- Ibai Garcia-Tabar added an answer:NewCan anybody explain me how is the Exercise Physiologist profession regulated by law in UK/other countries?
In my country (Spain) our degree (Sport Science) is not legally regulated and we are not considered by law as a health profession. For previous reason, we cannot work as exercise physiologists.
Just in case it helps, here below you have the BASES link.
- Andrei Gonzales I. added an answer:9Do you agree with the last classification of living things (Ruggiero et al. 2015)?
This work really reflects a consensus of the work done on this issue?It has any connection with the theory of endosymbiosis? There is a phylogenetic relationship from its origin? Be right handle the classification by or Supergroups Kingdoms?They correlate with studies of genomes of viruses? From that point of view the classification should be done ?.
In the images that I uploaded is a summary before 2015 classification of eukaryotes.
Let's discuss this important topic, thanks for your contribution.
It is true and difficult to classify organisms who are having simbiosis, I think that a lichen have to be taken account like separate, algae and fungi species.
I think (in my opinion) that It is, and it was a necessity having a classification, but I am not accord using the typical 5 or 6 kingdoms (plant, fungi, protist, and others), I prefers use the groups like SAR, Unikonts, Archaeplastida, etc.
Also is true that many times is very difficult to define species, and sometimes I imagine in 50 years, we could have problems with the binomial names, you know that there are many species that have the second name repeatedly in many names?, like Taraxacum officinale, and other ones that also have officinale; could we found more than something specific like subspecies? how can we do calling with 3, 4 names? Cannis lupus familiaris. So i think that maybe for now we can work with Genus.
So Lets proposed keep talking and giving solutions, I know that the nature have a very powerfull way of been, that we cant classify perfectly, because about the many patterns it have.
Let's remember why it is necessary to have a consensus classification? Why do we classify? let's try to represent in the best possible way the integrity of nature.Following
- Atila Karaalp added an answer:6Why is the onset of local anesthetic delayed or even prevented when pH of media decreased like in site of infection?
Most local anaesthetics are weak bases, with a pKa between 8 and 9, so that they are mainly but not completely ionised at physiological pH.your comments
The question was answered perfectly by all the authors. Yes the problem is pH difference and the limited tissue (receptor site) penetration of the local anesthetics.Following
- Bernard M Auriol added an answer:3What do you think about this hypothesis of a covert path for the sound, from eardrum toward cochleaEardrum comprise piezo-electric collagen fibers; do they transduct acoustical waves into electrical potentials able to reach the cochlear amplifier ?
I suppose there was a misunderstanding : We study the "covert path" which is electric and comes from collagen fibers piezoelectricity, for reaching through gap junctions the Deiters-cells/OHC complex at the level of the reticular lamina. We then describe the "trickystor" as a kind of Field Effect Transistor. It would interfere with the accepted mecano-electrical transduction by stereociliae, toward the inner aspect of the OHC cuticle and the prestinic structures of the OHC.
So, what is your thoughts about these observations ?Following
- Hugo F. Olivares-Rubio added an answer:3How can I cite a site of microalgae.org?
The site in microalgae.org that I want to cite (http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=72524) include the information about how to cite that record. Nevertheless, I do not understand the name of the authors. This is neccesary since I want to reference this in an article for Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology (CBP, Elsevier). Thanks.
Thank you very much for your kind attention. Your suggestion are important.
- Vasile Zoicas added an answer:15Can Heart Rate Variability represent the ultimate marker for brain-heart interaction dysfunction leading to a pathological state?
recently many publication came up with the idea that Heart Rate Variability (HRV) derived from ECG-Blood Pressure signal could represent the ultimate marker for neurodegenerative diseases, and mood disorders. Especially, if the HRV in non linear domain seem to be the most predictive although less understood.
What is your experience?
Please allow me to share my experience on that. Agree with previous comments and I agree the HRV reflects the brain-heart interaction as part of global ANS loop but this signal is the starting point, in my opinion.
Now, what's important, in my view, is what kind of markers we are able to extract from HRV in order to get the meaningful information? Huge amount of studies have proven correlations between physiological/pathological states and traditional LF/HF/RMSSD... markers, statistically speaking. But researchers agree as well that various limitations of the traditional methods method (5 minutes time limitation for RR pseudo-stationarity, "crafted in stone" frequency bands...) limit also the human comprehension, But the method is there and it' useful.
