• Carmen Fraticelli added an answer:
    Can anyone help me with Cenozoic European paleomaps that are or can be geo-referenced?

    I need European maps for the Cenozoic that can be used in GIS to plot fossil data.

    Carmen Fraticelli · Noble Energy

    Actually, what you need is a plate model first.  Fossil data should be plotted (in GIS) on present day maps.  Then you reconstruct them back to a specific time period (Cenozoic is too broad).  The second overlay is the depositional environments followed by the paleotopography/bathymetry.  You can, in this way, also test the validity of the paleoenviromental maps. 

  • Natalia S Duxbury added an answer:
    Does anyone have data about weight ice content (ice wedges, massive ice bodies and segregation ice) and bulk density in Arctic permafrost deposits?

    Papers, references, databases? Quaternary deposits of Beringia region (from Taymir to Alaska) are interest for me....

    Natalia S Duxbury · George Mason University

    Articles by V. E. Romanovsky and me on this ResGate, also D. Nicolsky and other members of the V. E. Romanovsky's group at the UAF, Alaska.

  • Selvaraj Kandasamy added an answer:
    Does anyone know how the westerlies affect the central Tibetan Plateau where the precipitation dominated by Indian Summer Monsoon?

    There are a lot of literatures suggest that the westerlies could take precipitation into the central Tibetan Plateau and far more eastern areas during the cold period. Do anyone give some evidence?

    Selvaraj Kandasamy · Xiamen University

    Please check the paper on Holocene moisture evolution in arid central Asia and its out of phase relationship with Asian monsoon history by Chen, F.H. et al. published in the year 2008. They discussed the influence of Westerlies in arid China during the Holocene, though they are not entertained any discussion of the Westerlies on the Tibet, in particular. 

  • Antonio Fernando Menezes Freire added an answer:
    How can I estimate paleotemperatures based on oxygen isotopes of dolomite cement? Could someone point me to a good reference?

    How can I estimate paleotemperatures based on oxygen isotopes of dolomite cement? Could someone point me to a good reference?

    Antonio Fernando Menezes Freire · Petróleo Brasileiro S.A.


  • Preslav I. Peev added an answer:
    Where can I find estimated Global Sea-level history data sets for the past 140,000 years?

    I want to plot global sea level changes for the past 140,000 to determine trends in marine taxa radiations in the oceans. I have been unable to find data sets from NOAA. 


    Preslav I. Peev · Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

    Hi Peter,

    There is a lot of info: for the Black Sea  and Mediterranean.



  • P.J. Mudie added an answer:
    What age correction is needed for mollusc C-14 dates from Black and Marmara Sea lacustrine phases?

    High resolution dating of events in the Black and Marmara Seas during non-marine phases requires appropriate correction of C-14 ages because shells are not in equilibrium with global values of ca. 400 yr. Proposed values range from 0 (fully mixed, in equilibrium with atmosphere, no correction needed) to 1000 yrs (benthos contain old bottom water or river transported carbon). Peat (grows in equilbrium with atmosphere) compared to in-situ shell from the same sample   indicates a reservoir correction of ca. 850 yrs is needed for shells. Which correction value is correct for A) Black Sea? B) Marmara Sea with overflow water.

    P.J. Mudie · Dalhousie University

    Thanks for all your answers. In Marmara Sea we have new cores with lacustrine sediment containing shells next to tephra layers dated by wood. These may provide a more accurate reservoir correction value for the late Pleistocene interval.

  • Sidney Ash added an answer:
    Could any Palaeobotanist help me to identify the ancient plants?

    The picture was taken from a piece of core in the late Triassic Ordos basin. Could any Palaeobotanist please help me to identify the ancient plants and list its implications for paleoclimate : in the late Triassic Ordos Basin, central China.  It deposited in deltaic or lacustrine environment. I want to know its Latin name and implications for paleoclimate. Thanks a lot!

    Sidney Ash · University of New Mexico

    I agree with Han, we need a better picture.

  • Zhitong Yu added an answer:
    Can a modeler help me test my hypothesis using a model (such as GCM) to modified topography ?

