• Subhash C. Juneja added an answer:
    Are so called "islamic state militants" are really concerned about islam religion or it is just a matter of grabbing oil-rich areas?

    Please provide your opinion

    Subhash C. Juneja · Toronto Western Hospital

    Excellent answer, Roland, 

    We need to be open so that we can learn. Timothy Mcveigh did Oklahoma bombing not on the basis of religion but due to his personal grudge. Why ISIS is doing these activities on the basis of religion.

  • Pierre-Alexandre Chapon added an answer:
    Can anyone recommend any core and skin temperature data loggers for use in severe heat (+150C)?

    This would be used inside large metal containers during live fire drills, underneath standard fire service equipment. We have used some methods but are interested to know if people can recommend any specific devices.

    Pierre-Alexandre Chapon · Unité Inserm U1077

    Working on thermoregulation process, I have also have identified the lack of simple solution to ensure the continuous monitoring of the core temperature during our experimentations. Given the limitations of the existing devices, I decided to create my own product (e-Celsius) for temperature measurement responding to our regular technical needs.

    The device is based on an ingestible capsule which collect and transmit the core temperature data to a dedicated monitor. The main advantage of our solution is the implementation of an internal memory in the pill (capacity  2000 data) which allow to continuously monitor core temperature without the monitor during around 15h. The data stored in the pill are automatically recovered when this one is replaced in the range of communication.

    For more information, I would ask you to visit our website and/or (version dedicated to animal monitoring). Also, I remain at your entire disposal for any complementary informations.

    Best regards

  • Marek Matejak added an answer:
    A formula to calculate Pa02 from Sp02%, anyone have any recommendations?

    I have Sp02% and Fi02%, and I want to calculate a Pa02/Fi02 quotient. Is it possible to calculate a Pa02 from Sp02%? If yes, does anyone have any reliable formulas?

    Marek Matejak · Charles University in Prague

    I can send you all five papers that I wrote here a week ago (including Severinghaus), just write me a email to marek<at>matfyz<dot>cz . 

  • Zafar Azeem added an answer:
    How to overcome overestimated MET values on International Physical Activity Questionnaire Scoring with Continuous Variable?

    International Physical Activity Questionnaire is an instrument used to assess physical activity status of population sample in age group of 20-69 years. On practical usage of the tool, the results are evaluated as MET values for domain specific MET ranges. But, when calculated for total MET values, it scores an individual on highly physical active status(min. of 3000MET min/day)

    Zafar Azeem · Charotar University of Science and Technology

    Thanks James and Joan for the answers..It has certainly helped me gain understanding the shortcomings better and would keep you updated with the developments in this regard.

  • M. Kennedy Hall added an answer:
    Which shock scores commonly used by emergency medical personnel?

    Besides the well known, shock index, are there any other commonly used clincal indices for the assessment of shock, particulalry hypovolemic/hemmorrhagic shock? If so, how are they calculated, and why are they prefered over the shock index?

    M. Kennedy Hall · Yale University

    There is some evidence that serial shock index predicts the use of vasopressors- fairly recent article so not sure if you are aware of it. 

  • Karthik Soman added an answer:
    What is the physiological or anatomical difference between place cells and grid cells in the hippocampus?

    In the medial temporal lobe,there are specific types of neural cells such as place cells, head-direction cells, grid cells, and boundary vector cells which involved in cognitive map and spatial memory. Hippocampal “place cells” encode the rat’s location within an open environment independently of its orientation and fire in the specific position. The complementary encoding of the orientation, independently of location, is done by “head-direction cells” .I think all of them are pyramidal neurons. So Is there any physiological or anatomical difference between these kinds of cell?

    Karthik Soman · Indian Institute of Technology Madras

    Medial entorhinal cortex has two principal cells. They are stellate and pyramidal cells. Stellate cells are having round shaped soma and pyramidal cells are having pyramidal shaped soma. The connections between the stellate cells are mainly inhibitory in nature, inhibition being provided by the parvalbumin interneurons where place cells have excitatory connections between them. Stellate cells are seen mainly in the second layer of the medial entorhinal cortex where as pyramidal cells are found mainly in the deeper layers. 

  • Teodor Buchner added an answer:
    How can we avoid interference while recording EMG and GSR at the same time?

    We have observed a large noise increase in facial EMG recording when skin conductance electrodes (GSR) are applied. This seems to be caused by the fact that GSR amplifier produces currents that are captured by fEMG sensors. This is a serious problem because this noise (of about 200 microVolts) is usually stronger than the electrical signal from facial muscles. I wonder whether you might provide me some feedback whether you encounterd the same problem while simmulatenous EMG and SC recordings, and how you managed to handle it. We use ADInstruments Powerlab with BioAmp and GSR Amp. Thank you!

