• Zainudin Awang added an answer:
    What research methodology is best suited for Information Systems based research?

    Has anyone done any analysis on research methodologies vis a vis Information systems based research? Does anyone know of any paper or research with empirical evidence to prove that one or more methodologies are best suited for IS developments? Anyone with specific thoughts on this?

    Zainudin Awang

    Which method you choose would depend on what you want to achieve. Be specific of what you want to study, what variables involved in the study, how you plant to measure the variables, etc. Or mention the hypothesis you intend to prove in your study.

  • Bridgette Redder asked a question:
    Does anyone know of research that has combined Bakhtinian dialogic and self study methodologies?

    Does anyone know of research that has combined Bakhtinian dialogic and self study methodologies? OR of research that has employed a self study approach to explore the practice of infant teachers?

  • Bikash Sharma added an answer:
    Where can I find case studies about cost-benefit analysis of road investment?

    I would like to improve the methodology I am currently using for that.

    Bikash Sharma

    Hi Luciano !

    As you are aware CBA of any development project involves certain standard steps: preparing physical flow table of benefits and cost with and without the project; financial and economic unit price table to convert the physical table to net benefit value term and estimating the BC result ( NPV, BC ratio and IRR) under baseline and policy scenario ( sensitivity analysis). There are numerous studies on CBA of  road transport project of which you may want to look at the following link to improve your methodology. Also note the experience  that road investment along does not bring development unless it is backed by complementary investment in the  impact zone of the road project.  

  • B. A. Karadge added an answer:
    Which parameters one can study to check the disease resistance of host?

    I have utilized plant extracts for the control of groundnut rust, results are satisfied on the field. I want to check the change in chemical composition of the treated and non treated hosts. So, what will be the accurate methodology to check their resistance. 

    B. A. Karadge

    You can go for polyphenol content.You can also determine soluble sugar content,free radical scavenging activity including polyphenol oxidase enzyme, phenylammonium lyase, ascrbate peroxidase and even proline and ABA levels.

  • Akkur Chandra Das added an answer:
    Are there any public databases available for cancer randomized trials or pragmatic trials?

    I want to try to test a statistical method on cancer randomized trials or pragmatic trials to reduce potential heterogeneity within the control arm that different treatment options might not be randomized.

    Akkur Chandra Das

    Have a look at DHS-program data base.

    Hope it will help you.

  • Sizwe Dlalisa added an answer:
    Should a teacher focus on 'rigorous learning' or 'learning with entertainment'?
    It has been seen that many teachers in universities have become entertainers rather than focusing mainly on value-addition and learning. A lot of time gets devoted to pleasing the students; knowing them personally; building good relations with them; and telling jokes and creating humour; the focus becomes more of good feedback than rigor. Keeping the audience motivated is good for effective teaching; but since a lot of time goes in entertainment less time remains for analysis and conceptualization. What is your preference and why?
    Sizwe Dlalisa

    I think the trick is to try and strike a balance between the two as the 'rigorous learning' or 'learning with entertainment in an educational context' complement each other.

  • Numa Bellisario added an answer:
    Do you know any methodologies to design normative criteria?

    I'm building a framework to analyse and evaluate the level of peacefulness of theoretical political economic systems.

    I'm concerned about which methodology to use in order to come up with the criteria of reference I will use to evaluate the different systems.

    I've been researching system methodologies and design methodologies extensively but couldn't satisfy my specific need.

    So far I'm using a design methodology (use case): goal, functions, requirements (= criteria). I could use an evaluation methodology: variables, dimensions, indicators.

    Any other idea?

    Numa Bellisario

    Hi Robert, thanks for your insights!



  • Marcoen J.T.F. Cabbolet added an answer:
    Is this example of research considered misconduct according to US Government?

    You are doing an experiment sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, a U. S. federal agency. In your experiment, you are testing the impact of a new method of exposure to chlorofluorocarbons to lung tissue using low-dose spiral computerized tomography. The protocol you are using was already approved and requires you to screen 200 subjects. You have completed 190 subjects and need to do just ten more. However, it is time for spring break and you really want to go with your friends. You decide to use the date for the 195 subjects and extrapolate the results for the remaining 10.