    I infer that there probably existed a passage between the Tibetan Plateau and the Qinling Mountains during the Late Miocene based a lot of tectonic and climatic records. Development of the passage was mainly controlled by the eastward expansion of the Tibetan Plateau, which constrained rainfall transported by the Asian summer monsoon to flow into interior China. I need a modeler help me to test this hypothesis? Please contact me for specific information 

    Zhitong Yu · Chinese Academy of Sciences


  • Jamal Munshi added an answer:
    What is the 1-sigma and 2-sigma error in radiocarbon dating?
    What is 1-sigma and 2-sigma error in the radiocarbon dating and how to decide which error range we should use for the data set?
    Jamal Munshi · Sonoma State University

    I think we should stick to probability based confidence intervals such as the commonly used 95% CI. This is what I have done in my paper on radiocarbon dating which I believe is available on Researchgate and if not it may also be found at

  • Zbyszek Remin added an answer:
    Is there any hard evidence concerning the thickness of the Precambrian troposphere?

    Simply, I’m looking for papers that gives me knowledge about any models or assumption concerning the thickness of troposphere of Early Atmosphere, e.i. during the Neo-, Meso- and PaleoProterozoic?

    Thanks in advance, Zbyszek

    Zbyszek Remin · University of Warsaw

    Thanks for interesting answer. I'm asking about the possible troposphere thickness mainly in the context of possibility of hailstone formation [during hailstorms] in the Precambrian atmosphere.

    Recently, we have published a paper about hailstone impression in the Neoproterozoic of Western Africa, which at that time was located in high southern latitudes [about 70 degrees], far beyond the recent occurrences of hailstorms.

    Remin, Z., Krogulec, T., Drela, T. and Surowski M. 2014. The recognition of hailstone impressions in clay-rich sediment: experimental results and relation to the Neoproterozoic case. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 84, 543–551.

    It is well known that the hailstones are produce in thunderstorm cells within the Cumulonimbus clouds combined with strong updrafts, which can reach the height of 10-15 or even 18 km [equatorial areas]. Contrary in the circumpolar areas, where the troposphere is thinnest, the hailstorms are rather extremely rare or absent. It is also because smaller temperature amplitude which can drive the formation of thunderstorm cells.

    Therefore, the question is whether the thickness of Neoproterozoic troposphere in circumpolar areas was much thicker then today [interesting climate results…] enabling the formation of Cumulonimbus clouds in which hailstone originate, or what…?


  • Fadhil A. Lawa added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest how the ecological functioning of PETM and Early Eocene climatic optimum can add value to E & P of hydrocarbon?

    Distinguished Colleague, am working on the ECOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING OF ZOO AND PHYTOPLANKTON COMMUNITIES ACROSS THE PALEOCENE-EOCENE HYPER THERMAL EVENTS. Can anyone suggest how this can add value to petroleum exploration and production?

    Fadhil A. Lawa · University of Sulaimani

    The PETM can influence the organic material in this boundary and  its quite common in iran at the Top of Pabdeh Formation ,where its also responsible for oil generations in certain oil fields

  • Christopher C. Sorlien asked a question:
    Can you provide information about erosion of huge ice stream/piedmont glacier troughs?

    S. Davis, me, et al 2014 AGU abstract proposed that a 400 km-long, 50 km-wide pre-30 Ma buried erosional and rift trough in Ross Sea could have last been eroded by ice, and this ice could have been from the earliest (33 Ma) East and/or West Antarctic Ice sheet. This was very controversial among our co-authors, and we allowed other possibilities, such as River erosion after rifting ceased, assuming restoring differential subsidence removes the huge reverse gradients of the major unconformity along the trough axes.

    Related to this:

    Question 1: Is large (Piedmont) glacial or ice stream erosion like River erosion, where the ice can cut down on the order of 1 km in 1 or 2 million years if out of equilibrium in one direction (while the bed would instead aggrade if out of equilibrium in the other direction. I know that cold-based ice streams/glaciers are frozen to their beds and do not erode.

    Question 2: Do you know of examples of 50 km-wide and >500 m deep troughs known to be deeply eroded by ice in a couple of million years or less? I’m thinking Northern Hemisphere like Greenland, because ice had not been there for tens of millions of years. Laurentian Trough on the shelf of Atlantic Canada may be one example, but I have not been able to find papers or seismic reflection data that show the base of the sub-bottom trough (we have figures of the sea floor trough, which is 50 km-wide but only a couple of hundred meters deep.

    I am being a bit lazy; I have an abstract deadline on this in a week and just have not had time to focus on looking into the literature because I have had to spend my time on the Ross Sea interpretation and other projects.

    (Davis et al is a student abstract; is my project).



  • Chris Gueymard added an answer:
    What is the difference between insolation and solar irradiance?

