Organizational Theory

Organizational Theory

  • José Luis Arcos-Vega added an answer:
    What is the relationship among state, trait, attitude, and behavior?
    In organizational behavior, we need to know the relationship among these concepts.
    José Luis Arcos-Vega · Autonomous University of Baja California

    Well if you generate a related study these four categories have to investigate what is your hypothesis you propose as there are uncontrollable variables that are not available or control this phenomenon to studies from the prospect of the methodology that applies to your research will have to limit the study subject especially if you have behavioral tendencies of individuals involved in an organization

  • Donald Ibama Hamilton added an answer:
    What distinguished a functional, from a matrix or process organization?
    Some suggest that the matrix organization is the next level in organization development were some areas consist of traditional functional departments, such as IT, or HR, whereas other parts of the organization, such as sales and marketing, completely transformed into a process driven organization.
    Donald Ibama Hamilton · Rivers State University of Science and Technology

    THE MATRIX IS A HYBRID BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONAL AND PRODUCT STRUCTURES . It is a structure that allows a subordinate to report to two bosses(Product and functional bosses)

  • Donald Ibama Hamilton added an answer:
    In a undergraduate course about organizational theory, what contents do you suggest?

    We are looking to update the contents of our undergraduates courses, so we'll appreciate the suggestions from all around the world.

    Donald Ibama Hamilton · Rivers State University of Science and Technology

    Organisational structure and design, Environment, Technology , Strategy, Efficiency, Effectiveness Goals,Objectives ,etc

  • Mehdi Rajabi Asadabadi added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest research papers on strategies managing of workforce diversity?
    see above
    Mehdi Rajabi Asadabadi · University of San Jose-Recoletos

    How about this:

  • Amit Rechavi added an answer:
    Does anyone know any research/publications regarding positions and roles within multi-relational networks or multigraphs? 


    I am analyzing formal organizational structures as network of tasks. Tasks (nodes) result from the devision of labor and are put into relation by different coordination mechanisms (edges). As this network can be seen as multi-relational (due to the different types of coordination, e.g. hierarchy, work-flow) I am not sure how to analyze, for example, the centrality of a task which has a central position within the hierarchy but not in the work-flow.

    Any hints?

    Thanks in advance.

    Amit Rechavi · Ruppin Academic Center

    Good Luck :-)

  • Beata Stępień added an answer:
    What are the terms: Public Choice, Transaction Cost and Principal-Agent Theories?
    What are Public Choice, Transaction Cost and Principal-Agent Theories, Public Administration or Governance?
    I have gone through some articles but have not been able to comprehend.
    All I need is brief explanation to understand what these are in 4-5 lines each.
    Beata Stępień · Poznan University of Economics

    TCT, (Transaction cost theory) broadly speaking, aims at answering the question of what kind of governance structure should be chosen in a particular environmental set in order to optimize economic actions. The two alternative models of governance are taken into account: the firm with its hierarchy system and the market with its price mechanism.However, the most interesting part, at least for  the authors of this  article, is the so called ’’„swallen middle” – hybrid relations, where the features of both price mechanism and hierarchy system are mixed.

    Each model (internal hierarchy, market or hybrid solution) can be chosen by an entity to manage any of its transactions, and the choice of this particular governance structure is the result of an assessment of certain traits in the environment and the nature of economic action. Choosing a model for governing transactions generates a different set of the intra- and inter- organisational relations. The basis for such an analysis is an adequate estimation of the value of a given operation subject to a prospective contract, cooperation or pooling. According to the newest body of knowledge in TCT field, cost calculation should be done using the value chain approach, which views value not in accounting terms but in terms of strategic importance of the operation for the entity and/or  the end user of a product or service.The result of this calculation is the certain model of governance with its typical relations:

    - when the hierarchy is chosen, one has to bear with the internal coordination costs and provide the set of managing rules which will minimize shirking,
    - when the market transactions are chosen, relations between the partners are highly formalised by contract rules,
    - when the results of calculation opt for hybrid solutions then the contract between the partners is a rather loose set of contract rules accompanied by a mixture of certain managing and coordinating tools.

    I hope it will help, regards


  • Filippo Ferrari asked a question:
    What are theoretical models to explain discrimination vs non-family members in family firms?

    Help me to find reference of alternative approach to outgroup's discrimination in family business.

