• Amr M. Bakry added an answer:
    What are the differences between industrial cane and chewing cane?

    I need to know differences between industrial cane and chewing cane in it's morphological, physical and physiological character. Both the canes come under Saccharum officinarum.

    Amr M. Bakry

    Chewing cane is softer and made for the human teeth to chew and extract liquid (Easy chewing). 

    The industrial cane, on the contrary, is very hard and made for industrial plant to squeeze and get sugar (Difficult chewing). 

    Good luck my brother

  • Bernard M Auriol added an answer:
    What do you think about this hypothesis of a covert path for the sound, from eardrum toward cochlea
    Eardrum comprise piezo-electric collagen fibers; do they transduct acoustical waves into electrical potentials able to reach the cochlear amplifier ?
    Bernard M Auriol

    Would you like give us some references about active transducers of the round window ?

  • Ann M Schreihofer added an answer:
    Does anyone use the Toohey "pressure system II" or TooheySpritzer microinjection?
    We have one and love it, but have misplaced the power supply. I know its 12V, but need to know the amperage rating so I can replace it.
    Ann M Schreihofer

    I have this system and I am attaching a photo of our power supply.  Do you happen to know where I could find a reliable remote for it?  Ours works sometimes....

    Ann Schreihofer, University of North Texas Health Science Center

  • Sergio Torloni added an answer:
    Is anyone interested in hibernation research?

    I have a number of papers from a PhD colleague of mine who retired. He did the fundamental research on hibernation. He was able to identify, purify and sequence the "hibernation induction trigger".  He was able to isuccessfully induce hibernation in primates. 
    I a a physician and my area is stem cells and blood bank / clinical pathology. I am not a basic science specialist. Is anyone out there interested in continuing this research? This studies were originally funded by NASA and the US Army, so this is no joke, it is for real. 

    Sergio Torloni


    Thanks all for your interest.  Here is what I have.  Actually, Dr. Peter Oltgen is retired but still working with a colleague and has published much more current papers.  Please keep me in mind for any studies you may want to undertake. 


    + 9 more attachments

  • Stefano Gaburro added an answer:
    Can Heart Rate Variability represent the ultimate marker for brain-heart interaction dysfunction leading to a pathological state?

    Dear all,

    recently many publication came up with the idea that Heart Rate Variability (HRV) derived from ECG-Blood Pressure signal could represent the ultimate marker for neurodegenerative diseases, and mood disorders. Especially, if the HRV in non linear domain seem to be the most predictive although less understood.

    What is your experience?

    Stefano Gaburro

    Dear Jose,

    I invite you to read the publication of Prof. Oliver Stiedl in this regards considering the cyrcadian rythm but also ECG stability since he linear approach (e.g. frequency domain implies that) but most often the linear assumption are not statistically true. Therefore, non linear (fractal) or other model should be apply.

    For more questions, do not hesitate to write back.

  • Esa Hohtola added an answer:
    What is the most recommended way to analyze respiration rate using LabChart software?

    I am looking for as accurately as possible method of counting the number of human breaths per minute (repiration rate) in the LabChart software.
    Option which are proposed by LabChart software (cylic measurment → Preset → Respiration - Respiratory belt with SD = 0.9) fails to find all of the breaths (there are no marks for about 30% peaks of breaths).

    It seems to me that much more precise are such option like:

    • General - Spikey shape with SD = 2.5 SD
    • Sine shape with SD = 2.0 SD

    Are there any guidelines for the size of standard deviations which should I use? Can I use Spikey shape or Sine shape method?

    I would be very grateful for any help!

    Esa Hohtola

    Hi, if you are working off-line on pre-recorded data, a simple way is to activate the piece of data of interest and choose spectrum view. Breathing data is usually clean enough to show one clear maximum in the spectrum, corresponding to true breathing frequency. No hassle with SD's. Of course, when you need the rate online, cyclic measurement is better.



  • Vitthalrao Khyade added an answer:
    What is the physiological or anatomical difference between place cells and grid cells in the hippocampus?

