• Arturo Geigel added an answer:
    Shouldn't we push for a bio-cyber security specialization?
    Since the disclosure made by Jay Radcliffe "Fact and Fiction: Defending your Medical Devices" I have been anxious about this subject matter and lately I have seen proposals of automating anesthesia computer-assisted sedation. This trend will only grow and I would move to analyze this before the first casualties arise. Thoughts anyone?
    Arturo Geigel · Independent Researcher

    A recent article which bring my original post back to life in my opinion.


    The link to the research paper is in the link above

  • George Stoica added an answer:
    What is the degradation scale in the higher education worldwide?
    In my previous question I suggested using the Research Gate platform to launch large-scale spatio temporal comparative researches.
    The following is the description of one of the problems of pressing importance for humanitarian and educational sectors.
    For the last several decades there has been a gradual loss in quality of education on all its levels . We can observe that our universities are progressively turning into entertaining institutions, where students parties, musical and sport activities are valued higher than studying in a library or working on painstaking calculations.
    In 1998 Vladimir Arnold (1937 – 2010), one of the greatest mathematicians of our times, in his article “Mathematical Innumeracy Scarier Than Inquisition Fires” (newspaper “Izvestia”, Moscow) stated that the power players didn’t need all the people to be able to think and analyze, only “cogs in machines,” serving their interests and business processes. He also wrote that American students didn’t know how to sum up simple fractions. Most of them sum up numerator and denominators of one simple fraction with the ones of the other, i.e. as they did it, 1/2+ 1/3 according to their understand is equal to 2/5 . Vladimir Arnold pointed out that with this kind of education, students can’t think, prove and reason – they are easy to turn into a crowd, to be easily manipulated by cunning politicians because they don’t usually understand causes and effects of political acts. I would add, for myself, that this process is quite understandable and expected because computers, internet and consumer society lifestyle (with its continuous rush for more and newer commodities we are induced to regard as a healthy behavior) have wiped off young people’s skills in elementary logic and eagerness to study hard. And this is exactly what the consumer economics and its bosses, the owners of international businesses and local magnates, need.
    I recall a funny incident that happened in Kharkov (Ukraine). One Biology student was asked what “two squared” was. He answered that it was the number 2 inscribed into a square.
    The level and the scale of education and intellectual decline described can be easily measured with the help of the Research Gate platform. It could be appropriate to test students’ logic abilities, instead of guess-the-answer tests which have taken over all the universities within the framework of Bologna Process which victorious march on the territories of former Soviet states. Many people can remember the fact that Soviet education system was one of the best in the world. I have therefore suggested the following tests:
    1. In a Nikolai Bogdanov-Belsky (1868-1945) painting “Oral accounting at Rachinsky's People's school”(1895) one could see boys in a village school at a mental arithmetic lesson. Their teacher, Sergei Rachinsky (1833-1902), the school headmaster and also a professor at the Moscow University in the 1860s, offered the children the following exercise to do a mental calculation (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BogdanovBelsky_UstnySchet.jpg?uselang=ru):
    (10 х 10 + 11 х 11 + 12 х 12 + 13 х 13 + 14 х 14) / 365 = ?
    (there is no provision here on Research Gate to write square of the numbers,thats why I have writen through multiplication of the numbers )
    19th century peasant children with basted shoes (“lapti”) were able to solve such task mentally. This year, in September, this very exercise was given to the senior high school pupils and the first year students of a university with major in Physics and Technology in Kyiv (the capital of Ukraine) and no one could solve it.
    2. Exercise of a famous mathematician Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855): to calculate mentally the sum of the first one hundred positive integers:
    1+2+3+4+…+100 = ?
    3. Albrecht Dürer’s (1471-1528) magic square (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magic_square)
    The German Renaissance painter was amazed by the mathematical properties of the magic square, which were described in Europe firstly in Spanish (the 1280s) and Italian (14th century) manuscripts. He used the image of the square as a detail for in his Melancholia I painting , which was drawn in 1514, and included the numbers 15 and 14 in his magic square:

    16 3 2 13
    5 10 11 8
    9 6 7 12
    4 15 14 1

    Ask your students to find regularities in this magic square. In case this exercise seems hard, you can offer them Lo Shu (2200 BC) square, a simpler variant of magic square of the third order (minimal non-trivial case):

