• Andrea Vannini asked a question:
    SPE for leaf samples. Are really USEFUL?

    I want somo information about the utility of SPE for PAH's determination in leaf samples. Can I try without them? Someone has tried it? Any methodological advice is welcome

  • Dennis Ramdawah added an answer:
    Should a teacher focus on 'rigorous learning' or 'learning with entertainment'?
    It has been seen that many teachers in universities have become entertainers rather than focusing mainly on value-addition and learning. A lot of time gets devoted to pleasing the students; knowing them personally; building good relations with them; and telling jokes and creating humour; the focus becomes more of good feedback than rigor. Keeping the audience motivated is good for effective teaching; but since a lot of time goes in entertainment less time remains for analysis and conceptualization. What is your preference and why?
    Dennis Ramdawah · City University of New York - Bernard M. Baruch College

    There may not be an absolute one-answer to this scenario. It does appear, however, that while children are of the younger ages (preschool and kdg) and even grades 1-3 the entertainment (it's used here in bad context) component is very applicable and even very successful. That is (probably) because the younger children are the more they learn by 'less-rigorous' methods. However, and quite logically, the older a child gets the better prepared he/she is in undergoing environment, in learning styles, in material, etc. It is at the older stages, also, that both 'entertainment' and 'rigorous' teaching  methods can be experimented with as to how much of each is necessary.

  • Mingji Zhang added an answer:
    How to use JBI SUMARI methodological quality assessment tool?
    Why do JBI SUMARI methodological quality assessment tools only have appraisal questions but no scores? And how can reviewers judge whether to include or exclude?
    Mingji Zhang · Fudan University

    Thank you so much Farhad! 

  • Cédric Duchene-Lacroix asked a question:
    What's your definition for "second home"?

    Each country have almost one definition of second home. We, as scientists, have sometimes difficulties to find data and to compare between countries. What's your definition for "second home"? What's your experience of comparison? I would like to discuss this issue with you

  • Holger Steinmetz added an answer:
    Should I exclude a control variable from the final SEM model when it is insignificant?

    I tested a structural model, where gender (A) and another variable (B) predict Y. However, I found that male students were significantly (0.7 year) older than female participants in the sample. This means that A is correlated with C. Thus, I controled for C by including C as the third predictor? Yet, C does not predict Y. I wonder whether it is correct, to exclude C from the final model (on condition that it does not affect the model fit)? 

    Holger Steinmetz · Universität Paderborn

    Pat, thanks for completing the picture. Of course that's correct. I had in mind consistent estimation of the causal effect.

    But please note, that Lukasz included a covariate just because it was related to the IV (not DV). In my point of view, this is not a reason to include it.

    Having said that, occasionally, we want to include covariates not because we think they are potential confounders but because of a "one may never know"... In such a case I follow Les Hayduk's approch to include it as covarying predictors with fixed -to-zero effects. The fit tells than of these effects should be estimated.


  • Mirgani Alhaj asked a question:
    What is the best book of reseach methodology for a begginer ? . I need a practical book
  • Keith Wolodko added an answer:
    What is the theory building process?
    Please explain the theory building process.
    Keith Wolodko · University of New England (Australia)

    Are to talking about grounded theory?

  • What are the principles of conducting a comparative study?

    I have used this type of methodology to compare policies and analyze them, and I'm looking for other ways to enrich my knowledge.

    Abdolghani Abdollahimohammad · Zabol University Of Medical Sciences

    comparative research:

    1. Enough sample size

    2. Match samples: compare apple to apple NOT apple to orange

    3. Randomization

    4. Selecting independent and covariates carefully 

  • Vinayak K. Nahar added an answer:
    Can anyone recommend guidelines to conduct systematic review of cross-sectional studies?
    I am looking for guidelines to conduct systematic review of cross-sectional studies. Any recommendations are appreciated.
    Vinayak K. Nahar · University of Mississippi

    Thanks again Dr. Azami-Aghdash !!!

  • Thabiso Zuma added an answer:
    How can I quantify the success of conflict resolution / peacebuilding initiatives?

    I’m currently looking for a way to rank the success of different conflict resolution and/ or peacebuilding initiatives throughout the world. Do you know of any data project with such indicators or methodological literature, which would help me discerning the most relevant criteria for determining various levels of success?

    Thabiso Zuma · University of KwaZulu-Natal

    The success of conflict resolution is clear for me due to the fact that says there are countries who had been in wars for a long period of time. Therefore, it is hard to say that the diplomatic approaches that was applied in the past with an aim of had some of achieving their goal, which is to create a peacefully universal livelihood. For instance, almost every country in the middle east never experience a peacefully lifestyle due to the unending wars that are currently taking place. To conclude, The International community should adopt an alternative method for the remedies to tackle this issue.

  • Rakesh singh Gosain asked a question:
    What is Seismic coupling and how it is different from interseismic coupling?

    Please suggest me the relevant papers or methodology if possible.

  • Amal Bawri asked a question:
    Are there any methodology to study the population structure and regeneration status of a monocot species?

