- Vidhin Sundar Kamble added an answer:6I´m currently doing a study about scorpionism in Ecuador, Panamá and Uruguay, but there is little information. Does anyone know something?
Due to a poor record of this accidents in Latin America, there´s little information about this public health problem. I´m looking for numbers of incidence and mortality by scorpion sting in Ecuador, Panmá and Uruguay.
In India some tribes using Scorpion bite for joint pain . please see follow links for research paper
- Priyamvada Sharma added an answer:6Can anybody suggest me information about “Chronic Methanol Poisoning Effects"?
Can anyone suggest me any information about “Chronic Methanol Poisoning or Repeated Exposure to Methyl Alcohol or its Metabolites and its effects in human health” either in published or unpublished works (gray literature).
I searched PubMed many times but, I did not find almost anything.
In case of methanol poisoning Formic acid, ethoxy acetic acid, methoxy acetic acid and glycolic acid are measured in different biological fluids using gas chromatography mass spectrometer . You can get idea from the article
J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2015 Oct 10;114:16-21. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2015.04.039. Epub 2015 May 6.
Identification and quantification of acidosis inducing metabolites in cases of alcohols intoxication by GC-MS for emergency toxicology.Following
- Alessandro Protti asked a question:OpenHave you ever witnessed linezolid-induced lactic acidosis?
We've recently had a case. Systemic oxygen consumption and extraction progressive decreased while refractory lactic acidosis progressive developed (likely due to mitochondrial "poisoning"). Anyone willing to share data on other cases to write something interesting together?Following
- Simon C Johnson added an answer:2What is rapamycin dose for live animals?
i want to use rapamycin in my control group of hamsters infected with prion...whats the recommended dose?
We recently characterized the dose response profile of rapamycin in mice, this may be helpful for you:
- Mustafa I Elbashir added an answer:1Anyone aware of any work/research on off-gassing from patients who have ingested cyanide?
Interested in any:
Case reports/research or animal models etc.
sorry Dr Muhaammad I have no idea on the topicFollowing
- Prabhat Kumar Upadhyay added an answer:2Magnesium chloride works more intracellularly than magnesium sulphate. What are the impacts on clinical effects?
Magnesiumchloride has more intra cellular effects while magnesiumsulphate has more extra cellular effects. This explains that magnesium sulphate is clinical less effective but why is it then also more toxic as the toxicity effects are primarily intracellular?
intravenous given magnesium reduces the opioid requirements per operative by reducing the sympathetic outflow.
Simple reasons of acidosis because different abilities of chloride and sulphate ions upon interations with cellular parts and phsiological pH changes drastcally....
Follow this.......Roche, Block, sonie and wilson.....Inoganic med chem bookFollowing
- MOHAMMAD Nabavi added an answer:10What makes titanium implants toxic and cause allergic and autoimmune reactions?Dental implants are made of titanium because of biocompatibililty. Dental implants give titanium toxicity allergic and autoimune reactions.
this is a good article Nikola:
- Amulya Nidhi Shrivastava added an answer:4How we usually determine the neurotoxicity of certain Antibody?
I am working to determine the proper therapeutic dose for certain antibody so I need to know how we can evaluate the toxicity using a validated method ?
Please, could anybody also provide me with a published article about this?
- Venkata Harsha Vardhan Boddeda added an answer:5What are simple assays done for toxicological studies of a compound on zebrafish embryos?
I'm testing a compound (plant extract) on zebrafish embryos. Please suggest a few simple yet effective assays to test toxicity at cellular level.
You can follow the Fish embryotoxicity tests which have been given by OECD guidlines. 6hpf embryos should be taken and should be treated with test drug.
You can also perform cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity on 72hpf larvae.
You can do teratogenicity and also you can give scoring system in zebrafish based on structural malformations.
Check these links.Following
- Arik Eisenkraft added an answer:5Which laboratorial methods can be used to search botulinum toxin in food and patients blood or feces to replace the mouse bioassay?
In Brazil we follow the recommendation of the CDC. However, the result of bioassay take much time, can not be used for a fast diagnosis, and causes animal cruelty.
Of course! I'll be happy to help.