  • Yasmine Ealey asked a question:
    Is anyone interested in serving as a participant in a dissertation field test?
    Please see the attached letter for more information. Simply respond to the question directly if you are available and willing to help. Thank you in advance!
  • Silburn Clarke added an answer:
    Which steps are absolutely essential to establish a feeling of trust throughout existing departments of small and medium-sized businesses?
    Everyone is talking about lean management, team building, agile methods and in general about management 2.0. But often we have to face a crucial gap between different styles of management and workflow methods inside a company and in particular between several departments of a company. Thus leading to immense issues concerning communication, productivity and of course trust.

    Therefore I would like to point out the importance of trust as a solid groundwork for a company's successful workflow.
    Silburn Clarke · The University of the West Indies at Mona
    Building trust requires striving for equity, empathy, participation, transparency and competence among the actors in the SME
  • Dr. Marilyn B Field added an answer:
    How can I define "personal characteristics" in organizational research?
    I have found there is difference between personal characteristics and individual characteristics.
    Dr. Marilyn B Field · Give Me Back My Energy; Life Coach, LLC (
    Personal characteristics are usally assessed as part of the hiring process.There are many empirical studies indicating that personality assessments are a strong predictor of job performance. These days such assessments measure EQ and and can also demonstrate less potential for adverse impact than cognitive ability tests. The use of personality assessment for personnel selection is becoming increasingly popular among organizations.

    Cognitive ability tests assess a persons aptitude or potential to solve job-related problems by providing information about their mental abilities such as verbal or mathematical reasoning and perceptual abilities like speed in recognizing letters of the alphabet.

    Integrity tests assess attitudes and experiences related to a persons honesty, dependability, trustworthiness, reliability, and pro-social behavior.

    Great topic, Tareq:
  • Ruth Maria Tappin added an answer:
    As academicians, do we have to evaluate our colleagues for their previous performance, if their current performance is truly outstanding?
    Failure or success of any person in academics sometimes is determined by his/her social environment. Sometimes we have to evaluate our colleagues’ achievement. Do we have to count his previous performance if he managed to crawl out from the failure state and became a successful person?
    Ruth Maria Tappin · Capella University
    This is a loaded question; however, I will offer my personal opinion; however, while past performance may help to provide a more in-depth understanding of an individual's work history, an evaluator must consider that there may have been many reasons why a stellar performer today might have had reports of poor performance in the past. For example, if you worked for an autocratic manager who did not appreciate creativity, innovation and independent though, you might receive poor evaluations from that manager if you were an independent, innovative or creative thinker. If you moved from that stifling environment to one that valued these very characteristics that were not welcomed in your former place of employment, you might bloom, blossom and shine. Thus, you might have a stellar evaluation at your present place of employment - but a poor one from your previous employer. Admitting the narrowness of my interpretation of your question, my point is - wisdom must be applied when considering past performance against present performance since many unknown variables might have an effect on both.
  • Gustavo Concari added an answer:
    Which are the published Business Model frameworks or constructs that better include and address organizational design dimensions?
    I am looking for approaches to business model design that take into fair account the mutual influences between the business model itself and the organizational structure (both at a macro and a micro level).
    Gustavo Concari · Universidad Católica del Uruguay Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga
    Dear All:
    I find very interesting the discussion about business models. I teach management at a degree level faculty and find these tools very usefull. However, I ask myself if that is all. I mean: are there other "clients" for these ideas?, like for instant managers or entrepreuneurs. I ask myself if the models we teach to our students are useful or not for the persons that work inside organizations. What would you say?


    Gustavo Concari
  • Carmen Wrede added an answer:
    What is ambiguity in organizations? How can managers and organizations deal with ambiguity?
    I read James March's book and find the concept very interesting.
    Carmen Wrede · FernUniversität in Hagen
    "Since a worker needs to understand clearly what his or her role is, not clearly knowing what one’s role is may result in negative situations."

    Have you ever had this moment when you had a really clear vision of something but when you brought it out it was just different and all you got out of it was this "vision of Johanna" feeling?
  • Lars Taxén added an answer:
    Are there any contributions linking neuroscience research on coordination to coordination in organizations?
    Coordination is an elusive concept. I believe that coordination cannot be fully understood unless we can link our innate predispositions for coordinating our every-day actions, like walking or communicating, to coordination in social setting like organizations. Extant research contributions focusing on this link are, as far as I can tell, sparse. I want to find out more about such contributions.
    Lars Taxén · Linköping University
    Thanks all for your valuable comments and references. I have looked through the references, but I can’t really find what I’m looking for. Most are biased towards the neural realm, whereas my main interest is more how the neural and social realms are interrelated. Llinás (2001, p. 64) expressed this as follows: “The most important issue in brain research today is that of the internalization or embedding of the universals of the external world into an internal functional space”.