    Teodor Buchner · Warsaw University of Technology

    A wild guess is everything I can give. Extending the idea by Brian (above) maybe you could measure GSR on an extremity such as hand and wire patient to ground somewhere between the measurement site and the thorax. The GSR response is local as I guess that it is done by a standard four electrode method and grounding should set the skin potential to zero but I'm not sure if this helps. It could also help to decrease the GSR current. If it is not possible with the equipment, than you could put a resistor in parallel with the patient.

  • Shian-Loong Bernard Lew added an answer:
    Is there any possibility to differ auditory and visual reaction in different geographical region of same country ?

    I want to know is it  this reaction time can differ in population of different places.

    Shian-Loong Bernard Lew · Taylor's University

    Same place different tweets- or same tweets different places...

    Perhaps one way to do so is to construct a sort of tweets atlas, based on the premise that tweets are responses to what people "hear and see". Even having viewed the same media clip, people within the same geographic region can have fairly divergent tweets. One more inspiring presentation I recommend is Deb Roy's (TED) take on Big Data and how real-time visualization and real-time social graph mapping is helping to unravel hidden patterns.

  • Levi Albuquerque added an answer:
    How does the admistration of calcium (gluconate of calcium) reestablishs the membrane potential of the myocardium in hiyperkalemia?

    The membrane of the myocardium is affected because of the high concentration of potassium in the extracellular space causing despolarizations and, finally, the channels of Na+ closes in a protective measure. So, I would like to know how calcium reestablish the normal concentration of ions intra and extracellular.

    Levi Albuquerque · Universidade Federal do Ceará

    Thank you guys!

  • Vincenzo Zanon added an answer:
    Are there any tried and trusted methods for monitoring physiological parameters while submerged underwater?

    A common problem encountered while performing water immersion research, is that water is not friendly to monitoring equipment such as EKG, heart rate, blood pressure, Sp02% etc. What methods of measurement have other researchers used that have recorded accurate physiological data, without interference/interruption, whilst being immersed in water? Does simply using Tegaderm or another waterproof covering help?

  • Marcel M. Lambrechts added an answer:
    Why do babies cry to fight sleep?
    It is well known that babies cry just before sleep. Sometimes the cries have specific origins that cause pain or discomfort. But as everyone knows, even when all those factors have been eliminated every baby still appears to cry in an attempt to fight sleep itself.

    This question is NOT asking for a solution. This is a scientific question. I am asking why? Why do they fight sleep? Is there a survival advantage? Is there a physiological explanation? What research has been carried out into it to determine the reason for the "sleep fight"?

    Could it be that a good cry before sleep actually has a physiological payoff that confers a survival advantage? Does it "prepare" the baby's breathing pathways before sleep, for example?

    Are there some meta-analyses or epidemiological factors we can do to check this hypothesis? Are those babies that die of SIDS those that do not cry as much before sleep? Is there any epidemiological data to test such ideas?
    Marcel M. Lambrechts · Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, Montpellier, France

    Dear Hanno,

    A young mother with a new born baby told me once that when she heard her baby crying that she felt a flux of milk towards the nipples of her breasts she could not control (neuro-endocrine response/reflex?). In addition, people also suggested to drink (warm) milk before going to bed which may favor sleep states (pers. obs.)....

    Alternative, not mutually exclusive, explanation:

    Interesting is that in primates young offspring are permanently physically attached to the mother, or not? Why is this often not the case in humans? Is that the cause of expressed discomfort in human babies expressed before so-called sleep, e.g. a feeling of a lack of physical protection as in young primates physically disconnected from the mother?

    Why are human babies calmed down by artificial objects resembling components of the mother (artificial nipples) or calm down when they have something attached to the body?

  • Gulab Dattarao Khedkar added an answer:
    Does anyone know about the used primers related to the marine Catfish?

    I'm working on marine catfish physiology, so would to know more about the genetic primers have been used in catfish particularly marine catfish.

    Gulab Dattarao Khedkar · Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University

    It will good, if you could suggest what are you interested in catfish physiology so that we can suggest some relevant information.



  • Anatole Daniel Martin added an answer:
    How is exercise capacity affected in interstitial lung disease?
    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing, field testing, VO2, oxygen desaturation, mechanical limitation.
    Anatole Daniel Martin · University of Florida

    About 20% of our pre lung transplant patients have various types of interstitial lung disease. We require the patients to participate in rehabilitation prior to transplantation and have found that high flow oxygen delivered through a partial non-rebreathing mask can improve their exercise tolerance. We typically will use 15 – 20 L of oxygen per minute. In severe ILD cases patients will have to do very short exercise bouts (1 – 5 minutes), rest and resume exercise. For example, a patient might be able to tolerate a total of 20 minutes of walking at a very slow speed on the treadmill by doing 5, 4 minute walking bouts. The patients rest long enough between each walking bout to allow their dyspnea and other symptoms to return to baseline.