    4 9 2
    3 5 7
    8 1 6

    4. Summing up of simple fractions.
    According to Vladimir Arnold’s popular articles, in the era of computers and Internet, this test becomes an absolute obstacle for more and more students all over the world. Any exercises of the following type will be appropriate at this part:
    3/7 + 7/3 = ? and 5/6 + 7/15=?
    I think these four tests will be enough. All of them are for logical skills, unlike the tests created under Bologna Process.
    Dear colleagues, professors and teachers,
    You can offer these tasks to the students at your colleges and universities and share the results here, at the Research Gate platform, so that we all can see the landscape of the wretchedness and misery resulted from neoliberal economics and globalization.
    George Stoica · Canada

    There are universities with special agendas, very well hidden, and that makes it close to impossible to identify the real quality of their programs. There are universities with constantly very good results, and those should be analyzed and followed. 

  • Nandini Suresh added an answer:
    How to stop Plagiarism? What can be done with the article once identified for Plagiarism?
    A recently published article Medications for Anxiety: A Drug utilization study in Psychiatry outpatients from a Tertiary Care Centre Of Eastern India. SIDDHARTHA GHOSH, Swati Bhattacharyya, Amit Bhattacharya in Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics is almost the copy of the article published in Nepal journal of Epidemiology. Authors forgot to change the place of their hospital in India instead of our hospital in Nepal Still. Manuscript Published. What to do with this type of Methodological rigor?.
    Nandini Suresh · Meenakshi Academy of Higher Education and Research

    Plagiarism is a serious research misconduct but there are many types of it, the magnitude of the misconduct may vary from being subtle to severe. Out of the various types of plagiarism, copy pasting, i.e, taking verbatim from other articles without proper citation or absence of quotes  does come under the serious types of plagiarism. Though most authors do it unintentionally, it may have dire repercussions. The journal editors, reviewers should screen for plagiarism before publication.  It is also the duty of authors to check for plagiarism before submitting an article. The universities may have a publication committee which should insist on checking every article for plagiarism check before submission. There are various softwares available which can be purchased by the universities and can motivate ethical writing. The other important point to be considered and the need of the hour is the young researchers have to be educated in this aspect through lectures or workshops. The following article highlights the ways to avoid plagiarism

    ori.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/ plagiarism.pdf

  • Julian Cockbain added an answer:
    Who owns patients' health information?

    According to the Freedom of Information Act, American patients can access their health information upon their request. I wonder if there is a global consensus over this issue? Do other countries have a similar legislation?

    In my country, doctors can refuse to show the patients their own information. They believe and say that the doctor and not the patient owns the patient's information. Is it legal? Is it ethical?

    ps. By "owning the health information" I mean "the right to read, copy, or keep a copy of everything written in the patient's record".

    Julian Cockbain ·


  • Wise Young added an answer:
    Can mycoplasma infected microglia be used for in-vitro experiment ?

    i'd like to see if  cytokines secreted by activated microglia will be reduced in different medicine concentration . but occasionally ,i found the microglia was contaminated by mycoplasma although its growth and morphology is almost normal .

    do these cells can be used in the experiment ?

    Wise Young · Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

    Unless you are interested in seeing what mycoplasma infected microglia do, don't use such cells for two reasons. First, mycoplasma is very likely to affect the responses of microglia and other cells in the culture.  Second, it will infect other cells In the culture and other cultures in your incubator and facilities.  You should not only discard the cells but discard all cells that have been in the same incubator.  When we had a mycoplasma infection in our facility, we had to throw out all cultures from the incubator.

  • Lars Lafferty added an answer:
    What are some of the current, most innovative public and private wireless medical device test bed programs today, and where are they housed?

    (ex. hospitals, non-hospital settings, homes, universities, etc.) What components and characteristics comprise these test beds? Are there different types of medical device test beds(ex. hardware, software, etc)? Where do these devices operate in the radio frequency? Is there a central repository of test results/data that the medical community and other stakeholders can access? What types of medical devices and innovations are being tested? How are tests and simulations being conducted in these settings? What testing standards, if any, are being applied for current wireless medical device test beds? Who are the primary users of wireless medical device test beds (researchers, doctors, innovators, entrepreneurs) and what knowledge can be gleaned from them?

