Posture and Balance

Posture and Balance

  • Is there a force plate input test with visual step reported in English language literature?

    In practice in Russia test with visual step input is often used. The test consists in the following. The person stands on a force plate, look at the screen on which the target and movement of the center of pressure (COP) of the person are displayed. COP position is given by force plate indications. At the test beginning the center of a target corresponds to average COP position on the basic plane. During test target position make change and the person ask to change quickly body position due to change of an ankle angle so that to combine COP image with the center of a target and to hold it in a vicinity of the last.

    Whether the analog of this test in English-speaking literature, and what correct name of this test is described?

    Afonso Shiguemi Inoue Salgado · Instituto Salgado de Saúde Integral

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  • Yi-Lang Chen added an answer:
    What are the interactions among knee SHM, lumbar posture, and erector spinae FRP?

    What are the interactions among knee screw-home mechanism, lumbar posture (lordosis and kyphosis), and erector spinae flexion-relaxation phenomenon?

    Yi-Lang Chen · Mingchi University of Technology

    Dear Tanchev, thank you very much.

  • Martin Gronbech Jorgensen added an answer:
    What ellipse area calculation (confidence, prediction or standard ellipse) should I choose when analyzing the COP path from a forceplate?

    A recent study has suggested not to use the confidence ellipse area but instead a prediction ellipse area. However, both of these are in my mind inferences statistics. I think we simply should describe the ellipse area by a standard ellipse based on i.e. 90% of the datapoints. Am I wrong?

    Martin Gronbech Jorgensen · Aalborg University Hospital

    Dear Dariusz

    I think the article you are referring to actually uses the method of calculation which makes it hard to compare across studies...Now I someone knew of a reproducibility study using a standard ellipse mentioned in the rocchi article - it would be great...:D

  • Farzaneh Gandomi added an answer:
    Who is currently working with 4D analysis of posture?

    I want to work with 4D analysis of posture, but we bought it recently and we don't know how work with it. How do we analyze posture and how collect data?

    Farzaneh Gandomi · Buali Sina University

    thank you dear patrick

    we buy 4D posture analyser but I don't know how do I work with it.

    can you help me about data collection and uses of it?

    thank you again

  • Fariborz Rahimi added an answer:
    What are the different ways by which you can calibrate FlexiForce sensors?
    Can anyone who has already worked with these sensors share their calibration setup details? How was the calibration carried out? How were the data obtained? Was there any need of applying any linearisation techniques?
    Fariborz Rahimi · University of Bonab


    What Yallini has attached (TekScan suggested procedure) is the best, and as suggested the wear and tear should be considered (repeated calibration before each use). However, some of their sensors come with specific software (say, F-scan for in-shoe plantar pressure analysis) that takes care of this repeated calibration procedure.

  • Hashem Adnan Kilani added an answer:
    How far Electromyography (EMG) signals infer the force production in humans?
    Since the book of Basmajian JV, & De Luca CJ entitled Muscles Alive: their functions revealed by electromyography, I have not seen any new interpretation of the influence factors that affect the interpretation of muscle force production. For example, the type of muscle fiber, muscle length, and muscle velocity may influence the association between EMG signal as an electrical and mechanical activity of a muscle.
    Hashem Adnan Kilani · University of Jordan

    Dear Fariba

    Thank you for your answer. 

  • Virginia B. Wickline added an answer:
    Anyone know of a DANVA-like (Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy) assessment for adults with pics that aren't so outdated?

    Looking for a paradigm to test emotional face, voice, and posture (if possible) recognition in adult PTSD and TBI populations, preferably with more recent photos than the DANVA. Thanks in advance!

    Virginia B. Wickline · Miami University

    The DANVA pictures are a little dated, but I'd not worry about that since it's been used in thousands of studies. The reliability and validity would outweigh the age for me. I should disclose I'm a former student of Dr. Nowicki's and therefore a bit biased. :)

  • Steno Rinalduzzi added an answer:
    What are the best models for analysing human body sway?
    As body sway is a fall risk factor and sway increases after age 40. I was thinking of finding the best model for analysing body sway.
    Steno Rinalduzzi · Azienda Ospedaliera Sandro Pertini Roma

    There are many ways to assess posture. I personally prefer the accelerometers or electomagnetic tracker located in various parts of the body  in order to assess the relationship between the body segments during the maintenance of posture and not only the sway of the body.

