• Don Ambrose added an answer:
    Do primary school leaders have autonomy in a neoliberal system?

    I am about to write my final project for my MA in Education and I want to investigate the levels of autonomy in primary education for Headteachers. In a market driven society where education seems to more about producing a skill rather than learning for self edification. I was interested in finding out if school leaders do have the freedom to innovate and create their own values in education or has centralisation excluded them from any strategic leadership and is being a headteacher become purely "managerialism?"

    I am basing a lot of my paper around the principles in : Government control: School leaders’ Views on a Changing Policy Landscape in England, Rob Higham and Peter Early, Sage publications, 2013.

    Don Ambrose · Rider University

    It's good that you are working on this Bruce. I agree with Grian's suggestion to pursue the readings he outlined. Henry Giroux has been particularly active in analyzing the impact of neoliberal ideology. I've written quite a bit on dogmatism with some of the analyses taking on the hegemony of neoliberalism. The ideology was based on some good ideas including the promotion of individual freedom and escape from the dominance of the landed aristocracy several hundred years ago. But any ideology taken too far becomes oppressive itself and that’s what's happened with neoliberalism. A couple of my recent books (listed below) reveal the structure and dynamics of dogmatism and some of the chapters address neoliberal ideology and neoclassical economic theory (the economic basis for neoliberalism). Henry Giroux wrote an interesting chapter in the creativity volume. So did David Berliner. He coined the term “creaticide” to portray the “systematic killing of creativity in the American education system.” This murder of creativity comes from the lunacy of hyper-mechanistic accountability systems put in place by dogmatic school reformers whose minds are saturated with a single ideology. And one of my chapters in that volume analyzes the limitations of neoclassical economics.
    Berliner, D. C. (2012). Narrowing curriculum, assessments, and conceptions of what it means to be smart in the US schools: Creaticide by design. In D. Ambrose & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), How dogmatic beliefs harm creativity and higher-level thinking (pp. 79-93). New York, NY: Routledge.
    Giroux, H. A. (2012). Dark times: Bush, Obama, and the specter of authoritarianism in American politics. In D. Ambrose & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), How dogmatic beliefs harm creativity and higher-level thinking (pp. 94-111). New York, NY: Routledge.

  • Anthony Kripps added an answer:
    Should a teacher focus on 'rigorous learning' or 'learning with entertainment'?
    It has been seen that many teachers in universities have become entertainers rather than focusing mainly on value-addition and learning. A lot of time gets devoted to pleasing the students; knowing them personally; building good relations with them; and telling jokes and creating humour; the focus becomes more of good feedback than rigor. Keeping the audience motivated is good for effective teaching; but since a lot of time goes in entertainment less time remains for analysis and conceptualization. What is your preference and why?
    Anthony Kripps · University College of Jubail

    A survey of American university professors found that the vast majority prefer lecture-style teaching, whereas the majority of students preferred learning through games and group work. Corporate trainers were found to use games, ice-breakers, and group activities most, and lecture least often.

  • Douglas R. Daugherty added an answer:
    What real power benefits are provided with the new fashion in research and design, the pedagogical intervention for gifted?

    When we know how important is education for all, to barbarism, ignorance and inequality prevailing in this wildly globalized world
    As we explain that the effort is not engaged the attention of the less gifted or benefited by society.
    Could it be that again, we neglect the great mass, and invest only in subjects that the political system requires, for the few jobs that offer creative quality?

    Douglas R. Daugherty · University of New Mexico

    Dear Jose,

    Paulo Freire would simply say yes and move to the next question.  Knowing that all education is political and quite possibly (although I claim education is) socially reproductive of course we are neglecting the vast majority of children. Is it a surprise to find in K-12 educational systems a rigid set of guide lines and subject matters to be covered is one of the requirements for governmental funding?

    I also would draw your attention to the use of the word gifted and less gifted. By less gifted I am assuming you mean the child who struggles but works hard and caries a solid 3.0 GPA. By gifted you are meaning the child who has all the social benefits such as wealth, home, books at home, and seems to get the concepts taught relatively easy. I am wondering however what label is used to describe the students who do nor fit into the above mentioned categories? What label is used for the poor, the intellectually challenged, the child with many absences do to working to support his family?

