• Krishnan Umachandran added an answer:
    What operative aspects must include in an implementation methodology for Strategic Plan?

    I need to identify the operational KPIs, that must measure it for increase the implementation probability of the Strategic Plan .

    Krishnan Umachandran

    Ten Keys to Successful Strategic Planning for Nonprofit and Foundation Leaders

    No organization exists in a static environment. Social, political and economic trends continually impact the demand for its offerings and services.Even as advances in technology present new opportunities, they also generate new expectations. Needs and community demographics are all subject to change.

  • Pedro Moleirinho asked a question:
    Wich european countries are using intelligence-led policing principles and methodologies ?

    Intellegence-led policing is a police methodology.

    Definition: “Intelligence-led policing is a business model and managerial philosophy where data analysis and crime intelligence are pivotal to an objective, decision-making framework that facilitates crime and problem reduction, disruption and prevention through both strategic management and effective enforcement strategies that target prolific and serious offenders.”
    Source: Ratcliffe, JH (2008) Intelligence-Led Policing. Cullompton: Willan publishing.

  • Sebastien Marcq added an answer:
    What is the best market analysis methodology to predict the future success of products/services in a given market?

    Any suggestions are more than welcomed.

    Sebastien Marcq

    Lean approach. Consider building a minimum viable product and put it to the test of few consumers that are paying for this service or product. Then measure response. Put the learnings into the product/ service v 2.0 and either continue, stop or pivot.

  • Ishanka Weerasekara added an answer:
    Can anyone help me to find the standard/best tool to assess methodological quality?

    Can anyone help me to find the standard/best tool to assess methodological quality? I need to assess RCTs, cross overs and cohorts.

    Ishanka Weerasekara

    Thank you Mark Giorgio and Botan. I was wondering to know QFD is good for health science research? I am hearing this for the first time and just googled. I have no idea how to use this one for methodological quality Ax. Any suggestions Giorgio?

  • Lucio Munoz added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest the best research methodology for researching on migration experiences of vulnerable groups? Methodological approaches?

    Can anyone suggest the best research methodological approaches for researching on migration experiences of vulnerable groups? For example when researching on women and children.

    Lucio Munoz

    Dear Joyce, rapid assessment technicques and qualitative comparative tools may help you....As food for thoughts I am sharing this:

    Non-Traditional Research Methods and Regional Planning Needs in Developing Countries: Is there an Ideal Methodology?

    My warm greetings to all.

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Data and non-data limitations which complicate the methodological handling of critical regional problems in developing countries are listed. It is argued that the ideal methodology to deal with those complex issues under such limiting conditions must have the following characteristics: a) be flexible so it can be applied under different sets of constraining factors; b) be issue specific so it can be used to target specific critical problems or combination of them; c) be cost-effective so that it can be used or replicated easily according to local conditions and needs; d) be simple so it can be adapted and disseminated by local actors; e) be holistic so it can deal consistently with the local and regional conditions at the same time; and f) be based on conjunctural causation so that the complex nature of the problem is more realistically reflected; and g) be theoretically sound so as to provide a scientific rational consistent or comparable with that of traditional research methodologies. Then, it is pointed out based on the advantages and dis-advantages of traditional and non-traditional research methodologies that each of them fails one or more of the ideal characteristics and therefore are not consistent with the ideal methodology. Finally, another non-traditional methodology is described as the ideal methodology to deal with complex regional issues in developing countries. This ideal methodology is based on combining Rapid Assessment Research(RAR) and Qualitative Comparative Research(QCR). It is concluded that with a simple research tool based on the ideal characteristics, local and regional planners and decision makers in developing countries could be able to support or reject scientifically existing official positions on local and regional social, economic and environmental issues and discourse.
  • Melinda G. Miller added an answer:
    What are colleagues' best and worst experiences of action research?
    I work with early childhood students who work full-time and study part-time. They are often drawn to action research as the methodology for their dissertation but many go on to encounter difficulties in its implementation. I want to build a repository that might help the students when they meet problems.
    Melinda G. Miller