- Michele Barone added an answer:9For febrile patients with acute hepatitis there is no safe antipyretic. Is there an acceptable dose of paracetamol ? is measuring drug level useful ?
There is a clear reduced dose for paracetamol for stable cirrhotic, but for acute compromisation of liver function such severe acute hepatitis or post agressive liver resection no clear data about a safe adjusted antipyretic drug use according to liver function. Can monitoring paracetamol level prevent its hepatotoxicity in such citation?
Febrile patients with acute hepatitis can take different types of antipyretic without problems. However, you should avoid cortisone in case of acute viral hepatitis, and paracetamol in case of signs of hepatic insufficiency. Finally, in presence of alterations of coagulation cascade I would avoid NSAIDs.Following
- Federico Emiliano Ghio added an answer:2Is anyone willing to share data on SvO2 (or ScvO2) and cardiac output in patients with lactic acidosis and documented metformin intoxication?
I'm interested in confirming that metformin intoxication is associated with diminished oxygen extraction and consumption (secondary to mitochondrial "poisoning"?). This can be the primary explanation for concomitant lactic acidosis.
Dear Alessandro, i think your hypotesis is right. In fact Metformin reduces pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and mitochondrial transport of reducing agents, and thus enhances anaerobic metabolism. This shift to anaerobic metabolism, in the presence of reduced insulin, increases production of precursors for the Krebs cycle. Consequently, there is a decreased ability to channel those precursors into aerobic metabolism, which, in turn, results in increased metabolism of pyruvate to lactate and increases net lactic acid production. Greetings, FedericoFollowing
- Manikanta Murahari added an answer:7Can anyone suggest a protocol for MTT or SRB assay of nanoformulation?
We have prepared a nanoformulation of anticancer drug and performed MTT and SRB assay of API, nanoformulation and placebo (nanoformulation without drug) at concentrations of 5-100 ug/ml.
OD readings were observed at a range of 2-3 for all the concentrations for MTT assay. We thought that MTT is interfering with the formulation components and tried with SRB assay.
In SRB assay, we found OD of placebo was more than control
For nanoformulation OD readings were also more than control but less than placebo
Can anyone suggest the interpretation of results or share any protocol for the same
We also tried to wash with PBS, because of incubation for 24-48 hrs the particles are settling on the plate and we couldnt wash the wells efficiently.Following
- Hossein Rahmani added an answer:1Can anyone suggest me the effect of catalytic domain of diptheria toxin on CHO cells ?
we are planning to express the catalytic domain of diphtheria toxin with signal sequence (without translocation and binding domain) in CHO cells. will cells die due the effect of toxin. Since the toxin will not be processed by furin or lysosomal enzymes.Following
- Adejuwon Adeneye added an answer:5What are the limitations and (dis)advantages of the up and down method for the determination of the median lethal dose (LD50)?
Are there any limitations of the up and down method? (mabye the broad of the LD50 and not an exact value)
in which cases should this test be performed?
And are there already better alternatives available or in development?
thank you in advance
Hi Laurence, Up and Down Procedure (consisting of limit dose test and main test) as stipulated in OECD Guidelines on Acute Oral Toxicity Testing (425) remains the standard in vivo acute oral toxicity measures for determining approximate median LD50 of a chemical substance/chemical/drug with an unknown or closely related drugs of unknown LD50 value. It has the advantage of using few experimental animals which are dosed sequentially depending on its short-term and long-term outcome. This acute oral toxicity test also cuts cost since it involves the use of few experimental animals. However, it has its limitations which include:
1. The test is restricted to female, nulliparous mice and rats only;
2. The test requires close and long term close and strict monitoring for up to two weeks for each experimental animal for you to determine the short- and long-term outcomes;
3. Finally, the test requires an algorithm of strict steps which although simple but could be cumbersome;
4. It provides an estimated LD50 value and not the exact value
Overall, it remains the gold standard for determining the LD50 values of an orally administered substance/chemical/drug with an an unknown toxicity profile. You can check my published article using this procedure: Adeneye AA et al. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 105: 374-379 (see attached).
- Stephen Treimer added an answer:2How can I determine amount of paraquat in water by UV spectroscopy?
please provide method and materials.
