Neurobiology and Brain Physiology

Neurobiology and Brain Physiology

  • Dorian Aur added an answer:
    How Are Memories Retrieved in the Brain?

     Greg Miller " Many details of the process of memory recall are not known (or are disputed). Even so, some researchers say it's time to revise some aspects of the standard view—such as the notion that the hippocampus is not involved in retrieving older episodic memories, and that memories become fixed and unchangeable once transferred to the neocortex. Newer work suggests a far more fluid role of memory, and one in which retrieval plays a crucial role in shaping memory over time"

    Dorian Aur · Stanford University

    Graeme the biological story is correct "When a pre-synaptic neuron fires......"   but it doesn't tell you what you need to know . Do you know how many neurons can be packed togheter  within  1/16 of an inch?

    The above explanation on page 6 is simple, anyone can understand  the relationship between  internal  structure and generated electric field and well recorded rythms of the brain

  • Filippo Weisz asked a question:
    Is anybody familiar with multi electrodes array and synaptic plasticity ?


    I'am using a planar multielectrode array system to record field potentials in acute hippocampal slices. In particular I am trying to study synaptic plasticity, but I encountered several problems.     

    After having setted my baseline (30-50% of max), I start a protocol, usally 1 train of HFS ( 100hz in 1 second, duration 200 micr-second). After I , unfortunately, find out that LTP goes in rundown. Very often. It is very disappointing.

    3 point more in the story:

    1) without induction protocol my baseline seems stable for about 2 h.

    2) I obtain some LTP with plateau or slow( acceptable) deacay. I mean, it seems that in some conditions ( but I don't konw why ) the induction protocol works.

    3) My conditions : about 30 °C; 3,5-4 mil/min ( but often a little bit less beacuse lower flows seem to prolong slices viability); titanium electrodes (64 channels, interdistance 200 micromt. , diameter 30 micromt.) with standard chamber ( electrodes are placed on the bottom of chamber and the slice is over them, submerged, so could be some problems of oxigenations) ; amplifier 1060 series. (Multy channel system ); I use a light mesh to hold the slices and my solution is the same that has  working for years for synaptic plasticity . 

    I hope that somebody could help me. In particular I refer to those people  used my planar MEA system.

    Thanks in advance

  • Abbas Burhan Qadir Salihi added an answer:
    Intrinsically generated action potentials - any thoughts?
    It has been said that some neurons have the capability to spontaneously generate an action potential without receiving any kind of synaptic input, in other words the AP is intrinsically generated.

    How does the cell do this? Is this a slow depolarization resulting in tonic low frequency firing? Can phasic firing also be intrinsically generated?

    Which brain areas and cell types are particularly known for exhibiting this type of behavior?
    Abbas Burhan Qadir Salihi · Salahaddin University - Hawler

    You can see some answers similar to you from this link

  • Esteban Ortiz-Prado asked a question:
    Does anyone know if Brain PO2 has been measured in vivo under tetrahydrocannabinols and cannabinol influence?

    I am trying to propose a proiect that will measure brain PO2 using a PO2 sensor (licox or oxylite) in awake unrestrained Rat´s brian

  • Nicholas Almond asked a question:
    Is it possible to measure cortical spinal tract (CST) activity in humans while performing a motor task using EEG?

    I know it can be done in rats by using invasive techniques and you can use fMRI in humans but I was just wondering if there was a more ecomonical option to show activity in the CST and basal ganglia without fMRI?

  • Roya Kheyrkhah added an answer:
    Are there any EEG data from 7-12 years old children that are perfect and don't have any specific seizures and where can I find them?

    The most of data are related to disorders and disabilities, i want the perfect one of them. can any one help me? thanks.

    Roya Kheyrkhah · University of Tehran

    your welcome Elizaveta and thanks for your attachments.

  • Bhakta Prasad Gaire asked a question:
    Does S1P1 inhibition have any deleterious (or protective) effects in brain vasculature (of rodents)?

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate1 (S1P1) regulates various molecular and cellular events in different body parts. Its expression pattern and functions are also varied dependent upon the cells types where it is expressed. Does anyone have any information regarding the effect of S1P1 in brain vasculature? Specially in ischemic condition (many paper suggests activation of S1P1 is neuroprotective in ischemic condition, however they lack the discussion on effect of S1P1 in brain vasculature). So if you have any information regarding the S1P1 signaling in brain vasculature, please do share !!!

  • Brianne Jeffrey added an answer:
    Can we reliably measure dopamine in response to game stimuli in humans?

    The "dopamine argument" is one of the most enduring claims in texts about the effects of games and gamification.

    The popular idea simplifies the functions of dopamine in the organism, by presenting it as a  "reward molecule". As scientists we are aware that this is a gross simplification. Yet it is a highly persistent claim, which we'd like to test in order to address the central claims in the popular discourse head on.