    Hello Jane, I work in early childhood education also and facilitate action research projects for educators in long day care, family day care, kindergarten, outside school hours care and primary school settings. In my experience, educators need to be able to relate research processes to their everyday practices. Early childhood practitioners don't tend to view themselves as researchers, but they collect data (information) on children daily, use a range of analytical tools to assess that data (e.g., developmental profiles, theory etc.) and are required to engage in critical reflection as part of professional practice. Developing a shared language around the action research process is key, and I often refer to the cycles of questioning, gathering data, reflecting and deciding on a course of action as similar to an early childhood planning cycle - it is just occurring for adults rather than children. AR requires a leap of faith of sorts as there is no direct route from point A to point B. When I relate this to an emergent curriculum model for children, educators begin to see the value of having an initial direction (e.g., a research question or focus) and then being responsive to what occurs along the way. I have written some professional magazine articles for early childhood educators on the topic of action research which you can access from here:,_Melinda.html

  • David L Morgan added an answer:
    If the chi-square difference between the model with constraints and the model without is non-significant we pick the more parsimonious one?

    Hello there, 

    I am just trying to decide upon the model doing multigroup analysis.

    I ran regression analysis for males and females separately and obtained "similarly looking" coefficients (all sig.). So I wonder if the differences between them are significant or not.

    Subsequently, I constrained the coefficient to be the same for both groups. 

    The change in chi-square between the two models was non-significant. Does this mean that the differences in coefficients are statistically no different from zero ?

    Just want to be sure that my understanding is right... thanks for any answer.

    David L Morgan

    Measures such as CFI were created to deal with situations where the chi-square value was significant, but the overall fit appeared to be adequate. Most of those indices deal with the problem that chi-square is highly sensitive to the number of degrees of freedom, so that data from large samples often produces significant chi-square values.

    In other words, many analysts feel direct chi-square assessments of models are too "conservative" and thus use things like CFI to provide a more "realistic" assessment of fit. In the present case, the actual chi-square indicates no difference, so there is little reason to delve into alternative fit indices (especially when they require subjective judgments to assess how much difference is enough to merit further attention).

  • Oliver Wieczorek added an answer:
    Bibliometrics in Social Sciences
    I am planning to do a little (maybe not so little) research concerning the influence of academic and non-academic publications (separated, if possible) on policy. In my case, I care about the indigenous movement and the creation or enhancement of "political opportunities" or the access to resources and how it is influenced by research - via State agencies, for instance.

    On a recent conference, I came across a method rarely used in the social sciences that could be of use for this research: bibliometrics. With tools like Google Ngram Viewer ( or jstor Data for Research (, you can find out easily and quickly, when a certain term appeared first in publications and how much it was used when.

    Nevertheless, those tools have their limits - especially if you're doing a rather specialized research like me.

    Is there anyone who has experiences with bibliometrics? Anyone used this method already? Maybe someone knows a better tool than the above mentioned?
    Oliver Wieczorek

    It’s an interesting question, but difficult to answer. With regards to UK- and US science policy, I encountered basically the same problems as you. It is quite rare, that scientific reports were cited, and it is also quite difficult to measure the effects scientific expertise on policy. I recommend that you combine network- and discourse-analysis in order to answer your question.

    In order to address this problem, we are trying to use a more indirect approach: First, while crawling through the hearings, speeches and documents of the respective parliaments, certain scientists, their affiliation and their profession were mentioned. My colleagues and I utilized python and the APIs provided by the US and UK-government, downloaded all files. Now – as the second step – we are reconstructing their political stances, additional affiliation (i.e. affiliation to corporation and think tanks), and the arguments given in the political debate by the scientists. In a third step, we’ll check whether or not the arguments used correlate with the argumentation used within the scientific community (in their papers published) and with regards to other affiliations (i.e. corporation and think tanks).

  • B. A. Karadge added an answer:
    Which parameters one can study to check the disease resistance of host?

    I have utilized plant extracts for the control of groundnut rust, results are satisfied on the field. I want to check the change in chemical composition of the treated and non treated hosts. So, what will be the accurate methodology to check their resistance. 

    B. A. Karadge

    You can go for polyphenol content.You can also determine soluble sugar content,free radical scavenging activity including polyphenol oxidase enzyme, phenylammonium lyase, ascrbate peroxidase and even proline and ABA levels.

  • Gordon B Willis added an answer:
    Are there any public databases available for cancer randomized trials or pragmatic trials?

    I want to try to test a statistical method on cancer randomized trials or pragmatic trials to reduce potential heterogeneity within the control arm that different treatment options might not be randomized.

