Organizational Theory

Organizational Theory

  • Stephan Kaiser added an answer:
    Does a scale for paradoxical thinking or paradoxical frames exist apart from the scale of Ingram et al. 2014?

    I am searching for a scale that measure paradoxical thinking or paradoxical frames, favourably a German scale. 

    Stephan Kaiser

    Dear Rafael Wilms,

    you may connect to Arjan Kozica (ESB Reutlingen), he is doing research on paradox theory and might support you.

    Best wishes Stephan Kaiser

  • Ra'ed (Moh'd Taisir) Masa'deh added an answer:
    Motivational leadership involves presenting a clear organizational vision and inspiring employees to work towards this vision. What do you think?

    Transformational leadership can be defined as “a motivational leadership style which involves presenting a clear organizational vision and inspiring employees to work towards this vision through establishing connections with employees, understanding employees’ needs, and helping employees reach their potential, contributes to good outcomes for an organisation” (Fitzgerald and Schutte, 2010, p.495).

    My question is how to inspire others? any solid techniques?

    Thank you so much.   

    Ra'ed (Moh'd Taisir) Masa'deh

    Dear Sir Ljubomir Jacić,

    Thank you so much for your kind contribution. 


  • Martin Parker added an answer:
    Workplace democracy was a concept of the 1970's (Carol Pateman, etc.). Does anyone know about new models and concepts of workplace democracy?
    Workplace Democracy seems to be discussed in the US more than in Europe, maybe due to Europe's stronger trade unions' traditions. In democratic theory, a renaissance of these discussions from the 1970s is not yet visible in Europe, it seems. I am wondering if you know more about this.
    Martin Parker

    There is a lot of material on 'alternative organizing', which of course includes workplace democracy, within the general field of 'critical management studies'. Have a look, for example, at an edited collection I recently did - Martin Parker et al (eds) (2014) The Routledge Companion to Alternative Organizations. 

  • David Giauque added an answer:
    Do you have good references regarding "sociology of public administration"?
    Currently it is easy to find very good books or articles dedicated to "sociology of organization". Astonishingly, it is more complicated to find publications (books or articles) with respect to "sociology of public administration". It seems that these two scientific fields are separated. It seems strange to me.
    David Giauque

     Dear Ronald. Thank you very much for your advise and for the complete answer to my question. I will for sure have a look to these articles and books. And, as I live in a multicultural country I will be able to read also in German.

  • Sivakumar Suppremaniam added an answer:
    Are culture and leadership two sides of the same coin?

    Edgar Schein claims that: "Culture and leadership are two sides of the same coin. When organizations start or when groups start there is always a leader who has a preferred way of doing things, and those preferences by definition are going to be imposed on the group members. If you don’t like the way I run this group, I’ll replace you. The leader’s values and preferences are the first ways that a group or organization does things and if that works it becomes eventually the culture of that group. So in a very real sense, founders and leaders create culture.

    Can the same be true for an organization within business ecosystem?

    Sivakumar Suppremaniam

    Research paper on success of Six Sigma where leadership is one of the critical success factor concluded through statistical data that success of an initiative is influenced  by leadership but not cultural impact.

  • Mohammed Alkhawlani added an answer:
    Challenge question about one of the hottest issues in research methodology?

    Please guys I need your help

    In an organizational research, Assume there are two independent variables named X and Y; and the research aims to study the effect of X and Y on the dependent Variable named Z.

    Till now, doing such study has no problem; but the question is:

    Can I combine X and Y (items) and study the effect of both of them together at the same time on Z.

    IF yes, which theory can cover such this methodology?

    IF no, please Justify why

    Thank you

    Mohammed Alkhawlani

    Dear Michael T. Roether 

    Thank you for your replay

    SEM or PLS Statistically it’s just a tool whatever you input it gives you a result.

    The problem is the theoretical background

    By the way, I have made third order CFA and the result was perfect and I made it with PLS it give me a perfect result

    But with the social science methodology is it acceptable?

    If yes; which theory can cover that statistical method?

    Thank you

  • Mita Brahma added an answer:
    Can Dimensions of Entrepreneurial Orientation be considered as Indvidual Behavior in Organizational Context?

    I am working on technology adoption and looking for individual behaviors of the employees in an organization to measure the adoption of the technology. Can th dimensions of Entrepreneurial Orientation (Innovation, Proactiveness, Risk Taking) be taken as individual behavior (Innovative Behavior, Proactive Behavior and Risk Taking Behavior)? If yes, can someone please tell me some material which can correlate these behaviors with the organizational theory?

