Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic Syndrome

  • Tausif Alam added an answer:
    Can we use glucose levels and lipid profile levels obtained from non-fasting blood to identify metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents ?

    Metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents

    Tausif Alam · University of Wisconsin–Madison

    Not a good idea to put any value in non-fasting levels.

    Insulin or C-peptide levels serve as a good indicators of insulin resistance well before fasting levels become high, as someone already pointed out above.

  • Frederic Nduhirabandi added an answer:
    Which protocols are used for antioxidants activity measurements from serum and animal tissue?
    For free radicals activities directly affected in metabolic syndromes.
    Frederic Nduhirabandi · University of Cape Town

     Use the protocol of commercially available kits.

  • Ruby Red added an answer:
    Curious about your main assumption regarding high-fat diets: Is there significant evidence that you could cite that supports your claims?
    The premise at the top of your study, "Consumption of high-fat foods is one of the major causes of obesity," seems to me to be something that's been up for debate for some number of years now, with people actually losing weight on high-fat/low-carb diets. Is there significant evidence that you could cite that supports this claim? If this is your assumption on the outset, doesn't that naturally skew the parameters of the study?

    Aren't many obese people who consume high amounts of fat also impacted by other factors, such as thyroid disruptors in the environment; the excess of omega-6 oils in most packaged foods, high-carb + high fat diets, and sedentary work in temperature controlled environments?

    That's not evidence based on rigorous science. That's calories in = calories out math and anyone who spends any time studying human physiology knows that it's not a zero sum game. Hormonal cascades, gut bacteria, immune responses to specific types of nutrients all impact how a body stores or burns fat. If that equation worked so simply, the "low-fat = fat loss" solution would be available to all, but it's not. What about epileptics who are on high-fat diets, but aren't obese? 

  • Roldan de Guia added an answer:
    What is the best resource for identifying/visualising gene regulatory pathways?

    I'm looking for an open source resource for visualising known gene/protein regulatory pathways, principally for innate immune system activation involved in obesity and the downstream responses, but also for other pathways involved in obesity/metabolic syndrome (if these broad maps exist!).

    Can anyone point me in any directions?


  • Vincent Bloks added an answer:
    Does anyone find accumulation of big lipid droplets in HCC?
    I found some big lipid droplets in the murine model of HCC.
    Do they arise from the experimental methods ,or it is the normal phenomenon in the tumorigenesis of HCC?
    Vincent Bloks · Universitair Medisch Centrum Groningen

    Hi, perhaps this disscusion will help

  • What are the most reliable measures (indicators) of treatment adherence in metabolic syndrome?
    We are looking at predicting adherence to medical and behavioral health care recommendations among individuals with metabolic syndrome. I'm curious if anyone might be able to provide personal insight into specific indicators (behavioral or otherwise) that have been effective/reliable in quantifying the construct of treatment adherence?
    Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam · Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich

    We used Morisky's 8 scale medication adherence tool to measure adherence among patients with type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh. It is a easy tool to use in clinical and research settings.

  • Monica Cavali added an answer:
    Is fasting sugar along with blood pressure and waist circumference a cost effective way of screening metabolic syndrome?

    Various definitions and criteria used to diagnose metabolic syndrome. Its a common observation that central obesity, high blood pressure and impaired fasting sugars are an important triad. So I propose fasting blood sugar as a single blood test to identify metabolic syndrome in poor resource setting.

    Monica Cavali · Universidade Federal de São Paulo

    I would like to remember that in chidren glycemia usually is normal, it's better to use insulin or insulin resistance .

  • Sherif Wagih Mansour added an answer:
    Which method is recommended for determining body fat content of patients in a clinical trial?
    Of course, the method should be fast, inexpensive and harmless for the probands. However, I am in doubt, if measurement results of commercially available body-fat scales have sufficient correctness and precision. If they have, are normal scales from the local supermarket sufficient or do they need more bells and whistles?
    Sherif Wagih Mansour · Zagazig University

    BMI calculation with axillary skin fold in addition to waist/Hip circumference

  • Victor Maduabuchi Oguoma added an answer:
    Waist Circumference cut point for sub-Saharan Africans?

    What are the best ways to develop the Waist Circumference cut point for sub-Saharan Africans? I understand that the current clinical definition of obesity for sub-Saharan Africa according to the IDF is by using the European Waist Circumference cut point.

    Victor Maduabuchi Oguoma · Charles Darwin University

    Hi Sean,

    Thanks heaps for your detailed response and suggestion.



  • What the role of leptin in the pathogenesis of diabetes?
    Especially in obese persons?

