Pedagogy and Education

Pedagogy and Education

  • Gloria Nogueiras added an answer:
    Any study where 'stories' of participants' (learning) experiences have been made up by the researcher from a diverse array of collected data?

    I'm interested in understanding how higher education students make meaning of their learning experiences in contexts where they are challenged to move from dependence to autonomy

    Gloria Nogueiras

    Hi all, and thank you very much for your replies. I´m very glad that this thread is leading to interesting feedback!

    David: yeah! what you said is something that I was considering. The time series data on the scales on challenge and security gave me individual trajectories throughout the course which I was exploring, in a first moment, in search of patterns - correlations between both while also looking if there were different... let´s say profiles among students. When we noticed that beyond talking about profiles, what seemed even more interesting was how the mentioned individual trajectories (and their possible relationship) undergone changes through time is when we started to think about the possiblity of writing some ´stories´ about students, where the interesting information coming from the series data would be also included/reported. What you suggested at this point, if I understood right, is that I compared somehow the individual trajectories with a ´typical´ or ´central´one...? mmm, I´ll think about it, thank you!  I started with the interest in exploring individuals but also expecting that some of them (their patterns / their stories) could have simmilarities, which would be interesting to explore...

    Karimi, Patrick and Mellony, I really appreciate the references you gave me. I´ll explore them to see if I find some inspiring ideas :) Mellony, your research on learning stories of teachers sounds rally interesting, for the ´stelos´ you mentioned and also because I´m doing research about students who are going to become teachers, so teacher training is something that I´m very interested in.

    Arif: thanks again, I´ll wait for your paper next week. The point you mention, on how students lead their learning is one of the issues which I´m focused to explore (how did they do it? what was the meaning they were giving to their progressive experience throughout the course?), great.



  • Angelo Marco Luccini added an answer:
    How are faculty planning to use or using Web 4.0 Tools in education?

    The possibilities of using Web 4.0 tools are currently being discussed by IT experts and other interested stakeholders at conferences. Artificial intelligence is seen as one of the key characteristics of these tools and their ability to solve problems for humankind. How do you anticipate using Web 4.0 tools in education or is it "tool" early to begin thinking of these possibilities? Your views are much appreciated.

    Many thanks,


    Angelo Marco Luccini

    Well, categorising the technological progress in the WEB 1.0 to WEB X.0 series is a useful exercise to measure the level of adoption of such technological achievements in different contexts (education included).

    However, I tend to agree more on the colleagues that pointed out that

    1. the Learner is (or should be) at the center of the education rather than the content or the technology used. Both content and technology should be functional to a learner-centric approach 
    2. Siemens' connectivism has brought to light the pervasiveness of the learning experience which includes and reaches in its range not only learner's peers, but also devices (i.e. the potential of acquiring the needed information by contacting a peer or by browsing a digital repository is more important than actually already having the infomation itself).

    Regarding point 2), which looks like a situation familiar to anybody that has got access to social networks (not only digital ones!), and to digital sources (online or offline), does this preconize that we already have a de facto symbiosis with the IoT? Are we already in a WEB 4.0 state in education? Yes and no. As already pointed out, we still have educators that rely on hypertext and PowerPoints only, but we have also who delivers rich learning experiences with intelligent agents embedded in serious games, which is not a true AI implementation as in science fiction, but still a good way of putting technology at the service of the learners. And the use of collaborative platforms (not of "traditional" LMS and LCMS) can serve as well to provide a genuine participative learning environment where a community of learners can be gathered and learning impact can be measured over time (if learners are adequately stimulated).

    The use of (serious) games may also have an emotional impact on the learner by raising frustration, fun... does this mean that we are already in the way of WEB 5.0, according to the definitions provided? I doubt we can say that. However, once again, the good point is to understand how emotions can influence the learning experience and learner's competence development.

    Let's keep the focus on the learner rather than on the technology used.

  • Valdemar Freitas Sousa added an answer:
    When we observe a teacher in class in a primary school, how can we differentiate a simple moment invention to a pedagogical innovation process?
    And how we can discern the motivation? For example, is it a personal motivation, based in the expertise, axiology; or is a political stance?
    Valdemar Freitas Sousa

    Hi Silvia

    Based on your question, I’m assuming that you’re asking for a basis of distinction between some last minute pedagogical strategy change, during a class, that looks innovative, from an action, framed on a larger, reflexive, pedagogical (and axiological — as stated by Kevin) process.

