• Kenneth S. Bigel added an answer:
    Should ethics be taught to undergraduate students?
    Ethical principles as a special subject is taught to all graduate students. Typical coverage in our curriculum is as follows:

    Survey of the issues, values, principles, and ethics of a technological society. Emphasis on the leadership principles, behaviors, and normative ethics of the technologist to practice the ethical decision-making process within a technological or institutional organization.

    However at undergraduate level it is not included. What is your opinion? Should ethics be taught at undergraduate level? If yes what could form part of the coverage? If not can you explain the reasons for the same?
    Kenneth S. Bigel

    Of course it should!  My own research has shown that teaching ethics has a positive impact on undergraduates' ethical development as measured by James Rests's Defining Issues Test.

  • Ikhlas Hassan Ashria added an answer:
    Any advice on my investigation of models Community Research by author Garrison and collaborators?

    My interest is to understand strengths and weaknesses Garrison model, its applicability and experiences in educational contexts in higher education. I know the application of the model in virtual courses at the University of Guadalajara. Any additional information will be of great help.

    Ikhlas Hassan Ashria


  • Sheryl Lee Ferguson added an answer:
    Is critical theory culturally, socially, emotionally and educationally emancipatory for adult learners in an indigenous tertiary organisation?

    Heutagogy and critical theory in an indigenous context.

    Sheryl Lee Ferguson

    Kia ora

    Thank you to everyone who responded to my question.

  • Frank Hummer added an answer:
    To whom does "education" or "teaching and learning" belong to?
    Does education belong to the society or even to the world? Does education belong to the parents paying for it? Does education belong to the students? Or is education Profit and rightfully belong to the school engaging it for profit? If we know who owns education, probably we would know how to deal with education from a pedagogical viewpoint or from a curriculum design viewpoint.
    Frank Hummer

    Hi Daniel.  Actually I think you did characterize my views very accurately and fairly. I don't think that you have oversimplified my views.

    I think you are correct, in your second paragraph, in pointing out the many ways in which education is more complex than many of the things ("commodities") that we do allow (in some countries!) to simply be 'regulated' by market forces alone. I agree that a good school or good educational product isn't easily captured by student test results or school reputation (I know that I was the one who first mentioned reputation though, as a basis for choosing). But I think that things like test results and reputations are going to be in the mix of many pieces of information that people will decide upon in choosing a school. But it's very complex. 

    But in spite of my sincere agreement with you about these things you are talking about, I just don't reach the same conclusion that there is any benefit to organizing education "on a societal level".  In a free market for education, of course you while have organizations -- grass roots public interest groups large and small, as well as publishing companies and schools themselves -- promoting different kinds of visions of what education should be like. Now if these kinds of entities are what we mean by "organizing at a societal level", then I think that level of organizing is just fine with me. These different organization are likely to all have experts in support of their separate visions.  And sometimes these experts will make claims which strongly disagree with each other. The only thing I would want to ensure is that all decisions regarding any particular individual's choice among these different educational offerings is made only by that individual or by an agent of that individual (parent or guardian.  The decision should never be made by anybody else.   I'm happy to have experts try to persuade individuals, but they should have no power to compel anyone to do anything about their education.   Summarizing, I just don't think that the complexity of education (complex in comparison to many other choices we make) changes that fact that people should be able to make their own choices regarding it.

    Your example of food production is good. Yes, the interests of the food producers is not always in line with the interests of consumers.  That's why good food shopping requires a lot of vigilance.  I think that when shoppers are vigilant, you do see food producers trying to bring their offerings more in line with what consumers want (of course consumer preferences vary).

    The thing I don't want is any kind of central control by a group of people (experts or not) who -- do not merely just have an influence on some of the educations services offered -- but who actually have governance over all of the educational services offered.  In the United States, we do have that sort of central control.

  • Mark Smythers added an answer:
    What is the best way to identify low achievers in the classroom? Is there an instrument for that?

    What is the best way to identify low achievers in the classroom? Is there an instrument for that? I mean low achievers not persons living with learning disabilities.

    Mark Smythers

    Even more problems with the term ¨under achieving¨ I fear. What are the levels that are being achieved - what are you comparing them to, what is the population and along with this who sets the levels and are they SMART as in objectives? Once you have identified these parameters then you have to look into the statistical analysis of the results obtained, if you are judging level by grades, and have to decide what is acceptable variance and how to compare this with other subjects or student populations. There are many level indicators as referenced above first establish what you see as low and then take it from there.

