Organizational Theory

Organizational Theory

  • Beata Stępień added an answer:
    Who creates value in the fashion luxury sector?

    Customers find value in rational, emotional or symbolic aspects of luxury items, but when asked very often refer to superior quality, outstanding materials and craftsmanship (which is a rational type of value). Do luxury fashion brands still reflect these values or are they just efficiently communicated?

    Who, in a luxury fashion value chain is responsible for value adding? Where does it lie? In production or in a communication sphere? Is it designed maybe for effective distribution?

    Beata Stępień · Poznan University of Economics

    thank you very much guys :). I was not aware that men have even noticed sth like FTV... 

    I wonder what kind of value we can put this to; emotional, hedonic, or enhancing social status.... 

    well, I have to start watching this :)

  • Subhash C. Kundu added an answer:
    Can an ecosystem impact on resources of organization(HR)?, if yes then how can one link it with the resources(HR)?

    according to resource based view, resources is the source of creating competitive advantage then what about ecosystem(environmental changes).

    Subhash C. Kundu · Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology

    Yes, ecosystem has impact on resources of organization including human resources(HR). Changes in environment like change in population demography, entry of female and diverse workforce in organisation, change in technology, change in education, change in policies, change in competition, change in the size of the organization, etc affect the composition and management of human resources.

  • Jodeph Weissbrod added an answer:
    Does anyone have ideas on how to sort articles on boundary spanners theory?

    My work is about sorting articles. The subject of all the articles must be "Boundary Spanners".

    Any ideas for sorting them?

    Jodeph Weissbrod · University of Haifa

    Thanks Thomas for your answer

  • Domingo Alarcón Ortiz added an answer:
    How does one approach a misinterpreted labeling of operations without disrupting the synergy of the department?

    Through an operational leadership perspective, how does one approach a misinterpreted labeling of operations without disrupting the synergy of the department? Is there any supporting evidence of shifting operational labeling without hindering morale?

    Domingo Alarcón Ortiz · Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

    The synergy of a Department will not be interrupted if the misunderstandings between staff of the Department are discussed and face in an atmosphere of maturity and responsibility.

  • Wendy Bodwell added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest studies that presents clear operational indicators of variables in balance of threat theory as well as organizational theory?

    I´m looking for a viable theoretical framework to explain alliances between terrorist groups. 

    Wendy Bodwell · Saint Francis University

    Hi Christian,

    There is a book that covers this that I would recommend. It talks about different organizational forms, and discusses terrorist cells and discusses it as a new type of organizational form.

    The book is "The Starfish and the Spider: The Unstoppable Power of Leaderless Organizations. Authors: Ori Brafman and Rod Beckstrom, published by the Penguin Group in 2006.

    It is really an excellent source.


    Wendy Bodwell PhD, MBA, MSN, RN, FACHE

    Assistant Professor, Business and Healthcare Administration

    University of Saint Francis

    Fort Wayne, Indiana, 46808, USA

  • Catherine Calder added an answer:
    Survey of Organizations: A machine-scored standardized questionnaire instrument?
    Could someone please help in finding the specific questionnaire used in this book?
    Survey of Organizations: A machine-scored standardized questionnaire instrument , by Taylor & Bowers, 1970
    The link to the book can be found here:

    However, it does not contain the pages with the questionnaire and I still remain unable to obtain it. Would anyone be willing to help provide me the questionnaire?
    Catherine Calder · University of New England (Australia)

    Try contacting the author/s or the publishers directly. 

  • Frédéric Dufays added an answer:
    Is there any research on the implications of organizational network theory on sustainable entrepreneurship?

    Have you read any papers about the correlations among proximity, centrality and so on along with economic, social and environmental issues of a business or organizational network?

  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer:
    Which steps are absolutely essential to establish a feeling of trust throughout existing departments of small and medium-sized businesses?
    Everyone is talking about lean management, team building, agile methods and in general about management 2.0. But often we have to face a crucial gap between different styles of management and workflow methods inside a company and in particular between several departments of a company. Thus leading to immense issues concerning communication, productivity and of course trust.

    Therefore I would like to point out the importance of trust as a solid groundwork for a company's successful workflow.
    Krishnan Umachandran · Professor

    Trust is both Intrinsic and Extrinsic

    It may take years to build the relationships and trust that lead to economic results, making the long-term relationships that local officials build is particularly important. Relationships are personal, and elected officials should be good at it. But what’s key is keeping and sustaining those relationships, because that is what is going to take you to the next level in order to accomplish your goals.” Sustained contact over time helps to build trust and keep your community on the minds of potential investors.

