• Xiaolin Ma asked a question:
    How can I explain the relationship between the CCD, pCO2, ice-sheet expansion at the E/O boundary at ~34 Ma?

    Please look at the attached figure (Heiko Palike et al., 2012, nature). At ~34 Ma, we can find the CCD deepening, carbonate accumulation, pCO2 decreasing,  ice-sheet expansion, and Antarcitic cooling. Mybe the trigger was  ice-sheet expansion induced by  low insolation. If the decrease of the pCO2 was uptaked by ocean, will be not good for carbonate accumulation. Isn't that a bit of a contradiction? How about the relationship between these variations? Thank you very much!

  • Antonio Flores Díaz added an answer:
    Which types of climate proxies are able to show seasonality changes in the Holocene climate?

    Is it possible to demonstrate seasonality changes in the climates using non-laminated sediment cores? If yes, which climate proxies are suitable for this purpose?

    Antonio Flores Díaz

    In sediments and alluvial soils and lake sediments can be seen this kind of change by varying the deposition of salts and mineralogy and particle size of the materials.

  • Stuart Arthur Harris added an answer:
    Can anyone help me with information/publications of the genus: Pupoides Pfeiffer, 1854 (ecology, distribution, etc.)?

    I need more information for paleoclimatic reconstruction. The shells were found in Holocene sediments from central-western Argentina

    Stuart Arthur Harris

    The genus Pupoides has 44 species, of which only one P.  albilabris C. B. Adams, 1841, is found in Canada.  Four species are found in the United States,  two of which are probably fossil, being  washed out of Pleistocene deposits (Hubricht, 1985, Fieldiana, Zoology Series #24.  The rest are distributed across Africa, Asia, South America and Australia. In North America.  In the USA, they are a species of bar ground, roadsides, old quarries and waste ground, usually on a calcareous substrate in humid climates.

  • James S Eldrett added an answer:
    What are the origins of DeVries (~200 year) and Gleissberg (~83 year) solar cycles?
    I am trying to find information on DeVries (~200 year) and Gleissberg (~83 year) solar cycles. What is their origin? Are these manifestations of the 11 year sunspot cycle or some other mechanism? A pointer to any publications much appreciated.
    James S Eldrett

    Thankyou Boris, all for your insights. Definitely a great area of research and future insights. I will update this post once we have a manuscript to share or have further follow up. Thankyou again, James

  • Nicolas Tribovillard added an answer:
    What proxy is useful to find out about drought during the Holocene in the Eastern Arabian Sea?

    I use marine sediments to find out drought during the Holocene in the Eastern Arabian Sea. What are the data useful to support my objective? 

    Nicolas Tribovillard


    sepiolite or attapulgite (special clay minerals) could be indicative of sebkha-type environments.

  • Christopher C. Sorlien added an answer:
    Can you provide information about erosion of huge ice stream/piedmont glacier troughs?

    S. Davis, me, et al 2014 AGU abstract proposed that a 400 km-long, 50 km-wide pre-30 Ma buried erosional and rift trough in Ross Sea could have last been eroded by ice, and this ice could have been from the earliest (33 Ma) East and/or West Antarctic Ice sheet. This was very controversial among our co-authors, and we allowed other possibilities, such as River erosion after rifting ceased, assuming restoring differential subsidence removes the huge reverse gradients of the major unconformity along the trough axes.

    Related to this:

    Question 1: Is large (Piedmont) glacial or ice stream erosion like River erosion, where the ice can cut down on the order of 1 km in 1 or 2 million years if out of equilibrium in one direction (while the bed would instead aggrade if out of equilibrium in the other direction. I know that cold-based ice streams/glaciers are frozen to their beds and do not erode.

    Question 2: Do you know of examples of 50 km-wide and >500 m deep troughs known to be deeply eroded by ice in a couple of million years or less? I’m thinking Northern Hemisphere like Greenland, because ice had not been there for tens of millions of years. Laurentian Trough on the shelf of Atlantic Canada may be one example, but I have not been able to find papers or seismic reflection data that show the base of the sub-bottom trough (we have figures of the sea floor trough, which is 50 km-wide but only a couple of hundred meters deep.

