• Francesca Cansani added an answer:
    Spreading religions by increasing the population instead of popularization.

    Regardless of the population-growth-problems, some religions are encouraging their folks to make more babies to have a more prevalent religion in future.

    What do you think?

    Francesca Cansani · University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland

    <<Well, people in political parties want to spread the message because they feel they have the right ideas for the country or local area. Members of a religion seeking to multiply their number via births... is a bit different>> <-- I have another Opinon about that. Which is the Version I reported in the previous Comment. If one wants to reproduce in order to increase its Power, or decisional Power, be he/she a religious/theist Follower, or an atheist Follower, be he/she a Follower of a so called holy Book, or of a so called economical Book, the Operation which he/she's meant to accomplish is the same, in Terms of Meaning and Effects on Society/Societies and on ''the Others''.

    I do repeat that institutional Religions and political Parties are the same, in their Essence: they're Ideologies and they're a matter of Politics.

    Thank you and sorry for this further Comment. Inner/Outer Happiness to Every1.

  • Mohammod Hossain asked a question:
    How do you feel when your answer in RG is down-voted

    Sometimes we get down-vote to our answer. We do not get reply (without disagreement) of our answer to a question from down voter. I like to get criticism of my answer instead of down vote. What do you think?

  • Paul Hubert Vossen added an answer:
    There is a gap for the conference papers:  

    Somebody may change the title and abstract of a paper, frequently, and submit it to tens of conferences which do not publish the full papers online, then put in their CVs that they have tens conference papers. What to do to avoid these kinds of abuses.

    Paul Hubert Vossen · Duale Hochschule Baden-Württemberg Mannheim

    If "scientific integrity should come from inside the researcher himself", then it should first and foremost be placed inside the researchers.

    One cannot simply assume that scientific integrity is an innate quality of each and every researcher. It has never been, so why should it be nowadays, with more people working in research and development than ever before, taking all preceding centuries together.

    The topic of scientific integrity should be part of a grand course on scientific methodology, ethics and practice, including publication and dissemination, and much more. This course should come early on in every scientific discipline.

    The best thing would be to have an internationally accredited sort of course, so that this would create a globally agreed and adopted "researchers' code of conduct and ethics" for all who claim to be "scientific researchers".

    Presumably this is as far as one can come: approbation certification as is usual in e.g. the medical profession will not be feasible, for a long time to come.

  • Rasbindu Mehta added an answer:
    Get the money, add a coauthor!!!

    I don't know about developed countries, but in developing countries some researchers (let's say not so many) add coauthors, that they don't even know them, by receiving some money from some dealer agents. 

    sometimes professors, but mostly students who are looking for getting fund, scholarship, etc., for a PhD program are the customers of these agents. 

    Suggestions, opinions, ideas are all welcome as I believe the solutions offered in RG are sometimes really applicable.

    Rasbindu Mehta · Bhavnagar University

    Dear All,

    A few years back  I came to know that there are a few professional organizatios. They charge some money and ask a student for his subject and prepare Ph.D. Thesis that the student can submit to University.

    There are some fake Ph.D.s!!!

  • Paulo Eduardo Ocke Reis added an answer:
    What would be a good journal to publish a case of Rothia dentocariosa endocarditis complicated by a mycotic pseudoaneurysm of the sup. mes. artery?
    Only about 20 cases of R. dentocariosa endocarditis have been published so far.
    Paulo Eduardo Ocke Reis · Universidade Federal Fluminense

    I agree  with Deborah Jean Verran and Alexander Oberhuber

  • Noor Azman Ali added an answer:
    Shall we trust our suppliers?

    There are sometimes no choices, but to disclose the protected process or product knowledge to the suppliers. How can we handle it?

    Noor Azman Ali · Putra University, Malaysia

    Without trust there will be no business deal...including with our supplier. Somehow trust is intangible and possibly inconsistent and not easy to correctly be predicted. Being skeptic, cautious and particular to details can be very useful. At the same time, the 7 Habits of Effective People mentality might overcome the issue.

  • Rihab Mohamed Abdelrahman added an answer:
    Scientists will make the Anti-Aging Medicine in future. Do you think they will let you have it?

    Imagine that in near future, human can make a medicine to stop aging, it will not be reasonable that they let everybody have it. (population problems)

    Who do you think will receive the medicine? 

    This is just an imaginative situation. 