    In the medial temporal lobe,there are specific types of neural cells such as place cells, head-direction cells, grid cells, and boundary vector cells which involved in cognitive map and spatial memory. Hippocampal “place cells” encode the rat’s location within an open environment independently of its orientation and fire in the specific position. The complementary encoding of the orientation, independently of location, is done by “head-direction cells” .I think all of them are pyramidal neurons. So Is there any physiological or anatomical difference between these kinds of cell?

    Vitthalrao Khyade

    Research Group, A.D.T. And Shardabai Pawar Mahila Mahavidyalaya, Shardanagar, Malegaon(Baramati) Dist. Pune – 413115.

    Objective: To Establish the Repository of Contributions of Eminent Scholars and  Information on Science and Culture  For The Society.                                                                   


         Fenton's reagent

    Fenton's reagent is a solution of hydrogen peroxide and an iron catalyst that is used to oxidize contaminants or waste waters. Fenton's reagent can be used to destroy organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and polychloroethylene (PCE). It was developed in the 1890s by Henry John Horstman Fenton as an analytical reagent.[1]

    Iron(II) is oxidized by hydrogen peroxide to iron(III), forming a hydroxyl radical and a hydroxide ion in the process. Iron(III) is then reduced back to iron(II) by another molecule of hydrogen peroxide, forming a hydroperoxyl radical and a proton. The net effect is a disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide to create two different oxygen-radical species, with water (H+ + OH−) as a byproduct.

    (1) Fe2+ + H2O2 → Fe3+ + HO• + OH−

    (2) Fe3+ + H2O2 → Fe2+ + HOO• + H+

    The free radicals generated by this process then engage in secondary reactions. For example, the hydroxyl is a powerful, non-selective oxidant. Oxidation of an organic compound by Fenton's reagent is rapid and exothermic and results in the oxidation of contaminants to primarily carbon dioxide and water.[2]

    Reaction (1) was suggested by Haber and Weiss in the 1930s as part of what would become the Haber–Weiss reaction.[3] Iron(II) sulfate is typically used as the iron catalyst. The exact mechanisms of the redox cycle are uncertain, and non-OH• oxidizing mechanisms of organic compounds have also been suggested. Therefore, it may be appropriate to broadly discuss Fenton chemistry rather than a specific Fenton reaction.

    In the electro-Fenton process, hydrogen peroxide is produced in situ from the electrochemical reduction of oxygen.[4]

    Fenton's reagent is also used in organic synthesis for the hydroxylation of arenes in a radical substitution reaction such as the classical conversion of benzene into phenol.

    (3) C6H6 + FeSO4 + H2O2 → C6H5OH

    A recent hydroxylation example involves the oxidation of barbituric acid to alloxane.[5] Another application of the reagent in organic synthesis is in coupling reactions of alkanes. As an example tert-butanol is dimerized with Fenton's reagent and sulfuric acid to 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-hexanediol.[6]

    Biomedical applications
    The Fenton reaction has importance in biology because it involves the creation of free radicals by chemicals that are present in vivo. Transition-metal ions such as iron and copper donate or accept free electrons via intracellular reactions and help in creating free radicals. Most intracellular iron is in ferric (+3 ion) form and must be reduced to theferrous (+2) form to take part in Fenton reaction. Since superoxide ions and transition metals act in a synergistic manner in the creation of free radical damage, iron supplementation must not be done in patients with any active infections or in general any diseases.[7]

    Henry John Horstman Fenton (18 February 1854 – 13 January 1929) was a British chemist who, in the 1890s invented Fenton's reagent,[1] a solution of hydrogen peroxide and an iron catalyst that is used to oxidize contaminants or waste waters. Fenton's reagent can be used to destroy organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) andtetrachloroethylene (PCE). Born in London, Henry Fenton was educated at Magdalen College School, King's College London and Christ's College, Cambridge.[2] He became the university demonstrator in Chemistry at Cambridge in 1878, and was University Lecturer in Chemistry from 1904 to 1924.

