Posture and Balance

Posture and Balance

  • Prashant Singh added an answer:
    How do I measure cervical lateral tilt and Axial rotation in spasmodic torticollis patient?

    I am providing physical therapy treatment in addition to Botox injection for a patient with Idiopathic Spasmodic Torticollis. I would like to know any valid method to determine the cervical lateral tilt and axial rotation..

    This patient presents with combination of right cervical lateral tilt with left rotation.

    I find difficult to measure it. since, it is not isolated movement.

    Prashant Singh · Griffith University

    You can use 2D Kinematic Software "Kinovea", available free at www.kinovea.org .

  • Ana Kleiner added an answer:
    Which is the most accurate location to place an inertial sensor for measuring center of mass displacement?

    (considering that I use triaxial accelerometers) Some papers use L3 or L5 spinal process, but there is a lack of references about that parameter.

    Ana Kleiner · University of Campinas

    Pelvis or center of L5/S1. I support what Alan said, the David Winter book is a very good reference. Also, if you like, take a look at this work:

    GALLI, M. ; KLEINER, A. F. R. ; GAGLIONE, M. ; SALE, P. ; ALBERTINI, G. ; STOCCHI, F. ; DE PANDIS, M. F. . Timed Up and Go test and wearable inertial sensor: a new combining tool to assess change in subject with Parkinson s disease after automated mechanical peripheral stimulation treatment. International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology, v. 4, p. 155-163, 2015.

    Good luck with your studies!

    With Kindest Regards,

    Ana.

  • Piet van Loon added an answer:
    In order to identify individuals who have poor posture, which diagnostic method is available?

    To measure the effectiveness of the use of a corset, first we want to identify individuals with poor posture. We need a reliable diagnostic method to do so, the risk groups are often Kyphosis individuals.

    Thank you in advance for your reply.

    Piet van Loon · Care to Move

    dear Tugba,

    van Wingerden is right in advising looking for causes.Poor posture has as the first and the most important characteristics, that the thoracolumbar spine is kyphotic starting at a young age , first while sitting ( like Gameboyback,) . The deforming power of sitting and slumping becomes a hot topic now. Other characteristics are the slumped shoulders and the ears hanging in front of the center of the shoulder. Also the neuromuscular tightness ( bending test, SLR test ) show deficits. Depending on age and seriousness exercises in extension or correction at the TL spine in braces ( children) of corsets with this TLI principle .

    In contrast with earlier believes, this type of bracing or corset does not diminish muscle activity , while it resets especially the abdominal muscles into physiologic pretension needed for proper function. as it does to the diafragm. Full muscular activity is preserved in walking .  We described some tests on tension and on the etiology.

    Good Luck

    piet van Loon

  • Emmanuelle Cugy added an answer:
    Are there any research literature on the relationship between menarcheal status and postural stability?

    I'm interested in investigating the effects of sensory systems manipulation on postural stability in two age groups of girls with different maturation status (pre-menarcheal & post-menarcheal).

    I would be grateful if someone introduces some related articles regarding this topic.

    Emmanuelle Cugy · Centre Hospitalier D'Arcachon

    Hello, you might solicit S.Barozzi, who has explored reliability of postural control measure.

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260371359_Reliability_of_postural_control_measures_in_children_and_young_adolescents

  • Shirin Yazdani added an answer:
    What are the latest hypotheses and publications on the cerebellar postural control for bipedal stance?

    Neurological control of bipedal posture

    Shirin Yazdani · University of Tabriz

    as you know, cerebellar control of posture is mainly based on the coordinated activity of the cerebellum, brainstem reticular formation and vestibular systems, providing the control of  posture and body balance.Cerebellar damage in humans results in increased standing postural sway, hypermetric postural responses and prolonged muscle activity.
    Previously, we assessed the postural control of patients with low back pain and healthy controls by altering the systems involved in balance control (eyes open vs closed , vestibular and properiocetion manipulation) before and after the 3 months balance training and therapeutic exercise.

    In recent researches, perturbation-based balance training for preventing falls, movement strategies for maintaining standing balance during arm tracking in people with multiple sclerosis, effects of a predefined mini-trampoline training program on balance, mobility and activities of daily living after stroke, and so etc.... were done.

  • Priscilla Morais added an answer:
    Do you have experience using inertial measurement units to assess postural balance and center of mass displacement? Where do you place the sensors?