    Last, While Mr Uchenna is correct when he points out the power the gifted have but I am in disagreement when he writes "The real power benefits of the gifted resides in their ability to get into full relationship with what the teacher is willing to provide for them". No sir the real power the gifted have is food, shelter, clean water, two parents, a library at home, computer, internet access, and a powerful political connections in which to use if not happy. That is the power the gifted have, and a full belly with the power of politics behind them is it no wounder how educational systems are designed?

    Teacher bias is a problem and if standards are not in place there biases are a major stumbling block in the advancement of an educated citizenship. But this alone is not enough to reproduce the literacy rates found all over North and South America.

    As Freire once stated, "it is only when the teacher is willing to be the student and the student is empowered enough to be the teacher a true transformation has taken place aand both have become learners.


  • Shirley Harris added an answer:
    What is the impact of mentoring on the development of PCK of teacher candidates?

    Practical courses in teacher education programs are considered as a „bridge between theory and practice“. They are estimated to support the development of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK). Especially reflective dialogues about teaching experiences – for example reflections on school lessons are considered to be useful: Dialogues with fellow students, with experienced school teachers or with their university lectors. Results that underpinned this estimation we could gather within the European project GIMMS (Lang, M. and Simmie - Mooney, G. 2013; Elster, D. 2013).

    What characterizes reflective dialogues on school lessons? Are there differences between dialogues conducted with fellow students, school teachers or university lectors? What is the contribution of these reflections for the professional development of the students? How is PCK promoted by these reflective dialogues?

    We are looking for actual research about mentoring concepts in teacher education with the goal to share experiences about mentoring approaches in preservice science teacher education in different countries.

    Shirley Harris · New Zealand Tertiary College

    Adrian has provided a really comprehensive response to your question - if your focus is pedagogical content knowledge then I believe this requires a mentor who really understands the learning process and has the content knowledge to support the student teacher's learning of specific curriculum areas

  • Ewan Ingleby added an answer:
    Are there examples of courses taught by a combination faculty from different educational institutions?
    The letter by Economics students from 65 organizations and 20 countries (International Student Initiative for Pluralist Economics http://www.isipe.net/) indicates that different types of Economic paradigms are not being taught except at a small number of educational institutions. It leads me to believe the solution may be in having different instructors from different institutions (with different ideologies) teach parts of the same course, and the students will gain from different perspectives. I have seen examples of cross faculty collaborations within the same institution, but inter-institutional collaborations are rare particularly in online courses such as MOOCS where many institutions presumably are protecting their brand. Institutional brand protection through limiting course delivery to academics from only one institution does not necessarily benefit the students. Some promising alternatives for institution independent collaboration can be found on Peer To Peer University (https://p2pu.org/en/), and Wikiversity (www.wikiversity.org/). Any others?
    Ewan Ingleby · Teesside University

    In our University we have experience of different academic tutors from partner colleges contributing to a degree programme delivered by the University. My experience of this form of pedagogy has been very positive. The programme is an early childhood studies degree that requires different speicalisms to come together if pedagogy is to be successful. This pedagogical approach appears to be a means of meeting the requirements of differentiated learners.

  • Helena Margaretha Wessels added an answer:
    Is anyone familiar with papers on competence in STEM education research?

    I am looking for studies focused on competence in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) education research. Help will be appreciated.

    Helena Margaretha Wessels · Stellenbosch University

    Maybe you should try to Google the MEd and PhD dissertations of Piera Biccard. Regards.

  • Grant W. Pollard added an answer:
    How do we improve higher order thinking skills among our students?
    I find it concerning that some test and exams still mainly focus on the ability to rote learn information then regurgitate it. Bloom's famous taxonomy of higher order thinking starts with the recall or location of knowledge and then progresses to comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation of knowledge. What are others doing to create rich pedagogies and assessment tasks that 'stretch' university students beyond mere recall of knowledge and facts?
    Grant W. Pollard · Afton Chemical

    I stumbled across this video a few years back and thought it was quite brilliant and I watched the whole thing even though it is almost an hour and a half long. I would most succinctly summarize the method Eric Mazur describes in it as: "Decide for yourself the answer to this question. Now turn to the person next to you and attempt to convince them that your answer is correct."