    Gordon B Willis

    For US National Cancer Institute trials, there is a searchable online database that might be a good starting point:

    If you contact the staff running a trial, you may be able to discuss methodological concerns, such a the use of propensity scoring to adjust for non-random assignment, etc.

  • Sizwe Dlalisa added an answer:
    Should a teacher focus on 'rigorous learning' or 'learning with entertainment'?
    It has been seen that many teachers in universities have become entertainers rather than focusing mainly on value-addition and learning. A lot of time gets devoted to pleasing the students; knowing them personally; building good relations with them; and telling jokes and creating humour; the focus becomes more of good feedback than rigor. Keeping the audience motivated is good for effective teaching; but since a lot of time goes in entertainment less time remains for analysis and conceptualization. What is your preference and why?
    Sizwe Dlalisa

    I think the trick is to try and strike a balance between the two as the 'rigorous learning' or 'learning with entertainment in an educational context' complement each other.

  • Numa Bellisario added an answer:
    Do you know any methodologies to design normative criteria?

    I'm building a framework to analyse and evaluate the level of peacefulness of theoretical political economic systems.

    I'm concerned about which methodology to use in order to come up with the criteria of reference I will use to evaluate the different systems.

    I've been researching system methodologies and design methodologies extensively but couldn't satisfy my specific need.

    So far I'm using a design methodology (use case): goal, functions, requirements (= criteria). I could use an evaluation methodology: variables, dimensions, indicators.

    Any other idea?

    Numa Bellisario

    Hi Robert, thanks for your insights!



  • Marcoen J.T.F. Cabbolet added an answer:
    Is this example of research considered misconduct according to US Government?

    You are doing an experiment sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, a U. S. federal agency. In your experiment, you are testing the impact of a new method of exposure to chlorofluorocarbons to lung tissue using low-dose spiral computerized tomography. The protocol you are using was already approved and requires you to screen 200 subjects. You have completed 190 subjects and need to do just ten more. However, it is time for spring break and you really want to go with your friends. You decide to use the date for the 195 subjects and extrapolate the results for the remaining 10.

    Look up what "research misconduct" is according to the US government. Is this research misconduct? Why or why not? Would it be misconduct if, because of sloppy records keeping, you actually thought you had completed 200 subjects only later realized your error of having completed just 190?

    Marcoen J.T.F. Cabbolet

    As said above: you have to be honest. If you write that you did 200 tests while in fact you did only 190 and fabricated 10 test results based on extrapolation, then that's misconduct. 

    But even if your study is incomplete, your findings can still be publishable - in particular if you have very interesting data (e.g. nearly all positive or nearly all negative). You will have to emphasize that the size of the test group doesn't satisfy the minimum requirements, but still the publication can be interesting if you have observed a significant effect or a null result. In the results section you simply give the results of the 190 tests and you explicitly state that this is not enough to meet formal requirements, but in the discussion section you could for example argue (using statistical analysis) that even if you would have done 10 additional tests with a negative result, then still the conclusion would have been that a significant effect has been observed (e.g. because you have already 180 positives out of 190 tests). Although minimum standards are not met, such a paper might yield a motivation to repeat the test at a larger scale.

  • Chithan C Kandaswami added an answer:
    How shall we do critical appraisal of animal studies?

    We are doing a systematic review. Our results are mainly animal studies, and cultures, and just a few human studies. 

    We don't know which critical appraisal tool its the best for our situation, because we are investigating basic research. We are interested in the biological processes ocurring in them, any changes ocurring at a tissue, cellullar and molecular level, in humans, animals and cultures. 

    We would appreciate your guidance in this, since we are kind of lost.

    Chithan C Kandaswami

    The following links may complement the useful ones kindly provided by Dr. van der Valk.

    Animal experiments, from scientific and moral perspectives, need to be systematically, analytically and appropriately designed; their performance must be correct and analysis should be thorough. Reporting needs to be transparent and without bias. Currently, most researchers conducting animal studies seem to have received no or very limited training in SRs (systematic reviews) methodology, and do not know of its availability and potential. Recently, the Dutch parliament has approved a motion to the effect that education and training in SRs of animal studies should be a component of the course on laboratory animal science for researchers undertaking studies with experimental animals.