    I'm trying to assess postural balance without using force plates and IMUs seem to be a good choice, but we don't have plenty of publications about this method.

    Priscilla Morais · Federal University of Pernambuco

    Thank tou very much, Markus!

  • Priscilla Morais added an answer:
    Is balance training important in non-athletes adults?

    It is widely studied the importance of balance training in older people, but what evidence is there to train balance in youth and adult non-athletes? Any paper to review it? Thank you so much.

    Priscilla Morais · Federal University of Pernambuco

    Even if balance isn't an issue on healthy young adults, balance training can promote better postural stabilization and prevent injuries. Training the anticipatory and compensatory mechanisms, the whole musculoskeletal system will be ready to stabilize itself and the joints and tendons won't suffer.

  • Piotr Gawda added an answer:
    What is the gold standard method for spinal curvature measurements?

    There are many methods for measuring the spinal curves such as radiography (Cobb angle), flexible ruler (flexicurve), Spinal mouse, and etc. Also there are many publications about the validity and reliability of the measuring methods. However, it has been mentioned some negative points about using them. So, what is the best and safest method for spinal curves measuring, specially in person with spinal postural deformities?   

    Piotr Gawda · Medical University of Lublin

    Considering the methods of spinal curvature measurements I agree that radiographic (Cobb angle) one is widely used in practice however this method gives incomplete data about spatial orientation to call it "gold standard method".In my opinion combination of radiographic measurement and postural characteristic (COG sway velocity) is good enough to properly asses spinal deformities

  • Pedro Berjano added an answer:
    Is there any way to measure anterior-posterior pelvic tilt and when to see it as normal or as related to lordosis - kyphosis ?

    I have seen a lot of people have anterior pelvic tilt, others a slight others a lot more. How can i know where this can a problem that must be fixed or its no problem and i should not try to fix it? I mean is there a standard angle? If yes it is the same for males and females? 

    Pedro Berjano · Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi

    You can measure pelvic tilt by the pelvic tilt angle on lateral standing X-rays, and measure also the pelvic incidence angle in the same X-rays. 

    Pelvic tilt (angle between the vertical line and a line traced between the center of the S1 endplate and the center of the hip joints axis -defined as the central point of the line between the center of the left and right femoral head-) in normal individuals is almost always lower than 21°. Higher values correlate to worse function and more back pain, and are usually due to posterior tilt of the pelvic to compensate for insufficient lordosis. 

    Additionally, a fair correlation between pelvic tilt (PT) and pelvic incidence (PI) has been found and described by Vialle. They published a formula to calculate the expected value of PT as a function of PI: PT=0,37PI-7°

    Please see also:

    Sagittal deformities of the spine: factors influencing the outcomes and complications.Diebo BG, Henry J, Lafage V, Berjano P. Eur Spine J. 2015 Jan;24 Suppl 1:S3-15. doi: 10.1007/s00586-014-3653-8. Epub 2014 Nov 12.

    Pelvic parameters and global spine balance for spine degenerative disease: the importance of containing for the well being of content. Garbossa D, Pejrona M, Damilano M, Sansone V, Ducati A, Berjano P. Eur Spine J. 2014 Oct;23 Suppl 6:616-27. doi: 10.1007/s00586-014-3558-6. Epub 2014 Sep 12.

    Criteria to restore the sagittal balance in deformity and degenerative spondylolisthesis. Lamartina C, Berjano P, Petruzzi M, Sinigaglia A, Casero G, Cecchinato R, Damilano M, Bassani R. Eur Spine J. 2012 May;21 Suppl 1:S27-31. doi: 10.1007/s00586-012-2236-9. Epub 2012 Mar 13. Review.

  • Paresh Chandra Ghosh added an answer:
    Does anybody knows a posture analysis software?

    I am looking for posture analysis software. Kindly suggest me some posture analysis software which are freely available for use.

    Thank you in advance for your attention to this matter!

    Paresh Chandra Ghosh ·

    Dear Dr Patel

    You can use ERGOMASTER from a canadian firm is costely. Ergomaster also can be used for RULA&REBA also. PCG,CLI

  • Tayebeh Jahani added an answer:
    Could you please help me on event detection in upright standing or balance control?