    My line of reasoning is very simple indeed. In order to survive, evolution has brought about certain capabilities for coordinating our actions towards achieving goals that benefit us. Whichever capabilities these are, we must employ them in every situation we encounter, be that making a cup of coffee or coordinating large telecom projects (which I have been deeply involved with). We can’t change our human nature when moving from one situation to another.

    So, which are these neural or cognitive coordinative capabilities? In my research I have suggested six different ones, which I believe are all necessary but most likely not sufficient. First, you have to be able to contextualize the situation where the action takes place; to identify relevant things and disregard the rest. Second, you must have the ability to direct your attention to the object in focus for the activity. Third, you must be able to orient yourself spatially in the context. You need to recognize how relevant things are in relation to each other, and what properties you confer upon them. Fourth, you must acquire a sense for the temporal and dynamic structure of the activity; to predict how actions should be carried out in a certain order for achieving the goal. Fifth, you need to routinize actions that are successful in a particular kind of situation. Finally, you must be able to shift attention from one focus to another. A brain lesion that affects any of these capabilities will efficiently arrest coordination. For example, if the superior colliculus is damaged, you cannot shift attention, which is detrimental for acting in the world. For the interested, more details about this approach can be found here:

    Thus, my reseach question can be broadly stated as "which are the neural correlates of these six capabilities, and how do they interact?"

    So, I guess what I’m looking for are works in a similar vein that bridge the neural and social realm on “equal footing” so to say. Any suggestions are most welcome.

    Llinás, R.R. (2001). I of the vortex: from neurons to self. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
  • Milad Shz added an answer:
    Can any one suggest some review studies on "organization structure and strategy" or "organization structure and org life cycle(olc)"?
    Can any one suggest some review studies on organization structure and strategy or organization structure and org life cycle(olc)?
    Milad Shz · University of Tehran
    @Ra'ed :
    Hi Ra'ed
    I think the theoretical is more relevant to my work
    Thank you for reply
  • Is there a difference between being "critical" and being "reflexive"?
    In the context of social theory generally, and critical theory more specifically. If so, how to best describe this difference?
    Carlos Hernan Gonzalez-Campo · Universidad del Valle (Colombia)
    Although both types of research are valid, the argumentation in the reflexive research can be more neutral to make a contribution to the subject.
  • Ramakrishnan Ramachandran added an answer:
    If I forgot to do the pilot study for my PhD research, is there any way to make up for that mistake?
    Unfortunately I have already collected all the data for my study and analyzed it.

    I am in trouble guys.
    Please if you have any experience with this, please share it

    Thank you
    Ramakrishnan Ramachandran · Classic Consultants Salem India
    Pilot study is undertaken to find out the validity of the questions in the questionnaire so that the questions can be added/ deleted or modified as the case may be. Since you have already done the full analysis. Still you can use the first 30 or 40 questionnaires collected as pilot study and analyze them separately and check it with the full analysis. In all probability there may not be much difference.
    Also see whether your findings are in tune with earlier research.
    If there is some difference you can go for further experiments on those portions to make the study more rigorous
    Wish you all the best
  • Robert Ian Westwood added an answer:
    Does management science have its own paradigm?
    In some simplification, it can be assumed that the paradigm is a key scientific assertion that aims to explain the complexity of the real world, shared by all scholars. This theorem is of fundamental importance for the study and could be considered as the basis that helps to create other theorems.

    In Poland, theorists assume that management sciences is still not developed enough to create its own paradigm that would unite together all occurring trends, directions and schools.