    Mita Brahma

    The following paper describes the entrepreneurial behaviour of managers, its antecedents & consequences. While this is not exactly what you want, I do think it is an important paper in your area: 

    Kuratko, D. F., Ireland, R. D. Covin, J. G. & Hornsby, J. S. (2005). A model of middle-level managers' entrepreneurial behaviour. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice. November Issue. 699-716.

  • Muhammad Rafique added an answer:
    Is it feasible to address impact of individual level variables (IVs) on organizational level variables ( DVs)?

    individual level measure  ( organizational commitment): I am loyal to my job etc

    organization level measure ( organization data acquisition capability ) :  My organization uses group discussions for data acquisition  etc

    Generally the literature says NO to this but I have come across certain studies  which have been carried out like this.

    Your comments on this aspect please!

    Thanks in advance

    Muhammad Rafique

    Dear sir,

    I am quite satisfied with your answer as it has solved even next question which I was going to post on RG.

    Once again thank you!



  • Dibya Jyoti Kalita added an answer:
    Is there any knowledge of the performance of cooperative firms?

    Cooperative firms are owned and run by their employees, who receive a fair share of the profit. I'm looking at any existing literature on the performance of such firms. Any suggestions? Thank you. 

    Dibya Jyoti Kalita

    cooperative farming is quite common in India. you can also find literature on the success of  cooperative firm in India. the brand 'AMUL' is good example of success of cooperative firm.

  • Shian-Loong Bernard Lew added an answer:
    How to measure the complexity of organizations?
    Are there measures for complexity of organizational structures, processes, networks or supply chains? And does it even make sense?
    Shian-Loong Bernard Lew

    Look at the nature of its feedback loops (as conceived by Jay Forrester, and in the present John Sterman).However not all types of feedback produces complexity. Garreth Morgan's book, Images of Organization offers a good read on complexity and chaos in an organizational context. Also Pascal's Surfing the edge of chaos. Jeffrey Pfeffer & Charles Perrow were early theorists of complexity approaches in organization theory. A 1999 survey and review attached. Another focal point for organizational complexity are its goals.

    + 2 more attachments

  • Rich Mcdonnell added an answer:
    Which fashion luxury firm's business model is the most innovative? Why? What role does its network contribute to its market power?

    I am interested in gaining a better understanding of how fashion and luxury firms leverage their extended network (e.g., strategic alliance partners) to build and sustain a competitive advantage in the market. 

    Rich Mcdonnell

    Mark - for some reason your comment didn't completely post.

    Please retry - I am looking forward to reading your comment.


  • John Carnegie added an answer:
    Which are the positive impacts of organizational structure in Managed Services?

    Can anyone provide recommendations or articles relating to organizational structure w.r.t managed services / outsourcing within the telecommunication sector.

    I really appreciate any assistance offered.

    John Carnegie

    Hello, Elisha.

    If we view an organization as a named repository for work, resources, services, and other organizations, then the organizational structure should include the work and resources necessary for successful service delivery. If portions of that service delivery are dependent on outsourced services, then the organizational structure should include the work necessary to ensure that the service provider

    • delivers quality discrete services in a timely manner and
    • assures the quality and availability of continuous services to the needs of the contracting organization.

    Hence, the positive impact of the organizational structure is that it embeds the awareness of its dependencies and internal responsibilities necessary to deliver according to its service catalog.

  • Vikas Rai Bhatnagar added an answer:
    I am looking for an instrument that measures directive, transactional, transformational and empowering styles of leadership. Any suggestions please?

    I am exploring the impact of leadership styles on employee performance, with happiness as mediators. Am investigating directive, transactional, transformational and empowering leadership styles. Has anyone used an instrument or is aware of one that measures these four leadership styles?

    Vikas Rai Bhatnagar

    Thanks Perikles, Bharat and Daryn for your valuable inputs. I am finally thinking of developing the scale by using the items given in paper titled "Transactors, transformers and beyond-A multi-method development of a theoretical typology of leadership" authored by Craig L. Pierce et al and published in the Journal of Management Development in 2003.

  • Umema Hani added an answer:
    What is the impact of project management in the software engineering business?
    Project management
    Umema Hani

    I think you should collect organizational data to explore your question

  • Daryn Dyer added an answer:
    How Activity Theory can be applied to help understand and identify the training and development needs in the contemporary organizations?

    it is about Human Resource Development

    Daryn Dyer

    I have looked more closely at activity theory and how it might be applied to organizational training:

    Subject: independent variable, objective: dependent variable

    Mediating/moderating variables: tools, rules, community, division of labour

    The moderating variable need to be synchronized with the training environment. For example, tools: online tutorials, tests, work samples

    rules: company policies, org-cultural precedents-norms, ethics, budget constraints

    Community: peer support, managerial support or lack of , expectations, societal expectations/support, 

    Division of Labour: trainer, trainee, respective motives, co-workers, team-mates

    Bear in mind that: Activity theory is focused on all of the actors both physical and non-physical that play a role in the outcome of a given input. 