  • Shahrzad Zandi added an answer:
    Recommending an appropriate inferential statistics book for the Kinesiology and biomechanic science?
    Although there much literature exists around the statistics area, appropriate books that explain and explicate inferential statistics in vast details are not available.
    So I put this question here to utilize the experience of other researchers in this area to recommend a comprehensive inferential statistics book for the area of kinesiology and biomechanics.
    Shahrzad Zandi · University of Tehran

    I suggest you "Thomas and Nelson" research method book. also Dr. Kazemnezhad'd new book in farsi could be useful

  • Panayot Tanchev added an answer:
    How is the body weight distributed on the sole of the foot?
    When a person who weighs 60 kilograms is standing on a flat surface how much percentage of his body weight is applied at different regions of the foot, such as heel, metatarsals, and toes?
    Panayot Tanchev · Medical University of Sofia
    This question has many answers. The pressure on the foot sole varies in standing and walking. It is different in the different regions of the sole even during the rolling of the foot when one steps forwards. In standing position the greatest pressure is distributed on the heel , head of first metatarsal and head of fifth metatarsal . These are the classic support points of the foot described by E. Haas some 90 years ago. Since that time the statics and dynamics of the foot is comprehensively studied and you may find abundant propedeutical literature on this topic.
  • Laurent Marc added an answer:
    Are the proprioceptors preferentially space-oriented in the skin?
    Do the skin's proprioceptors (or a few of them) detect movement in a preferential direction such as fascia fiber orientation, muscle fiber orientation or do they equally respond to stretch in every direction?
    I search data about mapping of mechanical receptive filed of the skin in whole body, and i wonder if the response of mechanical receptors is direction-dependent.
    It's in order to understand effect of skin strech in different parts of the body.
    Laurent Marc · Institut des Hautes Etudes Ostéopathiques
    Thank for all, Esther. I went on the forum somasimple, i find very good informations.

    Thank for the article John, i find it and i am going to read it during this week.

    I find part of the answer of my question in a very interesting book, it is : Martin Grunwald, Human haptic perception, Basics and applications, Birkhaüser Verlag: Berlin, 676p.
    The most of the book is about human hand, but it gives me some new ideas to my research.
    There is a good article too ( : B. B. Edin , J. H. Abbs, Finger movement responses of cutaneous mechanoreceptors in the dorsal skin of the human hand, Journal of Neurophysiology, published 1 March 1991, Vol. 65no. 657-670.
  • Taiar Redha added an answer:
    Is it possible to reach the human head COG from anatomical landmark?
    How can the head center of gravity be found?
    Taiar Redha · Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne
    Dear, vahid, please find enclosed the helpful document. Sorry for the quality.
  • Tim Podlogar added an answer:
    Is there a study or an article suggesting what the safest range of motions are for each joint?
    I am looking for a study or an article, where it is defined what the minimum range of motions for each joint are, in order to prevent injuries. To be able to see if a patient has impaired flexibility or not.
    Tim Podlogar · University of Ljubljana
    Thanks a lot for all the answers. I really appreciate the help. At the university we are taught that limited ROM can be a cause of an injury, yet nobody never told us what is a "safe" ROM. That's why I was asking ...

    As a kinesiology student, I think I have to know these things :)
  • G. Filligoi added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest any studies on feet movement?
    Imagine an experiment on emotions with a participant sitting at a computer desk watching video clips that induce emotions. This person keeps his/her feet on a wii balance board that allows to track if the feet are kept still or are changing position.
    I wonder if anyone knows any studies that explored the psychological interpretation of such feet motor activity. A common sense suggests that people move their feet when they are aroused / nervous. Any scientific research to back-up this notion? Are there any other interpretations?
    I will be very grateful even for the tiniest hints.
    G. Filligoi · Sapienza University of Rome
    Dear Lukaz,
    both colleagues, Damian and wright, gave you some literature suggestion. I would give another kind of information about the technique you can use for detecting feet movements, if you are interested to. Use a 3-D accelerometer posed on the feet that will quantitatively inform you about the kind of movements the subjects is doing. Good luck also by my side.
  • Grzegorz Sobota added an answer:
    Does anyone have the MATLAB code for the decomposition of the center of pressure to its fraction of rambling and trembling?
    COP decomposition has been made by some MATLAB codes such as "Cubic spline function" to obtain an estimate of rambling trajectory. Trembling is the deviation of COP from rambling trajectory. I was wondering if the whole process can be completed by this function?
    Grzegorz Sobota · Akademia Wychowania Fiycznego im. Jergo Kukuczki w Katowicach
    Hi Mohammad,

    what do You mean "completed by this function"? Function of "cubic spline"?
    As you can see in the work Zatsiorsky and Duarte (2000) cubic spline function is just one of the steps to obtain from COP a rambling and trembling trajectory.