    Many patients with severe ILD report problems with chronic cough and we have found that administration of high flow oxygen during these coughing episodes usually stops coughing. The coughing bouts are usually seen during periods of significant O2-Hb desaturation.

  • David Lopez Rodriguez added an answer:
    I am looking for articles or guidelines about BPA exposure in pregnancy and childhood. Anyone?

    I intend to initiate an study about the physiological and endocrine impact of BPA on new born's health  and still looking for relevant articles or mechanisms. 

    Thank you. 

    David Lopez Rodriguez · University of Liège

    Hey, look at the paper <<Vandenberg, L. N., Hauser, R., Marcus, M., Olea, N., & Welshons, W. V. (2007). Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA). Reproductive Toxicology, 24(2), 139–177. doi:>>

    It is a review about this topic... you will find information about child exposure to BPA. 

  • Vinesh Kumar added an answer:
    How much sulfur metabolism is necesaary in parasite during its stay inside the host?
    Parasite need host for its survival and to regulate its life cycle. Since last some decade we are fortunate to find out the novel target in their metabolism which are absent in human. And mainly the targets we get in sulfur metabolism. Now how much this sulfur metabolism is neceaassay in parasite for its survival inside the host is crucial to know?.
    Vinesh Kumar · Gautam Buddh Technical University

    It may depends on the nature of host and parasite. 

  • Roberta Anding added an answer:
    Does anybody have empirical evidence showing the approximate age whereby male testosterone peaks?
    We are looking for evidence about when male testosterone level peaks, and if there are Asian and non-Asian comparisons.
    Roberta Anding · Baylor College of Medicine

    Is there a Tanner stage associated with increases in serum testosterone in adolescence?

  • Nils Holert added an answer:
    Which parameters could be measured to prevent an epilepsy seizure ?

    I'm looking for chemical or physiological parameters (which can be measured) that change minutes or seconds before an epilepsy crisis. In other terms, what are the chemical, biological and physiological changes that occur just before an epilepsy crisis ?

    Nils Holert · Kleinwachau, sächsisches Epilepsiezentrum Radeberg

    In paralleled recording of EEG and ECG you can sometimes see an icrease of the  heart rate directly prior to seizure-onset. This is beeing used to trigger extra Stimulation in the new vagus nerve Stimulator 105 by cyberonics. I dont have personal experience with the new Stimulator an dont have literature by i guess there is at least some evidence that it may work.

  • Edwin M Nemoto added an answer:
    Using NIRS underwater?

    Has anyone any experience/advice for measuring central/distal hemoglobin via NIRS (NIRO-200, Hamamatsu Photonics) during water immersion? Will the electrodes function underwater? Will immersion destroy the electrodes? Before I test this out, and potentially make a very expensive mistake, just wondering if anyone has tried this before.


    Edwin M Nemoto · University of New Mexico

    I'll be interested in hearing how it works. 



  • Parham Kabirifar added an answer:
    Why is the uniformity of dispersion test carried out through a 22 mm mesh?

    is there any physiological relation?? why not uniformity of dispersion is checked through 10, 18, or 25 mm mesh??

    Parham Kabirifar · The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

    what do papers say about this issue? what is done by other people?

  • Yuan Qian added an answer:
    What is the total cell number of a C57 mice Popliteal lymph node ?

    Hi , I need to know the total cell number of a C57 mice popliteal lymph node.

    Yuan Qian · Huazhong University of Science and Technology

    Hi albert Li

    THX a lot. But I really need a protocol to isolate lymph node cell,thanks !!!

  • Zmicer Gavrilenko added an answer:
    Does the liver respond to IGF-1 stimulation?

    As a major site of IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor 1) production, I am wondering if liver itself is responsive to IGF-1 stimulation, and if so with what kind of sensitivity compared to other tissues? Thanks in advance. Reference would be appreciated.




    Zmicer Gavrilenko · Gomel State Medical University

    There can be this article it is useful: "EGCG inhibits activation of the insulin-like growth
    factor (IGF)/IGF-1 receptor axis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells". 

    DOI: 10.1016/j.canlet.2007.11.026

    Best regards!

  • What is the reason behind pharmacopoeial specification of 10 mesh size in USP disintegration apparatus?

    Any physiological logic behind the mesh size?

    Hi Atit Pandey

    Please see attached literature, might be useful.Best regards

  • Mohamad Mehdi Bornak added an answer:
    In cardiac cycle in the designated part of the ventricular volume of the figure, what is the reason of the peak?

    Could it be because of O2 and nutrient changing into CO2 and body waste?

    Do not change the molecules causes the volume change?