    I am being a bit lazy; I have an abstract deadline on this in a week and just have not had time to focus on looking into the literature because I have had to spend my time on the Ross Sea interpretation and other projects.

    (Davis et al is a student abstract; is my project).



    Christopher C. Sorlien

    Thank you. this is useful. But, I suspect that most Norwegian fjords do not have the large scale of what I am studying: 50 km-wide eroded trough (hundreds of km-long). We are making progress on our paleotopography/bathymetry, but it is likely that the Ross Sea pre-30 Ma erosion had to cut to about 2 km below paleo-sea level (generally less, but in middle of the 2 closed basins, maybe 2 km).

    If you have any references on such large troughs, please post them.


  • Wolfram Meier-Augenstein added an answer:
    Can someone recommend an IRMS use methodology ?
    Stable isotope analysis
    Wolfram Meier-Augenstein

    What instrumental methodology (IRMS or Laser CRDS) is best suited will depend on your application.  Laser CRDS systems are less expensive than IRMS systems but are limited to analysis of CO2 (13C; 18O) and water (2H; 18O).  IRMS systems can be coupled to gas chromatographs (2H, 13C, 15N, 18O), HPLC (13C only), elemental analyzer (13C, 15N, 34S) and high temperature conversion elemental analyzer (2H, 18O).

    For a comprehensive guide to IRMS methodology have a look at this guide: Guide Finalv3.1_Web.pdf

  • Carmen Fraticelli added an answer:
    Can anyone help me with Cenozoic European paleomaps that are or can be geo-referenced?

    I need European maps for the Cenozoic that can be used in GIS to plot fossil data.

    Carmen Fraticelli

    Actually, what you need is a plate model first.  Fossil data should be plotted (in GIS) on present day maps.  Then you reconstruct them back to a specific time period (Cenozoic is too broad).  The second overlay is the depositional environments followed by the paleotopography/bathymetry.  You can, in this way, also test the validity of the paleoenviromental maps. 

  • Natalia S Duxbury added an answer:
    Does anyone have data about weight ice content (ice wedges, massive ice bodies and segregation ice) and bulk density in Arctic permafrost deposits?

    Papers, references, databases? Quaternary deposits of Beringia region (from Taymir to Alaska) are interest for me....

    Natalia S Duxbury

    Articles by V. E. Romanovsky and me on this ResGate, also D. Nicolsky and other members of the V. E. Romanovsky's group at the UAF, Alaska.

  • Selvaraj Kandasamy added an answer:
    Does anyone know how the westerlies affect the central Tibetan Plateau where the precipitation dominated by Indian Summer Monsoon?

    There are a lot of literatures suggest that the westerlies could take precipitation into the central Tibetan Plateau and far more eastern areas during the cold period. Do anyone give some evidence?

    Selvaraj Kandasamy

    Please check the paper on Holocene moisture evolution in arid central Asia and its out of phase relationship with Asian monsoon history by Chen, F.H. et al. published in the year 2008. They discussed the influence of Westerlies in arid China during the Holocene, though they are not entertained any discussion of the Westerlies on the Tibet, in particular. 

  • Antonio Fernando Menezes Freire added an answer:
    How can I estimate paleotemperatures based on oxygen isotopes of dolomite cement? Could someone point me to a good reference?

    How can I estimate paleotemperatures based on oxygen isotopes of dolomite cement? Could someone point me to a good reference?

    Antonio Fernando Menezes Freire


  • Richard Stern added an answer:
    Where can I find estimated Global Sea-level history data sets for the past 140,000 years?

    I want to plot global sea level changes for the past 140,000 to determine trends in marine taxa radiations in the oceans. I have been unable to find data sets from NOAA. 


    Richard Stern

    Not sure if you are looking for an already completed dataset for global changes, or trying to compile it from regional any rate, here are a few references mostly from the circumpolar world with "sea-level" in the title.  Cheers, Richard

    Moore, G. W.

    1960 Recent Eustatic Sea-Level Fluctuations Recorded by Arctic Beach Ridges. In U.S. Geological Survey Research, 1960, pp. B355-357. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 400, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C.

    Hume, James D.