Other than METHOD 549.2 DETERMINATION OF DIQUAT AND PARAQUAT IN DRINKING WATER BY LIQUID-SOLID EXTRACTION AND HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH ULTRAVIOLET DETECTIONFollowing
- Ahmed Ezat El Zowalaty added an answer:13Is organic mercury a more toxic that metallic and ionic mercury?
Toxicological Sciences - Medical Sciences
Organic and inorganic mercury are much more toxic than metallic mercury
- Istvan Ujvary added an answer:8What evidence exists that novel synthetic cannabinoids may act in a clinically signficant fashion at receptor sites beyond CB1?
The synthetic cannabinoids (SC) currently being marketed as alternatives to plant cannabis have a higher risk of adverse outcomes than phyto (plant) cannabinoids.
The SC products on the market are much stronger agonists at the CB1 receptor than THC, and none contain a synthetic equivalent to the phyto-cannabinoid CBD, but is part of the increased risk also due to SC substances acting at other receptor sites?
It is an important question but, unfortunatelly, but there is no published data on effects on non-cannabinoid targets. None. Anything that has been mentioned here in the comments is mere speculation. In vitro studies, such as receptor profiling or enyzme screeing, are urgently needed. At a meeting organized by the European drug agency EMCDDA last year I gave a talk on new and some anticipated SCs as well as some similar structures but with different mode of action. Selected slides relevant to this topic can be found in the downloadable pdf file. Note that the list of structurally related substances such as etonitazene or indibuline, is incomplete. Furthermore, it would be interesting to test these latter 'non-cannnabinoid' compounds for CB receptor effect.Following
- Phoebe Argyle added an answer:6How to convert a toxic dose for a zebrafish to be equivalent to the one for rats?I want to use the toxic dose for a rat. I want to ask if I can use the dose without changing anything or do I need to make a certain conversion of the dose for zebrafish to be equivalent to the one for rats?
I agree with Gabriela above. It is not possible to convert the rat dose to a zebrafish dose as the methods of administration are different. In the past I have looked at relative toxicities between different treatments within one model (zebrafish or rat) e.g. chemical X is the most toxic out of X, Y, and Z for both zebrafish and rats. However it's not possible to directly compare g/g toxin/body weight to g/L toxin/solution concentration.Following
- Marcia H. Ratner added an answer:5Why isn’t clinical toxicology a more significant part of medical school education?With abundant evidence in the literature that many health afflictions result from toxicant exposures, and with published NHANES data from CDC that most people have bioaccumulated numerous persistent toxicants within their body, why are medical students not taught about clinical toxicology and approaches to investigate and treat toxicant-related health problems?
I teach an undergraduate course in Forensic Toxicology, and provide graduate medical science level lectures in Neurotoxicology and Neurodegenerative Disease. The students overwhelming find these materials to be extremely interesting. But in the USA the medical students have to be prepared for the USMLE and so unless the medical education licensing exam requires them to be proficient in this area medical schools will not devote much time to teaching it.Following
- Vinuchakkaravarthy Thangaraj added an answer:3Can phenytoin, carbamazepine and nevirapine form covalent bond with cellular proteins in native form or metabolite form?
Can anyone help me in clearing my doubt whether the anticonvulsant drugs like phenytoin, carbamazepine and anti-retroviral drug nevirapine can act as haptens or can they form any covalent bond with any of the extracellular or intracellular proteins either in native form or in metaboilte/hapten form before/during exerting its mechanism of action or they can form any hapten-like molecule during conjugation process in kidney for elimination which can induce immune reaction? Any literature describing the phenomena has been published on this? Please share it here to me...
Thank you Dr. Reza and Dr. AliFollowing
- Paul Dessauer added an answer:6Synthetic cannabinoids- what evidence exists regarding potential for inducing acute or chronic problems with physical or mental health?
A wide variety of synthetic cannabinoids (SC) are now being marketed as "safer" or "quasi legal" alternatives to plant cannabis.
Anecdotally, it appears that these research chemicals are typically associated with a significantly higher risk of acute adverse responses (such as tachycardia, anxiety attacks and transient psychosis) than smoking "real" plant cannabis.