    In paleoclimate research, there always talking about the forcing factors, such as insolation and solar irradiance. However, I could not make it clear the difference between them. I have some knowledge about the latter one, which indicate the activity of the sun, such as sunspot, and could be measured by 10Be and 14C.

    Could you shared some of your opinions on this? Thanks.

    Chris Gueymard · Solar Consulting Services

    Insolation is a vague colloquial term, not a scientific quantity--at least not anymore

    The terms to use are either irradiance (W/m2) or irradiation for accumulated energy over time (MJ/m2 or kWh.m2)

  • S. K. Shah added an answer:
    Where can I get a detailed map of the Triassic of India?

    Does anyone know of detailed geologic maps of India? Thanks in advance...

    S. K. Shah · University of Jammu

    Visit the website of Geological Survey of India and ask for maps of north west Himalaya and Gondwana rocks

  • Boaz Lazar added an answer:
    Does anyone know "Increased carbonate production and burial in epeiric seas,decreasing the [CO32-],leading to the positive d18O excursions ?

    It is about stable isotope geochemistry

    Boaz Lazar · Hebrew University of Jerusalem

    CaCO3 precipitation decreases the carbonate alkalinity (HCO3-+2*CO32-) and not the CO32- alone. Precipitation of CaCO3 however increases the partial pressure of CO2 in the sea (Ca2++HCO3-=CaCO3(s)+CO2(aq)+H2O) that may l escape to the atmosphere and taken up by the phytoplankton population both leading to increase in the 13C/12C of seawater DIC (dissolved inorganic carbon) and no significant change in the 18O/16O ratio, as indicated by Julie in the answer above. In epeiric sea the situation is more complicated because also changes in the alkalinity input from the nearby land masses may shift the carbon balance of the sea. 

    Hope that it helped,


  • P. K. Gautam added an answer:
    Can anyone provide me with the tropical solar irradiance during Bølling-Allerød period?

    I am interested in understanding the solar irradiance of Tropics during Bølling-Allerød period. I am not able to get the data/curve for the said period. 

    P. K. Gautam · University of Hyderabad

    Thanx !

    I'll do it definitely.

  • James Blinkhorn added an answer:
    What was the nature/variability of Middle/Upper Pleistocene environments in the Senegal River Valley?

    I'm interested in patterns of Palaeoenvironmental variability in the Senegal Valley during the Middle and Upper Pleistocene, particularly in the lower valley after the confluence with the Faleme River. However, I am having trouble finding modern sources of information, and many older sources are not available on-line. Can anyone help direct me to available/key resources that document patterns of environmental variability in the Senegal Valley?

    James Blinkhorn · University of Cambridge

    Hi Johannes,

    Thanks for the links - terrestrial proxies are pretty rare in this part of the world it seems!



  • Gustavo Hinestrosa added an answer:
    What was the fate of coastal currents (West India Coastal Current, East India Coastal Current) along the Indian coasts, during the glacial period?

    I'm trying to reconstruct the productivity changes in the southeastern Arabian Sea, during the last glacial period. The foraminiferal proxies suggest an increased glacial productivity in this region. I want to understand the physical forcing, responsible for high surface primary productivity in this region during the last glacial period.

    Gustavo Hinestrosa · JKX O&G, London

    I would also suggest to search for articles on the Eastern Australia Current or the Southern Equatorial Current that circulate offshore Queensland, Australia. Whilst it is a very different region, there is some work on the evolution of these currents since the LGM and this might give you some useful insight (hopefully) on what was going on in India during the last glaciation. Good luck.

  • Michelle Mckeown added an answer:
    What are the key uncertainties and knowledge gaps in palaeoclimatology in South America and ENSO activity?

    I'm a current masters student and wanted to see if people are aware of knowledge gaps in ENSO activity in South America and/or palaeoclimatology reconstruction needed. I've looked in a lot of literature and seems to be a lot of modelling for ENSO activity not actual proxy evidence, is this true?

    Michelle Mckeown · University of the South Pacific

    Dear Gareth,

    You might find this book helpful. Sarah E. Metcalfe and David J. Nash (2012) Quaternary Environmental Change in the Tropics

  • Stéphane Bersac added an answer:
    Does anyone knows if data on OAE1a were published for the Paris Basin?
    I'm looking for data about the characterisation of the Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a (Lower Cretaceous, Aptian) in the Paris Basin (France), or at least data about carbon isotope record in this area. Thanks in advance!
    Stéphane Bersac · Laboratoire du Groupe de recherche en Paléobiologie et biostratigraphie des Ammonites

    Thanks a lot for these info!