    Mazur rightly understands that it is often a classmate who knows best how to explain to a student why they are wrong as the lecturer has long discarded and forgotten all the incorrect concepts that people will bring to a subject when they are new to it.

  • Alaa Bashayreh added an answer:
    Assessment of quality of nursing care to determine nurses knowledge and practice; Is this accurate enough?
    How can we assess nursing care quality only by nurses' performance and information?
    Alaa Bashayreh · Sultan Qaboos University

    Avedis Donabedian (1919-2000) identified three basic quality measures; structures, processes, and outcomes. Evidence showed different nursing-sensitive indicators that play a major role in measuring quality of care such as but not limited to pressure ulcer prevalence, patient falls, restraint prevalence, skill mix, and nursing hours per patient day. There are three fundamental methods to measure such important quality indicators;

    1. Clinical observations by quality coordinators

    2. Retrospective chart review by quality coordinators 

    3. Nurse-reported observations and perceptions by surveys 

    In my point of view and based on revision of many studies, the best way to measure quality of nursing care is to either clinically observe or retrospectively chart review quality outcomes. There are two barriers to clinically observe and retrospectively chart review quality outcomes; the limited human resources who can play the role of quality coordinators and the limited access to patients and their records. Therefore, use of surveys to investigate nurse-reported observations and perceptions of quality of care they provide is the easiest and the most accessible method. 

    My best,


  • How can teachers promote substantive and meaningful learning as students make the transition from primary to high school?

    Given that young adolescents are more at risk of not coping with developmental and social changes than at any other stage of life, what recommendations would you make about designing curriculum and pedagogy for the Junior Secondary years (Years 7-9) which, in Queensland state schools, immediately follow primary (elementary) schooling?

    Alfredo D. Holguín Alfaro · Universidad Privada del Norte (Perú)

    In essence I agree with Nick on the psychological, social and emotional aspect. The age of transition from primary to high school is a special circumstance that gives us an increased sensitivity of the young against changes in their new educational environment and often confound the results of evaluations reflecting what they are, and deserting desorientandose .
    So in summary the most important aspect in the transition are the emotional aspects.

  • Kevin Stoda added an answer:
    What pedagogy supports the achievement of embedded general education outcomes in a curriculum?
    We are designing curricula to ensure that general education is included for every student at the university.
    Kevin Stoda · Salalah College of Technology

    Make sure that the  ( ongoing and final) evaluations reflect in some ways the targets of the general curriculum outcomes.  If these  otucomes are regularly reflected in the designs of evaluations, the fits will be smooth, the courses stay on track, and feedback is given to course instructor and others interested in course development and implementation.

  • Daniel --- Tanner added an answer:
    Is the 21st century going to generate a teacher-free educational system?
    Where cloud sources of knowledge, peer assessment, and the internet could play the teacher's role.
    Daniel --- Tanner · Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

    not possible any more than a champion golfer can be developed without a teacher/coach

  • Yecid Ortega added an answer:
    Any theory/studies in Second Language Learning at a young age ( birth to 3)?

    Not Language Acquisition, but bi-literacy or methodology

    It can be pedagogy in language centers, families, private or tutoring, community centres.

    Not academic setting (preschools or primary)

    Yecid Ortega · University of Toronto

    John. Thanks for this specific explanation, I do relate to your comments since I have worked with pregnant women and they have expressed how great they feel when their partners or themselves read books or tell stories. 

    Gordon. What I really wanted with my question is to know if anybody here (research gate) know any empirical research in this topic: case studies for example. Most of the research I have found at an academic level ( primary school or SK/JK) but not a family level or daycare level.

  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer:
    Does anyone have recommendations for parameters' correlation with aggression?

    I'm trying to create a theme, where aggression correlated with other phenomena, but it must have a pedagogical aim. I was thinking about relationship between parenting style and aggression, but this theme is psychological. Any recommendations for theme that will have pedagogical aim (theme has to be from pedagogy)?