One way we took to move forward is to say: ok, we have statistically averaged markers but can we also figure out what happens in real time during the experiment? In other words, we try to figure out both physiological and emotional state of the subject and to compare with the real time markers we have recorded. This also implies novel (non linear) mathematical analysis and derived markers; and the aim is not only to find new markers but also to clearly link them to the ANS activity in both cases - real time and averaged (and in a manner that anyone can check fast).
One example is the attached experiment we have conducted - HRV/ANS monitoring during meditation, which raises a few questions (also posted in another thread).Following
- Jeremy Witchalls added an answer:1Is there evidence that the varus in a knee with anteromedial OA appears more varus because the femoral condyle ER in the anteromedial tibial defect?
We are looking for a publication that supports or refutes this question (see attached article by White) that shows that weight-bearing on a varus OA knee causes a large varus deformity but does not describe that the varus could be more apparent than real due to ER of the femur on the tibia.
I cannot find papers that demonstrate that rotation misleads the assessor into exaggerating the angle of varus.
However, one paper has demonstrated an association between increased varus and increased rotation. This is also correlated positively with increasing degeneration.
Matsui, Y., Kadoya, Y., Uehara, K., Kobayashi, A., & Takaoka, K. (2005). Rotational deformity in varus osteoarthritis of the knee: analysis with computed tomography. Clinical orthopaedics and related research, 433, 147-151.
Most papers looking at varus and valgus simply measure the angle on an antero-posterior view, and cannot include adjustment for rotation due to the two-dimensional measurement techniques. E.g.
Sharma, L., Song, J., Felson, D. T., Shamiyeh, E., & Dunlop, D. D. (2001). The role of knee alignment in disease progression and functional decline in knee osteoarthritis. JAMA, 286(2), 188-195.
I hope this helps,
- Yuan-Yeu Yau added an answer:5What are the differences between industrial cane and chewing cane?
I need to know differences between industrial cane and chewing cane in it's morphological, physical and physiological character. Both the canes come under Saccharum officinarum.
"Sugarcane varieties can be placed into one of three categories according to their physical and chemical characteristics—chewing canes, crystal canes, or syrup canes".
Please see below website for different TYPEs of sugarcanes produced by different varieties. Website is owned by University of Florida Extension (USA) at: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/sc052Following
- Ann M Schreihofer added an answer:1Does anyone use the Toohey "pressure system II" or TooheySpritzer microinjection?We have one and love it, but have misplaced the power supply. I know its 12V, but need to know the amperage rating so I can replace it.
I have this system and I am attaching a photo of our power supply. Do you happen to know where I could find a reliable remote for it? Ours works sometimes....
Ann Schreihofer, University of North Texas Health Science CenterFollowing
- Sergio Torloni added an answer:9Is anyone interested in hibernation research?
I have a number of papers from a PhD colleague of mine who retired. He did the fundamental research on hibernation. He was able to identify, purify and sequence the "hibernation induction trigger". He was able to isuccessfully induce hibernation in primates.
I a a physician and my area is stem cells and blood bank / clinical pathology. I am not a basic science specialist. Is anyone out there interested in continuing this research? This studies were originally funded by NASA and the US Army, so this is no joke, it is for real.
Thanks all for your interest. Here is what I have. Actually, Dr. Peter Oltgen is retired but still working with a colleague and has published much more current papers. Please keep me in mind for any studies you may want to undertake.
- Esa Hohtola added an answer:2What is the most recommended way to analyze respiration rate using LabChart software?
I am looking for as accurately as possible method of counting the number of human breaths per minute (repiration rate) in the LabChart software.
Option which are proposed by LabChart software (cylic measurment → Preset → Respiration - Respiratory belt with SD = 0.9) fails to find all of the breaths (there are no marks for about 30% peaks of breaths).
It seems to me that much more precise are such option like:
- General - Spikey shape with SD = 2.5 SD
- Sine shape with SD = 2.0 SD
Are there any guidelines for the size of standard deviations which should I use? Can I use Spikey shape or Sine shape method?
I would be very grateful for any help!
Hi, if you are working off-line on pre-recorded data, a simple way is to activate the piece of data of interest and choose spectrum view. Breathing data is usually clean enough to show one clear maximum in the spectrum, corresponding to true breathing frequency. No hassle with SD's. Of course, when you need the rate online, cyclic measurement is better.
- Vitthalrao Khyade added an answer:8What is the physiological or anatomical difference between place cells and grid cells in the hippocampus?