    Lars Lafferty · University at Buffalo, The State University of New York

    Mr. Don Kaiser,

            Thank you for providing me with another excellent and credible source, pertaining to the Health Level Seven International, a level of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) seven-layer communications model for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) - the application level. Have you, or do you currently engage with the HL7? Would be thrilled to discuss with you in further detail, at your earliest convenience. Hope the you are having and continue to have a wonderful day. Looking forward to hearing from and speaking with you in further detail. Thanks.


    Lars Lafferty

  • Jacob Simons added an answer:
    Are there any objective parameters to follow up a "detox therapy"
    Can a detox therapy be monitored by means of sound medicine?
    Jacob Simons

    I too am interested. Have you found any useful information? It would have to be looking at the metabolites of the many chemicals being broken down in the liver. Loss of adipose tissue would actually increase levels of toxins, in the short term.

  • Muayyad Ahmad added an answer:
    Which is the best Reference Management Software for research scholars?
    We have so many options for Reference Management but which one is better and why? Please consider some factors in your answer: ace of use, reliability, user friendliness, portability (we can use on different devices as same time) etc.
    Muayyad Ahmad · University of Jordan

    I also use the Microsoft word Reference manager, it is already with the word program (2007 and above). Of course, it is free as long as you have the Microsoft Office. It is easy to use and as long as you at the first time cited your references, then you can click to change to many other styles of references.

  • Samad Esmaeilzadeh added an answer:
    Who is interested in collaborating on how “Buerger’s Disease” and “Raynaud’s phenomenon” can be treated completely in just days?

    I have found how “Buerger’s Disease” or “Raynaud’s phenomenon” can be treated, just at some days completely and forever, and I think that this discovery (because of the remedy’s anti vasospasm effects) can be one of the most important discoveries in the science of medicine and numerous patients who suffer from diseases which are related to vasospasm will be able to find their healthy life again. But there are some problems for patenting the discovery, and I need supporters, collaboration or guidance of some professionals in the field. Who is interested in collaborating me for patenting it in scientific ways?
    Samad Esmaeilzadeh

    Samad Esmaeilzadeh · Mohaghegh Ardabili University


  • Aamir A. Hamza added an answer:
    Do you agree there is a decline in the ethical values in the field of medicine?If so what are the contributing factors?

    Ethics is an important element in the field of medicine, and it is astonishing to note that is a constant decline over the period of years, it is a must to address this issue to preserve the field from further deterioration. 

    Aamir A. Hamza · University of Bahri

    What you are addressing in your question, is it the:

    1. Moral values of ethics (Probity, Honesty, Integrity, Truth telling, Alturism, etc.)
    2. Principle of ethics (Beneficence, Nonmaleficence, Autonomy and Justice)
    3. communication?
    4. Behavior?
    5. Medical professionalism in general?  
  • Jerry Goddard added an answer:
    Which is the best wound dressing for a pressure ulcer of type III or IV?

    There are many available technologies for a wound with a high level of drainage.

    Which type do you think is the best one?

    (Ag, TLC, polymer, ... ?)

    It is necessary to emphasize that we are interested for treatment after a month from the surgery cleaning of the wound.

    Jerry Goddard · Southern Illinois University Carbondale

    Great resource for your question


  • Judocus Borm added an answer:
    Do Radiology residents require personal dosimeters in present scenarios?
    Personal dosimeters (viz. TLD) are used for monitoring radiation exposure. As in the current Radiology curriculum, residents hardly work in an environment where radiation monitoring would be required (except DSA), what is the current guideline for personal dose monitoring?
    Judocus Borm · Reinier de Graaf Groep

    Mandatory  in The Netherlands. This is based on national law implementing Euratom guidelines. All countries under the Euratom treaty [most european countries] had to turn this requirement into national law long ago.

    A few years back one major radiotherapy institution requested the government for permission to stop registering doses for workers involved in external beam radiotherapy. To my knowledge, the use of TLD-badges has not been disconinued in The Netherlands.

    For Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, for workers, whenever there exists a conceivable risk of exposure above and beyond 1 mSv/year, TLD-badges are mandatory.

    Because of the increasing use of PET/CT camera's and the problems with potential very high [Gray's] doses to the extrimities when using 18F-FDG, it is extremily unlikely that this practice will be abandoned.

    In the past few years the Dutch government has tightened the rules also for dentists, ensuring that both the dentists and the equipment used conforms to the letter of the law.

    In response to your question, I have question in return: don't your residents also  train for interventional procedures ?  If simple procedures such as biopsy under CT guidance are performed, dose monitoring becomes important.