  • Valerio Ferro Allodola added an answer:
    What are the educational practices to enhancing the contribution of transformational theory to facilitate a transformation of distorted assumptions?

    Mezirow's transformation theory and the concept of distorted assumptions

    Valerio Ferro Allodola

    Dear Debra,

    sure! Thanks for this note ;)



  • Manuel Morales added an answer:
    How much science should a person study in order to teach it? (a) primary level?, (b) junior high school?

    There's an idea that pedagogy only approaches to teaching science is enough to facilitate constructivist forms of learning.  My observations are that teachers who have adopted this idea merely repeat procedural tasks, albeit with efficiency and a certain degree of effectiveness, but without solid evidence that that is the approach to take.

    Manuel Morales

    For those of you who would like to see how I am inviting the public to help science to self-correct, please feel free to visit: http://temptdestiny.com

    A revised "Flawed Scientific Method" document has been uploaded to replace the previous version. This version is designed to go with the public invitation to help science self-correct. In essence, this one page document illustrates for the public the mechanics of the discovery of Einstein's nonlocal hidden variables which in turn revealed how the scientific method is flawed (see link below).

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Albert Einstein held the belief that quantum mechanics was an incomplete theory and that there were local hidden variables that would give us a complete sense of reality. As the findings show, he was correct about there being hidden variables. However, he was incorrect as to where to find them. The basketball examples serve to illustrate the findings of the Tempt Destiny experiment and the mechanics involved. The "Flawed Scientific Method" illustrations were designed to go with the public invitation to help science self-correct. In essence, this one page document illustrates for the public the mechanics of the discovery of Einstein's nonlocal hidden variables which in turn revealed how the scientific method is fundamentally flawed and how to fix it.
  • Marcel M. Lambrechts added an answer:
    Should a profile photo as a form of 'publicity' in communication networks be honest, reliable, dynamic...?
    People's phenotype changes every day (clothes, hair cuts, face expressions, etc...) and therefore does not (always) reflect what is exposed as a profile photo in social networks? Accepting that a profile photo is a form of publicity, should this type of publicity be honest, reliable, dynamic...... or is this not important from a communication point of view?
    Marcel M. Lambrechts

    Dear PPSR,

    Whatever you name it. Some people don't wish to be in the arena all the time. By the way, the Microsoft site you indicated above is not handled by me. I also noticed for instance that I worked with Goelen, which is not true. Some of the oldest publications are missing (see RG History of publications plus later for the visible collaborations), ....


  • Wilkinson Daniel Wong Gonzales added an answer:
    Do you consider how the student interacts with his fellows/teachers/parents/friends as part of the student's Learning Styles?

    Studies in Learning Styles are quite different in the way they conceive the scope of Learning Styles. For examples, Coffield et al. (2004) identified 5 families of learning styles:

    • constitutionally-based learning styles and preferences
    • cognitive structure stable
    • stable personality type
    • ‘flexibly' stable personality type
    • learning approaches and strategies.

    In each family, there are many models and inventories to examine student's Learning Styles. Coffield et al. gathered these models which are counted to 71 model. I already studied many of these models but I couldn't find any inventory that consider how the students interact in their social network (real life and online) as part of their learning styles. First, do you know any inventory that include this factor? If not, do you consider this thought worth studying?

    Coffield, F., Moseley, D., Hall, E., & Ecclestone, K. (2004). Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: A systematic and critical review. Trowbridge, Wiltshire: Learning & Skills Research Centre.

    Wilkinson Daniel Wong Gonzales

    You could try Neo et al's study, which has a survey on Cooperative Learning. 


  • Mark E Gould added an answer:
    How much is one year's worth of learning?

    One of John Hattie's suggestions is to decide how much a year's learning is for each student and then you can judge that student's success against that amount. While this seems like a good idea in theory, it leaves me none the wiser. How much exactly is one year's worth of learning. How can it be measured? What would the metric be? Content is the easiest to measure because it could conceivably be defined by an amount or quantity, but what about conceptual understanding? What would a metric be for that?

    Mark E Gould

    Kevin, Can you elaborate on your post please?