    Ioannidis JP, Greenland S, Hlatky MA, Khoury MJ, Macleod MR, Moher D, Schulz KF, Tibshirani R. Increasing value and reducing waste in research design, conduct, and analysis. Lancet. 2014 Jan 11;383(9912):166-75. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62227-8. Epub 2014 Jan 8. PubMed PMID: 24411645.

    An example of the potential contribution that SRs can offer in refining is documented by an SR of the cisplatin-induced ferret model of emesis, which provided evidence that the period of observation in the evaluation of ani-emetics may be reduced from 24 hours to 4 hours.

    Percie du Sert N, Rudd JA, Apfel CC, Andrews PL. Cisplatin-induced emesis: systematic review and meta-analysis of the ferret model and the effects of 5-HT₃  receptor antagonists. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2011 Mar;67(3):667-86. doi: 10.1007/s00280-010-1339-4. Epub 2010 May 28. Review. PubMed PMID: 20509026;PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3043247.

     ILAR J (2014) 55 (3): 427-437. doi: 10.1093/ilar/ilu043    The Usefulness of Systematic Reviews of Animal Experiments for the Design of Preclinical and Clinical Studies.

    Merel Ritskes-Hoitinga, Marlies Leenaars, Marc Avey, Maroeska Rovers & Rob Scholten. Systematic reviews of preclinical animal studies can make significant contributions to health care and more transparent translational medicine[editorial]. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014;(3): 10.1002/14651858.ED000078

     Systematic Reviews of Animal Studies; Missing Link in Translational Research? Published: March 26, 2014 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089981

    Conclusions: “To improve the translation of animal data to clinical practice, systematic reviews of animal studies are worthwhile, but the internal validity of primary animal studies needs to be improved. Furthermore, risk of bias should be assessed by systematic reviews of animal studies to provide insight into the reliability of the available evidence.”  

  • Alain Manuel Chaple Gil added an answer:
    Can anyone provide a proffessional methodology to get bibliometric studies and compare journals?

    I'm trying a bibliometric investigation.

    Alain Manuel Chaple Gil

    Gracias Ramón, verdaderamente de mucha ayuda...

    saludos para usted.

  • Thea Franke added an answer:
    Has anyone undertaken a mixed methods study using grounded theory methods for the qualitative aspect?
    I am undertaking PhD research to address questions around the decision making processes of women who place children for adoption within an open adoption framework. Comprehensive literature reviews have determined that there is very little international research on this area, and nothing on this aspect of Australian women's experiences. The study has a cross cultural aspect, with women from the United States also participating.

    With so little in the literature, and no theory generated, I am using a lengthy comprehensive survey based on surveys used in other areas of reproductive decision making in order to gather a broad range of data. My plan is to collect and analyse this data concurrently with in depth interview collection and analysis using GT. The survey is not intended to inform the interview process, but to provide additional data within the analysis phase, just as though the data was sourced elsewhere. My problem at the moment in that methodology is my weakest area and I'm not sure I'm able to articulate my approach well using the right 'language' in my application. It seems what I am doing is also a little unusual which doesn't help. Any ideas? Perhaps I'm not really using GT, as has been suggested? In my head I am.. :) Thanks in advance
    Thea Franke

    Thank you very much Dr. Morgan, I may have more questions in the nearby future, your insight and direction is truly invaluable. 

  • Mark R Speechley added an answer:
    Can any one explain sensitivity analysis in epidemiology?

    I am doing my PG thesis on vulnerability mapping methodology using Water Associated Disease Index(WADI). I would like to know about sensitivity analysis mentioned in a article regarding this methodology.

    Mark R Speechley

    Hi Elias:  

    One view is that if something improves the strength of an analysis' conclusions, it is mandatory (or should be).  Unfortunately, the only way to know if something affects one's conclusions is to do it and see.

    Here is the Cochrane Collaboration's explanation:  

    'It is desirable to prove that the findings from a systematic review are not dependent on ... arbitrary or unclear decisions. A sensitivity analysis is a repeat of the primary analysis or meta-analysis, substituting alternative decisions or ranges of values for decisions that were arbitrary or unclear. For example, if the eligibility of some studies in the meta-analysis is dubious because they do not contain full details, sensitivity analysis may involve undertaking the meta-analysis twice: first, including all studies and second, only including those that are definitely known to be eligible. A sensitivity analysis asks the question, “Are the findings robust to the decisions made in the process of obtaining them?”'.