    Mohamad Mehdi Bornak · University of Isfahan

    After atrial contraction is complete, the atrial pressure begins to fall causing a pressure gradient reversal across the AV valves. This causes the valves to float upward (pre-position) before closure. At this time, the ventricular volumes are maximal, which is termed the end-diastolic volume (EDV). The left ventricular EDV (LVEDV), which is typically about 120 ml, represents the ventricular preload and is associated with end-diastolic pressures of 8-12 mmHg and 3-6 mmHg in the left and right ventricles, respectively.

  • Chandravadan Trivedi added an answer:
    How can water blooms be controlled?
    Excessive algal growth mars the quality of water and disturbs the aesthetics of the water body.
    Chandravadan Trivedi · Junagadh Agricultural University

    Introduction of fresh water mussels will filter away the phytoplankton, including the suspended detritus,& periodically harvest these animals.Cover the water sheets so as to prevent sunlight penetration, if these sheets are small in area.

  • Rachid Rouabhi added an answer:
    Has anyone used a thermocycler to test the physiological limits of small insects?

    We intend to use a 96 well plate on a stage of development that consumes very little oxygen. Can anyone share any experience with this?

    Rachid Rouabhi · Université de Tébessa


    you can find some informations in these papers:

    i hope a good Learning to you

    best regards

  • Iordanis Κ. Georgiadis added an answer:
    What interesting subject can be investigated in neuroendocrinology?
    I have a project next semester for my final year component and am very much interested in this division of neuroscience, but there is just so much stuff on it I believe. Can someone please provide me with some important aspects of this research area.
    Iordanis Κ. Georgiadis · University of Thessaly

    Also changes of pituitary hormones in patients with TBI is a very interesting field of neuroendocrinology,deficiency of growth hormone, gonadotropic hormone e.t.c. can adversely affect neurological outcome.

  • Jemma Hardy-Goddard added an answer:
    What evidence is there for evolutionary adaptation in Calorie-restriction diet, apart from reducing resources from fecundity to maintenance of life?

    I'm currently researching for an essay on discussing the evolutionary concepts for calorie restriction in aging/life expansion. I've been trawling through numerous papers, and mostly just the relationship between expending resources on maintenance of life rather than reproduction seems to come up. I was wondering if anyone else had any other reasons? 

    Jemma Hardy-Goddard · University of East Anglia

    Thank you all so much for contributions! Could someone explain how the soma disposble soma theory actually agrees with the re-allocation of resources away from reproduction nentioned in Holliday? I can't get my head around this considering the definition of the soma theory? 

    Thanks in advance! 

  • Nisar A Shaikh added an answer:
    Does the human body have a mechanism for storing EFAs or EAAs ?

    Can the human body distinguish essential and non-essential fatty acids or amino acids, or does it simply indiscriminately burn what it finds in the bloodstream depending on the body's needs at the moment?

    Nisar A Shaikh · University of Toronto

    EFAs as the name implies are part of the biological membrane and are important to maintain membrane fluidity, plasticity and function.  They are required for certain membrane bound enzymes for optimal activity, ion transportation and receptor-mediated reactions.  Most of them also required to produce a variety of  prostanoids/eicosanoids when needed and these have vaso-protective and anti-inflammatory properties.  Amounts, if taken excessively, will go to beta-oxidation pathway for energy requirements. 

    EAA are also part of the biological membrane, receptors, enzymes etc and their deficiency could results in a variety of serious diseases.  This section is too large to elaborate in this forum, but they would be the last nutrients to use as a energy source. 

  • Ammar Mohammed added an answer:
    What are the best human physiology and cellular physiology textbooks?
    In the future, I have to teach medical students so now I would like to buy some physiology text books... so could you please give me your suggestions about any good text books for teaching
    Ammar Mohammed · Shaqra University

    hi everybody 

    I suggest Concise Physiology for undergraduate 

  • Elisabetta M Zanetti added an answer:
    Would the daily cast changes be effective when treating clubfoot with the Ponseti method?

    I'm trying to better understand the physiology of clubfoot correction, perhaps similar to correction of a contracture. Ponseti prescribes weekly cast changes, Morcuende (2005) found an interval of 5 days to be effective, Xu (2011) is positive about a rate of twice a week, Harnett (2011) of 3 times per week and Sutcliffe (2013) even did four cast changes per week. The total number of casts doesn't change, thereby drastically increasing treatment speed. 

    What would be the maximum rate? Would daily cast changes still be effective? How much time does the body need to adapt to the new position and which tissue is 'slowest'? Does anybody have any experience with even higher casting rates? 

    Any advice is appreciated!

    Elisabetta M Zanetti · Università degli Studi di Perugia

    The time of the body to adapt is likely to be patient-specific, since it depends on tissue viscous behaviour. In my opinion, the only way to optimize treatment time is being able to assess if a cast 'is still working'  through experimental strain analsys.

About Physiology

Physiology is the science of the function of living systems. This includes how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and bio-molecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system.

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