  • José Luis Arcos-Vega added an answer:
    What is the relationship among state, trait, attitude, and behavior?
    In organizational behavior, we need to know the relationship among these concepts.
    José Luis Arcos-Vega · Autonomous University of Baja California

    Well speak of behavior is a complex dimension, what is sought especially in instruments application in qualitative research is to associate some variables such as trait and attitude, however you have to take care not to rate the degree of perception of the actors involved certain opinions in the processes of inquiry, but the way the question as eleboramos and hypotheses that we set for these variables of interest.

  • Subhash C. Kundu added an answer:
    Is a budget of an organisation actually a policy statement that the organisation issues regarding its values and goals?
    What does it say about organizational structure and operations, values, direction, debt and debt servicing, where the organization is the weakest/strongest?
    Subhash C. Kundu · Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology

    Budget is an  organisational plan expressed in monetary terms for an operating period. Budget also reflects the priorities, goals, and values of the organisation. So, budget is also an policy statement with respect to goals and values. 

  • Keith Jackson added an answer:
    Does management science have its own paradigm?
    In some simplification, it can be assumed that the paradigm is a key scientific assertion that aims to explain the complexity of the real world, shared by all scholars. This theorem is of fundamental importance for the study and could be considered as the basis that helps to create other theorems.

    In Poland, theorists assume that management sciences is still not developed enough to create its own paradigm that would unite together all occurring trends, directions and schools.

    I'm interested in whether similar views are expressed by researchers in other countries.
    Is management science need a paradigm at all?
    Keith Jackson · School of Oriental and African Studies

    Hello All,

    When I teach classes on Research Methods, I continue to refer to management research as a sub-field of social scientific research. Exploring this sub-field is subject to similar social scientific expectations and principles: e.g. systematic and unbiased observation of human behaviours (= 'management behaviors' - it's all about people, really). In my view & experience, management research thus competes for recognition within paradigms established - and debated - across traditions of social research.

    Going back to Joanna's original question, are we keeping a clear enough distinction between 'scientific management' as a concept and 'management science' as (I suggest here) a sub-field of social scientific enquiry?

  • Alixandre Santana added an answer:
    Does anyone know any research/publications regarding positions and roles within multi-relational networks or multigraphs? 


    I am analyzing formal organizational structures as network of tasks. Tasks (nodes) result from the devision of labor and are put into relation by different coordination mechanisms (edges). As this network can be seen as multi-relational (due to the different types of coordination, e.g. hierarchy, work-flow) I am not sure how to analyze, for example, the centrality of a task which has a central position within the hierarchy but not in the work-flow.

    Any hints?

    Thanks in advance.

    Alixandre Santana · Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco

    Hey Tobias. Could you send me those paers about multi-layered analysis?

    Im also working with ORA.


  • Mian Zhang added an answer:
    What is ambiguity in organizations? How can managers and organizations regulate ambiguity?
    I read James March's book and find the concept very interesting.
    Mian Zhang · Tsinghua University

    Thanks for the response.  Is there someone who think ambiguity can be managed in a positive way?  I think in some circumstances, the existence of ambiguity may provide flexibility and creativity possibility.  

  • Donald Ibama Hamilton added an answer:
    What distinguished a functional, from a matrix or process organization?
    Some suggest that the matrix organization is the next level in organization development were some areas consist of traditional functional departments, such as IT, or HR, whereas other parts of the organization, such as sales and marketing, completely transformed into a process driven organization.
    Donald Ibama Hamilton · Rivers State University of Science and Technology

    THE MATRIX IS A HYBRID BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONAL AND PRODUCT STRUCTURES . It is a structure that allows a subordinate to report to two bosses(Product and functional bosses)

  • Mary Torres added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest research papers on strategies managing of workforce diversity?
    see above
    Mary Torres · Argosy University

    Take a look at this article from MIT Sloan Management

  • Beata Stępień added an answer:
    What are the terms: Public Choice, Transaction Cost and Principal-Agent Theories?
    What are Public Choice, Transaction Cost and Principal-Agent Theories, Public Administration or Governance?
    I have gone through some articles but have not been able to comprehend.
    All I need is brief explanation to understand what these are in 4-5 lines each.
    Beata Stępień · Poznan University of Economics

    TCT, (Transaction cost theory) broadly speaking, aims at answering the question of what kind of governance structure should be chosen in a particular environmental set in order to optimize economic actions. The two alternative models of governance are taken into account: the firm with its hierarchy system and the market with its price mechanism.However, the most interesting part, at least for  the authors of this  article, is the so called ’’„swallen middle” – hybrid relations, where the features of both price mechanism and hierarchy system are mixed.