  • Sizwe Dlalisa added an answer:
    Should a teacher focus on 'rigorous learning' or 'learning with entertainment'?
    It has been seen that many teachers in universities have become entertainers rather than focusing mainly on value-addition and learning. A lot of time gets devoted to pleasing the students; knowing them personally; building good relations with them; and telling jokes and creating humour; the focus becomes more of good feedback than rigor. Keeping the audience motivated is good for effective teaching; but since a lot of time goes in entertainment less time remains for analysis and conceptualization. What is your preference and why?
    Sizwe Dlalisa

    I think the trick is to try and strike a balance between the two as the 'rigorous learning' or 'learning with entertainment in an educational context' complement each other.

  • Christine Woodrow added an answer:
    Who are the leading scholars currently working on the intersection between education and poverty?
    I mean those whose work you MUST be aware of if you want to understand the relation between poverty and education, or some aspect of that relation.
    Christine Woodrow

    The Centre for Educational Research is very focussed on this topic and is looking to form a network of scholars researching in this area. We are hosting a 2 day symposium and public lecture in late October in Sydney. See- www.uws.edu.au/cer/events

    This is the public lecture being presented:

    'Rearticulating and Contesting Equity in Education Policy' 
     presented by Professor Bob Lingard, University of Queensland 

    facilitated by Professor Michele Simons, Dean of the School of Education, Western Sydney University

    Date:      29 October 2015

    Time:      5.00 pm - 6.30 pm

    Venue:    Kingswood Campus Lecture Theatre K.1.04

    Please register your interest in attending. 

    For further information please contact Tracy Buckridge at t.buckridge@westernsydney.edu.au

    or visit www.uws.edu.au/cer/events

  • John K. Marco Pima added an answer:
    What is the difference between a framework and a model in Educational research?

    Can any one help me to find the right definition of the framework and model ?

    Im working in a study investigating the use of ICT in Arabs schools and I would like to create a model or (Framework) that help to improve the use of ICT in education.

    before I start I would like to know whats is the difference between Model and framework and what you think is much suitable from your opinion 

    John K. Marco Pima

    I agree with the meaning provided by Robert Costello. We have a concept to describe something (Model) and we have a guideline to design/make something (Framework)

  • Crisaidi Bento Sodré added an answer:
    eEducation - forty years of promises?

    Instructional computer programs (or the usage of computers in education) are being developed since the early ‘70s. Rapid development of Information Communication Technology, introduction of computers into schools, and daily use of computers by people of different vocation, education and age, has made education a very important field to researchers. Their main goals have been to develop programs that can teach humans and to achieve individualization of the educational process.

    The methods and techniques of Artificial Intelligence have been successfully used in these systems, since the end of last century. Hierarchical modeling, interoperable and reusable software components, and ontology are modeling techniques that have only recently penetrated into the eLearning. In addition, these Artificial Intelligence methods are used in "new field” I called it "eEducation", a new approach to education with the help of Information and Communication Technologies, Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence.

    And, of course the "new wave": mLerning and uLearning are "knocking on the heavens door", such as Bob Dylan sings.

    Your thoughts on:

    Could we described "eEducation" = "eLearning" + "eTeaching", by this “simple” equation? Alternatively, do we need more "+"?

    Are we all (researchers, teachers and students) have succeeded in eEducation (eLearning) so far? Do "users" of eEducation (eLearning) systems are "better" than traditional students are, in terms of learning achievements?

    Do we have right pedagogy (teaching methods/strategies) for eEducation (eLearning)?

    Do we have right learning strategies (models/theories) for eEducation (eLearning)?

    What about mLearning, uLearning?

    At the end, what is the future of e/m/u/Education (e/m/u/Learning)?

    Crisaidi Bento Sodré


    I have taught online.

    It is tiring, very tiring.

    You need to check every word twice, three times... before you post - you never know what impressions the recipient will have.

    Believe it or not when correcting homework you will need paper and pencil next to your computer - much quicker (!) - it is important to take notes about each student's work and compare all works to write good comments.

    I like to compare all the works done by 'each' student to better understand their needs 'and' compare all the students' works.

    I feel safe (and pleased) when 75% of the class have answered 75% of the exercises correctly.