    1.      Fenton H.J.H. (1894). "Oxidation of tartaric acid in presence of iron". J. Chem. Soc., Trans. 65 (65): 899–911. doi:10.1039/ct8946500899.


    3.      Haber, F. and Weiss, J. (1932). "Über die Katalyse des Hydroperoxydes". Naturwissenschaften 20 (51): 948–950. doi:10.1007/BF0150471.

    4.      Juan Casado,Jordi Fornaguera,Maria I. Galan (January 2005). "Mineralization of Aromatics in Water by Sunlight-Assisted Electro-Fenton Technology in a Pilot Reactor". Environ. Sci. Technol. 39 (6): 1843–47. doi:10.1021/es0498787. PMID 15819245.

    5.      Brömme HJ, Mörke W, Peschke E (November 2002). "Transformation of barbituric acid into alloxan by hydroxyl radicals: interaction with melatonin and with other hydroxyl radical scavengers". J. Pineal Res. 33 (4): 239–47. doi:10.1034/j.1600-079X.2002.02936.x. PMID 12390507.

    6.      E. L. Jenner (1973). "α,α,α',α'-Tetramethyltetramethylene glycol". Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol. 5, p. 1026.

    7.      Robbins and Cotran (2008). Pathologic Basis of Disease - 7th edition. Elsevier. p. 16. ISBN 9780808923022.

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------              ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Acknowledgement: Girija Girish Tambe of  Vaishnavi  Xerox helped for Collection of images in the Science Spectrum of  5 September, 2015.   All the mistakes in the collection of information from website, it’s compilation and communication belongs exclusively to :                            

       Vitthalrao B. Khyade (And not to his pace making Shardanagar). Please do excuse for the mistakes.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                


    ------------------- Dr.APIS@World.Science.   -----------------------------------------------------------------------

                                     File: Dr.APIS.5.Sept@Fenton.Reaction                                                                                                      

    Compiled for: Science Association, Shardabai Pawar Mahila Mahavidyalaya, Shardanagar (Baramati) – 413115 India.

      With the Best Compliments From:  Shardanagar (The Agro – academic Heritage of Grandsire Padmashri Dr. D. G. Alias Appasaheb Pawar).

                                                                                    All the mistakes in the collection of information from website, it’s compilation and communication ( through email ) belongs exclusively to :  Vitthalrao B. Khyade (And not to his pace making Shardanagar).                                                                                                           

  • Anoop Kumar Srivastava added an answer:
    How does citric acid help in vitamin C absorption?
    Citrus fruits are the source of citric acid and many times I heard people saying that they eat citrus fruit as a better supplement for vitamin C.
    Anoop Kumar Srivastava

    Yes , Jean is right . Citric acid does not facilitate the absorption of vitamin- C.

  • Dr.Abousree T.M. Ellethy added an answer:
    Why isn’t nutrition a bigger part of conventional medical school education?
    Diet is arguably the single most important preventive measure for healthy aging because it affects the functioning of every organ in the body and is a factor both in the development of disease and in recovery.
    Dr.Abousree T.M. Ellethy

    Mainly nutrition a better-quality share of predictable medical school education because of:

    1.    The organic products without artificial pesticides or stimulants or routine use of antibiotics or growth hormones s increase rapidly in the world to control several diseases.

    2.    Improvements in cardiovascular risk profile, Psychological well-being, immune function, energy balance, flexibility and strength to improve overall health for all ages.

    3.    Little long-term studies of health grade people consuming organic versus conventionally produced food; the period of the studies including human subjects reached from two days to two years.

  • Sunil Satyareddi added an answer:
    How can I improve Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn) nutrition in millets?
    Through agronomical, cultural, physiological, genetical or molecular approaches?
    Sunil Satyareddi

    Millets are  generally rich in the Zn and Fe in comparison to the other cereals like wheat and rice, so they are referred to as nutri-cereals. 

    however the intensity of the Zn and Fe can be increased by proper nutrition strategy, some of the promising agronomic measures are foliar spry of Zinc/ferrous sulphate or combined application in vegetative stage before flowering, application of zincated urea and fortified fertilzation. Research evidences indicate selection of the source of zinc and ferrous application are also determining,  Application of the enriched Zinc and iron manures coupled with the blending of the respective solubilizing bacteria. 