    Each model (internal hierarchy, market or hybrid solution) can be chosen by an entity to manage any of its transactions, and the choice of this particular governance structure is the result of an assessment of certain traits in the environment and the nature of economic action. Choosing a model for governing transactions generates a different set of the intra- and inter- organisational relations. The basis for such an analysis is an adequate estimation of the value of a given operation subject to a prospective contract, cooperation or pooling. According to the newest body of knowledge in TCT field, cost calculation should be done using the value chain approach, which views value not in accounting terms but in terms of strategic importance of the operation for the entity and/or  the end user of a product or service.The result of this calculation is the certain model of governance with its typical relations:

    - when the hierarchy is chosen, one has to bear with the internal coordination costs and provide the set of managing rules which will minimize shirking,
    - when the market transactions are chosen, relations between the partners are highly formalised by contract rules,
    - when the results of calculation opt for hybrid solutions then the contract between the partners is a rather loose set of contract rules accompanied by a mixture of certain managing and coordinating tools.

    I hope it will help, regards


  • Dr. Marilyn B Field added an answer:
    How can I define "personal characteristics" in organizational research?
    I have found there is difference between personal characteristics and individual characteristics.
    Dr. Marilyn B Field · Give Me Back My Energy; Life Coach, LLC (
    Personal characteristics are usally assessed as part of the hiring process.There are many empirical studies indicating that personality assessments are a strong predictor of job performance. These days such assessments measure EQ and and can also demonstrate less potential for adverse impact than cognitive ability tests. The use of personality assessment for personnel selection is becoming increasingly popular among organizations.

    Cognitive ability tests assess a persons aptitude or potential to solve job-related problems by providing information about their mental abilities such as verbal or mathematical reasoning and perceptual abilities like speed in recognizing letters of the alphabet.

    Integrity tests assess attitudes and experiences related to a persons honesty, dependability, trustworthiness, reliability, and pro-social behavior.

    Great topic, Tareq:
  • Gustavo Concari added an answer:
    Which are the published Business Model frameworks or constructs that better include and address organizational design dimensions?
    I am looking for approaches to business model design that take into fair account the mutual influences between the business model itself and the organizational structure (both at a macro and a micro level).
    Gustavo Concari · Universidad Católica del Uruguay Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga
    Dear All:
    I find very interesting the discussion about business models. I teach management at a degree level faculty and find these tools very usefull. However, I ask myself if that is all. I mean: are there other "clients" for these ideas?, like for instant managers or entrepreuneurs. I ask myself if the models we teach to our students are useful or not for the persons that work inside organizations. What would you say?


    Gustavo Concari
  • Lars Taxén added an answer:
    Are there any contributions linking neuroscience research on coordination to coordination in organizations?
    Coordination is an elusive concept. I believe that coordination cannot be fully understood unless we can link our innate predispositions for coordinating our every-day actions, like walking or communicating, to coordination in social setting like organizations. Extant research contributions focusing on this link are, as far as I can tell, sparse. I want to find out more about such contributions.
    Lars Taxén · Linköping University
    Thanks all for your valuable comments and references. I have looked through the references, but I can’t really find what I’m looking for. Most are biased towards the neural realm, whereas my main interest is more how the neural and social realms are interrelated. Llinás (2001, p. 64) expressed this as follows: “The most important issue in brain research today is that of the internalization or embedding of the universals of the external world into an internal functional space”.

    My line of reasoning is very simple indeed. In order to survive, evolution has brought about certain capabilities for coordinating our actions towards achieving goals that benefit us. Whichever capabilities these are, we must employ them in every situation we encounter, be that making a cup of coffee or coordinating large telecom projects (which I have been deeply involved with). We can’t change our human nature when moving from one situation to another.

    So, which are these neural or cognitive coordinative capabilities? In my research I have suggested six different ones, which I believe are all necessary but most likely not sufficient. First, you have to be able to contextualize the situation where the action takes place; to identify relevant things and disregard the rest. Second, you must have the ability to direct your attention to the object in focus for the activity. Third, you must be able to orient yourself spatially in the context. You need to recognize how relevant things are in relation to each other, and what properties you confer upon them. Fourth, you must acquire a sense for the temporal and dynamic structure of the activity; to predict how actions should be carried out in a certain order for achieving the goal. Fifth, you need to routinize actions that are successful in a particular kind of situation. Finally, you must be able to shift attention from one focus to another. A brain lesion that affects any of these capabilities will efficiently arrest coordination. For example, if the superior colliculus is damaged, you cannot shift attention, which is detrimental for acting in the world. For the interested, more details about this approach can be found here:

    Thus, my reseach question can be broadly stated as "which are the neural correlates of these six capabilities, and how do they interact?"

    So, I guess what I’m looking for are works in a similar vein that bridge the neural and social realm on “equal footing” so to say. Any suggestions are most welcome.

    Llinás, R.R. (2001). I of the vortex: from neurons to self. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
  • Is there a difference between being "critical" and being "reflexive"?
    In the context of social theory generally, and critical theory more specifically. If so, how to best describe this difference?
    Carlos Hernan Gonzalez-Campo · Universidad del Valle (Colombia)
    Although both types of research are valid, the argumentation in the reflexive research can be more neutral to make a contribution to the subject.
  • Ramakrishnan Ramachandran added an answer:
    If I forgot to do the pilot study for my PhD research, is there any way to make up for that mistake?
    Unfortunately I have already collected all the data for my study and analyzed it.