  • Andrei Gonzales I. added an answer:
    Are you familiar with the notion of complementary and alternative medicine more than conventional primary care?
    Conventional medicine prides itself on being science-based, and shuns alternative medicine for being "unproven," however, many of the non-communicable diseases have been taken care of successfully by alternative medicine. Conventional medicine is still behind and it will send your health into a downward spiral.
    Andrei Gonzales I. · Universidad Mayor de San Andres

    Thanks Dr. Partha Pratim Dhar, yes I tried to mean that a lot of traditional knowledge are inside of alternative medicine, so they are a lot of applications like Dr Partha mentioned; they are very useful, the problem is that a lot of people dont like this type of medicine because they are not proved scientifically, how ever they are a lot of new publications that are proving this facts, we scientists must try to help in this topics.
    I am aware that in many cases the knowledge of alternative medicine have been misrepresented, used only for trade and deceit and also for illegal things. It is a difficult task trying to keep the original knowledge that many cultures that left, most of this knowledge is dying with their carriers ancestors who had 80-100 years old.
    At this point I dare say that it is possible to mention that many people when they hear about alternative medicine only comes to their minds facts unconvincing, because the most part of the information is already infected, to the point that people believe in such superstitions.

    Another reason why many of knowledge of alternative medicine is not demonstrated is by the difficulty you have when making experiments or controlling the confounding factors in the observations.

    Then the task is to separate objectively all knowledge that show significant solutions and their real applications, but often involves taking a multivariate analysis and even a lot of protocols sustain that the essence of the expression of the fact it is on non physical (touchable) variables (subjective) and non counting this facts could affect the experiment (or observation) (For example the problem with the Masaru Emoto experiments ). To the other hand we must to correct the distorted knowledge.

    There are already people working on this topic, even objectively trying to improve the reputation of alternative medicine.

    A strong example in the application of alternative medicine is the effect of the moon on living organisms through its gravitational field, as this example there are others.

  • Diego garcia-compean added an answer:
    Among the stigmata of chronic liver disease, is there a pathognomonic one?

    Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology, Hepatology

    Diego garcia-compean · Autonomous University of Nuevo León, Mexico

    Dear everybody

    The simple and clear answer to this very targeted question is NO.

    It was given above.

    Thank you

  • John Nduko added an answer:
    What is the best method of detecting and quantifying Fumonisins?
    I want to detect the presence of fumonisins in some samples and later quantify the level of contamination. What is the most accurate yet simple method to achieve this?
    John Nduko · Egerton University

    Thank you Mahmoud Hassan for your link. It was very useful

  • Srikanta Banerjee added an answer:
    How could we treat cardiorenal syndrome?
    Cardiorenal syndrome is as a newly discovered syndrome including anemia, intractable congestive heart failure and end-stage kidney disease. Unfortunately, reaching this diagnosis can happen later.
    Srikanta Banerjee · University of Roehampton

    My doctoral dissertation is on cardiorenal syndrome and the role of inflammation.  From my original research, I have found that there is a major role that inflammation plays in deterioration of the condition of cardiorenal syndrome.  While the treatment seems to help one organ at the expense of the other, one of the solutions seem to be the use of biologic agents.  These can decrease inflammation and damage to both organs at the same time.  I agree with Dr. Brunner-La Rocca that currently more prospective studies are necessary in order to fully understand different therapies that work.

  • Pius Okpoko added an answer:
    Life-expectancy of medical doctors.
    Does anyone know of any studies on the life expectancy of medical doctors? I'd think it would be higher than the average for the population at large, owing to the doctors' ability to detect many disorders in early stages of development. However, it seems to me that just like medical laymen, the doctors may be no less (or perhaps even more) likely to ignore personal health problems.
    Pius Okpoko · Supreme Faith Hospital, Nigeria; Texila American University, Georgetown, Guyana.

    Life expectancy of medical doctors varies in countries like Nigeria. One of the determinant factors is stress. Those in private/general medical practice are often over-stressed than those in public hospitals. It is evident, though there are no available figures now, that doctors in public hospitals in Nigeria live longer. Kind regards.