    I'm interested in whether similar views are expressed by researchers in other countries.
    Is management science need a paradigm at all?
  • Robert Larsson added an answer:
    Does anybody know any references/articles/review articles about Lean thinking in the public sector
    Quite often people ask me if Lean thinking/management is a smart way of working in the public sector. It's a question about being effective and efficient as organisations in terms of performance. Also people are worried about effects of lean on well-being and motivation.
    Robert Larsson · Malardalen University
    An important issue and here are some additional suggestions. Another interesting paper by Radnor & Osborne (2013) is "Lean: A failed theory for public services?" in Public Management Review.
    Additionally, Peter Hasle has written about Lean and the work environment. For example, in the e-book "Prerequisites for Healthy Organizational Change"
  • Amer A. Al-Atwi added an answer:
    What is the difference between organizational identity, organizational reputation, organizational image and perceived external prestige?
    How to distinguish between these constructs theoretically and practically.
    Amer A. Al-Atwi · Al Muthanna University
    According to Brown et al. (2006: 101):
    Organizational Identity provides an answer to “Who are we as an organization?” and refer to general beliefs about the organization held by organizational members.
    Organizational reputation provides an answer to “What do stakeholders actually
    think of the organization?” and refers to general beliefs about the organization actually held by others outside the organization.
    Organizational image provides an answer to “What does the organization want others to think about the organization?” and describes general beliefs about the organization that organization leaders want important audiences to hold.
    Perceived external prestige “What does the organization believe others think of the organization?” and refers to general beliefs that organization members believe others outside the organization hold about the organization.

    Brown, T., Dacin, P., Pratt, M., & Whetten, D. (2006). Identity, intended Image, construed image, and reputation: An interdisciplinary framework and suggested terminology. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 34, 99-106.
  • Paula Diogo added an answer:
    What reference can I use to define "novice nurse" or "new nurse" and "experienced nurse"?
    I need to divide a sample group between new and experienced nurses. How can I define exactly how much years of experience one and other kind of nurses? I would like to use a reference that clarify this point. Any suggestions would be helpful.
    Paula Diogo · Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Lisboa
    One of the aspects that it considers most relevant in the study of Patricia Benner is to fit a logical research practice to emerging theory; results emerge from practice to provide a theoretical explanation of what nurses actually do.

    I fully agree with the study by Benner to answer the initial question.
  • Lijo Francis added an answer:
    How do you define mentorship? What are the qualities of a good mentor? How would you define toxic mentorship?
    Northouse (2010) does not mention the word mentorship in his description of each of the main types of leadership. Is it possible that mentorship could also be practiced in a transformational, transactional, servant, or leader-member exchange paradigm?

    Northouse, P. (2010). Leadership: Theory and Practice. California: SAGE Publications, Inc.
  • Hong Y. Park added an answer:
    Does anyone have a definition for the term "organizational practice"?
    The term is used in research articles but is seldom defined. Can you suggest references?
    Hong Y. Park · Saginaw Valley State University
    The definition of practice is execution or implementation of a plan or an idea in organization. For example, the divisional form of organization was to solve an organizational problem of GM. First, the organization needs to design a plan to solve the organizational problem. Design is making knowledge useful in solving the organizational problem. Once the plan is implemented that practice will become a routine. Routine is known as the god of manufacturing because it makes the operation smooth and efficient. However, it is requisite to make changes in routine for improvement. The organization needs to make seamless transition from an old routine to a new routine if possible. Innovation can be disruptive in organizational operation as Schumpeter stated. Today's business or organizational practice, 'continuing improvement' is to make changes frictionless or smooth (routine) in organizational innovation.
  • Amer A. Al-Atwi asked a question:
    What is difference between management and administration?
    Any explanation about the difference between management and administration would be appreciated.
  • Gazi Islam added an answer:
    What are some examples of aesthetic judgments in organizations?
    I am looking for good examples of situations in organizations (business or otherwise) where people have to make and/or discuss aesthetic judgments. Examples beyond the typically cited example of "evaluating product features", and "office design layouts."
    Gazi Islam · Grenoble École de Management
    Related to the question of aesthetics, has the recent growth in perspectives on "materiality" informed our knowledge of organizational aesthetics? What is the difference, if any, between the materiality discussions and the aesthetics discussions?
  • Aieman Ahmad Al-Omari added an answer:
    What is the most important attribute of successful leadership for a successful organization?
    Aieman Ahmad Al-Omari · Hashemite University
    Totally agree with all answers. I think now days the most aspect of leadership is RESILIENCE.
  • Umema Hani added an answer:
    What is the impact of project management in the software engineering business?
    Project management
    Umema Hani · COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
    When it comes Multiple people involvement in Software engineering business, Project Management is un-avoidable.
  • Amer A. Al-Atwi asked a question:
    What is a best paper or book explain population ecology theory?
    Detailed explanation about population ecology theory
  • Abdulla Ahmed Alali asked a question:
    What is the difference between transformational change and change management?
    Change management is a broad term, transformational change would be one specific type of change initiative.

About Organizational Theory

General organizational theory

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