    Figuring out motivations is one of the trickiest things to do — and not just in teaching. If one’s indeed observing the teacher in the classroom (doing some form of participant or non-participant observation), why not ask him after class? Ethnographic interview could be a good tool for getting that kind of information. That way, one could see into his/her intentions, pedagogy, worldview, etc. If the teacher one’s watching is a reflexive teacher, who’s framed her/his practice under an innovative paradigm, even if she/he does introduce a “simple moment invention” (as you called it) during class, it might be innovative, because it’s framed under his/her innovative worldview.

    Hope it added something to your discussion.
    Take care. Valdemar.

  • Masita Misdi added an answer:
    Do you consider how the student interacts with his fellows/teachers/parents/friends as part of the student's Learning Styles?

    Studies in Learning Styles are quite different in the way they conceive the scope of Learning Styles. For examples, Coffield et al. (2004) identified 5 families of learning styles:

    • constitutionally-based learning styles and preferences
    • cognitive structure stable
    • stable personality type
    • ‘flexibly' stable personality type
    • learning approaches and strategies.

    In each family, there are many models and inventories to examine student's Learning Styles. Coffield et al. gathered these models which are counted to 71 model. I already studied many of these models but I couldn't find any inventory that consider how the students interact in their social network (real life and online) as part of their learning styles. First, do you know any inventory that include this factor? If not, do you consider this thought worth studying?

    Coffield, F., Moseley, D., Hall, E., & Ecclestone, K. (2004). Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: A systematic and critical review. Trowbridge, Wiltshire: Learning & Skills Research Centre.

    Masita Misdi

    I believe that each one of us has a certain learning style that is dominant in him/her. By saying that, I do not mean that it is permanent in us, but it can change when we try to adapt to new environment.  The categorization of learning styles is just for easy generalization to understand learners and how to motivate them in learning. It is definitely a worthy area to study especially when you relate learning styles to personality types.

  • Manuel Morales added an answer:
    In what diverse ways can qualification-inflation lead to the devaluation of the academic currency?

    In recent times, emphasis in education especially in developing countries has been placed on quantity of school products than on quality of the products. Schools at almost all levels are 'mushrooming' or springing up due to a desire to make education more accessible to many. In so doing, the tendency to sacrifice quality is a possibility. The consequence is production of a lot of so-called graduates without the requisite academic and social skills to change society.   

    Manuel Morales

    Perhaps this research project would spark some student interest?

    Although my invite to "Search For First Cause" are initially focused towards grade school children, graduates, and post-graduates, I invite my colleagues here at RG to feel free to participate as well (see link).

    Besides RG can you recommend open source resources for students to use to conduct their research with?

    + 1 more attachment

  • Dinesh Thapa added an answer:
    What do you think are the likely repercussions of introducing English Medium of Instruction in a context where English is only a Foreign Language?

    Why do you think English Medium of Instruction has spread so widely?

    Dinesh Thapa

    Thank you Chen.

  • Vondra Glass added an answer:
    Do you have recent examples of initial teacher education and professional development to support teachers to include all learners ?

    The European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education is updating the Inclusive Education in Action website with examples specifically about teacher education/professional development. This aims to support UNESCO's knowledge base on empowering teachers to include all learners in diverse classrooms. If you are able to help, please see information in the attached file.

    Vondra Glass

    I work in a school with a diverse population of students to serve in order for special education inclusion to work you really have to have people in supporting at a granular level and the professional development opportunities have to be a systemic part of how thing are done in the school--most regular education teachers aren't prepared to make the pedagogical changes required to engaged that population of students or  it is limited and that is primarily dependent upon what the disabilities are...professional development have to be on-going in order to work.  I typically employ people with those skills to work with those regular education teachers on a regular basis. 

  • Stefan Svetsky added an answer:
    What is most important to integrate ICT in Education? is it the ICT equipment or the teachers training ?

