic tilt, others a slight others a lot more. How can i know where this can a problem that must be fixed or its no problem and i should not try to fix it? I mean is there a standard angle? If yes it is the same for males and females? 

    Pedro Berjano

    You can measure pelvic tilt by the pelvic tilt angle on lateral standing X-rays, and measure also the pelvic incidence angle in the same X-rays. 

    Pelvic tilt (angle between the vertical line and a line traced between the center of the S1 endplate and the center of the hip joints axis -defined as the central point of the line between the center of the left and right femoral head-) in normal individuals is almost always lower than 21°. Higher values correlate to worse function and more back pain, and are usually due to posterior tilt of the pelvic to compensate for insufficient lordosis. 

    Additionally, a fair correlation between pelvic tilt (PT) and pelvic incidence (PI) has been found and described by Vialle. They published a formula to calculate the expected value of PT as a function of PI: PT=0,37PI-7°

    Please see also:

    Sagittal deformities of the spine: factors influencing the outcomes and complications.Diebo BG, Henry J, Lafage V, Berjano P. Eur Spine J. 2015 Jan;24 Suppl 1:S3-15. doi: 10.1007/s00586-014-3653-8. Epub 2014 Nov 12.

    Pelvic parameters and global spine balance for spine degenerative disease: the importance of containing for the well being of content. Garbossa D, Pejrona M, Damilano M, Sansone V, Ducati A, Berjano P. Eur Spine J. 2014 Oct;23 Suppl 6:616-27. doi: 10.1007/s00586-014-3558-6. Epub 2014 Sep 12.

    Criteria to restore the sagittal balance in deformity and degenerative spondylolisthesis. Lamartina C, Berjano P, Petruzzi M, Sinigaglia A, Casero G, Cecchinato R, Damilano M, Bassani R. Eur Spine J. 2012 May;21 Suppl 1:S27-31. doi: 10.1007/s00586-012-2236-9. Epub 2012 Mar 13. Review.

  • Tayebeh Jahani added an answer:
    Could you please help me on event detection in upright standing or balance control?

    I studied some papers about event detection procedures in gaiting process, but can't find papers about events in control of posture...perhaps we should defined some standard criteria that explain any state of calf muscles or proportion of muscle activities. Do you have any ofer for me?

    Tayebeh Jahani

    Dear Piet,

       Tank you for your intresting comment

  • At L Hof added an answer:
    Which type of exercise is more effective to improve older adults balance during walking and can help prevent falling?
    Balance training: dynamic and static muscle strength training or muscle endurance training or ...
    At L Hof

    In a similar discussion I heard the answer of a very practical physiotherapist (name forgotten): "We let them play golf."  In my opinion a better method than dull practising on balance boards and the like.

  • Taco Johan Blokhuis added an answer:
    Can anyone recommend some pressure insoles for gait analysis in adults?
    I need wireless pressure insoles for a study of gait disorders on elders.
    Taco Johan Blokhuis

    Are you still looking for a solution ? We may have a suitable option for you: as a trauma surgeon I am involved in the development of a new amublant device. Please e-mail me for further information,

    kind regards

    Taco Blokhuis

  • Afonso Shiguemi Inoue Salgado added an answer:
    Is there a force plate input test with visual step reported in English language literature?

    In practice in Russia test with visual step input is often used. The test consists in the following. The person stands on a force plate, look at the screen on which the target and movement of the center of pressure (COP) of the person are displayed. COP position is given by force plate indications. At the test beginning the center of a target corresponds to average COP position on the basic plane. During test target position make change and the person ask to change quickly body position due to change of an ankle angle so that to combine COP image with the center of a target and to hold it in a vicinity of the last.

    Whether the analog of this test in English-speaking literature, and what correct name of this test is described?

    Afonso Shiguemi Inoue Salgado

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    Sincerely Yours

    * ** ***

    Gagey Pierre-Marie 240, rue saint-jacques 75005 Paris Fixe 33~1 43 29 54 48 Port 33~6 67 96 43 53

  • Yi-Lang Chen added an answer:
    What are the interactions among knee SHM, lumbar posture, and erector spinae FRP?

    What are the interactions among knee screw-home mechanism, lumbar posture (lordosis and kyphosis), and erector spinae flexion-relaxation phenomenon?

    Yi-Lang Chen

    Dear Tanchev, thank you very much.