    Hi Mahmoud

    The adipocyte hormone leptin acts mainly via central mechanisms to reduce food intake and increase metabolic energy expenditure. Although leptin concentrations may increase in obesity this tends to be associated with the development of leptin resistance which appears to reduce its effectiveness. Leptin may act on skeletal muscle to improve insulin action possibly via activation of AMPK and increased fatty acid oxidation suggesting that it probably does not play a significant role in insulin resistance.For more please read at following link and papers attached.

    with my best regards

  • Hila Roshanravan added an answer:
    Will TNFα induce the same type of stress in the presence of serum?
    Will TNFa induce the same degree of stress when I differentiate the cells in the absents or presents of serum?
    Hila Roshanravan · University of Houston

    Usually to induce an effect, TNF alpha is used along with Serum-free media

  • Mohamed Saleh Ismail added an answer:
    Does food habits influence Metabolic Syndrome? Can nutrition education programs fight obesity among children?
    Comments are welcome.
    Mohamed Saleh Ismail · Minoufiya University
    Of course
    It can affect it by several ways
  • Anu Makela added an answer:
    When Byetta breaks bad?
    Recently I have had 2 patients successfully treated with Byetta for 18 months that suddenly became ill without any abnormal pathology or abnormal scans.
    They have both proceeded to insulin and are now requiring up to 200 units a day U500 INSULIN. Has anyone had a similar experience and any thoughts behind why?
    Anu Makela · EMRED Oy
    Apparently with merely increasing insulin production with Byetta, they finally developed a higher level of insulin resistance. Did you try any insulin receptor sensitizers (Metformin or Actos)? Type 2 diabetics generally develop insulin resistance quite quickly if they are not placed on a medium low carbohydrate diet along with adjusted medication levels. Insulin receptors are also senditive to changes in lipid raft constructs ie. Changes in chloesterol levels ( very high or too low). Another possibility is adevirus infection. Adenovirus is known to increase up to fourfold the secretion of PC-1 which is an insulin receptor inhibitor. In this case biguanidine (again Metformin) will decrease PC-1 activity, or if your patients are also anemic, a two month treatment with EPO has been known to return PC-1 levels back to normal limits. Hope this gives you something to go on...
  • Michelle Tegg added an answer:
    Insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) activity quantification?
    Is there anyone that knows a method or a protocol to correctly quantify the activity of IDE? I usually used a ELISA kit but unfortunately the kit was discontinued and I can't find any alternative.
    Michelle Tegg · Edith Cowan University
    Apologies, for some reason ResearchGate didn't notify me of these answers, and only just saw them. If you are having difficulties with this protocol, may I suggest that you try the adaptations that are mentioned in the below publication? Hopefully it may be of some help, I had success with this protocol. Good luck!
  • Anil Kumar Pandey added an answer:
    Can the cut off of epicardial fat can be a diagnostic criterion of metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease?
    Measuring the amount of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) can be a novel parameter that is inexpensive and easy to obtain and may be helpful in cardiovascular risk stratification. However, the relationship between epicardial fat and cardiac function and that between epicardial fat and cardiac risk factors is less well described.
    Anil Kumar Pandey · ESIC Medical College& Hospital, Faridabad
    Visceral adiposity is a marker of increased risk but not readily assessed and may be costly to measure. Epicardial fat thickness is associated with cardiac morphologic abnormalities on echocardiography. This may be a more sensitive assessment of body fat distribution. It is easily available at echocardiography and simple to acquire at no added cost and training. However standardization of measurement and sensitivity of epicardial fat thickness in predicting CV risk are needed. Comparison of this simple and inexpensive measure with waist-hip ratio, BMI, Dexa scan of visceral fat, and MRI of visceral fat are needed.
  • Patricia Grace-Farfaglia added an answer:
    Are non-adherent people with Celiac Disease more likely to develop metabolic syndrome?
    Recent studies have shown that there is a high percentage of people who are overweight or obese at the time of diagnosis. Celiac patients have a higher risk of autoimmune diseases, including diabetes.
    Patricia Grace-Farfaglia · University of Connecticut
    Francisco, how were these patients followed for gluten-free diet compliance? That could be a factor.
  • Guido Norbiato added an answer:
    Do you believe that cortisol and its receptor have a key role in the metabolic syndrome?
    Is it a good basis to open a debate on the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome?
    Guido Norbiato · Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Luigi Sacco
    Obesity and other chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with normal or slightly modified plasma levels of cortisol, which are considered insufficient to explain signs and symptoms of chronic inflammation. However increased cncentrations of cortisol in liver and fat cells caused by activation of 11Beta HSD-1 by inflamatory diseases may greatly contribute to abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome including obesity, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia , dyslipidemia, increased fat deposit, near inflammed tissues, hypoandrogenaemia, mild hypercortisolemia, anaemia , osteopenia and activation of the sympatetic system related to chronic inflammation.
  • Oteh Maskon added an answer:
    What is the impact of metabolic syndrome (MS) on long-term clinical outcomes in patients with (NSTEMI) or unstable angina pectoris (USAP)?
    In acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients, those with MS were more likely to be female, have a history of percutaneous coronary intervention, and have a lower left ventricular ejection fraction and higher Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) score. Since the MS has a negative long-term impact on cardiovascular mortality and reinfarction in patients with ACS, it can be used as a marker of cardiovascular mortality in patients with ACS and aggressively targeted.
    Oteh Maskon · National University of Malaysia
    Or Mitral Stenosis! Looking at some recent data, its not about the wholesome Metabolic syndrome as a factor, rather individual component of blood pressure, lipid and glycaemia that are stronger determinants of risk and prognosis
  • Khaled Saad added an answer:
    Could mast cell stabilizer be an adjuvant therapy in type-2 diabetes?
    See above
    Khaled Saad · Assiut University
    Shi, Michael A., and Guo-Ping Shi. 2012. Different roles of mast cells in obesity and diabetes: Lessons from experimental animals and humans. Frontiers in Immunology 3:7.
  • Barak Rotblat added an answer:
    What can be used as a marker for oxidative damage analysis in samples that will be frozen for over a year?
    We would like to analyse oxidative damage in the tissue of mice. Could you suggest a marker which would remain stable in samples frozen in -80°C for a year or even more? Obviously, enzyme activities or TBars are not an option, as they degrade after a month or so, but what about some DNA modifications, etc? Do you have any experience with this? Thanks a lot!
    Barak Rotblat · University of Leicester
    You can fix you samples in PFA, mount and using standard IHC, stain with anti–8-oxo-dGuo that marks oxidized DNA. You will see the brown stain particularly in the nucleus of cells that suffer from high oxidative damage. This can compliment what Rajesh was suggesting, using carbonylated protein assay to analyse lysets. There is a nice kit from Cayman chemicals.
  • Alain Aubourg added an answer:
    Anyone know a good model to induce hypothalamic inflammation?
    I am looking for models to induce hypothalamic inflammation in mice.
    The most common model is through high-fat diet administration, but I'm looking for something related to TNF-alpha or other cytokines (intracerebroventricular).