    I am in trouble guys.
    Please if you have any experience with this, please share it

    Thank you
    Ramakrishnan Ramachandran · Classic Consultants Salem India
    Pilot study is undertaken to find out the validity of the questions in the questionnaire so that the questions can be added/ deleted or modified as the case may be. Since you have already done the full analysis. Still you can use the first 30 or 40 questionnaires collected as pilot study and analyze them separately and check it with the full analysis. In all probability there may not be much difference.
    Also see whether your findings are in tune with earlier research.
    If there is some difference you can go for further experiments on those portions to make the study more rigorous
    Wish you all the best
  • Robert Larsson added an answer:
    Does anybody know any references/articles/review articles about Lean thinking in the public sector
    Quite often people ask me if Lean thinking/management is a smart way of working in the public sector. It's a question about being effective and efficient as organisations in terms of performance. Also people are worried about effects of lean on well-being and motivation.
    Robert Larsson · Malardalen University
    An important issue and here are some additional suggestions. Another interesting paper by Radnor & Osborne (2013) is "Lean: A failed theory for public services?" in Public Management Review.
    Additionally, Peter Hasle has written about Lean and the work environment. For example, in the e-book "Prerequisites for Healthy Organizational Change"
  • Paula Diogo added an answer:
    What reference can I use to define "novice nurse" or "new nurse" and "experienced nurse"?
    I need to divide a sample group between new and experienced nurses. How can I define exactly how much years of experience one and other kind of nurses? I would like to use a reference that clarify this point. Any suggestions would be helpful.
    Paula Diogo · Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Lisboa
    One of the aspects that it considers most relevant in the study of Patricia Benner is to fit a logical research practice to emerging theory; results emerge from practice to provide a theoretical explanation of what nurses actually do.

    I fully agree with the study by Benner to answer the initial question.
  • Hong Y. Park added an answer:
    Does anyone have a definition for the term "organizational practice"?
    The term is used in research articles but is seldom defined. Can you suggest references?
    Hong Y. Park · Saginaw Valley State University
    The definition of practice is execution or implementation of a plan or an idea in organization. For example, the divisional form of organization was to solve an organizational problem of GM. First, the organization needs to design a plan to solve the organizational problem. Design is making knowledge useful in solving the organizational problem. Once the plan is implemented that practice will become a routine. Routine is known as the god of manufacturing because it makes the operation smooth and efficient. However, it is requisite to make changes in routine for improvement. The organization needs to make seamless transition from an old routine to a new routine if possible. Innovation can be disruptive in organizational operation as Schumpeter stated. Today's business or organizational practice, 'continuing improvement' is to make changes frictionless or smooth (routine) in organizational innovation.
  • Gazi Islam added an answer:
    What are some examples of aesthetic judgments in organizations?
    I am looking for good examples of situations in organizations (business or otherwise) where people have to make and/or discuss aesthetic judgments. Examples beyond the typically cited example of "evaluating product features", and "office design layouts."
    Gazi Islam · Grenoble École de Management
    Related to the question of aesthetics, has the recent growth in perspectives on "materiality" informed our knowledge of organizational aesthetics? What is the difference, if any, between the materiality discussions and the aesthetics discussions?
  • Umema Hani added an answer:
    What is the impact of project management in the software engineering business?
    Project management
    Umema Hani · COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
    When it comes Multiple people involvement in Software engineering business, Project Management is un-avoidable.
  • Ashutosh Jani added an answer:
    What are the current challenges faced in different geographic regions in the area of corporate organization behavior?
    I would like to know the views of prominent professionals in the field of Organization Behavior especially in relation to the current challenges faced by corporations across different geographic areas.
    Ashutosh Jani · Pandit Deen Dayal Petroleum University
    Thanks Binod for your views on OB in public sector!
  • Justin Gabriel added an answer:
    Why is leadership always emphasized for the success or failure of an organization?
    In any workshop, when the success or failure of an organization is a subject of discussion, we tend to point our finger at the leadership. It is employees who have to strive hard for attaining the goals of an organization. Instead of taking a collective responsibility, we tend to blame the leadership. Even the stakeholders blame the leader when something goes wrong.

    Is the leader really responsible or are the employees as a whole?
    Justin Gabriel · Rivers State University of Science and Technology

    it Is the leader who provides direction, determine stratégies and selects which employée dors what for the organisation. More So, the leader offers inspirations to the employées by given them room to manifest their spécial talents and abilities, when thèse are done right, organisation Is likely to succeed and vice versa.

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