  • Martin Gronbech Jorgensen added an answer:
    What ellipse area calculation (confidence, prediction or standard ellipse) should I choose when analyzing the COP path from a forceplate?

    A recent study has suggested not to use the confidence ellipse area but instead a prediction ellipse area. However, both of these are in my mind inferences statistics. I think we simply should describe the ellipse area by a standard ellipse based on i.e. 90% of the datapoints. Am I wrong?

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    Martin Gronbech Jorgensen

    Dear Dariusz

    I think the article you are referring to actually uses the method of calculation which makes it hard to compare across studies...Now I someone knew of a reproducibility study using a standard ellipse mentioned in the rocchi article - it would be great...:D

  • Farzaneh Gandomi added an answer:
    Who is currently working with 4D analysis of posture?

    I want to work with 4D analysis of posture, but we bought it recently and we don't know how work with it. How do we analyze posture and how collect data?

    Farzaneh Gandomi

    thank you dear patrick

    we buy 4D posture analyser but I don't know how do I work with it.

    can you help me about data collection and uses of it?

    thank you again

  • Fariborz Rahimi added an answer:
    What are the different ways by which you can calibrate FlexiForce sensors?
    Can anyone who has already worked with these sensors share their calibration setup details? How was the calibration carried out? How were the data obtained? Was there any need of applying any linearisation techniques?
    Fariborz Rahimi


    What Yallini has attached (TekScan suggested procedure) is the best, and as suggested the wear and tear should be considered (repeated calibration before each use). However, some of their sensors come with specific software (say, F-scan for in-shoe plantar pressure analysis) that takes care of this repeated calibration procedure.

  • Hashem Adnan Kilani added an answer:
    How far Electromyography (EMG) signals infer the force production in humans?
    Since the book of Basmajian JV, & De Luca CJ entitled Muscles Alive: their functions revealed by electromyography, I have not seen any new interpretation of the influence factors that affect the interpretation of muscle force production. For example, the type of muscle fiber, muscle length, and muscle velocity may influence the association between EMG signal as an electrical and mechanical activity of a muscle.
    Hashem Adnan Kilani

    Dear Fariba

    Thank you for your answer. 

  • Virginia B. Wickline added an answer:
    Anyone know of a DANVA-like (Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy) assessment for adults with pics that aren't so outdated?

    Looking for a paradigm to test emotional face, voice, and posture (if possible) recognition in adult PTSD and TBI populations, preferably with more recent photos than the DANVA. Thanks in advance!

    Virginia B. Wickline

    The DANVA pictures are a little dated, but I'd not worry about that since it's been used in thousands of studies. The reliability and validity would outweigh the age for me. I should disclose I'm a former student of Dr. Nowicki's and therefore a bit biased. :)

  • Antonia DALLA PRIA Bankoff added an answer:
    What are the best models for analysing human body sway?
    As body sway is a fall risk factor and sway increases after age 40. I was thinking of finding the best model for analysing body sway.
    Antonia DALLA PRIA Bankoff

    I use posturale BIOMEDICAL AND BIOMETRICS DIGITALIZZATA which is a system that measures the oscillations of the body balance

  • Shahrzad Zandi added an answer:
    Recommending an appropriate inferential statistics book for the Kinesiology and biomechanic science?
    Although there much literature exists around the statistics area, appropriate books that explain and explicate inferential statistics in vast details are not available.
    So I put this question here to utilize the experience of other researchers in this area to recommend a comprehensive inferential statistics book for the area of kinesiology and biomechanics.
    Shahrzad Zandi

    I suggest you "Thomas and Nelson" research method book. also Dr. Kazemnezhad'd new book in farsi could be useful

  • Panayot Tanchev added an answer:
    How is the body weight distributed on the sole of the foot?
    When a person who weighs 60 kilograms is standing on a flat surface how much percentage of his body weight is applied at different regions of the foot, such as heel, metatarsals, and toes?
    Panayot Tanchev
    This question has many answers. The pressure on the foot sole varies in standing and walking. It is different in the different regions of the sole even during the rolling of the foot when one steps forwards. In standing position the greatest pressure is distributed on the heel , head of first metatarsal and head of fifth metatarsal . These are the classic support points of the foot described by E. Haas some 90 years ago. Since that time the statics and dynamics of the foot is comprehensively studied and you may find abundant propedeutical literature on this topic.

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