    1965 Sea-level Changes During the Last 2000 Years at Point Barrow, Alaska. Science 150:1165-1166.

    Kind, N. V.

    1973 Late Quaternary Climatic Changes, Sea-level Fluctuations and Glacial Events of the Old and New World: Geochronology According to Isotopic Data. In The Bering Land Bridge and Its Role for the History of Holarctic Faunas in the Late Cenozoic (Abstracts), Academy of Sciences of U.S.S.R., Far-Eastern Scientific Center, Khabarovsk.

    McManus, Dean A. and Joe S. Creager

    1984 Sea-Level Data for Parts of the Bering-Chukchi Shelves of Beringia from 19,000 to 10,000 14C Yr B.P. Quaternary Research 21:317-325.

    Shennan, I., M. J. Tooley, M. J. Davis and A. Haggart

    1983 Analysis and Interpretation of Holocene Sea-Level Data. Nature 302:404-410.

    Searle, D. J. and P. J. Woods

    1986 Detailed Documentation of a Holocene Sea-Level Record in the Perth Region, Southwestern Australia. Quaternary Research 26(1):299-308.

    Shugar, Dan H., Iam J. Walker, Olav B. Lian, Jordan B.R. Eamer, Christina Neudorf, Duncan McLaren and Daryl Fedje

    2014 Post-glacial Sea-level Change Along the Pacific Coast of North America. Quaternary Science Reviews 97(2014):170-192.





  • P.J. Mudie added an answer:
    What age correction is needed for mollusc C-14 dates from Black and Marmara Sea lacustrine phases?

    High resolution dating of events in the Black and Marmara Seas during non-marine phases requires appropriate correction of C-14 ages because shells are not in equilibrium with global values of ca. 400 yr. Proposed values range from 0 (fully mixed, in equilibrium with atmosphere, no correction needed) to 1000 yrs (benthos contain old bottom water or river transported carbon). Peat (grows in equilbrium with atmosphere) compared to in-situ shell from the same sample   indicates a reservoir correction of ca. 850 yrs is needed for shells. Which correction value is correct for A) Black Sea? B) Marmara Sea with overflow water.

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Dating of major sea-level changes using shells or calcareous microfossils is prone to errors in semi-enclosed marine environments where inputs of seawater and river water vary over time and space. The need to refine mollusc-based age estimates for the rate of the Holocene marine transgression in the Black Sea is the focus of multiple palaeoceanographic and archaeological studies. This ongoing “dating game” seeks to clarify conflicting evidence for a hypothetical catastrophic marine flood that forced the emigration of Neolithic farmers from the shores of a Holocene freshwater lake in the Black Sea. The potential importance of confirming or rejecting this megaflood hypothesis has led to multiple attempts at refining the chronology of the marine transgression and quantifying the palaeosalinity of the Black Sea surface water during the Holocene. Here we report that six new AMS radiocarbon ages of 8890 ± 50 to 8450 ± 40 yr BP were obtained for wood, grass and sedge leaves from peat layers in Core 342 at 33.16 - 32.71 m below present sea level on the Ukrainian Shelf. These plant materials provide critical new ages for quantifying Black Sea carbon reservoir issues. The accuracy of our new AMS wood/peat ages is independently supported by palynochronological correlation. The ages of our plant materials have ~100 years precision and are ~420 - 520 years younger than those previously reported for unsorted detrital peat in Core 342. Paired mollusc—wood ages for brackish—freshwater Dreissena polymorpha shell from detrital peat also shows that an inaccuracy of >1120 yr can arise for shells during times when carbon reservoir values in the semi-isolated, brackish-water Black Sea could depart significantly from global average. Our revised sea level curve shows a gradual early Holocene transgression from water depths of −45.9 to −32.8 m, with initial Mediterranean inflow by 8.9 ka BP.
      Open Journal of Marine Science 01/2014; 4(1):1-7. DOI:10.4236/ojms.2014.41001
    P.J. Mudie

    Thanks for all your answers. In Marmara Sea we have new cores with lacustrine sediment containing shells next to tephra layers dated by wood. These may provide a more accurate reservoir correction value for the late Pleistocene interval.