    Dear All,

    I want to investigate the population structure and regeneration status of a monocot species like Homalomena species of Areaceae family. Please suggest me some standard methodology.

  • Gamal Abdul Hamid added an answer:
    What constitute positive immunostaining for the following antibodies: CD20, CD3., CD45 and CD30?

    Thanks Maria and Ishak for your responses. What I actually wanted is how to determine positive results i.e what percentage of lymphoid cell constitutes positive staining/result and at what staining intensity in IHC not flow cytometry. I there a scoring system? I will also need a journal article that I can refer to if any.

    Gamal Abdul Hamid · Aden University

    Dear Gamiu

    Dr Maria summaries the answer . I think this paper may clear some point :  A Valuable Immunohistochemical Marker in the Differential Diagnosis of Lymphoid Neoplasms:

    Also you can find some answers in : Immunophenotypic and Genotypic Diagnosis of Malignancies: Immunohistochemical and Molecular Approach in Tumor Diagnosis and Detection of Minimal Residual Cancer Disease by  my friend Drs Muin S.A. Tuffaha  and  Wolfgang Höppner :


  • Abdelkader BOUAZIZ added an answer:
    How can we process plastic waste (like the plastic polythene used in daily life) into wax?

    Do you have any idea regarding the technology or methodology uesd?

    Abdelkader BOUAZIZ · Univ. Ibn Khaldoun Tiaret

    Dear All;

    I have assisted a colleague master thesis work dealing exactly with this topic. He really succeeded in producing different grades of waxes by the controlled pyrolysis of polyolefins. So, this is just to tell that the recycling this way to produce wax is very possible. I still remember the most important parameters he played with: temperature, time, inorganic catalyst (type and concentration), and he failed in playing on pressure because of the lack of the necessary lab-setup. By doing simple search for (for example polyolefins pyrolysis) I am sure plenty of docs will be available. Regards

  • Senthilvel Vasudevan added an answer:
    What areas should be focussed at if we are to assess knowledge and attitude about research process among undergraduates?

    I am trying to focus on students that are totally unaware of the research process and methodology. If we are to conduct an interactive session with such students for awareness regarding the basic steps of research process then which are the areas to be focused on?

    Senthilvel Vasudevan · King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences

    Hi, Good Afternoon

    Do more research in your Dental field.  If you wants help in data analysis, I will help in good way.  But, you have to add my name in your article.  Then we will many papers in your field.  Kindly reply to me.

  • Joanna B Broad added an answer:
    How effective are quasi non-randomized studies?
    Single arm post exposure quasi non-randomized studies are one of the research methods that are not used very often. Many fear that maturity effect over the time is hard to predict with such studies. However, if proper longitudinal follow up is maintained, such study designs can assist to estimate the base line effect of the intervention, especially in the case where RCTs are not possible.
    Joanna B Broad · University of Auckland

    sometimes a paired-sample t-test may be useful for such situations, where it is unlikely that passing time has an impact.

    else you could explore the pre/post or before/after methods - such as a "step wedge" design or interrupted time series. depends on the complexity of your data, whether you need to adjust or control for other variables, or individuals are clustered by location/group etc.

  • Habeebah Fa-Yusuf added an answer:
    What online tools are there for learning structural VARs?

    Hello, everyone. Can anyone suggest where to learn structural vector autoregression methodology in an easy to understand manner online? Thank you.

    Habeebah Fa-Yusuf · University of Lagos

    Many thanks for your useful suggestions :)

  • H. M.A. Mahzuz added an answer:
    What is opinion regarding this paper?

    special concern: methodology and result

    H. M.A. Mahzuz · Shahjalal University of Science and Technology

    Thanks a lot sir

  • Ethan Den Boer added an answer:
    On the linearity of an analytical procedure what dose the intercept depend on?

    When we validate an analytical determination method with instruments like HPLC, LC-MS etc  we conduct the linearity tests to create calibration curves, then we will get the linear equation Y=mx±c. for the intercept here some times we get very low or very high values, what dose the observation result from? Does it relate to the concentration of the analyte? if so how?

    Ethan Den Boer · Erasmus MC

    One of the main problems might be differences in matrix.
    I don't know what matrix you use, but make sure the calibration lines are in a similar matrix as the samples to measure.
    Also, if you are measuring a endogenous compound, the intercept will be higher or lower depending on the concentration of the endogenous compound present in the calibration samples.

  • Nur Syuhada Ahmad Zauzi asked a question:
    How to produce catalyst from aluminium dross

    any idea regarding the technology or methodology used?Thank You

  • Hong Yu added an answer:
    Can anyone kindly provide me notes for the fluorescence analysis of crude drugs?

    Kindly provide notes for fluorescence analysis of crude drugs/plant powders/plant extracts. I don't want methodology regarding this, but I need notes and it should be crisp (for theory). 

    Hong Yu · Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences

    Thin layer chromatography analysis maybe  a good choice.

  • Uli Abelein added an answer:
    How can I report and formulate a research question of retrospective study design?