In the medial temporal lobe,there are specific types of neural cells such as place cells, head-direction cells, grid cells, and boundary vector cells which involved in cognitive map and spatial memory. Hippocampal “place cells” encode the rat’s location within an open environment independently of its orientation and fire in the specific position. The complementary encoding of the orientation, independently of location, is done by “head-direction cells” .I think all of them are pyramidal neurons. So Is there any physiological or anatomical difference between these kinds of cell?
Research Group, A.D.T. And Shardabai Pawar Mahila Mahavidyalaya, Shardanagar, Malegaon(Baramati) Dist. Pune – 413115.
“Dr. APIS” SCIENCE SPECTRUM
Objective: To Establish the Repository of Contributions of Eminent Scholars and Information on Science and Culture For The Society.
Fenton's reagent is a solution of hydrogen peroxide and an iron catalyst that is used to oxidize contaminants or waste waters. Fenton's reagent can be used to destroy organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and polychloroethylene (PCE). It was developed in the 1890s by Henry John Horstman Fenton as an analytical reagent.
Iron(II) is oxidized by hydrogen peroxide to iron(III), forming a hydroxyl radical and a hydroxide ion in the process. Iron(III) is then reduced back to iron(II) by another molecule of hydrogen peroxide, forming a hydroperoxyl radical and a proton. The net effect is a disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide to create two different oxygen-radical species, with water (H+ + OH−) as a byproduct.
(1) Fe2+ + H2O2 → Fe3+ + HO• + OH−
(2) Fe3+ + H2O2 → Fe2+ + HOO• + H+
The free radicals generated by this process then engage in secondary reactions. For example, the hydroxyl is a powerful, non-selective oxidant. Oxidation of an organic compound by Fenton's reagent is rapid and exothermic and results in the oxidation of contaminants to primarily carbon dioxide and water.
Reaction (1) was suggested by Haber and Weiss in the 1930s as part of what would become the Haber–Weiss reaction. Iron(II) sulfate is typically used as the iron catalyst. The exact mechanisms of the redox cycle are uncertain, and non-OH• oxidizing mechanisms of organic compounds have also been suggested. Therefore, it may be appropriate to broadly discuss Fenton chemistry rather than a specific Fenton reaction.
In the electro-Fenton process, hydrogen peroxide is produced in situ from the electrochemical reduction of oxygen.
Fenton's reagent is also used in organic synthesis for the hydroxylation of arenes in a radical substitution reaction such as the classical conversion of benzene into phenol.
(3) C6H6 + FeSO4 + H2O2 → C6H5OH
A recent hydroxylation example involves the oxidation of barbituric acid to alloxane. Another application of the reagent in organic synthesis is in coupling reactions of alkanes. As an example tert-butanol is dimerized with Fenton's reagent and sulfuric acid to 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-hexanediol.
The Fenton reaction has importance in biology because it involves the creation of free radicals by chemicals that are present in vivo. Transition-metal ions such as iron and copper donate or accept free electrons via intracellular reactions and help in creating free radicals. Most intracellular iron is in ferric (+3 ion) form and must be reduced to theferrous (+2) form to take part in Fenton reaction. Since superoxide ions and transition metals act in a synergistic manner in the creation of free radical damage, iron supplementation must not be done in patients with any active infections or in general any diseases.
Henry John Horstman Fenton (18 February 1854 – 13 January 1929) was a British chemist who, in the 1890s invented Fenton's reagent, a solution of hydrogen peroxide and an iron catalyst that is used to oxidize contaminants or waste waters. Fenton's reagent can be used to destroy organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) andtetrachloroethylene (PCE). Born in London, Henry Fenton was educated at Magdalen College School, King's College London and Christ's College, Cambridge. He became the university demonstrator in Chemistry at Cambridge in 1878, and was University Lecturer in Chemistry from 1904 to 1924.
1. Fenton H.J.H. (1894). "Oxidation of tartaric acid in presence of iron". J. Chem. Soc., Trans. 65 (65): 899–911. doi:10.1039/ct8946500899.
3. Haber, F. and Weiss, J. (1932). "Über die Katalyse des Hydroperoxydes". Naturwissenschaften 20 (51): 948–950. doi:10.1007/BF0150471.