    Krishnan Umachandran · Professor
    •  Limit television viewing time to 1 to 2 hours a day.
    • Make sure you know what TV shows your children watch, which movies they see and what kinds of video games they play.
    • Talk to your children about the violence that they see on TV shows, in the movies and in video games.
    • Help them understand how painful it would be in real life and the serious consequences for violent behaviors.
    • Discuss with them ways to solve problems without violence.
    • Help your children stand up against violence.
  • Elke Lackner added an answer:
    I am currently working with online learning and miss the pedagogic dimension; who knows more about it?

    I am working at the relationship between online learning/ICT and pedagogy, as implementing online learning concerns social innovation. In many casesit seems online learning is recording lectures and that is it.  Now i am looking for ideas and resources to get more grip on these ideas. Who can help me out with literasture, articles, ideas, experiences etc. Thanks in advance.

    Elke Lackner · Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz

    I have written and co-written some papers concerning educational technology, instructional design and what is called "Mediendidaktik" in German. I've added some links. I don't know if you speak/read German or not. But there are to other publications I would recommend:

    Kerres, Michael (³2012): Mediendidaktik. Konzeption und Entwicklung mediengestützter Lernangebote, München. (http://www.blog.fbzhl.de/rezensionen/michael-kerres-mediendidaktik-konzeption-und-entwicklung-mediengestuetzter-lernangebote/)

    Ebner, Martin & Schön, Sandra (2013) (Hgg.): L3T. Lehrbuch für Lernen und Lehren mit Technologien, Berlin. http://l3t.eu/homepage/das-buch/ebook-2013

  • Andy Bryce added an answer:
    Why use assessment for learning?
    It might seem a silly question but this is part of a study focusing on assessment for learning through action research.
    Andy Bryce · University of Sussex

    I like this article for lots of information and links to follow up:


  • Halil Aslan added an answer:
    How to assess effectiveness of counseling services in special education school or center in the turkey?

    As we know that increasing number of school counselors are working in the special education center. we face with many unique obstacles. How to assess effectiveness of counseling services that we provide to studentS with mentally retarded students. 

    Halil Aslan · Middle East Technical University

    thank you very much for your valuable comments, however I took course related to research methodology in this semester. I clearly understood what I would do before conducting this type of research questions.

  • Mary Eviston added an answer:
    Generalizing data regarding sensitivity into higher and further education learning - can anyone help?
    I am interested in identifying skills and knowledge needed within teaching in further and higher education, and the need to develop/recognize sensitivities as they relate to teaching in different areas of education is of interest.
    Mary Eviston · Ball State University

    I'm a great believer in reinforcing a students answer. If they answer incorrectly, don't dismiss them right away, go to another student who may have the correct answer and then go BACK to the person who either didn't know the answer or answered incorrectly, then ask them again, (after they heard the correct answer so that they can be reinforced and recognized for their efforts), this in turn "teaches" them the correct answer instead of leaving them in the dark as many teachers tend to do! We need to teach our students, not cause them to feel that they lack the skills, I firmly believe in repeat and repeat again until learned. I am studying Autism in Grad school and plan to get my Masters in Applied Behavior Analysis by 2018

  • David William Stewart added an answer:
    Is individual authenticity lost in education?
    We propose to have a child centred approach for much of our education. However, methods remain similar to over 100 years ago. We still seem to value outcome over the individual.
    David William Stewart · Walden University


    First of all thanks for your endorsement of my earlier comments. Coming from you this was high praise indeed. I clearly have a very long way to go in my writing and research ability and contributions. 

    Having said this, I want to compliment your posting here in regards to the concepts of core common ground education.  Your observations are insightful.  Unfortunately I worry about practicality. Why?  Well to put a point on it, I live in Texas, USA. I am a "Native born Texan", which is somewhat akin to proudly stating the same for one's birth status in any country - regrettably, for those born in Texas, our pride - and politics - more or less requires our announcement as to our Texas roots over and above our national affiliation. :) - Yes, I jest, but perhaps not too much on this point.  

    I know this is not a suitable place for political commentary - and I will refrain. I would be remiss, however, to ignore the realities of the education system in the states today. In order to understand American education one has to examine the roots. Early settlement of America resulted from emigration from England - primarily- later France (mainly in Canada), Holland, and so on.  "England" of course includes Ireland, Scotland, Wales, etc.  Naturally education in America followed traditional teaching methods.  Unfortunately the design of American education and education systems  also considered the issues of - to be polite - "the minority question'.  We enjoy some of the greatest social and legal freedoms of any society on Earth. However as I am sure you know, we have literally thousands of school districts - all of which are at the mercy of local political control.  Changes are being made, and maybe one day we will see some consolidation of these many school districts into some kind of a national educational protocol.  As a consequence, I admire your perceptive analysis, but fear practical implementation.