    Does anyone know or have used another induction model?
    Alain Aubourg · French National Institute for Agricultural Research
    Hypothalamic Inflammation: Marker or Mechanism of Obesity Pathogenesis?Joshua P. Thaler , Stephan J. Guyenet , Mauricio D. Dorfman , Brent E. Wisse et Michael W. Schwartz ⇑
  • David Palacios-Martínez added an answer:
    Somebody knows anything about BIT´s annual world congress of endobolism (
    I have been invited as a speaker. I have previously participated as a speaker at Spanish and international conferences, but never before in a conference in Asia or paying for being a speaker. Has anybody had any experience about this conference or this organizer? Thanks you all.
    David Palacios-Martínez · Comunidad de Madrid
    Hi Mrs Gade,
    I have not found any significant aditional information about BIT´s annual world congress of endobolism 2014. It seems to be a new conference.
  • Guido Norbiato added an answer:
    Do you believe that cortisol and its receptors have a key role in the metabolic syndrome?
    Is it a good basis to open a debate on the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome ?
    Guido Norbiato · Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Luigi Sacco
    I agree with Rajesh Parsanathan, and Dipti Sarma. In METS we are faced with an extremely complex system resulting from interaction, at least, of cortisol, mineralcorticoids, sex steroids hormons and, of course, the immune system. In this integrated system the weak side is metabolism ( hyperglicemia,dyslipidemia, etc.), but when we recognize METS by its metabolic symptoms is late, then we have to find other markers of disease ( endocrine or immune) to allow prevention, but this is also difficult. In other words we can't cope METS without taking into consideration all systems involved. To continue discussIon , see my last paper full text .
  • Lwin Mie Aye added an answer:
    How valid are your study results when you use a screening tool with good sensitivity but poor specificity?
    I want to use a questionnaire to screen sleep apnea for my study.
    Lwin Mie Aye · International Medical University (IMU)
    Thanks, J.-M.Kabinda.
  • Jill Snow added an answer:
    What will be the target of the next blockbuster therapy for metabolic disease?
    Interested in hearing debate on Tissue, System, Pathway, Molecule, Approach
    Jill Snow · SWSML
    Seems to me, obesity and its link to hypokinetic behaviour and consequent disease is a natural culling of the population.
  • Diego Halabí added an answer:
    Are Sprague Dawley rats better than Wistar rats for obesity (high fat diets) and metabolic syndrome investigation?
    Although both rat strains (wistar and SD) are nearly equally used for the induction and the exploration of the metabolic syndrome features, some seem say that SD rats are less prone for spontenous obetisy and insulin resistance (with age) than Wistar rats. To which degree this may be true and does anyone have data from the literature to support this?
    Diego Halabí · Austral University of Chile
    The answer depends on what you want to study. ¿Do you want to induce SM, and study a specific aspect of the disease once it has been established? Or do you want to study factors that lead some subjects to develop SM versus others who do not develop? etc.

    Anyway, the wistar and SD strains develop SM in a a proportion that can be extrapolated to humans (approximately 50:50).
  • Jagannadha Rao Peela added an answer:
    How common a problem is metabolic syndrome?
    Jagannadha Rao Peela · Quest international University perak

About Metabolic Syndrome

Focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms of metabolic syndrome

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