    Zinc concentration can be increased effectively in comparison to the iron concentration, wherein homeostasis  become functional. Zinc biofortification studies indicate geographical overlap of the soil deficiency with the zinc deficiency in human. So fertilization is an effective strategy.

    Apart from this selection, hydridization are important breeding tools.

  • Bernd Fritzsch added an answer:
    Dextran, Alexa Fluor retrograde labelling timecourse
    I have used dextran Alexa 488 3,000 MW from Life Technologies/Molecular Probes for tracing nerve fibres innervating the paws of mice and found that 3 days post-injection into the foot pad is usually long enough to identify labelled cells in dorsal root ganglion neurone cultures.

    Does anyone have any advice on how stable such a labelling process would be over time? For example, if I inject into the foot pad, and performed a dorsal root ganglion neurone culture 1 month later, could I expect to see approximately the same number of labelled cells as 3 days post-injection?

    I am not tied to using dextran Alexa 488, just something that has no substantial effect on cell viability and allows for easy identification of cells in culture.
    Bernd Fritzsch


    when I worked out with Molecular Probes the production of 3k dextran amines (Fritzsch, 1993) we had already established that dextran amines are excellently suited for regeneration experiments.  Here is a early reference that gives you on overview of different techniques using fluorophores. (Fritzsch, Sonntag, J Neurosci Method 39:9-17).

  • Hemangi Kulkarni added an answer:
    Is there a non-parametric equivalent of a 2-way ANOVA?
    I have two groups, drug treated vs control, and obtained tissue and made measurements at 5 different time points. A 2-way ANOVA works for some of the variables which are normally distributed, however I'm not sure what test to use for the non-normally distributed ones. Samples size varies but ranges from 7-15 per group at each time point.
    Hemangi Kulkarni

     Dear Dr.  Andrew Bond,

    I am working on analyses of designed experiments for non-normal data (parametric inference).   If  you can share the data with me, I can see which distribution it fits well and suggest a parametric appropriate procedure for the same.  

    If u can share the data, it will be a great help to me also.

    Often if a particular distribution fits well to the data, it can produce more efficient inference than a non-parametric version.

    Dr. Kulkarni.

  • Safia Belhadj added an answer:
    How can we observe Juniperus phoenicea stomata?
    It is difficult to use standard imprints method.

    Can anybody help? Thank you.
    Safia Belhadj

    thank you for your answer Massakib Bekkaye.

  • Jasmer Singh added an answer:
    Is hair analysis of minerals and trace elements reliable?
    Especially in alternative medicine, hair analysis often used to detect deficits and surpluses of minerals and trace elements. Are these tests reliable? What are the minerals and trace elements suitable for element analysis in hair, and what are not suitable?
    Jasmer Singh

    Hi  Hair mineral analyses is not a new technique but from time immemorial days , of course, whatever methods were available -qualitative etc., have been in use. However, with progress in technological innovations "Hair mineral analysis"  has made its mark as most dependable, precise and well recognized technique in clinical investigations. However, the interpretation of its analytical results needs thorough basic knowledge of interactions of minerals and the proteins e.g., enzyme catalysts, and their imbalances in molecular reactions in relation to disease.

    Jasmer Singh 

  • Edward Siguel added an answer:
    Does the human body have a mechanism for storing EFAs or EAAs ?

    Can the human body distinguish essential and non-essential fatty acids or amino acids, or does it simply indiscriminately burn what it finds in the bloodstream depending on the body's needs at the moment?

    Edward Siguel

    There are two main "storage" systems for EFAs and their derivatives. I coined the term essential fats = EFA + DEFA (FA derivatives from EFAs).

    Membranes have essential fats for their function; they are not there for storage in the sense that we use storage as a place where we keep surplus when we need them.

    However, if there is a deficiency, the body recycles things. Will do it for amino acids and likely for essential fats.