    The Saudi Ministry of Education 2007 supplied many schools with the most ICT equipment but found that after 2 years that most of the devices like (computer, Ipad and Laptop) didnt use by teachers and students and that half of those devices were broken. MOE 2014

  • John K. Marco Pima added an answer:
    What is the difference between a framework and a model in Educational research?

    Can any one help me to find the right definition of the framework and model ?

    Im working in a study investigating the use of ICT in Arabs schools and I would like to create a model or (Framework) that help to improve the use of ICT in education.

    before I start I would like to know whats is the difference between Model and framework and what you think is much suitable from your opinion 

    John K. Marco Pima

    I agree with the meaning provided by Robert Costello. We have a concept to describe something (Model) and we have a guideline to design/make something (Framework)

  • Valentina Haas added an answer:
    Do you use some comic art in your teaching?
    Generally, to make learning more fun, I use some small comedies or very short stories in correlation with the concept, when the similarity or the analogy permits. It gives a great success to make students happy, focus, love the course, be relaxed from their internal stress, etc.
    However, we must be vigilant, we risk to lost control, especially with some students who go far away. We must keep a discreet watch on their reactions or behaviors instantaneously. It’s very hard, it makes me very tired, but very successful.
    Valentina Haas

    comic work is a good and creative way to make teaching activities more constructevely. Comis are multimodal products in which students can show through drawings, images and text main ideas. They can be used in teaching history, social studies, languaje. Students have fun and get more involved in this kind of activities

    Valentina Haas

  • Micaias Rodrigues added an answer:
    When one talks about transformative science education, what does it mean?

    I am interested in exploring possibilities of transformative science education for 14-16 year old children from lower economic class. But there is a dilemma. While most children from a slum in Mumbai (India) want to flow with the wind, aspire to become part of dominant ideologies, won't it be unfair to expect some collective action from them to change society and compromise with their aspirations? What is wrong if the children who have not seen the other side of the story, want to experience that and are not motivated in bringing out change in the dehumanizing conditions the community lives in? For example, children who live close to a landfill. What if they just want to leave the place and settle down somewhere else with facilities like proper sanitation, uncontaminated water, unpolluted air, low-violence environment and so on.

    Micaias Rodrigues

    Himanshu, you should read about scientific literacy because this aims about the understanding and changing of the world about us. If we will comprehend what is happen, we'll can modify it. you can starting with simple problemas and a posteriori work with more complex problems

  • Crisaidi Bento Sodré added an answer:
    eEducation - forty years of promises?

    Instructional computer programs (or the usage of computers in education) are being developed since the early ‘70s. Rapid development of Information Communication Technology, introduction of computers into schools, and daily use of computers by people of different vocation, education and age, has made education a very important field to researchers. Their main goals have been to develop programs that can teach humans and to achieve individualization of the educational process.

    The methods and techniques of Artificial Intelligence have been successfully used in these systems, since the end of last century. Hierarchical modeling, interoperable and reusable software components, and ontology are modeling techniques that have only recently penetrated into the eLearning. In addition, these Artificial Intelligence methods are used in "new field” I called it "eEducation", a new approach to education with the help of Information and Communication Technologies, Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence.

    And, of course the "new wave": mLerning and uLearning are "knocking on the heavens door", such as Bob Dylan sings.

    Your thoughts on:

    Could we described "eEducation" = "eLearning" + "eTeaching", by this “simple” equation? Alternatively, do we need more "+"?

    Are we all (researchers, teachers and students) have succeeded in eEducation (eLearning) so far? Do "users" of eEducation (eLearning) systems are "better" than traditional students are, in terms of learning achievements?

    Do we have right pedagogy (teaching methods/strategies) for eEducation (eLearning)?

    Do we have right learning strategies (models/theories) for eEducation (eLearning)?

    What about mLearning, uLearning?

    At the end, what is the future of e/m/u/Education (e/m/u/Learning)?

    Crisaidi Bento Sodré


    I have taught online.

    It is tiring, very tiring.

    You need to check every word twice, three times... before you post - you never know what impressions the recipient will have.

    Believe it or not when correcting homework you will need paper and pencil next to your computer - much quicker (!) - it is important to take notes about each student's work and compare all works to write good comments.

    I like to compare all the works done by 'each' student to better understand their needs 'and' compare all the students' works.

    I feel safe (and pleased) when 75% of the class have answered 75% of the exercises correctly.