    Rihab Mohamed Abdelrahman · University of Khartoum


    If anti-aging medicine is to help for health life I think everybody will be quite happy. But to increase life span, I agree with Cundin. As to restrict it ,how could that be done and be fair.

  • Edward Russak added an answer:
    What is the best source for information about light sensitive medications?
    What is the best source for information about light sensitive medications?
    Edward Russak · University at Buffalo, The State University of New York

    This link may be useful

  • Engida Eyob added an answer:
    Can anyone help me with exhaustive details about acidosis in burn patients and its management?

    Need this for our research on burn patients. Surprisingly there is a paucity of literature regarding this aspect of burns.

    initiate metabolic acidosis due to decreased tissue perfusion that is caused severe volume depletion,and tissue damage increase potassium in serum level and that might aggravating factor for acidosis

  • Vahid Rakhshan added an answer:
    How far are scientists willing to use post-publication peer review platforms [PubMed Commons in particular] to criticize a published article?

    PubMed Commons is a web service that allows the peer review of published articles abstracted in PubMed. I wonder how much are researchers inclined to possibly risk their political safety to comment on or criticize a published article, especially one written by famous authors, via such services? What would be the reasons to do so, or to avoid it?

    Any other ideas are highly appreciated. Plus I think RG lacks a poll mechanism for QAs.

  • What are your opinions on the following drug combinations for anti-ulcer medication?
    In the setting of prescribing anti-ulcer medication please comment on the following combinations :
    1.Ranitidine with Omeprazole
    2.Antacid with Ranitidine
    3.Sucralfate with Omeprazole
    Krishna Kumar Govindarajan · Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research

    Dear Dr Huynh & Russak

    Will the combination of PPI & H2 blocker be a pharmacologically sound combination ?

    As one increases the pH, the other drug may not be even be able to act, going by the pharmacodynamics.

  • Danilo Corrêa Silva added an answer:
    Effects of excessive pressure on hands

    I am working on a thesis about how different hand tool designs affect the pressure distribution over the palm of the hands. However, it is somewhat difficult to get references about how excessive pressures may impair the use of a product and what are its implications on hands, in a physiological level (like schemias, calluses, etc.). I found only very sparse mentions of pressure in some texts, like Cacha and Tichauer and Gage. One reference that may be helpful is the one listed below, but I can't get my hands on it:

    Mechanical considerations of skin in work. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL MEDICINE. Volume 8, Issue 4-5, 1985, Pages: 463–472, Thomas J. Armstrong
    Article first published online : 11 JAN 2007, DOI: 10.1002/ajim.4700080428

    Does someone have it or know any reference that may help me in this way?

    Danilo Corrêa Silva · São Paulo State University

    Thank you Benjamin.

    I will look at that in a moment.


  • Aneesh Kalyanasundaram added an answer:
    Is there any article supporting that calcium orotate doesn't produce kidney stone?

    Calcium orotate is the most updated calcium formulation having highest absorption from gut (almost 95%). It is better almost in every cases than calcium carbonate, which in forms oxalate containing substances that are responsible for kidney stone, whereas ca-orotate may not involve in kidney stone formation. I'm looking for the supportive papers regarding this.

    may be you can start looking in bonding and molecular stability basis.

  • Antonino Staiano asked a question:
    Advances in Computational Methods for Genetic Diseases

    I'm glad to invite interested researchers to submit their works to the special issue of Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine by Hindawi

  • Sharon White asked a question:
    Why are paramedics not included in clinical management teams?

    Why are paramedics il-considered in medicine and nursing? As an emerging profession (like nursing in Aust) many years ago it seems that paramedics are often an oversight in the care and management of patients. Give the diverse clinical contexts that paramedics work in, space control theory (Campeau 2008) and the movement to tertiary education?  I am left to ponder how we change the idea that paramedics are drivers? 

  • Maurizio Pea added an answer:
    To be a workaholic has any advantage?

    Some argue that workaholics do not contribute any extra than normal worker? What people think?

    Maurizio Pea · University of Verona and ULSS 22 Bussolengo, Italy

    I believe that the problem is in the method of work and the relationships between the different people of the working group. Hard work of a person without a relationship is a disorder of the person who plays or who imposes the job. This type of work generally gratifies only one of the two actors. In a good relationship, in a working group that shares a special effort to reach a goal, the information out of the self-referential thought and may generate further knowledge.