    Look up what "research misconduct" is according to the US government. Is this research misconduct? Why or why not? Would it be misconduct if, because of sloppy records keeping, you actually thought you had completed 200 subjects only later realized your error of having completed just 190?

    Marcoen J.T.F. Cabbolet

    As said above: you have to be honest. If you write that you did 200 tests while in fact you did only 190 and fabricated 10 test results based on extrapolation, then that's misconduct. 

    But even if your study is incomplete, your findings can still be publishable - in particular if you have very interesting data (e.g. nearly all positive or nearly all negative). You will have to emphasize that the size of the test group doesn't satisfy the minimum requirements, but still the publication can be interesting if you have observed a significant effect or a null result. In the results section you simply give the results of the 190 tests and you explicitly state that this is not enough to meet formal requirements, but in the discussion section you could for example argue (using statistical analysis) that even if you would have done 10 additional tests with a negative result, then still the conclusion would have been that a significant effect has been observed (e.g. because you have already 180 positives out of 190 tests). Although minimum standards are not met, such a paper might yield a motivation to repeat the test at a larger scale.

  • Chithan C Kandaswami added an answer:
    How shall we do critical appraisal of animal studies?

    We are doing a systematic review. Our results are mainly animal studies, and cultures, and just a few human studies. 

    We don't know which critical appraisal tool its the best for our situation, because we are investigating basic research. We are interested in the biological processes ocurring in them, any changes ocurring at a tissue, cellullar and molecular level, in humans, animals and cultures. 

    We would appreciate your guidance in this, since we are kind of lost.

    Chithan C Kandaswami

    The following links may complement the useful ones kindly provided by Dr. van der Valk.

    Animal experiments, from scientific and moral perspectives, need to be systematically, analytically and appropriately designed; their performance must be correct and analysis should be thorough. Reporting needs to be transparent and without bias. Currently, most researchers conducting animal studies seem to have received no or very limited training in SRs (systematic reviews) methodology, and do not know of its availability and potential. Recently, the Dutch parliament has approved a motion to the effect that education and training in SRs of animal studies should be a component of the course on laboratory animal science for researchers undertaking studies with experimental animals.

    Ioannidis JP, Greenland S, Hlatky MA, Khoury MJ, Macleod MR, Moher D, Schulz KF, Tibshirani R. Increasing value and reducing waste in research design, conduct, and analysis. Lancet. 2014 Jan 11;383(9912):166-75. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62227-8. Epub 2014 Jan 8. PubMed PMID: 24411645.

    An example of the potential contribution that SRs can offer in refining is documented by an SR of the cisplatin-induced ferret model of emesis, which provided evidence that the period of observation in the evaluation of ani-emetics may be reduced from 24 hours to 4 hours.

    Percie du Sert N, Rudd JA, Apfel CC, Andrews PL. Cisplatin-induced emesis: systematic review and meta-analysis of the ferret model and the effects of 5-HT₃  receptor antagonists. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2011 Mar;67(3):667-86. doi: 10.1007/s00280-010-1339-4. Epub 2010 May 28. Review. PubMed PMID: 20509026;PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3043247.

     ILAR J (2014) 55 (3): 427-437. doi: 10.1093/ilar/ilu043    The Usefulness of Systematic Reviews of Animal Experiments for the Design of Preclinical and Clinical Studies.

    Merel Ritskes-Hoitinga, Marlies Leenaars, Marc Avey, Maroeska Rovers & Rob Scholten. Systematic reviews of preclinical animal studies can make significant contributions to health care and more transparent translational medicine[editorial]. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014;(3): 10.1002/14651858.ED000078

     Systematic Reviews of Animal Studies; Missing Link in Translational Research? Published: March 26, 2014 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089981

    Conclusions: “To improve the translation of animal data to clinical practice, systematic reviews of animal studies are worthwhile, but the internal validity of primary animal studies needs to be improved. Furthermore, risk of bias should be assessed by systematic reviews of animal studies to provide insight into the reliability of the available evidence.”  

  • Alain Manuel Chaple Gil added an answer:
    Can anyone provide a proffessional methodology to get bibliometric studies and compare journals?

    I'm trying a bibliometric investigation.