  • Sidney Ash added an answer:
    Could any Palaeobotanist help me to identify the ancient plants?

    The picture was taken from a piece of core in the late Triassic Ordos basin. Could any Palaeobotanist please help me to identify the ancient plants and list its implications for paleoclimate : in the late Triassic Ordos Basin, central China.  It deposited in deltaic or lacustrine environment. I want to know its Latin name and implications for paleoclimate. Thanks a lot!

    Sidney Ash

    I agree with Han, we need a better picture.

  • Zhitong Yu added an answer:
    Can a modeler help me test my hypothesis using a model (such as GCM) to modified topography ?

    I infer that there probably existed a passage between the Tibetan Plateau and the Qinling Mountains during the Late Miocene based a lot of tectonic and climatic records. Development of the passage was mainly controlled by the eastward expansion of the Tibetan Plateau, which constrained rainfall transported by the Asian summer monsoon to flow into interior China. I need a modeler help me to test this hypothesis? Please contact me for specific information 

    + 1 more attachment

    Zhitong Yu


  • Jamal Munshi added an answer:
    What is the 1-sigma and 2-sigma error in radiocarbon dating?
    What is 1-sigma and 2-sigma error in the radiocarbon dating and how to decide which error range we should use for the data set?
    Jamal Munshi

    I think we should stick to probability based confidence intervals such as the commonly used 95% CI. This is what I have done in my paper on radiocarbon dating which I believe is available on Researchgate and if not it may also be found at

  • Massih Afghah added an answer:
    Is there any hard evidence concerning the thickness of the Precambrian troposphere?

    Simply, I’m looking for papers that gives me knowledge about any models or assumption concerning the thickness of troposphere of Early Atmosphere, e.i. during the Neo-, Meso- and PaleoProterozoic?

    Thanks in advance, Zbyszek

    Massih Afghah

    Dear Zybszek

    I think the attached paper is useful for your question



  • Fadhil A. Lawa added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest how the ecological functioning of PETM and Early Eocene climatic optimum can add value to E & P of hydrocarbon?

    Distinguished Colleague, am working on the ECOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING OF ZOO AND PHYTOPLANKTON COMMUNITIES ACROSS THE PALEOCENE-EOCENE HYPER THERMAL EVENTS. Can anyone suggest how this can add value to petroleum exploration and production?

    Fadhil A. Lawa

    The PETM can influence the organic material in this boundary and  its quite common in iran at the Top of Pabdeh Formation ,where its also responsible for oil generations in certain oil fields

  • Chris Gueymard added an answer:
    What is the difference between insolation and solar irradiance?

    In paleoclimate research, there always talking about the forcing factors, such as insolation and solar irradiance. However, I could not make it clear the difference between them. I have some knowledge about the latter one, which indicate the activity of the sun, such as sunspot, and could be measured by 10Be and 14C.

    Could you shared some of your opinions on this? Thanks.

    Chris Gueymard

    Insolation is a vague colloquial term, not a scientific quantity--at least not anymore

    The terms to use are either irradiance (W/m2) or irradiation for accumulated energy over time (MJ/m2 or kWh.m2)

  • S. K. Shah added an answer:
    Where can I get a detailed map of the Triassic of India?

    Does anyone know of detailed geologic maps of India? Thanks in advance...

    S. K. Shah

    Visit the website of Geological Survey of India and ask for maps of north west Himalaya and Gondwana rocks

  • Boaz Lazar added an answer:
    Does anyone know "Increased carbonate production and burial in epeiric seas,decreasing the [CO32-],leading to the positive d18O excursions ?

    It is about stable isotope geochemistry

    Boaz Lazar

    CaCO3 precipitation decreases the carbonate alkalinity (HCO3-+2*CO32-) and not the CO32- alone. Precipitation of CaCO3 however increases the partial pressure of CO2 in the sea (Ca2++HCO3-=CaCO3(s)+CO2(aq)+H2O) that may l escape to the atmosphere and taken up by the phytoplankton population both leading to increase in the 13C/12C of seawater DIC (dissolved inorganic carbon) and no significant change in the 18O/16O ratio, as indicated by Julie in the answer above. In epeiric sea the situation is more complicated because also changes in the alkalinity input from the nearby land masses may shift the carbon balance of the sea. 