    The cubic spline function allows you to create a rambling trajectory based on the information about the position of the COP in the IEP (at times when the horizontal force is zero).

    Best regards,
  • Bruno Bonnechère added an answer:
    How can I connect a Nintendo board and a Kinect camera to a laptop?
    A Nintendo board is a board which can be used as a cheap-portable device to measure COP transition in certain conditions (and with a higher rate of error in comparison to a force platform). A Kinect camera is an IR camera sensor attached to X-box console which has been used recently in research to track center of mass.
    Bruno Bonnechère · Université Libre de Bruxelles
    For the Kinect you just have to plug it in the computer with USB. Currently it is only possible with the old Kinect (360) not the new one (Kinect One).
    Then you have two options: if you use the Kinect for Xbox you have to install Kinect SDK and Windows Developper Toolkit ( If you use the Kinect for Windows you don't have to install anything.
    For the Balance Board you simply have to connect it to the computer with Bluetooth connection.
    Then it is up to you to create software to collect informations from these devices (C++, Matlab...)
  • Nachiappan Chockalingam added an answer:
    Can anyone recommend some pressure insoles for gait analysis in adults?
    I need wireless pressure insoles for a study of gait disorders on elders.
  • Esther De Ru added an answer:
    Does anyone have an opinion on the clinical relevance of the testing of hamstrings flexibility in children?
    As more studies into hamstrings flexibility of the normal developing child are being published I wonder what the outcome of this research can add to my working skills in the clinic. I am genuinely interested
    Esther De Ru · GoPhysio NL
    Thank you everyone for sharing your ideas with me.
    I am aware of the differences in flexibility in children in general. We have our hypermobil and our hypomobil children in the normal population.
    Shortend hamstrings and backpain are two symptoms we see in the clinic. I am not aware of any research into this combination (cause-effect) and if there is, please let me know.
    I am very aware that it isonly one muscle in a whole functional chain. I think we always need to look at the whole and not only at the part.....
  • Christos Nikolopoulos added an answer:
    Which type of exercise is more effective to improve older adults balance during walking and can help prevent falling?
    Balance training: dynamic and static muscle strength training or muscle endurance training or ...
    Christos Nikolopoulos · Orthofoo
    Prosieception orthotics is the solution for this plus balance training exercises. The big difference orthotics make balance exercises for 16 hours per day , physiotherapy or training is for half or an hour .....
  • Christos Nikolopoulos added an answer:
    How do you select the right sensor for recording instantaneous pressure changes?
    I am currently studying gait and posture analysis. What are the factors that you need to consider while dealing with pressure sensors?
    Christos Nikolopoulos · Orthofoo
    I have a BEng (Hons) Mechanical Eng,BSc in Podiatry , MSc in Bioengineering, MSc in Podiatry and PhD in Pdiatric Biomechanics at Strathclyde University and I was one of the pioneers studying plantar pressures with Marylin Lord, Sue Barnett, Peter Cavanagh, Betts etc. I constructed a inshoe plantar pressure system using FSR technology and I use PEDAR, TEKSCAN, RSCAN, VICON, Dynamic pedobarograph, Harris Beath Mat. To be honnest the Harris Beath Mat seems the best in terms of pressure pattern and I made a control study with Dynamic Pedobarograph which is the best system for barefoot analysis and has the same pressure pattern