4. Juan Casado,Jordi Fornaguera,Maria I. Galan (January 2005). "Mineralization of Aromatics in Water by Sunlight-Assisted Electro-Fenton Technology in a Pilot Reactor". Environ. Sci. Technol. 39 (6): 1843–47. doi:10.1021/es0498787. PMID 15819245.
5. Brömme HJ, Mörke W, Peschke E (November 2002). "Transformation of barbituric acid into alloxan by hydroxyl radicals: interaction with melatonin and with other hydroxyl radical scavengers". J. Pineal Res. 33 (4): 239–47. doi:10.1034/j.1600-079X.2002.02936.x. PMID 12390507.
6. E. L. Jenner (1973). "α,α,α',α'-Tetramethyltetramethylene glycol". Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol. 5, p. 1026.
7. Robbins and Cotran (2008). Pathologic Basis of Disease - 7th edition. Elsevier. p. 16. ISBN 9780808923022.
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Acknowledgement: Girija Girish Tambe of Vaishnavi Xerox helped for Collection of images in the Science Spectrum of 5 September, 2015. All the mistakes in the collection of information from website, it’s compilation and communication belongs exclusively to :
Vitthalrao B. Khyade (And not to his pace making Shardanagar). Please do excuse for the mistakes.
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Compiled for: Science Association, Shardabai Pawar Mahila Mahavidyalaya, Shardanagar (Baramati) – 413115 India.
With the Best Compliments From: Shardanagar (The Agro – academic Heritage of Grandsire Padmashri Dr. D. G. Alias Appasaheb Pawar).
All the mistakes in the collection of information from website, it’s compilation and communication ( through email ) belongs exclusively to : Vitthalrao B. Khyade (And not to his pace making Shardanagar).Following
- Anoop Kumar Srivastava added an answer:3How does citric acid help in vitamin C absorption?Citrus fruits are the source of citric acid and many times I heard people saying that they eat citrus fruit as a better supplement for vitamin C.
Yes , Jean is right . Citric acid does not facilitate the absorption of vitamin- C.Following
- Dr.Abousree T.M. Ellethy added an answer:99+Why isn’t nutrition a bigger part of conventional medical school education?Diet is arguably the single most important preventive measure for healthy aging because it affects the functioning of every organ in the body and is a factor both in the development of disease and in recovery.Following
- Sunil Satyareddi added an answer:6How can I improve Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn) nutrition in millets?Through agronomical, cultural, physiological, genetical or molecular approaches?
Millets are generally rich in the Zn and Fe in comparison to the other cereals like wheat and rice, so they are referred to as nutri-cereals.
however the intensity of the Zn and Fe can be increased by proper nutrition strategy, some of the promising agronomic measures are foliar spry of Zinc/ferrous sulphate or combined application in vegetative stage before flowering, application of zincated urea and fortified fertilzation. Research evidences indicate selection of the source of zinc and ferrous application are also determining, Application of the enriched Zinc and iron manures coupled with the blending of the respective solubilizing bacteria.
Zinc concentration can be increased effectively in comparison to the iron concentration, wherein homeostasis become functional. Zinc biofortification studies indicate geographical overlap of the soil deficiency with the zinc deficiency in human. So fertilization is an effective strategy.
Apart from this selection, hydridization are important breeding tools.Following
- Bernd Fritzsch added an answer:33Dextran, Alexa Fluor retrograde labelling timecourseI have used dextran Alexa 488 3,000 MW from Life Technologies/Molecular Probes for tracing nerve fibres innervating the paws of mice and found that 3 days post-injection into the foot pad is usually long enough to identify labelled cells in dorsal root ganglion neurone cultures.
Does anyone have any advice on how stable such a labelling process would be over time? For example, if I inject into the foot pad, and performed a dorsal root ganglion neurone culture 1 month later, could I expect to see approximately the same number of labelled cells as 3 days post-injection?
I am not tied to using dextran Alexa 488, just something that has no substantial effect on cell viability and allows for easy identification of cells in culture.
when I worked out with Molecular Probes the production of 3k dextran amines (Fritzsch, 1993) we had already established that dextran amines are excellently suited for regeneration experiments. Here is a early reference that gives you on overview of different techniques using fluorophores. (Fritzsch, Sonntag, J Neurosci Method 39:9-17).Following
- Hemangi Kulkarni added an answer:29Is there a non-parametric equivalent of a 2-way ANOVA?I have two groups, drug treated vs control, and obtained tissue and made measurements at 5 different time points. A 2-way ANOVA works for some of the variables which are normally distributed, however I'm not sure what test to use for the non-normally distributed ones. Samples size varies but ranges from 7-15 per group at each time point.