    I am aware that the dopaminergic system can be monitored using e.g. PET, and I have found several references on the web about measuring it in blood samples, but are these viable ways of testing responses to e.g. game experiences?

    The setup would be a factorial design or a RCT with game-elements as the 'treatment', and measures of game behavior plus subjectives experience as supportive DVs in addition to dopamine levels.

    How could something like this be achieved? And is the idea realistic?

    Brianne Jeffrey · University of Pennsylvania

    I have recently heard of a group doing fast-scan cyclic voltammetry for sub-second dopamine detection in human patients. However, these patients are already undergoing surgery for deep brain stimulation. This clearly limits the population you would be working with.

  • Louis Brassard added an answer:
    Why does music evoke emotions or feelings?
    Music has many bodily effects. This is not trivial.


    If we listen to a musical piece in a style totally foreigh then it is sometime in such case impossible to enjoy it at first hearing.  But if we listen to a musical piece that is new but which is within a familiar style then we have more chance to like it at first hearing.  Some hit song or velcro song are enjoyed at first hearing by many people and most of these do have a short live popularity because after only a few hearings it become so predictable that we do not enjoy it anymore.  The classic are those that usually musical piece that needs many hearing before to be fully enjoyable and can remain so a long time because they have multiple layers.  But any piece if listen constantly become too much predictable to be enjoyed.  If we stop listening to hit long enough then our memory erace enough for it to become enjoyable.  In music and in everything too much predictability render something perceptually invisible.  We cannot perceive our the movements of our tongues while talking or perceive all the movement of our body while walking because as adult we have integrated so much that all in it is implicitly predictable and they become invisible out of consciousness because these practice become fully intergrated.  The child learning to talk or learning to walk had to pay attention and for him these actions are consciously done.  So if we are too much familiar with a piece of music , it become invisible and we become emotionally num to it.  The emotion are there in all our action in order to guide our attention but when this attention is not required anymore then the emotions are not necessary anymore and disapear.  So as long there is a need to learn, emotion will be there.  The greatest classic piece have so much depth that even though the upper layer of listening can become num after too much listening, we can return to them all our life because we never reach the lower layers.

  • Marcia Ratner added an answer:
    Why would a male mouse be more likely to have a seizure then a female mouse?

    After inducing seizures in the two sexes of mice there is a much higher rate in which males have seizures. I cannot figure this out. Please help!

    Marcia Ratner · Boston University School of Medicine

    Many neuroactive steroids modulate GABAergic neurotransmission.

  • Fabien Gosselet added an answer:
    Does anyone have a protocol for growing bEnd3 cells on Corning Transwell inserts?

    I am attempting to do some in vitro blood-brain barrier experiments using Corning Transwell pore inserts. Unfortunately, I have not had any luck getting my bEnd3 (mouse brain endothelial) cells to grow on the pore inserts. I have tried altering my seeding density but to no avail. The inserts are TC treated; nevertheless, I am planning to coat the inserts with collagen or lysine unless anyone is familiar with a working protocol. Any suggestions are appreciated. Thank you.

    Fabien Gosselet · Université d'Artois

    Dear Jordan,

    My lab has been developing and using BBB cells from several species (including human) for more than 20 years. Currently, we use primary BBB cells from WT and KO mice and maybe our seeding protocol could help you. Please find our work as attached. Don't hesitate to contact me if you need further information.



  • Rebecca Howell added an answer:
    Has anyone already prepared a FieldTrip layout with 30 electrodes set up according to the 10-20 system?


    I am using FieldTrip to analyse my EEG data recorded with a NeuroConn system. I recorded EEG data from 30 electrodes (Fp1, Fp2, F7, F3, Fz, F4, F8, Fc5, Fc1, Fc2, Fc6, T3, C3, Cz, C4, T4, Cp5, Cp1, Cp2, Cp6, T5, P3, Pz, P4, T6, O1, and O2, plus 2 ocular electrodes, according to the extended 10/20 international system) with ground located between Cz and Fz and Right mastoid reference. I can't find this layout on the fieldtrip webpage but I know that fieldtrip also provide the possibility to prepare a layout with the ft_prepare_layout  function. I was wondering if anyone maybe already did it?


    Rebecca Howell · Life University

    I agree with the above.

  • Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh added an answer:
    What are the best criteria when choosing a concentric bipolar electrode for brain stimulation in in vivo electrophysiology?

    Good morning, I’m doing in vivo electrophysiology in anesthetized mice. I’m recording evoked filed excitatory post synaptic potentials (fEPSP) in the hippocampus CA1 stratum radiatum after the electrical stimulation of ipsilateral CA3 axons. I would like to test other concentric bipolar stimulation electrodes but I don’t have the knowledge necessary to wisely choose a configuration that might fit my needs. Thereby I would like to learn how to choose an electrode (even another that bipolar if it is the case) that might adapt the best for the brain region on which I'm currently experimenting on (which currently is the hippocampus) and perhaps others in a near future. Thank you.

    Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh · Tarbiat Modares University

    Dear Jose

    Although using a concentric electrode is better for reducing the tissue damage, however to stimulate enough input fibers and to get a good response I recommend you to use a bipolar electrode consisting of two stainless steel wires twisted to each other. In this manner you can made a 0.5 mm difference between the tips of two wires to increase the stimulated area and be getting better response. I'm using the A-M Systems Co. teflon coated stainless steel electrodes. The price of these electrodes is much less than concentric electrodes. 

  • Valentina Ferrante added an answer:
    Poultry behavioral sign of pain?
    Does anyone have scientific evidence about pain in poultry? Do they show behavioral signs of pain? There are evidence of the peripheral sensitive connection in these animals.
    Valentina Ferrante · University of Milan

    Thank you very much for your help.

    In fact the problem is that in the literature I have found only study related to the effect of anti-inflammatory on behavior but no information about the way to measure the level of pain associated with some disease.

  • Daniel Pisera added an answer:
    What is the relationship between hyperprolactemia and mental illness?

    i know that some antipsychotic medications can cause hyperprolactemia as a side effect, but I am wondering whether the dopamine and GABA imbalance produced by hyperprolactemia resulting say from a pituitary adenoma can cause serious mental impairment.

    Daniel Pisera · National Scientific and Technical Research Council

    Dear Rachel: The treatment of various mental disorders are based on drugs that affect catcholamine neurotransmission. In fact, antipsicotic drugs, like halopidol, are antagonist of dopamine D2 receptors, The activation of this receptor in anterior pituitary lactotropes inhibits tonically the secretion of prolactin. Since, these treatments induce hyperprolactinemia. The central effects of this hormonal disorder are not evaluate in depth, but, since multiple functions of this hormone, including this action on SNC in mother behaviour, the alteration of prolactin release probably affect certain complex function affecting mental health. 

  • Makhsud Tagirov added an answer:
    Why are male offspring more vulnerable to prenatal stress compare to female offspring?
    Can anyone help me get a clear understanding of why male offspring are more vulnerable to prenatal stress compared to female offspring? What are the protective mechanisms available in female offspring and what is the underlying mechanism?
    Makhsud Tagirov · National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

     G6PD and HPRT - the two genes involved in energy metabolism and modulation of cellular oxidative stress were suggested to be responsible for the females' higher viability in mammals preimplantation embryos. These genes are located on the X chromosome and are overexpressed in females. G6PD is the only NADPH-producing enzyme triggered in response to oxidative stress (Filosa et al. 2003). It sustains the higher viability of the female embryos by promoting to detoxification of oxygen radicals. 

    Of course the hypothesis is disputable, but nothing is  perfect. 

  • Christian Mühl added an answer:
    Emotion classification using EEG signals.
    I am worked on " Extraction of valence and arousal information for emotion classification ". I have 64 channel eeg data . how i can perform band pass filtration on this huge amount of data in Matlab for 2-40 Hz range.
    Christian Mühl · German Aerospace Center (DLR)
    Hi, as Swathi, I would suggest EEGlab or fieldtrip. Both offer functions for EEG processing that can be run with Matlab. EEGlab also offers a stand-alone version. The amount of data is actually not that big ;) Alternatively the FFT implementation pwelch or other filter functions of Matlab should be helpful as well. Good luck, Christian
  • Laurie Galvan added an answer:
    What are the best markers I could to use to analyze by immunofluorescence synapses of midbrain neurons?

    Pre and post synaptic markers

  • Glenn Watson added an answer:
    Does anyone know the distance a certain optical light can diffuse in the brain issue?

    Hi, I am trying to use optogenetics to study the connection of two nucleus within rat brain. However, the distance between this two nucleus is only 1mm. Does anyone know the distance a certain optical light can diffuse in the brain issue? Thanks!

    Glenn Watson · Pennsylvania State University

    See the following article concerning light diffusion in different brain brain regions of mouse;

    See recent work by Ed Boyden's group as well addressing this issue;

  • Ravinder Jerath added an answer:
    What is the scientific explanation for the left part of brain controlling right part of body and vice-versa?
    I don't understand why if we stimulated children's right part of body, it can make left part of brain grow rapidly.
    Ravinder Jerath · Augusta Women's Center

    The reason the brain is wired on the contralateral side is explained in my recent article published in "consciousness and Cognition " journal. This article explains why in patients who have Contralateral neglect syndrome they can not locate objects on their contralateral side even though they have no visual impairment. Moreover these patients have inability to feel the left side of their bodies . The defect is commonly associated with stroke affecting right parietal cortex.