    Adipose tissue is the storage form for FA. The main FAs in fat storage are the EFAs, not the DEFA, and saturated FA. Notice that humans do not store extra EPA, DHA, ARA. Instead, they store ALA and LA.

  • Michael Nordine added an answer:
    Using NIRS underwater?

    Has anyone any experience/advice for measuring central/distal hemoglobin via NIRS (NIRO-200, Hamamatsu Photonics) during water immersion? Will the electrodes function underwater? Will immersion destroy the electrodes? Before I test this out, and potentially make a very expensive mistake, just wondering if anyone has tried this before.


    Michael Nordine

    Hey David, thanks for the article recomendation. After reading it, it appears that using something like the Iswim (a waterproof seal for smart phones) may work to our advantage, with a few modifications.

  • Prasanna Waichal added an answer:
    Control Biopac's Stimulator (STM100C) through SuperLab?

    Dear all,

    I'm using Biopac's STM100C as a stimulator connected to a computer with AcqKnowledge through MP150 and another computer with SuperLab sending outputs to this system through StimTracker. I've been trying to control STM100C from SperLab's Digital Output without success.

    So far, I tried to trigger AcqKnowledge's Digital Channel 15 as the STP100C responds to changes (0 or 1) in this channel when its "source" knob is set to "pulse". I managed to control changes in AcqKnowledge's Digital Channels 8 to 10 sending sending Digital Outputs from SuperLab, but not AcqKnowledge's Digital Channels 15.

    Would anyone happens to have a clue on how to control AcqKnowledge's Digital Channel 15 through SuperLab and/or any other way to trigger Biopac's STM100C through SuperLab?



    Prasanna Waichal

    This video link to Youtube from Biopac might be of your help.

    Sorry for late response, a bit busy! I have sent to my video to your mail ID.

    Keep in touch!

  • Siamak Gholamalipour added an answer:
    what kind of adenosine receptor (A2A , A1) is activated in responding to the secretion of ATP by astrocyte?
    ATP released from astrocytes is degraded to adenosine and activates presynaptic adenosine A2 or A1 receptors that leads to an increase or decrease in its release probability (Panatier et al. , 2011). Now the problem is:
    After secretion of ATP by astrocyte:
    Which mechanism is activated A2A receptor on presynaptic neuron?
    Which mechanism is activated A1 receptor on presynaptic neuron?
    Which mechanism determines that what kind of adenosine receptors on the presynaptic neuron (A2A , A1) should be activated in response to astrocyte adenosine secretion?
    Siamak Gholamalipour

    Hi Hossein 

    please check this article 

    I hope it's helpful .

  • Shane Malone added an answer:
    Is individual soccer training more effective than training in a group? Are there any research studies which prove that?

    For my bachelor thesis about "individual soccer training" I need studies which prove that individual trainings for physiological, technical, psychological and tactical aspects of soccer are more effective than working in the whole team.

    Thank you for your help

    Shane Malone

    There is a few papers that have looked at individualized TL (iTRIMP method)  in football  such as Manzi and Akubats work with soccer players. however this is just one metric. Unfortunately most of the players in both studies engaged in group based sessions, I know Jens Bangsbo has a book out on the topic of individualized training however research publications are hard to come by as most research is presented as means with deviations and main effects. 

  • Edward Narayan added an answer:
    Would irradiating faecal samples before extracting glucocorticoid hormones affect the results of the EIA?
    For safety reasons (to kill potentially infective micro-organisms) I would like to irradiate faecal samples (from various mammalian species) before performing enzyme immunoassays for faecal glucocorticoid metabolites. I use freeze-drying, followed by a chemical extraction method (using 80% methanol) to extract the GC hormones from the faeces. I would like to do the irradiation before the freeze-drying step. I am currently using both cortisol and corticosterone EIAs on the extracts. Is the irradiation likely to affect the EIA results?
  • Valbona Aliko added an answer:
    Is there any virus which can infect the RBC ?
    RBC doesn't have a nucleus so is there any exception virus which can affect the RBC?
    Valbona Aliko

    Fish, amphibians, reptilians and birds possess nucleated erythrocytes. So of course, in these cases a virus infection can exists. In mammalian, during erythropoyesis erythrocyte possess nucleus than it looses it.Maybe if virus infect the precursors of  red blood cells!!!???