  • Xianghui Li added an answer:
    What age are the bivalves?

    Bivlaves occur as very thinned coquina blanket in the Mesozoic strata in southern Tibet (Tethyan Himalaya). Quite abundant by single taxon. What species or genus in what age? T, J, or K? or in epoch?

    Xianghui Li · Chengdu University of Technology


  • Jooly Jaiswal added an answer:
    What are the main points during Speleothem sampling?

    Can somebody tell me the proper site for speleothem sampling?

    I am little bit confused whether is taken from the location where it is equilibrium with external atmosphere or deep from the cave where humidity is near about 100. Some one told me the sample collected near from the cave entrance are most significant for the climatic study because it records the diurnal variation of the atmosphere. but here the kinetic fractionation also goverened the precipitation process please tell me the exact things.

    Jooly Jaiswal · Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology

    Thank you so much Mr. Silviu Costantin for your answer. Now I am understand the point of consideration during the speleothem sampling.

  • Sharon Kanfoush added an answer:
    What is the magnitude of global dimming?
    To what extent does global dimming counteract global warming, and where could I find data on the amount of global dimming through time? Also, what is the current status of the debate about whether global dimming versus natural SST cyclicity (e.g. AMO) played a role in the 1980s drought and famine in the Sahel?
    Sharon Kanfoush · Utica College

    Many thanks, Arturo.

  • Stephanie Larmagnat added an answer:
    Is anyone aware of any research on carbonate budget within mangroves (both fossil and modern?
    I am wondering if mangrove environments have ever been considered in global carbonate budget calculations? How are these systems affected by climate/drainage change?
    Stephanie Larmagnat · Laval University

    Many thanks for your answers and for the recommended readings. The work on mangroves is on hold for the moment (in French Guiana actually) but my interest is still there!

  • Brahim Damnati asked a question:
    After sampling of tree rings, where we can put the samples before isotopic analysis?

    Tree rings?

  • Mahjoor A. Lone added an answer:
    Where can I find hIgh-resolution paleoclimatic data for the Roman period of 3rd century AD for Iberia (references needed)?

    We observe a dramatic drop in export of fish products of the Iberian Atlantic coast in the middle of the 3 cent. AD. We discuss presently cooling, Mega-ENSO, catastrophic event (tsunami), pirates, political or economic crisis in the western outskirts of the Roman Empire. Who can contribute? We need high-resolution data in terms of years or decades. Thanks in advance, Klaus

    Mahjoor A. Lone · National Geophysical Research Institute

    Dear Klaus

    I have generated Indian summer monsoon (ISM) variability data using Indian speleothems (Not yet published) and have encountered an adverse decline in ISM activity. This is actually an extended dry event of around 3000 years during Roman Warm Period (RWP). Since it is understood that RWP was warmer in most of the Europe and North Atlantic, I am currently working to crack this discrepancy. Once published, i will send you a copy.



  • P. Divakar Naidu added an answer:
    What's the evolution history for ice sheets in polar regions during the Holocene?

    As I know, palaeoclimatologists use benthic foraminifera oxygen isotope to reconstruct the ice volume. However, this contains both Arctic and Antarctica information. Shall we separate the signal? Thanks.

    P. Divakar Naidu · National Institute of Oceanography

    I agree with K.G. Miller that from 5 ka onwards ice sheets in both polar regions are stable.

  • Valenti Turu added an answer:
    Could I use isotope ratios of precipitation and lake water to quantitatively calculate past water balance?

    I have reconstructed the isotope ratios of precipitation and lake water, and I have the reconstructed temperature record.

    Could I use these to quantitatively calculate the water balance in the past?

    Could some palaeolimnologists give some suggestions? Thanks.

    Valenti Turu · Marcel Chevalier Earth Sciences Foundation

    Yes, you are right. May be I did not explain correctly, sorry. A nice paper about C/N ratio possibilities is maybe Wilson et al (2005); Quaternary Science Reviews, 24, 2015-2029.

    Best regards

  • Florian Mittermayr added an answer:
    What is incongruent dolomite dissolution?

    Can some body tell me about the the inciongruent deolomite dissolution in speleology?

    Florian Mittermayr · Graz University of Technology

    Take a look at the book Geochemistry, Groundwater and Pollution from Appelo and Postma. They describe dedolomitization very well in natural environments. 

    In our studies we investigated dedolomitization in highly alkaline solutions and in concrete. Maybe you will find some more information there.

About Paleoclimatology

Paleoclimatology (palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.

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