           The explanation answers the basic question as to how we see the world. The first figure in the article shows that what we see outside actually is seen internally by our brain in the same exact way, ie the left side of our vision is imaged on the left side of our head and body. The left side of our body unconsciously positions the left side of the scene we see outside. It may be hard to imagine however all we see actually is within self. The thalamus acts like a tiny brain . All the space around it formed by all the cells of the body and visual apparatus of the brain behaves like an empty  space that I have termed "3 D Default space " . It forms the internal world that we only perceive as darkness when we close our eyes. It truly is amazing how brain perceives consciousness in this space subconsciously. 

  • Priyaa Raj added an answer:
    What is the best way to enzymatically dissociate mouse brain tissue that gives a high yield for all cell types (neurons, astrocytes, microglia)?

    We currently use mechanical dissociation, but our astrocyte yield is low. We've tried papain (I'm not sure which concentration we used), but it did not give a good yield for neurons. We want to minimize cell death during dissociation as well as maximize preservation of cell surface markers (e.g. CD11b). Any suggestions? Thanks!

  • Rizk Sarhan added an answer:
    Do you think that a male without gonads is equal to a female without gonads?

    There are many differences between male and female body function, resulted from their endocrine specially gonadal hormones. can we imagine gonadectomized male and gonadectomized female to be the same like as a third null organism who have no any gonads. or otherwise male and female bodies would work in different ways independent to their gonads.

    Rizk Sarhan · Benha University

    female without gonads at any time is female but without some sex chracters like menstruation , normal breast development  but it differ for male according to the time and cause inutero  is female after delivery continue female but  if later he has feminine chracters , encchiodism  or other presentation  

  • Vigneswaran Veeramuthu added an answer:
    What are your thoughts on neurocognitive and neurophysiological changes in microgravity environment?

    The NASA is currently studying the spaceflight effects on neurocognitive performance while trying to establish empirically the extent , longevity and the neural basis to to past anecdotal  claims altered performance by astronaut returning from long term space exploration. The study includes structural MRI, functional imaging, diffusion weighted imaging  pre and post flight; and neurcognitve testing pre, intra and post flight. The details of the study could be found here

    What are your thoughts on this study?

    Vigneswaran Veeramuthu · University of Malaya

    Thanks John Jupe for your insights. Will go through some of your videos.

  • Jill R Glausier asked a question:
    Is anything known about the density of asymmetric synapses onto Chandelier Cells relative to Basket Cells?

    Do Basket Cells receive more excitatory synapses than Chandelier / Axo-axonic Cells? I'm specifically interested in parvalbumin-positive, but any information about asymmetric/excitatory inputs onto these cells types, relative to each other, is much appreciated. 

  • Jordan Jahrling added an answer:
    Is there a known drug or chemical that can be given to mice to induce blood-brain barrier leakage?

    I am looking at the effects of a compound on blood-brain barrier integrity. Preliminary results indicate that the compound improves tight junction expression in aged mice. I am looking for a way to induce BBB leakage in young mice to see if the compound can improve functional outcomes. I am aware that head trauma is widely used for this purpose but would like to avoid this route if possible

    Jordan Jahrling · University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio

    Thank you to everyone for the input. This is just a pilot so I think we are going to try LPS first and see what happens. All great suggestions and I appreciate the guidance

  • Abhiyan Viplav added an answer:
    How do you dinstinguish between dendrites and axons in neurons in culture?
    Eg by immunocytochemistry, is there a marker you can stain for? Or by e-phys?
    Abhiyan Viplav · Institute of Medical Physics and Biophysics , Münster

    Can anyone recommend a good antibody against non-phosphorylated Tau for axonal marker only ? Thanks a lot.

  • Susanne Burkhardt added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest a reliable reference gene for qRT-PCR normalization when comparing postmortem tissue between controls and Alzheimer's patients?


    I would like to know what housekeeping genes one can use to discern gene expression changes in prefrontal cortex of Alzheimer's patients by qRT-PCR.

    Many thanks.

    Susanne Burkhardt · Gesellschaft für wissenschaftliche Datenverarbeitung mbH Göttingen

    Hi Cemil,

    you could check hu Hprt1 or hu GAPDH, maybe also hu Pgk1!

    Cheers and good luck!!! 

  • Richard J Binney added an answer:
    In which topics can be summed up the importance of neuropathology in the practice of clinical neuropsychology?

    The neuropsychological knowledge can be applied in various ways in the treatment of those affected by a particular brain disorder that impacts on behavior.

    Some examples where knowledge related to pathology of the nervous system become useful:

    • Make inferences about the normal functioning of the central nervous system
    • Different disorders or disturbances can cause similar symptoms
    • Some neuropathological conditions may increase the likelihood of other disorders.
    • The presence of a certain neuropathological disorder does not mean that there can be another type of disorder

     I'd like to know your opinion, and if possible, some articles approaching this topic.

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