  • Mark Noar added an answer:
    How can one make a decision regarding ERCP in a patient with symptomatic gallstones and slightly deranged LFTs, and U/S shows normal CBD?
    Slightly deranged LFTs mean ALT &ALP < 1.5 times of upper limit and bilirubin is normal.
    Mark Noar · Endoscopic Microsurgery Associates

    Often this question is answered depending on the local resources available.  MRCP can be useful, but almost always misses sludge and small stones in the CBD. Many guidelines suggest that in patients with small stones of up to 2 mm in the GB and slight transaminase elevation, one should just proceed to GB surgery. If EUS is available it is always useful and can more accurately locate small CBD stones or sludge.  That still begs the question of should a pre-operative ERCP be done, since small stones and sludge will normally pass through a non-compromised biliary sphincter. The reality is that all humans create and pass small stones and sludge, which we documented far too many years ago from random stool specimens collected from random people on the streets of New York City. Problems only develop when the stones/sludge cannot be passed. Regardless of the availability of MRCP or EUS, given the skill in the surgical community and timely availability of ERCP in most hospitals, this should able to be easily taken care of during surgery, with ERCP within 24 hours if needed.

  • Peter F W M Rosier added an answer:
    When and to whom can urodynamics be used for overactive bladder (OAB) diagnosis?

    There are are limited numbers of studies whether the urodynamics are superior to history alone or not for over active bladder. The diagnosis of OAB is mostly achieved by the history. I wonder your experiences about this topic in the light of literature.

    Peter F W M Rosier · University Medical Center Utrecht

    And if doctor Petros observes an ovary tumor with ultrasound and the patient has no symptoms at all?

    In agreement with prof. Gorit: Urodynamics is the objective diagnosis. OAB is defined as a symptom complex and its moderate sensitivity and specificity towards the real dysfunction are well documented. However treatment 'ex juvantibus' management is not very unsafe in first managment and not very unsuccesful. OAB is however not a diagnosis and almost no symptom in health care is pathognomonid. I trust my radiologist, I trust my pathologist and I trust my urodynamicist in making an objective diagnosis, not blurred by the patient's impression, expression or emotion.

  • B.R. Rajeswara Rao added an answer:
    Considering the huge Medicinal plants availability, has the time come to further the research to get the finished products?

    Enough research has not been carried out to tap the potential medicinal plants,the research must be focused in this area to get the benefit out of it.

    B.R. Rajeswara Rao · Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

    Dear Sultan Salah

    There is a similar question "why there is a lacuna in herbal research?" by Annadurai Shanmuganathan. You may be interested in following the question/discussions or possibly interacting with the questioner. 

    Good luck.

  • Eleana Stoufi added an answer:
    To what extent are our olp (oral lichen planus) patients satisfied with the management?
    How much palliation helps?
    Eleana Stoufi · Ευρωκλινική

    We must explane to the patient that it is a disease that cannot be cured, but it will reappear occasionally. the treatment is corticosteroids. We administer low doses (depending on the extend and type of lesions) for a long period of time and we follow up the patient to adjust the dose according to the progress of the lesions. The oral lesions are the only lesions most of the time

  • Douwe Verkuyl added an answer:
    Can anyone provide further views on the application of Homeopathy and water memory?

    The principal problem on high dilutions study in Homeopathy is the "water memory effect". Skeptiks says "water memory contradict the all laws of physics, chemistry and biology", this is true? this question is important on the theoretical level for this reasons: Different experimental groups has been demonstrated the long term effects on the context of homeopathic dilutions i.e: 1) Louis Demangeat in blinded experiments demonstrate the macromolecular organization of liquid water by the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of histamine vs control; 2) Igor Jerman  and coworkers replicated the "Benveniste" experiments in the context of the electrical transfer information using electrical device for copy the molecular information in native water; 3) Recent studies published in Neuroscience leading journal (Elsevier) demonstrate the beneficial effect of the Cocc 30c dilution on the sleep deprived rats, this researchers using a double blind placebo design; 4) Luc Montaigner and coworkers shown the bacterial DNA has capable to emit electromagnetic  radiation, this signals is save and copied and information transfer; 5) A new review published by Robert Hahn, look and scrutinize the four most important meta analysis published in the leading journals, Dr Hahn has been demonstrated the superiority of homeopathy vs placebo; 6) The coherent domains, postulated for the physical basis of homeopathy is reviewed by the female scientist Mae Ho Whan (in Water Journal); 7) Other research in the agrohomeopathy shown the utility of the selected homeopathic dilutions in agriculture; 8) Socio anthropological works shown the general benefit on the human experiences using homeopathic or homeopathy with conventional medicine. 

