• Mariano Ruiz Espejo added an answer:
    Hi, I am using nonprobability sampling (self-selection sampling) in my research. Do I need to mention any sample size in the methodology?

    I am using self-selection sampling as a sampling technique for my research. What do I need to mention in the methodology?

    Mariano Ruiz Espejo · Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia

    Yes, all information available sould be included in the methodology. Self-selection does not provides studied inference results. I think that self-selection does not make scientific inferences, but makes observations which are facts on the interest study.

  • Charles Misicko Lwanga asked a question:
    Whats the best methodology for modelling local TEC using GNSS?

    Am Trying to model local TEC component at an East Africa Location using GNSS receivers. Anybody with similar experience local TEC especially at an equatorial location. Collaboration is also welcome

    Dept. Of Geospatial & Space Technology - UON

    C. M. Lwanga

  • Douglas P Olsen added an answer:
    Is this example of research considered misconduct according to US Government?

    You are doing an experiment sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, a U. S. federal agency. In your experiment, you are testing the impact of a new method of exposure to chlorofluorocarbons to lung tissue using low-dose spiral computerized tomography. The protocol you are using was already approved and requires you to screen 200 subjects. You have completed 190 subjects and need to do just ten more. However, it is time for spring break and you really want to go with your friends. You decide to use the date for the 195 subjects and extrapolate the results for the remaining 10.

    Look up what "research misconduct" is according to the US government. Is this research misconduct? Why or why not? Would it be misconduct if, because of sloppy records keeping, you actually thought you had completed 200 subjects only later realized your error of having completed just 190?

    Douglas P Olsen · Michigan State University

    The story gets a little confused but if you have 190 subjects and use that data to "extrapolate" data points for 10 nonexistent subjects; then Yes it's falsification of data and therefore misconduct. Same if you do it by accident. If an accident I imagine some of the consequences would depend on at what point you realize and correct the error.

  • Mark R Speechley added an answer:
    Can any one explain sensitivity analysis in epidemiology?

    I am doing my PG thesis on vulnerability mapping methodology using Water Associated Disease Index(WADI). I would like to know about sensitivity analysis mentioned in a article regarding this methodology.

    Mark R Speechley · The University of Western Ontario

    Hi Elias:  

    One view is that if something improves the strength of an analysis' conclusions, it is mandatory (or should be).  Unfortunately, the only way to know if something affects one's conclusions is to do it and see.

    Here is the Cochrane Collaboration's explanation:  

    'It is desirable to prove that the findings from a systematic review are not dependent on ... arbitrary or unclear decisions. A sensitivity analysis is a repeat of the primary analysis or meta-analysis, substituting alternative decisions or ranges of values for decisions that were arbitrary or unclear. For example, if the eligibility of some studies in the meta-analysis is dubious because they do not contain full details, sensitivity analysis may involve undertaking the meta-analysis twice: first, including all studies and second, only including those that are definitely known to be eligible. A sensitivity analysis asks the question, “Are the findings robust to the decisions made in the process of obtaining them?”'.

    If I were you, I would start with the aspect of your meta analysis results that are the most problematic because they are based on the most tenuous assumptions, do that sensitivity analysis by substituting reasonable alternative values, and hope for small effects.  

  • Ashish Atodariya added an answer:
    Can someone give me advice on a question about the ICH Guideline?


    While I'm studying ICH guideline about validation of analytical Procedures : Text and methodology Q2(R1), I want to ask about Table part in page 3. 

    Following that table, Assay - dissolution (measurement only) -content/potency test generally do not need evaluation of detection limit and quantitation limit.

    But I couldn't understand why DL and QL is not need.

    Because we can get DL and QL easily by calculating when we get Linearity and Range.

    And I think these characteristics also can make validated assay more reliable.

    But why this guideline say " this characteristic is not normally evaluated'?

    Please answer this question. n.n

    Ashish Atodariya · Survival Technologies Pvt

    It is required for RS study not for assay or CU or disso.

  • Numa Bellisario added an answer:
    Do you know any methodologies to design normative criteria?

    I'm building a framework to analyse and evaluate the level of peacefulness of theoretical political economic systems.

    I'm concerned about which methodology to use in order to come up with the criteria of reference I will use to evaluate the different systems.

    I've been researching system methodologies and design methodologies extensively but couldn't satisfy my specific need.