  • Kevin Stoda added an answer:
    Should ethics be taught to undergraduate students?
    Ethical principles as a special subject is taught to all graduate students. Typical coverage in our curriculum is as follows:

    Survey of the issues, values, principles, and ethics of a technological society. Emphasis on the leadership principles, behaviors, and normative ethics of the technologist to practice the ethical decision-making process within a technological or institutional organization.

    However at undergraduate level it is not included. What is your opinion? Should ethics be taught at undergraduate level? If yes what could form part of the coverage? If not can you explain the reasons for the same?
    Kevin Stoda · Salalah College of Technology

    Susan is correct that not all graduate courses have elements of ethics embedded in them, but they should.

  • Donna Howe added an answer:
    How should an ideal course in stock market psychology be structured?
    Given that it is for second year masters student in financial markets, should it include only behavioral finance models and premises, or be rather non-orthodox, and cover issues like technical and market sentiment analysis? Should we look at the market only from secondary market investor's perspective, or we should include other points of view (corporate governance, etc.)? Should it be built on cases or on more "traditional" ways of reading lectures, should it include some quantitative part?
    Donna Howe · Brandeis University

    If your students plan to work in the market, I believe you should include the things traders  and PMs look at. It doesn't have to be complex, but MACD and Fibonacci levels are common. As well you can bring in the different behaviors of the various markets - like the observed autocorrelation in the currency markets. But be sure to speak to the scalability and execution issues. That was you can lead into the role of OMS and dark pools and tie it in with systemic liquidity.

  • Caroline Barratt added an answer:
    Does anyone else have an interest in contemplative pedagogy and the role of contemplative practice in higher education?

    What are your key resources?

    I attended a workshop on contemplative pedagogy in New York in August. Since then I have been working with like-minded individuals working in HE and FE in the UK to establish the Contemplative Pedagogy Network. I'd like to identify others who are interested in this area, find out what they are doing, what resources they are using and to share ideas and challenges.

    A brief explanation of contemplative pedagogy can be found on our website.

    Looking forward to discussing this further.

    Best wishes


    Caroline Barratt · University of Essex

    Hi Stefan I'm not clear what you are asking. Can you expand a little?

    In relation to your earlier query - Here is a great video from a Chemistry professor on the use of contemplative approaches in the classroom.

    Really enjoying the dicussion about Goethe. I am just starting to read more in this area in relation to thinking about contemplative practices in environmental studies.

    Thanks Caroline

  • Sonja Rutar added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest a study program or other information about education and professional development of teachers in pre-school? Key elements?

    How cooperate Faculty and kindergardens or child care center?

    What are the characteristics on the effective study program for pre-school teachers (interaction styles, pedagogy, training).

    Sonja Rutar · University of Primorska

    Hi, Kiril,

    ISSA, International Step by Step Assosciation also published very usefull book: Putting Knowledge into Practice, A Guidebook for Educators on ISSA's Principles of Quality Pedagogy.

    ISSA is An innovative network of early childhood development professionals and organizations primarly in central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia, working to make quality early childhood education accessible to all children.

    Best wishes,  Sonja

  • Douglas R. Daugherty added an answer:
    What are the possible challenges faced by language teachers in helping learners activate their prior knowledge in recreating the meaning in the text?
    Why do these challenges exist? What is the appropriate method to overcome the challenges?
    Douglas R. Daugherty · University of New Mexico

    To activate learners prior knowledge is a very sensetive subject and should be taken very seriously. Many many years ago I learned a very painful lesson attempting to do just that. I will not go into detail but siffice it to say the prior knowledge was a horror story involving men, many men, and a 12 year old girl.

    So we may want to stop from all the prejudgments, and assumptions reguarding seriousness because until one walks in anothers you I our anybody knows what wondes may be opened and if you are not ready to walk thelong  road with them to healing, then do not go there. 