  • Luis Fonseca added an answer:
    Can anyone please help me find any peer reviewed articles that show negative relationship between TQM and organizational performance?

    If possible, any recent empirical study.

    Luis Fonseca

    Dear Nischal,


    I suggest the articles below. Most articles report a positive relationship between TQM and Organizational Performance , however there are some that have achieved mixed or even negative relationships:

    - Manal Yunis Joo Jung Shouming Chen, (2013),"TQM, strategy, and performance: a firm-level analysis", International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, Vol. 30 Iss 6 pp. 690 - 714,
    Permanent link to this document

    - Vinod Kumar, Franck Choisne, Danuta de Grosbois, Uma Kumar, (2009),"Impact of TQM on company's performance", International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, Vol. 26 Iss 1 pp. 23-37,

    -  Christos V. Fotopoulos, Evangelos L. Psomas, (2010),"The structural relationships between TQM factors and organizational performance", The TQM Journal, Vol. 22 Iss 5 pp. 539-552 ,http://

    - Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad, (2014),"Why TQM programmes fail? A pathology approach", The TQM Journal, Vol. 26 Iss 2 pp. 160-187,

    I wish you a great research.



  • Ron Koller added an answer:
    Why is the role of an external change management agent important during the change management process?


    I am looking for the latest insights about the role of the external change management agent. The findings should be based on researches. 



    Ron Koller


    as you are probably finding out, not too much empirical research exists about external roles.  I'm sure you can find plenty of industry research done by consulting firms justifying why clients need to hire external consultants.

    In my recent experience as a doctoral student, I found the following book that addressed the difference between "change agents" versus "change recipients."  95% of research has been from the change agent perspective.  Only recently have researchers begun to look at the change recipient point of view.

    Page 20 starts a section called "Organizational Change Roles." While this is not explicitly an answer to your question, they have plenty of references that you could track down.  Also, you could contact the authors too.

    Cawsey, T. F., Deszca, G., & Ingols, C. (2011). Organizational change: An action-oriented toolkit. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Good luck.


  • Mubarak Hussain Haider added an answer:
    What is the impact of transformational leadership on organizational performance?

    How does transformational leadership affect organisational performance?

    Mubarak Hussain Haider

    TFL  is Style of leadership in which the leader identifies the needed change, creates a vision to guide the change through inspiration, and executes the change with the commitment of the members of the group. He has the ability of creating a euphoric situation and every subordinate ignites in a way to achieve more goals among others. Under TFL the healthy competition and ownership  prevail that steers the organization to perform better. Good Luck

  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer:
    Who creates value in the fashion luxury sector?

    Customers find value in rational, emotional or symbolic aspects of luxury items, but when asked very often refer to superior quality, outstanding materials and craftsmanship (which is a rational type of value). Do luxury fashion brands still reflect these values or are they just efficiently communicated?

    Who, in a luxury fashion value chain is responsible for value adding? Where does it lie? In production or in a communication sphere? Is it designed maybe for effective distribution?

    Krishnan Umachandran

    LVMH is the only luxury goods player with two strong category "legs": a very
    strong position in Leather Goods with Louis Vuitton, and an equally strong position
    in premium Wines & Spirits, with a vast portfolio of major brands, including Dom
    Pérignon, Moët et Chandon, Veuve Clicquot and Hennessy. These two divisions
    provide around 80% of group operating profit and about 95% of net cash

  • Gazi Islam added an answer:
    Is there a difference between being "critical" and being "reflexive"?
    In the context of social theory generally, and critical theory more specifically. If so, how to best describe this difference?
    Gazi Islam

    Hello Katherine,

    Thank you for your comment - very useful!  I myself had been thinking of "critical" from the critical theory tradition, which does focus on issues of self-understanding, both in the sense of understanding the composition and limits of one's own thought (i.e. the Kantian tradition), and also the self-understandings of a society vis-a-vis its ideological and material composition.  Perhaps, from this point of view, I find it hard to see how it is possible to be critical without being reflexive, since "critique" in this sense tends to stress "internal" critique.

    I see, though, that if one takes critique to mean 'criticism', than this does not at all imply reflexivity, just opposition. 

    Perhaps a deeper question would be whether non-reflexive 'critique' (not criticism) is possible.  I suppose this would be the case of someone critiquing an system that is not one's own, so self-reflexivity would not be required to launch critique.  Yet even here, critique would imply being able to both understand the 'internal' point of view and see its limits, which would seem to require the critic to take up a reflexive position.