    I studied some papers about event detection procedures in gaiting process, but can't find papers about events in control of posture...perhaps we should defined some standard criteria that explain any state of calf muscles or proportion of muscle activities. Do you have any ofer for me?

    Tayebeh Jahani · Islamic Azad University Mashhad Branch

    Dear Piet,

       Tank you for your intresting comment

  • At L Hof added an answer:
    Which type of exercise is more effective to improve older adults balance during walking and can help prevent falling?
    Balance training: dynamic and static muscle strength training or muscle endurance training or ...
    At L Hof · University of Groningen

    In a similar discussion I heard the answer of a very practical physiotherapist (name forgotten): "We let them play golf."  In my opinion a better method than dull practising on balance boards and the like.

  • Taco Johan Blokhuis added an answer:
    Can anyone recommend some pressure insoles for gait analysis in adults?
    I need wireless pressure insoles for a study of gait disorders on elders.
    Taco Johan Blokhuis · University Medical Center Utrecht

    Are you still looking for a solution ? We may have a suitable option for you: as a trauma surgeon I am involved in the development of a new amublant device. Please e-mail me for further information,

    kind regards

    Taco Blokhuis

  • Afonso Shiguemi Inoue Salgado added an answer:
    Is there a force plate input test with visual step reported in English language literature?

    In practice in Russia test with visual step input is often used. The test consists in the following. The person stands on a force plate, look at the screen on which the target and movement of the center of pressure (COP) of the person are displayed. COP position is given by force plate indications. At the test beginning the center of a target corresponds to average COP position on the basic plane. During test target position make change and the person ask to change quickly body position due to change of an ankle angle so that to combine COP image with the center of a target and to hold it in a vicinity of the last.

    Whether the analog of this test in English-speaking literature, and what correct name of this test is described?

    Afonso Shiguemi Inoue Salgado · Escola de Terapia Manual e Postural

    Dear colleague
    I send you these electronic addresses to contact a leading authority in the area that you research, he is a French MD  and mathematician and established mathematical data for platforms worldwide can speak in my name
    Sincerely Yours

    http://ada-posturologie.fr/Dimascio.html

    * http://ada-posturologie.fr/P-FReeducation.htm ** http://ada-posturologie.fr/Constante_Genese.pdf *** http://adaposturologie.fr/Poster_Trondheim.pdf

    Gagey Pierre-Marie 240, rue saint-jacques 75005 Paris Fixe 33~1 43 29 54 48 Port 33~6 67 96 43 53

    pmgagey@club-internet.fr http://ada-posturologie.fr/Index.html http://clinicalstabilometry.freeforums.org/

  • Yi-Lang Chen added an answer:
    What are the interactions among knee SHM, lumbar posture, and erector spinae FRP?

    What are the interactions among knee screw-home mechanism, lumbar posture (lordosis and kyphosis), and erector spinae flexion-relaxation phenomenon?

    Yi-Lang Chen · Mingchi University of Technology

    Dear Tanchev, thank you very much.

  • Martin Gronbech Jorgensen added an answer:
    What ellipse area calculation (confidence, prediction or standard ellipse) should I choose when analyzing the COP path from a forceplate?

    A recent study has suggested not to use the confidence ellipse area but instead a prediction ellipse area. However, both of these are in my mind inferences statistics. I think we simply should describe the ellipse area by a standard ellipse based on i.e. 90% of the datapoints. Am I wrong?

    Martin Gronbech Jorgensen · Aalborg University Hospital

    Dear Dariusz

    I think the article you are referring to actually uses the method of calculation which makes it hard to compare across studies...Now I someone knew of a reproducibility study using a standard ellipse mentioned in the rocchi article - it would be great...:D

  • Farzaneh Gandomi added an answer:
    Who is currently working with 4D analysis of posture?

    I want to work with 4D analysis of posture, but we bought it recently and we don't know how work with it. How do we analyze posture and how collect data?

    Farzaneh Gandomi · Buali Sina University

    thank you dear patrick

    we buy 4D posture analyser but I don't know how do I work with it.

    can you help me about data collection and uses of it?

    thank you again

  • Fariborz Rahimi added an answer:
    What are the different ways by which you can calibrate FlexiForce sensors?
    Can anyone who has already worked with these sensors share their calibration setup details? How was the calibration carried out? How were the data obtained? Was there any need of applying any linearisation techniques?
    Fariborz Rahimi · University of Bonab

    Agreed,

    What Yallini has attached (TekScan suggested procedure) is the best, and as suggested the wear and tear should be considered (repeated calibration before each use). However, some of their sensors come with specific software (say, F-scan for in-shoe plantar pressure analysis) that takes care of this repeated calibration procedure.