  • Manasvini Vimal Kumar asked a question:
    How may I help with research in health please?

    I am an Indian student at FDU Vancouver and having a medical background (post graduate in Homeopathy from India and pursuing Masters in Administration-Global Health here), and have substantial interest in research, I would love to voluntarily help someone who's researching in medicine/health. Could someone guide me please?

  • Vahid Rakhshan added an answer:
    Are open access online "book chapters" any scientific? Do you consider them real text books as the so-called publishers claim?

    Recently many researchers are invited to publish a "book chapter" in an open access book. The so-called publishers invite people with a few publications to publish a book chapter, and this sounds alluring to the authors. So those not familiar with or not caring about the "Predatory Publications" are trapped... The "online" book chapters are accepted within a day or two, many books aggregate irrelevant book chapters, and I have heard they are even **bad** for one's reputation (although many evaluating committees even do not understand the difference between such a (fake) publication and a genuine credible book chapter). What do you think?

    To me, that is fundamentally a PDF file of a non-peer reviewed text? What is the difference between such a book with a blog post? I think such so-called publications might be even harmful and dangerous to the science as they might introduce a lot of noise and even irrelevant or incorrect information (since they are not really peer reviewed). It might become more serious in the fields such as medicine and health. What do you think?

    Dear Nelson

    Many thanks. I fully agree e-books are great, but without having necessary requirements, what is their difference with a website or blog? Can a website or blog be considered a scientific source? Does Google Scholar index a website / blog as an academic source? I guess no.

    Since the publisher doesn't spend any money on the published work (except very little on the domain and cyberspace and maintenance), and since it charges the authors a lot of money, it can (and it does) accept any low-quality work. My concern is not the type of the media (digital vs. paperback). My concern is the lack of peer review and quality control in such so-called publications... It gets worse when evaluating / qualifying committees can't understand the difference!


  • Vahid Rakhshan added an answer:
    What are migraine variants?
    There are more than 40 variants of migraine which differ in a broad spectrum of symptoms and signs from the classic migraine. Despite being more common than the classic migraine, the literature on them is not very rich, and they are not diagnosed as often as the classic migraine is.

    So I would appreciate if you can list and explain each of the 40+ migraine variants you know.

    Many thanks. The variants are much fragile in terms of diagnostic criteria. Perhaps this is why the literature on them is much weaker. I wonder how someone can definitely diagnose a migraine variant from a simple idiopathic motion sickness that is not caused by other etiologies.

  • What is the scope of liberal forms of power characteristic of modern systems of governance?

    Patients are expected to demonstrate their will to be empowered and to act as user participants. On an organizational level, various systems of self-regulation have been introduced, such as quality assurance systems, self-evaluations, and different documentation practices. There is a need to explore whether self-regulation and the will to be empowered has become a prerequisite for receiving effective health care and the possible implications of such an ideology.

    Sílvio Manuel da Rocha Brito · Polytechnic Institute of Tomar

    Dear Syed,

    You try to read some texts from Noam Chomsky about that. I recommend the book from that author Power Systems - Conversations on Global Democratic Uprisings and the  New Challenges to U. S. Empire.

    I hope had useful to you.

    Kind regards.

  • Discovery by serendipity...
    A reasonably number of great scientific discoveries can be attributed to "accidental procedure deviations", "fortunate mistakes", "unexpected insights" and other similar occurrences. Serendipity has been considered as one of the many factors that contribute to psychotropic drugs discovery (see the link attached). I would like to know what do you think about such discoveries by serendipity in science... Did you discover something by serendipity? How often have such events occurred?

    Dear Walter!
    I think, that every «serendipity» is based on the great work of unconscious mental instance, that a person does not feel and his conscious about it do not aware.

  • Kuldeep Dhama added an answer:
    One of old famous pharmacologist has said" a poison in small dose is a best medicine, but the medicines in very large doses are poisonous".

    To what degree do you support with this judgment? your comments.

    Kuldeep Dhama · Indian Veterinary Research Institute

    Medicines in large doses have cumulative and adverse effects - that is well proven both clinically and scientifically, may lead to drug resistance organisms and also may make one dependent on medicines and at one point of these even higher dose may be needed. While some poisons in small doses may have beneficial health effects.