Dear Dr. Andrew Bond,
I am working on analyses of designed experiments for non-normal data (parametric inference). If you can share the data with me, I can see which distribution it fits well and suggest a parametric appropriate procedure for the same.
If u can share the data, it will be a great help to me also.
Often if a particular distribution fits well to the data, it can produce more efficient inference than a non-parametric version.
- Safia Belhadj added an answer:2How can we observe Juniperus phoenicea stomata?It is difficult to use standard imprints method.
Can anybody help? Thank you.
thank you for your answer Massakib Bekkaye.Following
- A. Ismail added an answer:37Is hair analysis of minerals and trace elements reliable?Especially in alternative medicine, hair analysis often used to detect deficits and surpluses of minerals and trace elements. Are these tests reliable? What are the minerals and trace elements suitable for element analysis in hair, and what are not suitable?
Hair analysis technique is very reliable especially for heavy metal such as Pb, Hg and CdFollowing
- Edward Siguel added an answer:5Does the human body have a mechanism for storing EFAs or EAAs ?
Can the human body distinguish essential and non-essential fatty acids or amino acids, or does it simply indiscriminately burn what it finds in the bloodstream depending on the body's needs at the moment?
There are two main "storage" systems for EFAs and their derivatives. I coined the term essential fats = EFA + DEFA (FA derivatives from EFAs).
Membranes have essential fats for their function; they are not there for storage in the sense that we use storage as a place where we keep surplus when we need them.
However, if there is a deficiency, the body recycles things. Will do it for amino acids and likely for essential fats.
Adipose tissue is the storage form for FA. The main FAs in fat storage are the EFAs, not the DEFA, and saturated FA. Notice that humans do not store extra EPA, DHA, ARA. Instead, they store ALA and LA.Following
- Michael Nordine added an answer:16Using NIRS underwater?
Has anyone any experience/advice for measuring central/distal hemoglobin via NIRS (NIRO-200, Hamamatsu Photonics) during water immersion? Will the electrodes function underwater? Will immersion destroy the electrodes? Before I test this out, and potentially make a very expensive mistake, just wondering if anyone has tried this before.
Hey David, thanks for the article recomendation. After reading it, it appears that using something like the Iswim (a waterproof seal for smart phones) may work to our advantage, with a few modifications.Following
- Prasanna Waichal added an answer:4Control Biopac's Stimulator (STM100C) through SuperLab?
I'm using Biopac's STM100C as a stimulator connected to a computer with AcqKnowledge through MP150 and another computer with SuperLab sending outputs to this system through StimTracker. I've been trying to control STM100C from SperLab's Digital Output without success.
So far, I tried to trigger AcqKnowledge's Digital Channel 15 as the STP100C responds to changes (0 or 1) in this channel when its "source" knob is set to "pulse". I managed to control changes in AcqKnowledge's Digital Channels 8 to 10 sending sending Digital Outputs from SuperLab, but not AcqKnowledge's Digital Channels 15.
Would anyone happens to have a clue on how to control AcqKnowledge's Digital Channel 15 through SuperLab and/or any other way to trigger Biopac's STM100C through SuperLab?
This video link to Youtube from Biopac might be of your help.
Sorry for late response, a bit busy! I have sent to my video to your mail ID.
Keep in touch!Following
- Siamak Gholamalipour added an answer:1what kind of adenosine receptor (A2A , A1) is activated in responding to the secretion of ATP by astrocyte?ATP released from astrocytes is degraded to adenosine and activates presynaptic adenosine A2 or A1 receptors that leads to an increase or decrease in its release probability (Panatier et al. , 2011). Now the problem is:
After secretion of ATP by astrocyte:
Which mechanism is activated A2A receptor on presynaptic neuron?
Which mechanism is activated A1 receptor on presynaptic neuron?
Which mechanism determines that what kind of adenosine receptors on the presynaptic neuron (A2A , A1) should be activated in response to astrocyte adenosine secretion?
please check this article
I hope it's helpful .Following
- Fred Victor Harding added an answer:11Is individual soccer training more effective than training in a group? Are there any research studies which prove that?
For my bachelor thesis about "individual soccer training" I need studies which prove that individual trainings for physiological, technical, psychological and tactical aspects of soccer are more effective than working in the whole team.