    I used to control the average and the middle of the scores - this is useful to know if you are expecting too much (or the contrary).

    The best of e-education: 'anyone' can have the benefit of it. Anyone! Disable people, parents of babies, people living too far from school... THAT is marvelous.

  • Michael Tang added an answer:
    Why is Objectivism used in eLearning, instead of Constructivist approaches?

    If you examine the tables of contents of most eLearning systems/lessons/courses, etc., you find that the underlying educational philosophy is one of Objectivism. This theory holds that the student's mind is an empty slate that the lecturer/teacher/instructor fills up. The systems approach to this kind of eEducation has the creator of that system examine the subject to be taught, divide it up into small bits, sequence the bits in some logical order, and then put all students through the same process of learning the material in that order.

    For example, eTextbooks (most of eLearning materials are some kind of electronic textbooks and called Tutorials) for learning elementary programming suggest that IF statements MUST come before LOOPING statements and so they contain chapters devoted to everything about selection, before anything is seen of repetition. These eLearning systems are reference works, not learning materials. The objectivist theory ignores the fact that such a methodology is deadly boring to most students. First, it forces them to "learn" things they already know. And second, it ignores any individual difference in learning style or preference.

    Constructivist educational philosophy, on the other hand, views the student as knowledgeable and task driven. New things are learned by integrating them into what is already known and it is done primarily so that meaningful (to the person) tasks may be carried out.

    Your thoughts on why the objectivist approach in eTeaching/eLearnig is used instead constructivist.

    Michael Tang

    Dear  Ljubomir:

    I found your question on objectivism vs constructivism through the discussion thread on the postings in regard to digital literacy and have similar research interests in regard to eLearning.  But to not stray too far from this discussion thread, Is it because the objectivist reductionist way of doing things have been the dominant scientific and academic philosophy in the West for centuries and we are just beginning to grope our way towards a new paradigm?   Also programmers -- my son is a software engineer -- seem to think differently than others trained in different disciplines but I'm not sure what that difference is from other people in different disciplines such as math, biology, etc.


  • Andrea L. Meadows added an answer:
    Is there any study on "aesthetic literacy" in Adult Education?

    It is because I need academic texts on this topic for my research project.

    Andrea L. Meadows

    Thanks for uploading this article.

    Warm Regards,


  • Christian Gruber added an answer:
    Are there any studies on the effects of POSITIVE vs. NEGATIVE formulation of questions on the test results of students?

    Do you know of any empirical/experimental studies (publications in good journals) comparing the effects of using POSITIVE vs. NEGATIVE question formulation on the test results of novices with proven effect?

    for example same questions can be asked in two ways and subsequently assuming positive and negative answer appropriately:

    positive formulation : the execution of the sequence of x,y,z activities will be successful. TRUE/FALSE?

    negative formulation : the sequence x,y,z can NOT be successfully completed. TRUE/FALSE?

    Also, what would be the correct terminology for the question formulation in negative/positive ways (if any)?

    Christian Gruber

    I used the term "negatively phrased stem", Terranova calls it "negative stem". The question format is reffered to as "A negative" or "A-". That might lead to more results, too.

  • Debra Sharon Ferdinand added an answer:
    What kind of competences should be improved for candidates to become inclusive teachers?
    Generally, eight teachers' competences are required by the end of the teacher education at a university. Those are quite common like guidance, communication, teamwork, LLL, research based assessment, planning, differentiation etc.
    I am interested in, what short of competences an inclusive teacher has to have as opposed to a mainstream teacher?
    Debra Sharon Ferdinand

    I think the use of assistive technology is a competence that should be constantly improved as the technology is rapidly improving.

  • Syed Kamaruzaman Syed Ali added an answer:
    Why use assessment for learning?
    It might seem a silly question but this is part of a study focusing on assessment for learning through action research.
    Syed Kamaruzaman Syed Ali

    Assessment for learning very important. All teachers make sure they have to implement the assessment for student in the schools. The assessment better give to the student after finish a couple of topics in every subject or program. This assessment will help teacher either their teaching and learning are effective or not effective. And also either the student can understand or not understand during follow the teaching and learning process.