    I don´t understand: Why skeptical movement refuse the experimental data? is most important the word of an magician (James Randi) or the word of a qualified scientists?

    Douwe Verkuyl · CASA Klinieken, Leiden

    There is only one global science that applies to chemistry, physics, astronomy, biology, quantum mechanics etc. Because there are psychological and cultural differences medicine has local accents. The basic medical science is universal.

  • Thierry Beths added an answer:
    Are there alternative stimuli for increased ventilation ?

    Why not use a MULTIVIB mattress for transferring sound stimuli to these patients?

    It can transfer music as well at VAT stimuli, and will aid the process of ventilation significantly.

    Olav Skille

    Thierry Beths · University of Melbourne

    For those of you who maybe interested in holistic medicine, some anaesthetist use in animal an acupuncture point which, apparently may help with ventilation: GV 24...but it seems they use to stimulate breathing during recovery from anaesthesia, while weaning from the ventilator...not sure it will halp in terms of increasing ventilation in an alrady breathing aptient.

  • Mohammad Alsehimy added an answer:
    Which is more common, the occurrence of Hypotension Bradycardia Event (HBE) during shoulder arthroscopy in block alone or block associated with GA?
    Mohammad Alsehimy · Cairo University

    I think that the occurrence of Hypotension Bradycardia Event (HBE) during shoulder arthroscopy is more common  in block associated with GA rather than in block alone ..


  • Mozhdeh Bahrainian added an answer:
    Has anyone validated the questionnaire for doctors regarding palliative sedation?
    Palliative sedation is sometimes a necessary intervention near the end of life. I am concerned about professionals perception, attitudes and practices regarding palliative sedation.
    Mozhdeh Bahrainian · University of Wisconsin, Madison

    I agree with Cecile Furstenberg and  Bojana Hocevar Posavec.

  • Rameshwar Jatwa added an answer:
    Can hyperglycemia induce endothelial mesenchymal transition?


    Rameshwar Jatwa · Devi Ahilya University, Indore

    Well, hyperglycemia is reported to induce oxidative stress, and this in turn may induce the cellular transition. As the elevated levels of ROS cause the lipid peroxidation and these lipid intermediates might be having a crucial role in cellular transition.

  • Anthony Castaldo added an answer:
    Do you agree that an Expert System can replace the human in different expert areas?
    An Expert System is a special kind of software and they are working on knowledge base. They are specifically designed for an special purpose. They have logical ability like human and much more faster than human.
    Anthony Castaldo · University of Texas at San Antonio

    To answer the original question: Sure they can, especially if the data-need is much larger than a person's personal memory. And in particular for what they can "sense" on their own, which is mostly quantifiable, discrete data points, classifications and numerically specified values, probabilities, etc.

    So medical diagnoses and tests, the finding of legal precedents, figuring out what is wrong with an engine or vehicle, perhaps chemical testing of items.

    The problem requires humans when novel things or ambiguities are introduced. Is a new "investment" in a new kind of business a deceptive con game or an actual new opportunity? Is Uber an employer of drivers that owes the government 3 billion in employment taxes, or is it a marketplace for independent drivers to find passengers (and vice versa), so that it does not owe the government any employment taxes?

    It still takes humans to figure out whether some things are dangerous, or to anticipate the future implications of new situations, or often to react (like a surgeon) to novel or unexpected conditions outside the normal domain. Humans are still the champion generalists.

  • Rhys Phillips added an answer:
    Have hospitals been catalysts in the development of modern medicine? Or have they simply been passive reflections of medical innovation?

    Considered as a logical next step from healthy house, have hospitals been catalysts in the development of modern medicine? Or have they, as many architectural and medical historians had assumed, simply been passive reflections of medical innovation? (Adams, 2008)

    Rhys Phillips · Canadian Interiors Magazine

    Here is piece I wrote in Building in 2012 on evidence-based healthcare facility design and new developments in Canada that you may find interesting.


    Rhys Phillips, Associate Editor, Building

  • Pardis Td added an answer:
    Is it appropriate for women to take iron supplements prior to surgery?
    What dose and for how long should this supplementation occur? Should it be a part of everyday life?
  • Salman Ahmed added an answer:
    Application of Galenical Preparations in current drug discovery?

    Please only share the published facts (reviews and chapters etc.)

    Salman Ahmed · University of Karachi

    Thanks both of you but i still need any review article about Application of Galenical Preparations in current drug discovery.



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