    At any rate, I think the two concepts should probably be seen as analytically distinct, but bound up with each other in a way that is quite intimate but not totally clear.

    Cheers, Gazi

  • Sneha Dohare added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest research papers on strategies managing of workforce diversity?
    see above
    Sneha Dohare

    I am highly obliged from all your response ,

    thank you very much

  • Subhash C. Kundu added an answer:
    What benefits accrue to firms when they choose to finance specific aspects of training rather than general ones?

    At least five answers will do.

    Subhash C. Kundu

    Training of specific aspects means specialized training. This is conducted for developing specialists for specific skilled jobs. Both specific and general training are beneficial as both specialists and generalists are needed by the organizations.

  • David Brunnen added an answer:
    Smart Cities: Are you an expert who is willing to participate in a delphi enquiry about 'smart people' required by 'smart cities'?

    While many aspects of the Smart City idea are being developed at great speed, there is not clarity about the smart people required in this endeavour.  We are keen to interact with thinkers and practitioners who work on Smart Cities to participate in an exploratory delphi enquiry.

    David Brunnen

    Happy to participate.  Intelligent Communities (aka 'Smart Cities) are developed and sustained by far more than the application of technologies.  For many examples, I'd suggest reading Brain Gain - a book distilling years of experiences from studying local economic & societal development. 

    Over and above the essential enabler of digital infrastructure, much depends on local governmental policy freedoms to respond to local needs.  For a UK audience this local theme is expanded in 'Unleashing Municipal Enterprise' - a paper written for the recent NextGen 14 conference 'Fast Track to the Future'. 

    + 1 more attachment

  • Han Ping Fung added an answer:
    What is difference between theory and previous studies?
    For building hypotheses, do previous studies mean theory?
    Han Ping Fung

    Previous studies can refer to many materials inclusive articles, conference proceedings, theses, monographs, books etc being published in the similar domain you are studying right now.  These materials likely to contain research problem, research objectives, literature review on previous theoretical frameworks, hypotheses (if quantitative research), findings, discussions, conclusions etc.

    Theory refers to the theoretical frameworks, empirical tested models etc. that your current study is trying to underpin on.  Without them,the study is at risk and might not survive or staying afloat upon challenging / questioning by authority / scholars in the related domain.

    Hypotheses building are derived from your current conceptual framework / research model and not from previous studies nor theoretical frameworks etc.  However, your current conceptual framework or research model is adapted / derived / based on / underpinned on the previous theoretical frameworks etc.

  • Arup Barman added an answer:
    Can an ecosystem impact on resources of organization(HR)?, if yes then how can one link it with the resources(HR)?

    according to resource based view, resources is the source of creating competitive advantage then what about ecosystem(environmental changes).

    Arup Barman

    This is a vital aspect of question in regard to organisation and external element. Relationship between Eco-system and HRM/HRD  is very clear. Physical Ecosystem, Non Physical living eco-systems (environment) no doubt has a great impact on, structures, policy, incubation and adoptation, innovation, competions, compalcency, complesity, compliemtarities, cohesion and conflicts, and finally on character of organisational members.  

  • Jodeph Weissbrod added an answer:
    Does anyone have ideas on how to sort articles on boundary spanners theory?

    My work is about sorting articles. The subject of all the articles must be "Boundary Spanners".

    Any ideas for sorting them?

    Jodeph Weissbrod

    Thanks Thomas for your answer

  • Domingo Alarcón Ortiz added an answer:
    How does one approach a misinterpreted labeling of operations without disrupting the synergy of the department?

    Through an operational leadership perspective, how does one approach a misinterpreted labeling of operations without disrupting the synergy of the department? Is there any supporting evidence of shifting operational labeling without hindering morale?

    Domingo Alarcón Ortiz

    The synergy of a Department will not be interrupted if the misunderstandings between staff of the Department are discussed and face in an atmosphere of maturity and responsibility.

  • Wendy Bodwell added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest studies that presents clear operational indicators of variables in balance of threat theory as well as organizational theory?

    I´m looking for a viable theoretical framework to explain alliances between terrorist groups. 

    Wendy Bodwell

    Hi Christian,

    There is a book that covers this that I would recommend. It talks about different organizational forms, and discusses terrorist cells and discusses it as a new type of organizational form.

    The book is "The Starfish and the Spider: The Unstoppable Power of Leaderless Organizations. Authors: Ori Brafman and Rod Beckstrom, published by the Penguin Group in 2006.

    It is really an excellent source.


    Wendy Bodwell PhD, MBA, MSN, RN, FACHE

    Assistant Professor, Business and Healthcare Administration

    University of Saint Francis

    Fort Wayne, Indiana, 46808, USA

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