Thank you for your help
Having observed soccer with a coaches' eye for over twenty years observing coaches from various "club" levels through college in America (my daughter was a first team All American as a sophomore and honorable mention in her junior year due to an ACL tear) I can advise you to narrow your question, because both types of training are necessary.
Individual physical skills like strength, coordination, striking the ball forcefully and accurately with both feet under various conditions, aerobic power, anaerobic power, speed and agility can all be improved individually. The physical stress of heavy volumes of physical exercise can help the athlete psychologically to deal with the effects of fatigue and even the physical discomfort of minor injuries (something football coaches call "dings," little injuries that should have no effect on the athlete's performance other than momentary discomfort when focused upon by the athlete).
However, as Gibson stated above, "team sports must be trained in team contexts." After watching soccer for 2 decades, I was able to discover the trait that separated the lower level players from the higher level players. Yes, higher level players tend to be more "athletic," but the glaring difference in the two is the ability to "see the game before it happens." I used to refer to it as playing the game versus watching the game.
The higher level players can look at the field, the positions and movement of the players, and realize that under that specific set of conditions, a pass or shot to a specific location or teammate will result in an offensive opportunity, or given the situation as the offense presents it, an opportunity to gain control of the ball. In my daughter's sophomore year in college, one of her teammates established a national championship tournament record for "offsides." This player could see the game before it happened and was always on the attack, looking for every opportunity to breakdown the defense. Unfortunately, her teammates in the midfield and front line lacked her ability to "see things before they happened." She transferred the next year because the inability of her teammates to see and the coaches ability to teach the other players to see things before they happen frequently cost the team goals and victories, thought they were regular participants in the college soccer playoffs.
The ability to place the ball in specific areas of the goal is an individual skill that is frequently overlooked, but the ability to see the geometry of the game as it happens is something few, if any coaches I have observed, have an ability to teach; and it is perhaps the biggest factor involved in winning games. If a team has at least 2 players who can "see the game before it happens" they will win most of their games. If they are fortunate, as my daughter's high school team was, to have a number of these players they are seldom challenged and have a good chance at a National Title, which my daughter's high school soccer team won.
The ability to teach players to understand the "geometry of the game situation" is something that can NOT be taught in an individual setting, because the players on both ends of the play must see the same thing. In American football it is what the talking heads refer to a "throwing the receiver open." In American football the equivalent situation is the relationship between the quarterback and receiver. Both must "see" the same thing from opposite sides of the defense. The receiver runs his route through the defense and must identify how he must move in order to provide the quarterback with a clean throwing lane to complete the pass. The quarterback, in the pocket, must see the same "geometry" so he can throw the ball to the open area and keep the defender realizing what is happening and break up the pass or intercept it.
So it really depends on what aspects of training you are seeking to study. Individual traits can be trained individually, but tactical aspects and especially aspects that require "two to think as one" require a team training setting.Following
- Edward Narayan added an answer:10Would irradiating faecal samples before extracting glucocorticoid hormones affect the results of the EIA?For safety reasons (to kill potentially infective micro-organisms) I would like to irradiate faecal samples (from various mammalian species) before performing enzyme immunoassays for faecal glucocorticoid metabolites. I use freeze-drying, followed by a chemical extraction method (using 80% methanol) to extract the GC hormones from the faeces. I would like to do the irradiation before the freeze-drying step. I am currently using both cortisol and corticosterone EIAs on the extracts. Is the irradiation likely to affect the EIA results?Following
- Valbona Aliko added an answer:6Is there any virus which can infect the RBC ?RBC doesn't have a nucleus so is there any exception virus which can affect the RBC?
Fish, amphibians, reptilians and birds possess nucleated erythrocytes. So of course, in these cases a virus infection can exists. In mammalian, during erythropoyesis erythrocyte possess nucleus than it looses it.Maybe if virus infect the precursors of red blood cells!!!???Following
- Valbona Aliko added an answer:6Which one is more preferable for blood collection from wistar albino rats by retro orbital or by jugular vein?Actually, I want to know which method should be used to collect blood from rats because the jugular vein has to be exposed to collect blood which make rat experience a small trauma and additionally there may be a chance of getting infection on that exposed site.
Alternatively retro orbital is very very painful for rats.
I will suggest tail vein. Just keep it warm for a little bit (by hand or in warm water). You can use this route for small amounts of blood.
Physiology is the science of the function of living systems. This includes how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and bio-molecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system.