    So far I'm using a design methodology (use case): goal, functions, requirements (= criteria). I could use an evaluation methodology: variables, dimensions, indicators.

    Any other idea?

    Numa Bellisario · Universitat Jaume I

    Thanks Liviu Radu for your insights and sources which I will look at. Actually I will use Max-Neef's Human-Scale Development approach and his Fundamental Human Needs as a basis to define the conditions a society should create in order to be peaceful.

    My question doesn't relate to the content of which kind of criteria I could use, but rather on the methodology to use in order to rigorously arrive to a set of criteria from a set of principles. I could use for example an engineering methodology or a system methodology.

  • Miloud Bekkar added an answer:
    Should a teacher focus on 'rigorous learning' or 'learning with entertainment'?
    It has been seen that many teachers in universities have become entertainers rather than focusing mainly on value-addition and learning. A lot of time gets devoted to pleasing the students; knowing them personally; building good relations with them; and telling jokes and creating humour; the focus becomes more of good feedback than rigor. Keeping the audience motivated is good for effective teaching; but since a lot of time goes in entertainment less time remains for analysis and conceptualization. What is your preference and why?
    Miloud Bekkar · Mustapha Stambouli University-Mascara- Algeria

    As you mentioned it, entertainment time should not be exaggerating. It is a matter of time limiting that impeaches teachers to devote more time in telling jokes, and getting often out of the subject to be studied. Here, it is advisable to interact between teachers, instead of working individually. Sharing ideas and keeping contact with each other will, obviously improve teaching.

  • David L Morgan added an answer:
    Has anyone undertaken a mixed methods study using grounded theory methods for the qualitative aspect?
    I am undertaking PhD research to address questions around the decision making processes of women who place children for adoption within an open adoption framework. Comprehensive literature reviews have determined that there is very little international research on this area, and nothing on this aspect of Australian women's experiences. The study has a cross cultural aspect, with women from the United States also participating.

    With so little in the literature, and no theory generated, I am using a lengthy comprehensive survey based on surveys used in other areas of reproductive decision making in order to gather a broad range of data. My plan is to collect and analyse this data concurrently with in depth interview collection and analysis using GT. The survey is not intended to inform the interview process, but to provide additional data within the analysis phase, just as though the data was sourced elsewhere. My problem at the moment in that methodology is my weakest area and I'm not sure I'm able to articulate my approach well using the right 'language' in my application. It seems what I am doing is also a little unusual which doesn't help. Any ideas? Perhaps I'm not really using GT, as has been suggested? In my head I am.. :) Thanks in advance
    David L Morgan · Portland State University

    I'm not certain what the term "reproduction" means but the current direction in GT is to use abduction from pragmatism as its core form of logic (especially as an alternative to "naive" induction). Charmaz particularly emphasizes this approach in the second edition of her book, Constructing Grounded Theory.

    See also:

    Reichertz, 2010, Abduction: The Logic of Discovery of Grounded Theory. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, Vol 11, No 1.

  • Gana Gecheva added an answer:
    Any suggestion on Macrophyte-based assessment of ecological potential?

    The developed methodologies for macrophyte-based assessment have values for ecological status classes. The WFD also requires assessment of 'heavily modified water bodies' in terms of ecological potential. I am thinking if the given methodology reflects general degradation (i.e. including physical alterations), is there a need of separate scale with values for ecological potential? Thank you for your comments in advance!

    Gana Gecheva · Plovdiv University "Paisii Hilendarski"

    Dear Andre,

    Thanks a lot!

    Kind regards,


  • António Manuel Abreu Freire Diogo added an answer:
    Why should complex methods be used when simple methods result in the same science-based conclusions?

    Hypotheses are empirically tested with observations or perception of phenomena involving more or less complex methodology. Recent studies of the same natural phenomena use more complex methods/tools than older studies, but not necessarily changing the science-based conclusions. Why should complex methods be used when simple methods result in the same science-based conclusions. Any examples/thoughts?

    António Manuel Abreu Freire Diogo · University of Coimbra

    Dear Marcel: In my opinion, the best things are always the simpler (I agree with Amir Answer).

  • Jimmy Pincheira-Ulbrich added an answer:
    Does anyone know a way to compare two nestedness matrices (two different communities and two NODF indices)?

    The idea is to compare nestedness indices of ecological communities such as NODF, I want to know a software or specific methodology, I would appreciate it very much.