    Hope that it helped,


  • P. K. Gautam added an answer:
    Can anyone provide me with the tropical solar irradiance during Bølling-Allerød period?

    I am interested in understanding the solar irradiance of Tropics during Bølling-Allerød period. I am not able to get the data/curve for the said period. 

    P. K. Gautam

    Thanx !

    I'll do it definitely.

  • James Blinkhorn added an answer:
    What was the nature/variability of Middle/Upper Pleistocene environments in the Senegal River Valley?

    I'm interested in patterns of Palaeoenvironmental variability in the Senegal Valley during the Middle and Upper Pleistocene, particularly in the lower valley after the confluence with the Faleme River. However, I am having trouble finding modern sources of information, and many older sources are not available on-line. Can anyone help direct me to available/key resources that document patterns of environmental variability in the Senegal Valley?

    James Blinkhorn

    Hi Johannes,

    Thanks for the links - terrestrial proxies are pretty rare in this part of the world it seems!



  • Gustavo Hinestrosa added an answer:
    What was the fate of coastal currents (West India Coastal Current, East India Coastal Current) along the Indian coasts, during the glacial period?

    I'm trying to reconstruct the productivity changes in the southeastern Arabian Sea, during the last glacial period. The foraminiferal proxies suggest an increased glacial productivity in this region. I want to understand the physical forcing, responsible for high surface primary productivity in this region during the last glacial period.

    Gustavo Hinestrosa

    I would also suggest to search for articles on the Eastern Australia Current or the Southern Equatorial Current that circulate offshore Queensland, Australia. Whilst it is a very different region, there is some work on the evolution of these currents since the LGM and this might give you some useful insight (hopefully) on what was going on in India during the last glaciation. Good luck.

  • Michelle Mckeown added an answer:
    What are the key uncertainties and knowledge gaps in palaeoclimatology in South America and ENSO activity?

    I'm a current masters student and wanted to see if people are aware of knowledge gaps in ENSO activity in South America and/or palaeoclimatology reconstruction needed. I've looked in a lot of literature and seems to be a lot of modelling for ENSO activity not actual proxy evidence, is this true?

    Michelle Mckeown

    Dear Gareth,

    You might find this book helpful. Sarah E. Metcalfe and David J. Nash (2012) Quaternary Environmental Change in the Tropics

  • Stéphane Bersac added an answer:
    Does anyone knows if data on OAE1a were published for the Paris Basin?
    I'm looking for data about the characterisation of the Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a (Lower Cretaceous, Aptian) in the Paris Basin (France), or at least data about carbon isotope record in this area. Thanks in advance!
    Stéphane Bersac

    Thanks a lot for these info!

  • Xianghui Li added an answer:
    What age are the bivalves?

    Bivlaves occur as very thinned coquina blanket in the Mesozoic strata in southern Tibet (Tethyan Himalaya). Quite abundant by single taxon. What species or genus in what age? T, J, or K? or in epoch?

    + 3 more attachments

    Xianghui Li


  • Jooly Jaiswal added an answer:
    What are the main points during Speleothem sampling?

    Can somebody tell me the proper site for speleothem sampling?

    I am little bit confused whether is taken from the location where it is equilibrium with external atmosphere or deep from the cave where humidity is near about 100. Some one told me the sample collected near from the cave entrance are most significant for the climatic study because it records the diurnal variation of the atmosphere. but here the kinetic fractionation also goverened the precipitation process please tell me the exact things.

    Jooly Jaiswal

    Thank you so much Mr. Silviu Costantin for your answer. Now I am understand the point of consideration during the speleothem sampling.

  • Sharon Kanfoush added an answer:
    What is the magnitude of global dimming?
    To what extent does global dimming counteract global warming, and where could I find data on the amount of global dimming through time? Also, what is the current status of the debate about whether global dimming versus natural SST cyclicity (e.g. AMO) played a role in the 1980s drought and famine in the Sahel?
    Sharon Kanfoush

    Many thanks, Arturo.

About Paleoclimatology

Paleoclimatology (palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.

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