    Second, from that day auntil two years later we spoke on the phone almost daily. I would do it againg in a minute but I offer this. To know your students take the first two to three days in self relective writing onthe best day, the worst, ect. From there you have all the keys to movating the kids.


  • Douglas R. Daugherty added an answer:
    Should "trigger warnings" be instituted in higher education?
    This seems like very dangerous road for HE to go down, avoiding topics that will naturally be upsetting to the majority seems like an end-round around addressing issues of social justice. Would like to hear what others think of this shift in what is permissible to discuss in college classrooms.
    Douglas R. Daugherty · University of New Mexico


    I would think a sign stating warning ideology of whiteness activly being practiced. A little long I grant you. I think the Zeuz Leonardo puts it best; NCLB is not what it appears to be. It's real meaning is no cocassion left behind. We certainly see that troughout higher ed. from teneur highering practices, to rank of professorships, definations of subject studies, i,e program, dept, college. Western Civilization as required, ect.

    Lets work on the sign.

    In solideraty


  • Ijeoma Anumaka added an answer:
    How can I apply differential pedagogy in the science of remediation?

    I think that I divide students into different groups depending on the types of faults in the review comprises. I give a series of exercises workouts for each group with increasing gradation of difficulty

    Ijeoma Anumaka · Kampala International University (KIU)

    well,my worry is :lack of teaching  leads to lack of learning.If you can find a way to impact knowledge to these students ,why would they fail continiously? Unless one is claiming that passing medical exams are for exclusive few.If that is the case,how can we survive the ever increasing evolution of new diseases and their laser speed mutants and their deadly transmission patterns these days?? Medicals please wake up!!! 

  • Aysha Bey added an answer:
    Does the way we describe success in education affect students and teachers perception of their roles?

    The notion of 'personal best' drives most athletes to keep training despite the knowledge that they may never be first or best in their field. In other words, they actually maintain their effort by seeking personal improvement and thus competing with themselves. In education the description of success is nearly always in terms of comparison with others. My contention is that this view of success is counterproductive for all but the top half of the cohort and we would be better off if we described success as 'improvement through persistent effort' as an athlete does. I also contend that teachers would benefit from this paradigm shift because it better describes what we should be doing, collaborating with each individual to maximise their potential and that the current paradigm of success confuses the role by positioning us to see lower performing students as having a deficit to be repaired.

    Aysha Bey · University of Alabama at Birmingham

    This is a great topic for discussion!  Filippo makes a strong point about international students who will return to their countries one day--or perhaps return faster than planned if they fail to succeed in the U.S.  I have a class of these foreign-university graduates nearly every semester, preparing to take the graduate exam (GRE) for admission to American grad schools, most often in the natural sciences. They have a year or two to get their language skills up to par and pass the test; if they don't, they return with no hope of doing graduate work in the West. The stress on them is strong especially with the GRE's emphasis upon huge lists of vocabulary.

    But the topic of particular interest to me is the mention of the athletes and any comparison to academics.  More than 10 years ago, I worked with the football offensive coordinator of our university team on developing an academic adaptation of what he did to teach his athletes from rookie to senior level or even the pros. Since no athlete has a football or basketball brain, there must be a way to use their unusually excellent transfer skills.  For instance, football players use symbolic transfer every time they read their playbook, think out the play, and then execute it. Transfer skills outside the natural sciences and math (like math and physics) are terribly difficult to teach.  I have developed some programs effective in standardized testing that use some of these "coaching" methods.  It is much harder to work with transfer skills in humanities and social/behavioral sciences.

    But then in April of this year, the Chronicle of Higher Education published an article "Bringing the Locker Room into the Classroom" by Craig Owens, associate professor of English at Drake University. He had been invited to be the "honorary coach" for the girls' basketball team; entering the locker room, he expected to hear the movie-version of spirited cheering, etc.  Instead, what he saw was " question and answer, discussion and debate, part Socratic dialogue, part collaborative problem solving."  Based on the collaborative learning he saw, he developed a program called "Coaching in the Classroom" that brings professors from all over the campus to work with coaches in football, basketball, soccer, and golf. Professors were shocked at the amount of independence even in freshmen players and their quickness to "internalize the rhythm of practice."  The coaches explained that they first "taught the players the system."  Most of our students come into classes without the jargon and the background of the discipline in which they are taking classes.  I believe one of the toughest parts of the core curriculum is the variety of disciplines, each with its own language and way of thinking, presented to students all at one time (our athletes carry 15 credits per semester).  