    Jimmy Pincheira-Ulbrich · Temuco Catholic University

    Thank you for your answer. However, the question was about the comparison of indices nestedness of the ecological community, for example NODF.

  • Rahul Pratap Singh Kaurav added an answer:
    How should I analyze the efficiency and effectiveness of marketing activities?

    - Efficiency versus effectiveness in marketing?

    - Which specific methodologies can be used to analyze them?

    Thank you very much for your contributions to these questions.

    Rahul Pratap Singh Kaurav · Prestige Institute Of Management

    DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) is now a trend for analyzing efficiency. In results it produces, technical efficiency, which can be good to go ....

  • Sokratis Nifakos added an answer:
    Are there research papers reporting measuring methods for the stress levels in Universities' students?


    i am looking for recent papers showing the level of stress of students in Universities mostly in Europe . The data collection methodology and the results. If you have any, please share. 

    Thank you!

    Sokratis Nifakos · Karolinska Institutet

    Thank you Renzo and Rohit!

    Interesting approach Rohit..

  • Remy Fannader added an answer:
    How important is "Project Methodology" as a parameter for software cost estimation?

    In your opinion should "Project Methodology" included as a parameter for estimation of software effort. 

    Remy Fannader · caminao

    It must also be noted that the methodology will not only affect the estimation, it will affect the cost itself ...

  • Mary Stapleton added an answer:
    How can I deceive a participant in an fMRI scanner into believing they are interacting with a person in another room without using a confederate?

    All I need is for the participant to believe that the “person” they are interacting with in the other room is seeing the same stimuli as them, but I’d like something more convincing than just telling the participant that there is someone in another room. If someone knows a method that has been used before and can give me a link to a research article that’ll be great, but I’m happy to hear other suggestions.

    Mary Stapleton · Towson University

    "If it is OK to you, try to recruit female participants only. They are much easier to be deceived than men."  I cannot believe I just read this suggestion? 

  • Elavarasi S added an answer:
    What are the procedures to prepare the chitosan naoparticles using medicinal plants?

    I want to know about the preparation methodology for chitosan nanoparticles with medicinal plants

    Elavarasi S · Nehru Memorial College

    Thank you very much sir for your valid references

  • Marko Ropret added an answer:
    How to measure an innovation index?

    Dear all, I'm thinking about building an innovation ranking of Polish companies. Something what would show how companies build their innovation value in different sectors, circumstances etc. I have quite a huge sample of different companies available and IDI/ CATI/ CAWI methodology. I' would be very grateful for any recommendations/ suggestions/ links to available resources.

    Marko Ropret · STATIS, Statistical research and business consulting

    A methodology to identify Innovation Leaders, successfully tested in various sectors:

    FATUR, Peter, LIKAR, Borut, ROPRET, Marko. Going open while innovating: does it pay?. International journal of industrial engineering and management, ISSN 2217-2661, 2010, vol. 1, no. 3, str. 77-83, ilustr., tabele.

  • Minh Nguyen Hong added an answer:
    What is the methodology and practice in development of a Human Resources Development strategy for an oil and gas company?

    We are about to start to develop the Human Resources Development strategy for an oil and gas company. Can someone share the methodology to do such works and experiences of the oil and gas company in this matter?

    Minh Nguyen Hong · Vietnam Petroleum Institute

    Ron, many thanks for  your recommendations.

  • Zol Bahri Razali added an answer:
    Does anyone have any experience of using google translate for patient information sheets and similar?
    If so, did you get it verified? How accurate was it as a first draft?
    Zol Bahri Razali · Universiti Malaysia Perlis

    You can get the similar or apropriate answer by searching the keyword in the GOOGLE SCHOLAR page. Usually you will get the first paper similar to your keyword.

    From my experience, this way will help you a lot. If you still have a problem, do not hasitate to let me know.

    Kind regards, Dr ZOL BAHRI - Universiti Malaysia Perlis, MALAYSIA

  • Benjamin Kürten added an answer:
    How can I analyse the plankton pigments and how to separate?

    Is there any specific methodology to be followed?

  • Samer Semrany added an answer:
    What is the effect of Alpha (distance from center point) in Design of experiment?

    In case of Response Surface Methodology with Central Composite Design design what value of alpha is preferred? What is the effect of high value of alpha on DOE?In MINITAB17 how to change alpha value. 