    I used to control the average and the middle of the scores - this is useful to know if you are expecting too much (or the contrary).

    The best of e-education: 'anyone' can have the benefit of it. Anyone! Disable people, parents of babies, people living too far from school... THAT is marvelous.

  • Miriam Carpinetti added an answer:
    Anyone know the literature that talks about the music in the treatment of learning disorders?
    I have interest in the utilization of music in the treatment of dyslexia, for example, from the perspective of neuropsychology.
  • Martin G. Erikson added an answer:
    Trying to locate, Bottomley (1973) The relationship of the doctoral dissertation to scholarship. Any thoughts?

    My research involves knowledge sharing among PhD students.  In their seminal article 'Forged in Fire' Lee & Williams reference Bottomley's work.  As it was published in 1973 I'm doubting the existence of a digital copy, or I'm doubting my information retrieval literacy skills.  Does anyone by chance have this??

    Martin G. Erikson

    Sarah, should you be able to get a scanned copy, I should indeed be interested to read it. :)

  • O.D. Mavrantza added an answer:
    What are the most important qualities that PhD supervisors must have to successfully guide a graduate student?
    A good supervisor is a guide and mentor, not an encyclopedia or a self-help book. Many PhD students are not satisfied with their supervisor.
    O.D. Mavrantza

    I totally agree with all the aforementioned. However, I would also add something from my own experience. It would be beneficial if the supervisor also would guide his PhD on how to write a good paper and how to review one...

  • Eleni Tracada added an answer:
    Should we use only online and lecture teaching in architectural design or should we try other approaches (not always thought to be closely related)?
    There is a lot of debate and criticism about laerning, teaching and assessing architectural design activities today; some tutors think that in DAS we did not use traditional architectural approaches. There is reluctance on using other activities to teach students about spatiality and concepts in architecture. Often we get a lot of criticism in a technologically driven environment of architectural education today.
    Eleni Tracada

    Many thanks, dear colleagues, for your comments and suggestions for further reading.

  • Jeanne Vilberg added an answer:
    I am interested in using on-line learning styles. Has anyone done some research in this area?
    We are currently using on-line medai to teach a number of topics. This is reinforced also with face-to-face at times. This blended approach seems to be working well but what does the research state about this?
    Jeanne Vilberg

    I'm not sure whether you are asking about "learning styles" or if you are asking about using a blended approach to your teaching where some components are online and others are face-to-face. It seems to be more of the latter. Check these resources:

  • Victoria Blue added an answer:
    Are there any cases of judgements by law courts which affect curriculum matters (English language or more generally)?

    I am currently writing a paper together with an Indonesian colleague which discusses a case in which the Constitutional Court of Indonesia banned a school programme which had CLIL-like characteristics (CLIL = content and language integrated learning). Is anyone aware of other cases anywhere in the world where LAW COURTS (not legislators in parliaments) made decisions which impacted on education policy and practice, particularly in relation to curriculum? Our interest is not restricted only to the teaching of English. Thank you.

    Victoria Blue

    Hello Hywel,

    Below are several links to the ongoing issue of the Mexican American Studies Program in Tucson, Arizona. USA.  Yes, it is in the courts because the ban was made into law.  The constitutionality of it is being challenged.  I'm not sure if this issue (that began several years ago) is relevant to your research but sending it along.  There is much to discover about the situation including a documentary,  banned books, and an independent audit.



  • Jacinta Johnny added an answer:
    Why are many children are not high achievers in mathematics?
    Mathematics is very important. Many students are having difficulty to achieve competency in this subject. Why? Is it because of the stigma attach to it. That it is hard or it is because teachers are not doing enough to make their students love math and show confident that they can master the subject.
    Jacinta Johnny

    Sometimes when a teacher is faced with a large number of students in a classroom, they may face challenges in planning their lesson as each student is unique in terms of ability. When we use a general teaching strategy high achievers may find it boring and not challenging and weak students might just not be able to follow the lesson and give up saying math is difficult.

    I find that grouping students to say, 3 levels of ability in the classroom helps. It's not easy as said but it does help to a certain extent. So when the high achievers have completed their task given (the standard lesson taught for the day) we can give some enrichment activity to further hone their skills and challenge their thinking.