  • Hashem Adnan Kilani added an answer:
    How far Electromyography (EMG) signals infer the force production in humans?
    Since the book of Basmajian JV, & De Luca CJ entitled Muscles Alive: their functions revealed by electromyography, I have not seen any new interpretation of the influence factors that affect the interpretation of muscle force production. For example, the type of muscle fiber, muscle length, and muscle velocity may influence the association between EMG signal as an electrical and mechanical activity of a muscle.
    Hashem Adnan Kilani · University of Jordan

    Dear Fariba

    Thank you for your answer. 

  • Virginia B. Wickline added an answer:
    Anyone know of a DANVA-like (Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy) assessment for adults with pics that aren't so outdated?

    Looking for a paradigm to test emotional face, voice, and posture (if possible) recognition in adult PTSD and TBI populations, preferably with more recent photos than the DANVA. Thanks in advance!

    Virginia B. Wickline · Miami University

    The DANVA pictures are a little dated, but I'd not worry about that since it's been used in thousands of studies. The reliability and validity would outweigh the age for me. I should disclose I'm a former student of Dr. Nowicki's and therefore a bit biased. :)

  • Antonia DALLA PRIA Bankoff added an answer:
    What are the best models for analysing human body sway?
    As body sway is a fall risk factor and sway increases after age 40. I was thinking of finding the best model for analysing body sway.
    Antonia DALLA PRIA Bankoff · University of Campinas

    I use posturale BIOMEDICAL AND BIOMETRICS DIGITALIZZATA which is a system that measures the oscillations of the body balance http://www.diasu.com/pt/

  • Shahrzad Zandi added an answer:
    Recommending an appropriate inferential statistics book for the Kinesiology and biomechanic science?
    Although there much literature exists around the statistics area, appropriate books that explain and explicate inferential statistics in vast details are not available.
    So I put this question here to utilize the experience of other researchers in this area to recommend a comprehensive inferential statistics book for the area of kinesiology and biomechanics.
    Shahrzad Zandi · University of Tehran

    I suggest you "Thomas and Nelson" research method book. also Dr. Kazemnezhad'd new book in farsi could be useful

  • Panayot Tanchev added an answer:
    How is the body weight distributed on the sole of the foot?
    When a person who weighs 60 kilograms is standing on a flat surface how much percentage of his body weight is applied at different regions of the foot, such as heel, metatarsals, and toes?
    Panayot Tanchev · Medical University of Sofia
    This question has many answers. The pressure on the foot sole varies in standing and walking. It is different in the different regions of the sole even during the rolling of the foot when one steps forwards. In standing position the greatest pressure is distributed on the heel , head of first metatarsal and head of fifth metatarsal . These are the classic support points of the foot described by E. Haas some 90 years ago. Since that time the statics and dynamics of the foot is comprehensively studied and you may find abundant propedeutical literature on this topic.
  • Laurent Marc added an answer:
    Are the proprioceptors preferentially space-oriented in the skin?
    Do the skin's proprioceptors (or a few of them) detect movement in a preferential direction such as fascia fiber orientation, muscle fiber orientation or do they equally respond to stretch in every direction?
    I search data about mapping of mechanical receptive filed of the skin in whole body, and i wonder if the response of mechanical receptors is direction-dependent.
    It's in order to understand effect of skin strech in different parts of the body.
    Laurent Marc · Institut des Hautes Etudes Ostéopathiques
    Thank for all, Esther. I went on the forum somasimple, i find very good informations.

    Thank for the article John, i find it and i am going to read it during this week.