    Alain Manuel Chaple Gil

    Gracias Ramón, verdaderamente de mucha ayuda...

    saludos para usted.

  • Ronald E. Goldsmith added an answer:
    What is the best market analysis methodology to predict the future success of products/services in a given market?

    Any suggestions are more than welcomed.

    Ronald E. Goldsmith

    The market research text books suggest that a test market is the best way to predict the success of a new product/service. One can alternatively survey a random sample of consumers in the given market and present them with a description of the product and ask how likely they would be to buy it if it were offered. Then, adjust the % who say "definitely would buy" down to account for overestimation.

  • Thea Franke added an answer:
    Has anyone undertaken a mixed methods study using grounded theory methods for the qualitative aspect?
    I am undertaking PhD research to address questions around the decision making processes of women who place children for adoption within an open adoption framework. Comprehensive literature reviews have determined that there is very little international research on this area, and nothing on this aspect of Australian women's experiences. The study has a cross cultural aspect, with women from the United States also participating.

    With so little in the literature, and no theory generated, I am using a lengthy comprehensive survey based on surveys used in other areas of reproductive decision making in order to gather a broad range of data. My plan is to collect and analyse this data concurrently with in depth interview collection and analysis using GT. The survey is not intended to inform the interview process, but to provide additional data within the analysis phase, just as though the data was sourced elsewhere. My problem at the moment in that methodology is my weakest area and I'm not sure I'm able to articulate my approach well using the right 'language' in my application. It seems what I am doing is also a little unusual which doesn't help. Any ideas? Perhaps I'm not really using GT, as has been suggested? In my head I am.. :) Thanks in advance
    Thea Franke

    Thank you very much Dr. Morgan, I may have more questions in the nearby future, your insight and direction is truly invaluable. 

  • Mark R Speechley added an answer:
    Can any one explain sensitivity analysis in epidemiology?

    I am doing my PG thesis on vulnerability mapping methodology using Water Associated Disease Index(WADI). I would like to know about sensitivity analysis mentioned in a article regarding this methodology.

    Mark R Speechley

    Hi Elias:  

    One view is that if something improves the strength of an analysis' conclusions, it is mandatory (or should be).  Unfortunately, the only way to know if something affects one's conclusions is to do it and see.

    Here is the Cochrane Collaboration's explanation:  

    'It is desirable to prove that the findings from a systematic review are not dependent on ... arbitrary or unclear decisions. A sensitivity analysis is a repeat of the primary analysis or meta-analysis, substituting alternative decisions or ranges of values for decisions that were arbitrary or unclear. For example, if the eligibility of some studies in the meta-analysis is dubious because they do not contain full details, sensitivity analysis may involve undertaking the meta-analysis twice: first, including all studies and second, only including those that are definitely known to be eligible. A sensitivity analysis asks the question, “Are the findings robust to the decisions made in the process of obtaining them?”'.

    If I were you, I would start with the aspect of your meta analysis results that are the most problematic because they are based on the most tenuous assumptions, do that sensitivity analysis by substituting reasonable alternative values, and hope for small effects.  

  • Ashish Atodariya added an answer:
    Can someone give me advice on a question about the ICH Guideline?


    While I'm studying ICH guideline about validation of analytical Procedures : Text and methodology Q2(R1), I want to ask about Table part in page 3. 

    Following that table, Assay - dissolution (measurement only) -content/potency test generally do not need evaluation of detection limit and quantitation limit.

    But I couldn't understand why DL and QL is not need.

    Because we can get DL and QL easily by calculating when we get Linearity and Range.

    And I think these characteristics also can make validated assay more reliable.

    But why this guideline say " this characteristic is not normally evaluated'?

    Please answer this question. n.n

    Ashish Atodariya

    It is required for RS study not for assay or CU or disso.

  • Gana Gecheva added an answer:
    Any suggestion on Macrophyte-based assessment of ecological potential?

    The developed methodologies for macrophyte-based assessment have values for ecological status classes. The WFD also requires assessment of 'heavily modified water bodies' in terms of ecological potential. I am thinking if the given methodology reflects general degradation (i.e. including physical alterations), is there a need of separate scale with values for ecological potential? Thank you for your comments in advance!

    Gana Gecheva

    Dear Andre,

    Thanks a lot!