    I want to do a case study to validate my method. I'm planning to use an existing real life project context, but as it is not possible to apply it on the ongoing project, I will "simulate" the method within that context and then ask project participants for their feedback. However I'm not sure how to report and formulate research questions on this research design. Therefore I'm looking for examples of papers that use the same approach. Furthermore it would be helpful if anyone has idea how this specific design is called.

    Uli Abelein · Universität Heidelberg

    Thanks a lot for your answers, but does anyone know papers or PhD thesis (ideally from the software engineering or information technology field) that used that design so I can see how they reported on it?

  • Stéphane Cordeau asked a question:
    Where do we submit a paper dealing with inventories of methods of flora surveys ?

    We tried to inventory methods of flora surveys. We would like to publish this synthesis

  • Francesc Codony added an answer:
    Can someone suggest a methodology to decipher the prophylactic potentialities of silver nanoparticle against imperative pathogens?

    Silver is known to posses prophylactic potentialities..can anyone sugggest a methodology to decipher the same...As I am finding it difficult to carry out as there is no literature available for the methodology to be employed.

    Francesc Codony · Polytechnic University of Catalonia


    consider a simple respirometric approach with xtt

    several years ago we do it with different products ( also Ag) with Biofilms, however also can be used for bacterial suspensions

    best regards

  • Senthilvel Vasudevan added an answer:
    Environmental Audit

    Can anyone share me any paper / notes related to the environmental auditing. I would like to get the basic details  methodology, process, objectives, advantages, regulations, policies.

    It would be great if any information 'India specific' is available'

    Thanking you all in advance

    Senthilvel Vasudevan · King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences

    Hi, Good Morning,

    For environment audit you have to see the attachment pdfs.

  • Farzin Piltan added an answer:
    To online tuning sliding mode controller which method is more effective?

    One of the main challenge in any controller is uncertainty. To solve this challenge adaptive methodology is one of the main method. So I'd like to online tuning SMC, which method is better (e.g., fuzzy ,algorithm genetic and ........)


    Based on work in our research center, fuzzy logic is a good method. But the most important challenge is find important factor (parameters) to online tuning. So we should to find it to have the best online tuning.

  • Sambhaji Shinde asked a question:
    Forest fires

    methodology for forest fire mapping

  • David L Morgan added an answer:
    How many participant-observations are enough to achieve saturation?
    There are couple of studies which discussed possible number of interviews to achieve saturation in data; however, I am interested in knowing the number of participant-observations needed for this purpose.
    David L Morgan · Portland State University

    I'll go out on a limb here and suggest the value of a concept from quantitative approaches to sampling: the underlying variation in the population with regard to the topic you are studying.

    Lets suppose that variation is low, then you might find out almost everything you need to know from one good informant. And if you use theoretical sampling to find another informant who should have an interesting contrast to the first, you would hear almost the same thing. So, you could be "saturated" very quickly.

    In contrast, when the variation is high, any two people you talk to will give you rather different responses. So, it would take a large number of observations to reach a sense of saturation.

    Notice that I said "sense of saturation" because the interpretation that you are not getting new data is a subjective judgement, and it will also be limited by the context in which you operate (e.g., which days you observe the relationship between the farmer and the turkey). That means that the goal should not be to observe everything that you possibly can, but instead to stop when you have a thorough knowledge of something that is worth sharing with your field.

    That creates a distinction between stopping prematurely (i.e., when there is obvious variation that you don't understand), which is a big problem, versus trying to understand everything that there is to understand about a phenomenon, which is an unreasonable goal when you are studying something that is complex and highly variable.

  • Malay K. Pakhira added an answer:
    Question on Academic Writing: How to make an in-principle comparison with a technique for which the implementation is not made available?

    I am writing a paper on a Machine Learning (ML) based solution for Software Architecture Recovery (SAR). But my question is a rather general question, not specific to ML or SAR.

    I'm caught in the following scenario: For a research problem R, I have proposed a solution (say A). There are 2 alternative state-of-the-art solutions (say B and C) to the same problem. Now when I write the paper, I should compare my experimental results with that of methods B and C. 

    Authors of B have provided an implementation of B, which I am using in my comparative analysis. But, authors of C do not provide any implementation. I thought of re-implementing it, but unfortunately, some important implementation level details are missing. Now only possibility is to do a in-principle comparison of the solutions A and C without any experimental results.

    This is one of the common problems one would encounter during research (particularly, during writing paper), so I hope there should be a well-known/ established answer to the related questions that I have in the following context.

    I have the following questions:

    (1) In which section of the paper can I make this in-principle comparison: I cannot make this comparison before I introduce my methodology (as certain terminology relevant the solutions would not have been defined before methodology section). Hence, sections Introduction, Related Work, Methodology are ruled out from the options. 

    (2) Can I introduce a new section after methodology for a qualitative comparison of all the 3 solutions A, B and C.

    (3) Can I do a case study after the Results and Discussion section where I perform this in-principle comparison on one sample (case being studied)?

    Please suggest/ advise on this.

    Thanks in advance.

    Malay K. Pakhira · Kalyani Government Engineering College

    Theoretical comparison by analysis of degree of quality is possible. Otherwise you have to implement the earlier method carefully, amd then a numerical comparison is possible.

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