  • Christian Gruber added an answer:
    Are there any studies on the effects of POSITIVE vs. NEGATIVE formulation of questions on the test results of students?

    Do you know of any empirical/experimental studies (publications in good journals) comparing the effects of using POSITIVE vs. NEGATIVE question formulation on the test results of novices with proven effect?

    for example same questions can be asked in two ways and subsequently assuming positive and negative answer appropriately:

    positive formulation : the execution of the sequence of x,y,z activities will be successful. TRUE/FALSE?

    negative formulation : the sequence x,y,z can NOT be successfully completed. TRUE/FALSE?

    Also, what would be the correct terminology for the question formulation in negative/positive ways (if any)?

    Christian Gruber

    I used the term "negatively phrased stem", Terranova calls it "negative stem". The question format is reffered to as "A negative" or "A-". That might lead to more results, too.

  • Kathryn Anderson added an answer:
    Is there any evidence on how to improve on the system, of schooling at an individual (teaching and learning) level?

    In Germany there exist a high connection between the social economic background of students and the participation in education (different school-types and the achieved competencies).

    Kathryn Anderson

    This resource is exceptionally helpful. Best of luck.

  • Debra Sharon Ferdinand added an answer:
    Does someone know if there are other recent published studies of the educational activities of Juan Fernandez Ferraz in Latin America?
    Both Valeriano and Juan Fernandez Ferraz were in several Latin-American countries, but we do not know what educational activities they realized out of Costa Rica.
    Debra Sharon Ferdinand

    Here's what is available in RG:

    Best regards,


  • Ormond Simpson added an answer:
    How does data analytics support learner-centric education and in particular, how does it support adult learners?
    The science of data analytics (DA) examines raw data with the intent of drawing conclusions about gathered information. Data analytics is employed by numerous industries to support organizations in making better business decisions. In the science arena DA can prove of disprove research results.
    Ormond Simpson

    We developed a simple form of data analytics to predict the success of adult distance students.  We then used the program to devise students into two groups of equal predicted success and to contact the most vulnerable group.  
    We found a modest increase in retention as a result of that contact.  The paper is on my website www.ormondsimpson,com 

    Since then the method has been further developed by the UKOU to predict what the success rate of a course should be based on the entry behaviour of its students.  But no paper has been published on that as far as I know.

  • Ormond Simpson added an answer:
    Should the letter ‘e’ in e-learning mean ‘no face to face interaction’?
    There has been a tremendous advancement in computation and communication technology. The concept of e-learning has come into existence. The proponents of this form of education suggest complete automation that is totally to avoid human interaction in the classroom. What is in your opinion, what should be the correct pedagogy which would be compatible to present technological advancement?
    Ormond Simpson

    I recently completed a report for the UK Open University on fhe role of f2f teaching in distance education.  My conclusion was that e-teaching is far more effective in terms of retention if a course starts with a f2f contact.  The report is on my website: 

  • Miranda Jane Walker added an answer:
    Do teachers need parenting skills?

    Because I asked several teachers and they said it is a must to know basic parenting skills. Is there any articles related to such idea?

    Miranda Jane Walker

    I would like to add to Sudev's comment: 'An ideal teacher at school can mould the character of students'. I prefer the idea of positively influencing rather than 'moulding'. I believe that those with 'parenting skills' will be conscious of the fact that we should not be aiming to create students in our likeness, or in that of an ideal student, but rather nurturing their character and their learning behaviours so as to best prepare them for a post-school / university future.

  • Umar Fauzan added an answer:
    How can we promote researches and innovative capacity of undergraduates
    innovative researches are the key for rapid economic growth.However, spending on investing for R&D is neglected severly in most developing countrie as they seek to feed the poor instead.So, raising the scentists's class will foster development via innovative researches and even indispensable for attacking recession in advanced countries.
    Umar Fauzan

    Dear Hassan Shora,

    Participatory action research is one of the research design can be implemented in encouraging the undergraduate students innovate their research. Link and match concept of research is the best way to find out more meaningful impact of the research for both researcher and society.

About Pedagogy and Education

Pedagogy is the holistic science of education. It may be implemented in practice as a personal, and holistic approach of socialising and upbringing children and young people.

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