    Kind regards,


  • António Manuel Abreu Freire Diogo added an answer:
    Why should complex methods be used when simple methods result in the same science-based conclusions?

    Hypotheses are empirically tested with observations or perception of phenomena involving more or less complex methodology. Recent studies of the same natural phenomena use more complex methods/tools than older studies, but not necessarily changing the science-based conclusions. Why should complex methods be used when simple methods result in the same science-based conclusions. Any examples/thoughts?

    António Manuel Abreu Freire Diogo

    Dear Marcel: In my opinion, the best things are always the simpler (I agree with Amir Answer).

  • Jimmy Pincheira-Ulbrich added an answer:
    Does anyone know a way to compare two nestedness matrices (two different communities and two NODF indices)?

    The idea is to compare nestedness indices of ecological communities such as NODF, I want to know a software or specific methodology, I would appreciate it very much.

    Jimmy Pincheira-Ulbrich

    Thank you for your answer. However, the question was about the comparison of indices nestedness of the ecological community, for example NODF.

  • Rahul Pratap Singh Kaurav added an answer:
    How should I analyze the efficiency and effectiveness of marketing activities?

    - Efficiency versus effectiveness in marketing?

    - Which specific methodologies can be used to analyze them?

    Thank you very much for your contributions to these questions.

    Rahul Pratap Singh Kaurav

    DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) is now a trend for analyzing efficiency. In results it produces, technical efficiency, which can be good to go ....

  • Sokratis Nifakos added an answer:
    Are there research papers reporting measuring methods for the stress levels in Universities' students?


    i am looking for recent papers showing the level of stress of students in Universities mostly in Europe . The data collection methodology and the results. If you have any, please share. 

    Thank you!

    Sokratis Nifakos

    Thank you Renzo and Rohit!

    Interesting approach Rohit..

  • Remy Fannader added an answer:
    How important is "Project Methodology" as a parameter for software cost estimation?

    In your opinion should "Project Methodology" included as a parameter for estimation of software effort. 

    Remy Fannader

    It must also be noted that the methodology will not only affect the estimation, it will affect the cost itself ...

  • Mary Stapleton added an answer:
    How can I deceive a participant in an fMRI scanner into believing they are interacting with a person in another room without using a confederate?

    All I need is for the participant to believe that the “person” they are interacting with in the other room is seeing the same stimuli as them, but I’d like something more convincing than just telling the participant that there is someone in another room. If someone knows a method that has been used before and can give me a link to a research article that’ll be great, but I’m happy to hear other suggestions.

    Mary Stapleton

    "If it is OK to you, try to recruit female participants only. They are much easier to be deceived than men."  I cannot believe I just read this suggestion? 

  • Elavarasi S added an answer:
    What are the procedures to prepare the chitosan naoparticles using medicinal plants?

    I want to know about the preparation methodology for chitosan nanoparticles with medicinal plants

    Elavarasi S

    Thank you very much sir for your valid references

  • Marko Ropret added an answer:
    How to measure an innovation index?

    Dear all, I'm thinking about building an innovation ranking of Polish companies. Something what would show how companies build their innovation value in different sectors, circumstances etc. I have quite a huge sample of different companies available and IDI/ CATI/ CAWI methodology. I' would be very grateful for any recommendations/ suggestions/ links to available resources.

    Marko Ropret

    A methodology to identify Innovation Leaders, successfully tested in various sectors:

    FATUR, Peter, LIKAR, Borut, ROPRET, Marko. Going open while innovating: does it pay?. International journal of industrial engineering and management, ISSN 2217-2661, 2010, vol. 1, no. 3, str. 77-83, ilustr., tabele.

  • Minh Nguyen Hong added an answer:
    What is the methodology and practice in development of a Human Resources Development strategy for an oil and gas company?

    We are about to start to develop the Human Resources Development strategy for an oil and gas company. Can someone share the methodology to do such works and experiences of the oil and gas company in this matter?

    Minh Nguyen Hong

    Thanks Mr Kumar

  • Zol Bahri Razali added an answer:
    Does anyone have any experience of using google translate for patient information sheets and similar?
    If so, did you get it verified? How accurate was it as a first draft?

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