    About factors for static just to take at least 3 trilas, for dynamic it is better to get 12 trilas first step protocol and also to subgroup the subjects according to hindfoot to foreffot malalignment
  • Christos Nikolopoulos added an answer:
    Do shoes with the heel elevated higher than the forefoot overstretch the arch to the point of required "arch support"?
    I have been selling running shoes for about 8 months, and have been researching minimalist vs supportive footwear for a year now. Throughout the time selling shoes I've noticed a trend in people who's podiatrists recommend "arch support". Almost all of them had been wearing high-heels or higher heeled dress shoes, and seemed to have extremely high arches. If this is the case then I ask if the customer wears high heeled shoes often. The answer is 99% yes.
    Instant hypothesis is that the extra pressure on the forefoot over-stretches the arch, and for most this combined with compression on the side of the foot would seem to really unnaturally work the foots muscles and tendons.
    Anyone with studies I'd love some answers
    Christos Nikolopoulos · Orthofoo
    Arch supports which it is a different than Orthotics only prescribed if you have symptoms, ONLYYYYYY
  • Christos Nikolopoulos added an answer:
    Can we calculate SEM (error of measurement) and SRD (smallest real difference or MDC) for both test and retest in a study ?
    We measured angles in degrees twice regarding sitting posture
    Christos Nikolopoulos · Orthofoo
    What about intertester variability and protocol of the measurement?????
  • Christos Nikolopoulos added an answer:
    What type of exercises would be the best for ankle sprain for a patient who has emphysema and Parkinson's ?
    I would specifically need to consider deficits that they have and how it may impact the rehab. Any suggestions?
    Christos Nikolopoulos · Orthofoo
    Have you tried a proprieseption insoles, it is like to make balance exercises for a whole day rather than doing some balance exercises every day. It helps alot
  • Brett Thompson added an answer:
    What is dynamic stability definition in human movement? We say a state is stable, what is dynamic stability?
    Equilibrium means moving without acceleration. Balance is the control of equilibrium. Stability is the resistance to perturbation.
    Brett Thompson · Kindred Healthcare
    According to Faye Horak, "Postural orientation involves
    the active control of body alignment and tone with respect to
    gravity, support surface, visual environment and internal references.
    Spatial orientation in postural control is based on the
    interpretation of convergent sensory information from somatosensory,
    vestibular and visual systems. Postural equilibrium
    involves the coordination of sensorimotor strategies to stabilize
    the body’s center of mass (CoM) during both self-initiated
    and externally triggered disturbances in postural stability."
    I tend to think of dynamic stability in the way Horak defines postural equilibrium. "If I have the ability to control my center of mass during movement, I have dynamic stability.
  • G. Filligoi added an answer:
    What is the consensus on whether or not one should filter force platform data collected during quiet standing trials?
    While surveying the literature to find optimal cut-off frequencies to filter a set of force platform data, I quickly found that some research groups filtered their data, and others did not. I can't seem to find a good reason as to why you would, or would not, filter force plate data. At first I thought it had to do with your dependent variables (e.g., if you wanted COP velocities, theoretically you would filter the data to reduce the noise amplification during the differentiation process), but then I found several papers who calculated COP velocities without filtering first.

    Can anyone provide some insight into why you should or should not filter the data? Thanks.
    G. Filligoi · Sapienza University of Rome
    Filtering is not a sure matter, but something naif very close to an art (2The art of filtering"). You need to filter depending on how you recorded the signals and relative noises which interferred with them. The typical characteristic of noise is its extreme enviromental variability: so, the filter must adapt to it: therefore, it is clear why different authors use different filters.
  • Ali Panahi added an answer:
    Which kind of assessment shows improvement of gait performance in Diabetes (GRF, EMG, etc.)?
    I am designing a sequential motor learning program for improving diabetes gait, but I don't know which parameter has priority over others to show trend of improvement in the process of gait training?
    Ali Panahi · Zagros Rehabilitation Center
    i use a advanced system that assess and train gait in patients ( stroke , MS, Diabetic and...) . if you want i can send for you more details .
  • Victoria Panzer added an answer:
    Force plate
    Does anybody work with force plate EMG system?
    Victoria Panzer · UConn Health Center
    I would also refer you to our paper Panzer VP, Wakefield DB, Hall CB, Wolfson LI. (2011) Mobility Assessment: Sensitivity and Specificity of Measurement Sets in Older Adults. Arch Phys Med Rehab; 92:905-912.
    We looked FIRST at reliability, then used several other measures to evaluate the utility of the measures. Regards, Victoria.
  • Eric Johnson added an answer:
    What type of physiotherapy is effective in controlling involuntary choreo athetotic movements?
    Especially in kids,ways to improve relaxation
    How about tai chi or qigong? They have been shown in studies and anecdotally to be beneficial for those with Parkinson's disease. They teach deep breathing and controlled movements. They are practiced slowly and deliberately. An important focus is on relaxation. I am afraid I am not familiar with any studies on the effect on choreo athetotic movments.

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