    I find part of the answer of my question in a very interesting book, it is : Martin Grunwald, Human haptic perception, Basics and applications, Birkhaüser Verlag: Berlin, 676p.
    The most of the book is about human hand, but it gives me some new ideas to my research.
    There is a good article too (http://jn.physiology.org/content/65/3/657) : B. B. Edin , J. H. Abbs, Finger movement responses of cutaneous mechanoreceptors in the dorsal skin of the human hand, Journal of Neurophysiology, published 1 March 1991, Vol. 65no. 657-670.
  • Taiar Redha added an answer:
    Is it possible to reach the human head COG from anatomical landmark?
    How can the head center of gravity be found?
    Taiar Redha · Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne
    Dear, vahid, please find enclosed the helpful document. Sorry for the quality.
    regards,
  • Tim Podlogar added an answer:
    Is there a study or an article suggesting what the safest range of motions are for each joint?
    I am looking for a study or an article, where it is defined what the minimum range of motions for each joint are, in order to prevent injuries. To be able to see if a patient has impaired flexibility or not.
    Tim Podlogar · University of Ljubljana
    Thanks a lot for all the answers. I really appreciate the help. At the university we are taught that limited ROM can be a cause of an injury, yet nobody never told us what is a "safe" ROM. That's why I was asking ...

    As a kinesiology student, I think I have to know these things :)
  • G. Filligoi added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest any studies on feet movement?
    Imagine an experiment on emotions with a participant sitting at a computer desk watching video clips that induce emotions. This person keeps his/her feet on a wii balance board that allows to track if the feet are kept still or are changing position.
    I wonder if anyone knows any studies that explored the psychological interpretation of such feet motor activity. A common sense suggests that people move their feet when they are aroused / nervous. Any scientific research to back-up this notion? Are there any other interpretations?
    I will be very grateful even for the tiniest hints.
    G. Filligoi · Sapienza University of Rome
    Dear Lukaz,
    both colleagues, Damian and wright, gave you some literature suggestion. I would give another kind of information about the technique you can use for detecting feet movements, if you are interested to. Use a 3-D accelerometer posed on the feet that will quantitatively inform you about the kind of movements the subjects is doing. Good luck also by my side.
  • Grzegorz Sobota added an answer:
    Does anyone have the MATLAB code for the decomposition of the center of pressure to its fraction of rambling and trembling?
    COP decomposition has been made by some MATLAB codes such as "Cubic spline function" to obtain an estimate of rambling trajectory. Trembling is the deviation of COP from rambling trajectory. I was wondering if the whole process can be completed by this function?
    Grzegorz Sobota · Akademia Wychowania Fiycznego im. Jergo Kukuczki w Katowicach
    Hi Mohammad,

    what do You mean "completed by this function"? Function of "cubic spline"?
    As you can see in the work Zatsiorsky and Duarte (2000) cubic spline function is just one of the steps to obtain from COP a rambling and trembling trajectory.

    The cubic spline function allows you to create a rambling trajectory based on the information about the position of the COP in the IEP (at times when the horizontal force is zero).

    Best regards,
    Grzegorz
  • Bruno Bonnechère added an answer:
    How can I connect a Nintendo board and a Kinect camera to a laptop?
    A Nintendo board is a board which can be used as a cheap-portable device to measure COP transition in certain conditions (and with a higher rate of error in comparison to a force platform). A Kinect camera is an IR camera sensor attached to X-box console which has been used recently in research to track center of mass.
    Bruno Bonnechère · Université Libre de Bruxelles
    For the Kinect you just have to plug it in the computer with USB. Currently it is only possible with the old Kinect (360) not the new one (Kinect One).
    Then you have two options: if you use the Kinect for Xbox you have to install Kinect SDK and Windows Developper Toolkit (http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/kinectforwindowsdev/Downloads.aspx). If you use the Kinect for Windows you don't have to install anything.
    For the Balance Board you simply have to connect it to the computer with Bluetooth connection.
    Then it is up to you to create software to collect informations from these devices (C++, Matlab...)
  • Esther De Ru added an answer:
    Does anyone have an opinion on the clinical relevance of the testing of hamstrings flexibility in children?
    As more studies into hamstrings flexibility of the normal developing child are being published I wonder what the outcome of this research can add to my working skills in the clinic. I am genuinely interested
    Esther De Ru · GoPhysio NL
    Thank you everyone for sharing your ideas with me.
    I am aware of the differences in flexibility in children in general. We have our hypermobil and our hypomobil children in the normal population.
    Shortend hamstrings and backpain are two symptoms we see in the clinic. I am not aware of any research into this combination (cause-effect) and if there is, please let me know.
    I am very aware that it isonly one muscle in a whole functional chain. I think we always need to look at the whole and not only at the part.....

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