  • Olga Laguta added an answer:
    Do you think literature (novels) could be used to help students learn?
    Research has been conducted which suggests that narrative text has a beneficial effect on comprehension and writing (Clayes and Smith, 2007, 2008; Wolfe and Mienko, 2007), while others suggest even wider implications on intellect and culture (Nikolajeva, 2012). We believe that literature could be used in a very practical way in the classroom to benefit not only subjects like psychology (Liebert, 2013) but a variety of different subjects (e.g. Kozulin suggests this dialogical learning could be extended towards the sciences).

    We would like to research the effects of literature on teaching and learning in different subject areas and would love to know what you think. Can you think of any novel that might be useful in helping a class understand your subject better?
    Olga Laguta

    Emma, I think, your remarkable note confirms the general trend. Usually it is easier for students whose L1 has a rich grammar (e.g. tenses, aspects, cases, genders, a complex system of the parts of speech, etc) to study another rich grammar, or, conversely, the study of L2 grammar helps to understand the specifics of their native L1 grammar. Sometimes the sucsess depends on the knowledge of a school grammar program. Many years ago it was interesting for me to find out that the school programs in some states havn’t a subject "The Grammar of Our Native Language" (or anything like that). For example, many Taiwanese students (the 1styear) don’t know the syntactic categories of subject, predicate, etc. because the school courses of their native Chinese language aim to study characters or read the Chinese texts (sometimes – to learn the very ancient texts). Nor the structural analysis of the written or oral speech facts neither learning linguistic terms. As for their English language as L2, it is often taught with the communicative methods (ie, syntactic or morphological categories are not delaminated in detail). How to measure the depth of a novel's understanding ... Surely, the students' cross-cultural misunderstandings become clear for a teacher when his/her students write an essay or discuss the endless "Do you think ..." ("Why did a hero…?", "What will these heroes do in their future? "," Is this situation possible here, or it is relevant only for Russia / Japan / USA, etc? "). Yes, you're right, it is easier to measure (scale?) the grammatical criterion in estimating a fiction text usefulness.

  • Mark Smythers added an answer:
    Does fixed seating arrangement in class at tertiary level effect the teaching learning process if tutors asked to teach as per seating arrangement?

    Many time institutions ask tutors to adopt teaching methods as per the fixed seating arrangement made (arrangement of tables) irrespective of the nature of the module. Does such fixed arrangement have impact on teaching learning process? Do you believe that the  delivery of some modules will be effective if tutor  adopt traditional seating arrangement or horseshoe or U type. Appreciate your views on this.

    Mark Smythers

    Seating plans at tertiary level seem to be a reflection of an autocratic culture within the institution and a desire for conformity to some ideal. At secondary they are almost always a function of discipline as a method of keeping undesirable elements apart and minimising disruption. Neither use is of course a direct factor that would contribute to effective learning - my own favourite layout is the horseshoe or U that allows me room to dance around the classroom and as another respondent says, does give a feeling of the head of the class or shelter at the back for weaker or disinterested students. Culture has an effect as does the subject as well as the personality of the lecturer. In short, no real answers about the best, only suggestions as to what works well and less well.

  • Craig Wood added an answer:
    How do school inspections ensure quality teaching learning environment?

    In a study based on secondary data from three south Asian countries we found that the school inspection focuses largely on administrative issues rather than pedagogy or classroom activities. Is there any literature from develop countries address similar issue?

    Craig Wood

    You might find Chapter 3 of this OECD Report useful.

  • Nick Eaves added an answer:
    Has anyone had any experience in the field of adolescent narrative and the impact of expeditions/adventure upon identity?

    Any information would be greatly appreciated.

    Nick Eaves

    Great, Kellie. Apologies for my delayed response; thanks so much for this.


  • Heulwen Sweet added an answer:
    How can I utilize my word wall to make it more meaningful for students, particularly those with learning disabilities?
    As I teach students with learning disabilities, I am becoming increasingly curious as to how I can make substantial use of word walls to assist them in developing vocabulary skills.
    Heulwen Sweet

    Technology that the students in our school approve of......

    Spelling city... This is like a modern version of look, write, cover and check and it means that the student can input the words, then listen to them as a word or as a sentence. This was particularly important to give them context.

    Quizlet - This is more teacher driven but really helps with vocabulary building.

    I personally have disliked word walls as they look like blobs of letters and I cannot see how that is helpful. If they can pattern via colour for verbs or join together in a pattern that is helpful.

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