    Dr. Owen decided to model the literary - critical system of Shakespeare to his class and quickly found that students began to respond to one another (and not just to him), following lines of thought and developing their own ideas. Moving through unfamiliar context in literature is not much different than moving through the unfamiliar landscape of a new playbook. But we academics do lack the power of muscle memory--and the power of that athlete's individual motivation. But considering the NCAA's tight rules on GPAs, eligibility and most universities' rules about repeated classes, most athletes are willing to work to get good grades, to gain skills they didn't know they had.

    Dan has hit the nail on the head about levels of performance and feedback (a major element of all sports practice, games, and team meetings).  But there is no reason why those same elements cannot be used in a classroom; of course, in a lit course, for example, we have to develop some level of relevancy to the world today--and that is not difficult since literature nearly always speaks to the human condition in one way or another.  I do believe that academic instructors can and should learn more from their coaches, who have much more experience in motivating, enhancing and developing young men and women than most of us do.

    Aysha Bey

    University of Alabama/Birmingham

  • Anders C. Haugen added an answer:
    What is the central normative idea, the guiding principle, the central self-description of pedagogy today?

    Emancipation in the 1970s, quality in the 1990s, inclusion in the 2000s? I guess there are a lot more candidates for such values, especially from an international perspective. However, I think it is highly relevant which normative idea pedagogy adopts as its self-description. For example the standardization and output-orientation of the 1990s would not have been possible without the (economical) Trojan Horse of "quality". 

  • Ljubomir Jerinic added an answer:
    Why is Objectivism used in eLearning, instead of Constructivist approaches?
    If you examine the tables of contents of most eLearning systems, you find that the underlying educational philosophy is one of Objectivism. This theory holds that the student's mind is an empty slate that the lecturer/teacher/instructor fills up. The systems approach to this kind of eEducation has the creator of that system examine the subject to be taught, divide it up into small bits, sequence the bits in some logical order, and then put all students through the same process of learning the material in that order.

    For example, eTextbooks (most of eLearning materials are some kind of electronic textbooks and called Tutorials) for learning elementary programming suggest that IF statements MUST come before LOOPING statements and so they contain chapters devoted to everything about selection, before anything is seen of repetition. These eLearning systems are reference works, not learning materials. The objectivist theory ignores the fact that such a methodology is deadly boring to most students. First, it forces them to "learn" things they already know. And second, it ignores any individual difference in learning style or preference.

    Constructivist educational philosophy, on the other hand, views the student as knowledgeable and task driven. New things are learned by integrating them into what is already known and it is done primarily so that meaningful (to the person) tasks may be carried out.

    Your thoughts on why the objectivist approach in eTeaching/eLearnig is used instead constructivist.
    Ljubomir Jerinic · University of Novi Sad

    @For all Followers: What happens with "Project CS4EDU: Computer Science for Education". Namely, in 2008, the National Science Foundation (US) started the ambitious effort, project CS/10,000, which supports developing a new high school curriculum for computing, revising the computer science AP curriculum, and having computer science taught in 10,000 schools by 10,000 well-qualified teachers by 2015.

    Does anyone know anything about this project?

  • Tsediso Makoelle added an answer:
    Can Pierre Bourdieu's notion of Habitus illuminate or help us understand the societal influence on how inclusive pedagogy is conceptualized?

    ‘Habitus’ or socialized norms or tendencies that guide behavior and thinking.

    but is a " Habitus"  constant  and non-changing or is it metablectic and transforming? if the latter how can we transform an exclusive state of Habitus to a more inclusive one?

  • Sue Elliott added an answer:
    Does anyone know of any research on children's rights based pedagogy in ECEC?
    Or any studies outside of ECEC?
    Sue Elliott · University of New England (Australia)

    Childrens right's based pedagogy is fundamental to early childhood education for sustainability, suggest you check a new research publication:

    Davis, J. & Elliott, S. (2014). Research in early childhood education for sustainability: International perspectives and provocations. London: Routledge.

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