    Samer Semrany · Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes

    The preferred value for alpha for a CCD is k^(1/2) where k is the number of variables

    So k = 2 ; alpha = sqrt (2) ; k = 3 ; alpha = sqrt (3) ; k = 4 ; alpha = 2 ...

    In fact, it is so because these values put the axial (or star) points on the same hypersphere (circle in 2D, sphere in 3D, ..) as the factorial points 

  • Paul Mcjarrow added an answer:
    Is there any good tutorial or methodology review on the analysis of glycomic data available in the literature?

    I believe it is mass spectrometry data. 

    Paul Mcjarrow · Fonterra

    Hi Herman, The are answers above are good so I'll just add a few names for your searching. Anne Dell's group (imperial college, London) have put out some very good reviews and methodology papers, Nicki Packer's group in Sydney too. Pauline Rudd in Dublin (university college) and previously from Oxford glycobiology is another name that springs to mind for contact/search. All three and their team members I've met strike me as quite approachable people and happy to educate or collaborate. The John Harvey paper is a good one. MS keeps getting better (and easier), more sensitive etc so nowadays what we can do is so much more sophisticated than 10-15 years ago. But I do suggest you go back and read some of the older stuff (as well as the newer) which can give some mechanistic understanding of the fragmentation patterns upon which the newer approaches work. Good luck, hope your research goes well

  • Grace Elizabeth Varghese added an answer:
    Can anyone please explain the basic differences between systemic reviews and meta-analysis?
    Do these two have different scope of work and methodology?
    Grace Elizabeth Varghese · Valparaiso University (USA)
    • Systemic review is a summary of evidence on a particular topic, typically by an expert or expert panel that uses a rigorous process for identifying, appraising, and synthesizing studies to answer a specific clinical question. 
    • Meta analysis : Many systemic reviews incorporate quantitative methods to summarize the results from multiple studies. These reviews are called Meta- Analyses. 

    Melnyk, B. M., & Fineout-Overhault, E. (2005). Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing & Healthcare. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  • Eduardo Karol added an answer:
    What methodology is adopted for the study of out migration within india?

    In india interstate migration is there but lack of proper data and methodology. plz guide this issue

    Eduardo Karol · Rio de Janeiro State University

    Great work is Abdelmalek Sayad Immigrants. Has a chapter; What is an immigrant?

  • Genaro Hernandez added an answer:
    Is it possible to measure number of mitochondria per cell through isolation of mitochondrial fraction?
    I wonder if there are some methods of relatively fast assessment of mitochondrial number per cell through something like this:
    -isolation of mitochondrial fraction from known amount of cells
    -evaluation of mitochondrial number in extract (through flow cytometry perhaps)
    Genaro Hernandez · University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center

    Hi Silwester,

    I agree with some of the replies above stating that it is difficult to mitochondria number per cell. I also don't recommend measuring mitochondrial to nuclear DNA ratios because mito DNA copy number may be unequal even in mitochondria of similar size. Instead what I used to do was to quantify mitochondrial content as an area fraction of the total cell area by microscopy. You have to make sure you use a good mitochondrial marker that is not membrane potential or ROS sensitive so that it can label all mitochondria well. I remember we used Tom70, Cox4 or mitotracker green in our studies. Attached is one of the papers where you can find the way we quantified mitochondria.



  • Zol Bahri Razali added an answer:
    Does anybody have any experience using "spectrostar nano" plate-reader to detect fluo4?

    Can not find where to define emission wavelength in the device - there's only one option to choose a wavelength, and I assume that's for excitation.
    User manual was no big help.

    UPD. Found the answer: not possible with this device.

    Zol Bahri Razali · Universiti Malaysia Perlis

    InsyAllah I will explain in detail soon.

  • Abdulbaset Azizi added an answer:
    Is there a methodology to isolate mycoviruses and propogate it in a medium?

    I can see papers were mycoviurs genetic material is extracted for sequencing or it is purified from the fungal cells for visualisation in TEM. 

    Abdulbaset Azizi · Tarbiat Modares University

    for mycovirus extraction you should extract double strand RNA from fungi. viruses are obligate parasite and you can not propagate on media.

  • Hakan BAYRAMLIK added an answer:
    Are there specific attributes to formulating a good problem statement?
    How can one formulate a good research's problem statement?
    Hakan BAYRAMLIK · Kara Harp Okulu

    Dear Amer A. Al-Atwi,

    the link below may be a good starting point.

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