  • Valbona Aliko added an answer:
    Which one is more preferable for blood collection from wistar albino rats by retro orbital or by jugular vein?
    Actually, I want to know which method should be used to collect blood from rats because the jugular vein has to be exposed to collect blood which make rat experience a small trauma and additionally there may be a chance of getting infection on that exposed site.
    Alternatively retro orbital is very very painful for rats.
    Valbona Aliko

    I will suggest tail vein. Just keep it warm for a little bit (by hand or in warm water). You can use this route for small amounts of blood.

    Good luck!

  • Valbona Aliko added an answer:
    Can feces can have traces of hormones, which can give clues about oestrus?
    At least in the case of higher mammals
    Valbona Aliko

    It is possible to find steroids in feces. here below you can find a very interesting article on the subject. I hope you can find it useful.

    Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 2013, 11:83 doi:10.1186/1477-7827-11-83

    "Fecal estrogen, progestagen and glucocorticoid metabolites during the estrous cycle and pregnancy in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla): evidence for delayed implantation"
    Katrina K Knott1*, Beth M Roberts1, Morgan A Maly1, Carrie K Vance12, Jennifer DeBeachaump1, Jackie Majors1, Peter Riger34, Heather DeCaluwe3 and Andrew J Kouba1

  • Valbona Aliko added an answer:
    Is there a method (Not the Anthrone reagent) to determine of glycogen in both liver and muscles?

    I need to determine the glycogen in both liver and cardiac muscle, so I need another method to do different from the Anthrone reagent.

    Valbona Aliko

    We had used successfully the amyloglucosidase method in measuring glycogen content in frog liver and sceletical muscle.

  • Ricardo Matias added an answer:
    Do you know a wearable device (wrist or arm) to measure physiological response (ECG and EDA)?

    I am searching for a device to measure ECG and EDA. Ideally the device should be worn on the wrist or the arm. I prefer not to use chest band or similar. 



    Ricardo Matias

    Hi Davide,

    Any of these DIY platforms will help you for sure:

    - BITalino
    - Libelium e-Health Sensor Platform
    - OpenEEG

    I hope it helps pushing your project.

    + 2 more attachments

  • Xiaogang Feng added an answer:
    What is the total cell number of a C57 mice Popliteal lymph node ?

    Hi , I need to know the total cell number of a C57 mice popliteal lymph node.

    Xiaogang Feng

    depends on my eperience, it could be around 350000, which is counted from alive cell from 4 weeks old mice without any infection! Good luck!

  • Ricardo Matias added an answer:
    Do you have any knowledge on real time human performance monitoring?

    I am looking for any devices (especially telemetric) that are capable of monitoring real time the human performance (e.g. during running, or roller skating). Any device counts which suitablly monitors pulse, speed, blood lactate, blood pressure etc. For example Team Polar or Polar RC3GPS. Preferably the devices with the more types of data would be better.


    Ricardo Matias

    Hi Béres,

    In a more low-cost perspective I would say:

    - You could simply develop a Do it Yourself project;
    - Or thinking more outside the box I would say give it a try with some mobile sensing (to some parameters) using today's smartphone technology.

    For both cases I am pointing some hardware and software links that I hope can still help you:

    + 4 more attachments

  • Abhijit Naskar added an answer:
    What are the physiological mechanisms involved in cognitive impairment?

    What are the physiological mechanisms involved in cognitive impairment?

    Abhijit Naskar

    My new book The Art of Neuroscience in Everything explores the arena of the physiology behind cognitive characteristics of the brain. Grab your copy and embark on a journey of scientific revelation through the mysterious human experiences, behaviors, feelings and instincts. like faith. love, religion, lust, attraction, sex, kindness, empathy, good and evil.

    Best Wishes
    A. Naskar

About Physiology

Physiology is the science of the function of living systems. This includes how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and bio-molecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system.

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