  • Ioannis-Evangelos Ntoulis asked a question:
    How many cilia trichoids are there roughly in our ear drums and what are they ''made of '' ?

    referring to cochlia cilia in the inner ear

  • Parimal Shah added an answer:
    Considering the huge Medicinal plants availability, has the time come to further the research to get the finished products?

    Enough research has not been carried out to tap the potential medicinal plants,the research must be focused in this area to get the benefit out of it.

    Parimal Shah · Neon Laboratories

    Ceratinly the answer is yes.

    However, as per the basic Ayurveda principles a single ingredient of plant extract may not give proper result although one may be able to identify single ingredients and some may be patentable too, the trick will be to study in depth various combinations of the ingredients in different proportion to get clear reproducible results and a successful product - very time consuming and laborious task. And this explains the unwillingness to do take it up.


  • Luiz Henrique Pantaleão added an answer:
    What are the most important criteria in finding the best supplier?

    What are the most important attributes in dealing with the supplier selection problem?

    See that criteria:

    Supplier Competence

    - Compliance to specifications

    •  Meets specification requirements
    •  Meets standards

    - Customer service

    • Policy and practice
    • Surveys customers
    • Systems to measure customer satisfaction
    • Backup and advice

     - Quality system for deliverables

    • Certification
    • Documented system

     - Capability

    • Staffing structure
    • Availability of experienced staff
    • Experience in the industry
    • State of technology

     - Past performance

    • Experience in the industry
    • Previous experience
    • Customer recommendation

     - Strategic

    • Location
    • Networking

     - Innovation

    • Leading technology
    • Creativity

    Supplier analysis
     - Financial viability

    • Satisfies key financial ratios for the industry
    • Full financial disclosure from supplier will be required.

     - Risk and insurance

    • Adequate insurance
    • Allocate and acceptance of risk

    Legal review
     - Compliance to contract terms

    • Complies to the terms and conditions

     - Conflict of interest

    • Existing or potential, or perceived

     - Legal proceedings

    • Legal proceedings related to contractual issues - past or present

    - Total cost of ownership/best value

    • Bid price
    • Ability to propose an innovative financial approach (gain-sharing, etc.)
    • Freight
    • Warranty
    • Price breaks and quantity discounts
    • Satisfies best value analysis
    • Maintenance costs

     - Financial review

    • Tax
    • Accounting
    • Lease vs. Buy
    • Foreign exchange
    • Payment terms
    • Business justification
    • Insurance
    • Net present value analysis
    • Payment methods (i.e. EDI, etc.)

    source: http://www.cigna.com/suppliercommunity/supplier-evaluation-criteria

  • Narendra / N. Nath added an answer:
    Is spirit our energy? Is spirit dark energy?
    Up to nowadays Spirit is unidentified substance. What may we suppose?
    Narendra / N. Nath · University Institute of Engineering & Technology, Kurukshetra University

    Wrote to Demetris in Greece just today on this and related topics, as you both are in constant contact. All the best

  • Adrian Rodriguez added an answer:
    How does calcium citrate reduce the risk of oxalate deposition in the kidney?

    Calcium Carbonate preparations create calcium oxalate which stores in the kidney and in long run causes the stone formation in kidney. Potassium citrate is used to treat/reduce the oxalate substances and stops further stone formation. Here in this mechanism, mainly citric acid (as citrate) shows the effect of reducing oxalate containing substances in kidney and prevents stone formation. I want to know is it be the same MOA for Calcium Citrate to show oxalate reducing effect as Potassium Citrate?

    Moreover, patients having problem with acute renal failure and/or other renal complications are suggested to take calcium preparations as calcium citrate instead of calcium carbonate.

    I'm going to launch a calcium preparation of [Calcium Citrate + Calcitrol] under Opsonin Pharma Ltd, Bangladesh.

    That's why I need those supporting information.

    Adrian Rodriguez · University of the Balearic Islands

    Dear Sir,

    There are two reasons that make citrate useful in the treatment of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. First of all, it is a calcium complexator. Thus, if citrate is present in high amounts in urine, there are less free calcium (because it is complexed with citrate), and this is traduced in less calcium available to form the calcium oxalate kidney stone. Furthermore, it is a crystallization inhibitor, as it was said previously.

    However, citrate consumption does not produce an acidic urine. In fact, it is an alkalinizing substance, and it's widely demonstrated that citrate increases urinary pH.

    Here you have one of the articles (there are much more of them) that explain all I have said. I hopes it may helps you.

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