    If I were you, I would start with the aspect of your meta analysis results that are the most problematic because they are based on the most tenuous assumptions, do that sensitivity analysis by substituting reasonable alternative values, and hope for small effects.  

  • Ashish Atodariya added an answer:
    Can someone give me advice on a question about the ICH Guideline?


    While I'm studying ICH guideline about validation of analytical Procedures : Text and methodology Q2(R1), I want to ask about Table part in page 3. 

    Following that table, Assay - dissolution (measurement only) -content/potency test generally do not need evaluation of detection limit and quantitation limit.

    But I couldn't understand why DL and QL is not need.

    Because we can get DL and QL easily by calculating when we get Linearity and Range.

    And I think these characteristics also can make validated assay more reliable.

    But why this guideline say " this characteristic is not normally evaluated'?

    Please answer this question. n.n

    Ashish Atodariya

    It is required for RS study not for assay or CU or disso.

  • Gana Gecheva added an answer:
    Any suggestion on Macrophyte-based assessment of ecological potential?

    The developed methodologies for macrophyte-based assessment have values for ecological status classes. The WFD also requires assessment of 'heavily modified water bodies' in terms of ecological potential. I am thinking if the given methodology reflects general degradation (i.e. including physical alterations), is there a need of separate scale with values for ecological potential? Thank you for your comments in advance!

    Gana Gecheva

    Dear Andre,

    Thanks a lot!

    Kind regards,


  • António Manuel Abreu Freire Diogo added an answer:
    Why should complex methods be used when simple methods result in the same science-based conclusions?

    Hypotheses are empirically tested with observations or perception of phenomena involving more or less complex methodology. Recent studies of the same natural phenomena use more complex methods/tools than older studies, but not necessarily changing the science-based conclusions. Why should complex methods be used when simple methods result in the same science-based conclusions. Any examples/thoughts?

    António Manuel Abreu Freire Diogo

    Dear Marcel: In my opinion, the best things are always the simpler (I agree with Amir Answer).

  • Jimmy Pincheira-Ulbrich added an answer:
    Does anyone know a way to compare two nestedness matrices (two different communities and two NODF indices)?

    The idea is to compare nestedness indices of ecological communities such as NODF, I want to know a software or specific methodology, I would appreciate it very much.

    Jimmy Pincheira-Ulbrich

    Thank you for your answer. However, the question was about the comparison of indices nestedness of the ecological community, for example NODF.

  • Rahul Pratap Singh Kaurav added an answer:
    How should I analyze the efficiency and effectiveness of marketing activities?

    - Efficiency versus effectiveness in marketing?

    - Which specific methodologies can be used to analyze them?

    Thank you very much for your contributions to these questions.

    Rahul Pratap Singh Kaurav

    DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) is now a trend for analyzing efficiency. In results it produces, technical efficiency, which can be good to go ....

  • Sokratis Nifakos added an answer:
    Are there research papers reporting measuring methods for the stress levels in Universities' students?


    i am looking for recent papers showing the level of stress of students in Universities mostly in Europe . The data collection methodology and the results. If you have any, please share. 

    Thank you!

    Sokratis Nifakos

    Thank you Renzo and Rohit!

    Interesting approach Rohit..

  • Remy Fannader added an answer:
    How important is "Project Methodology" as a parameter for software cost estimation?

    In your opinion should "Project Methodology" included as a parameter for estimation of software effort. 

    Remy Fannader

    It must also be noted that the methodology will not only affect the estimation, it will affect the cost itself ...

  • Mary Stapleton added an answer:
    How can I deceive a participant in an fMRI scanner into believing they are interacting with a person in another room without using a confederate?

    All I need is for the participant to believe that the “person” they are interacting with in the other room is seeing the same stimuli as them, but I’d like something more convincing than just telling the participant that there is someone in another room. If someone knows a method that has been used before and can give me a link to a research article that’ll be great, but I’m happy to hear other suggestions.

    Mary Stapleton

    "If it is OK to you, try to recruit female participants only. They are much easier to be deceived than men."  I cannot believe I just read this suggestion? 

  • Elavarasi S added an answer:
    What are the procedures to prepare the chitosan naoparticles using medicinal plants?

    I want to know about the preparation methodology for chitosan nanoparticles with medicinal plants

    Elavarasi S

    Thank you very much sir for your valid references

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Emergent methodologies in soft and hard sciences

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