As the majority of SC products being marketed contain chemicals that are much stronger cannabinoid receptor ligands than THC, (and some contain mixtures of more than one SC), and as these mixtures do not contain any equivalent to CBD, this is perhaps not surprising.
Does anyone know of animal studies or case histories relevant to the potential of these chemicals to induce such acute problems?
I am also keen to find any research that may indicate the potential for dependence, and likely withdrawal profiles upon abrupt abstinence from regular use, of these chemicals.
<<< The intravenous administration of THC may be associated with a range of schizophrenia-like positive and negative symptoms in psychosis-free individuals (D’Souza et al., 2004).
Conversely, the phytocannabinoid CBD presents with anxiolytic and antipsychotic properties (Zuardi et al., 2006), possibly because CBD may displace the binding of THC from CB-rs.
In contrast, spice products contain no CBD, and the SC chemicals are full agonists at CB-rs and are characterized by both a receptors’ higher affinity and higher potency in comparison with THC (Fattore and Fratta, 2011; EMCDDA, 2011).
Forrester et al. (2012) showed that a “cannabis”-associated psychopathological syndrome occurrence was less likely with marijuana than with SC, with 2% in the marijuana and 11.2% in the SC misusers’ group, having been identified as experiencing hallucinations and delusions.
Those experiencing psychotic episodes related to Spice use are also reported to present with higher/more frequent levels of agitation and behavioral dyscontrol in comparison with those psychotic episodes described in marijuana misusers (Brakoulias, 2012). >>>
“Spiceophrenia”: a systematic overview of “Spice”-related psychopathological issues and a case report
I've just posted a related question here;
- David Ogbonnaya Onu added an answer:3Methadone poisoning in an addict?How to determine lethal methadone concentration in an addict when one doesn't know the amount of pills taken each day?
I agree with the 2 responders about combining the severity of symptoms and hair analysis. The latter test quantifies the duration of Methadone use. Urine toxicological testing is only qualitative.Following
- Vincent Bloks added an answer:12Can I give DMSO to a rat as a solvent?
Hi all, please give me a hand. I am going to use glibenclamide (from Sigma) to treat diabetic rats as a positive control for my extract. I would like to know which solvent is suitable for dissolving glibenclamide before oral administration. I searched some papers and they use DMSO, however I don't know the concentration of DMSO. May I use the absolute one for rat feed? Or can I use another solvent (which, ?%). Thank you so much!
perhaps dissolve in DMSO and then in oil ( cremaphore 10%) , perhaps that will workFollowing
- Yvonne Hopf added an answer:4Does anybody know a different solvent than DMSO for Everolimus?
Background: it needs to be solved for IV administration to pavians and the current information we have is that it is soluble in DMSO (dimethylsulfoxid). If you don't know a different solvent maybe someone knows a little more about 'safe' concentrations for administration. Many thanks for your help!
- Ludwig Gruber added an answer:1Does anyone know which plastic products contain the most phthalates?With phthalates being measured at higher levels in human biomarkers and being used increasingly in food containers and other products, has anyone examined the products that expose humans the most/least? Presumably those with the least amount of polyvinyl chloride, but is it so? Is there any relationship to the plastic recycle numbers?Plasticised PVc is without doubt the most likely plastic material with high phthalate content. The exposure especially to DEHP from food consumption alone can be in the range of the TDI. And there are a number of other sources which contribute to the overall human exposure. Therefore there is indeed a problem, but we do not observe phthalates increasingly in food containers and other products as You suggest.
Direct contact between PVC and food is not really the predominant scenario for phthalates contamination. It seems that the ubiquitous presence of the phthalates and their lipophilic character are more important.
There is no direct relationship to the overall plastic recycle numbers, things are more complex. A contamination with phthalates is only likely for some kinds of plastics, and these are normally not used as food contact materials. Again, the high production numbers and the resulting ubiquitous presence of the phthalates are more important.Following
- Rahman Maman added an answer:22What are the current methods for determining the median lethal dose (LD50)? What are the advantages of these methods to "Lorke's Method"?Lorke's method has been used since 1983.i wonder if the method (UDP) can be applied for the fishes since we know this oral administration for the rat/mice.. anyone can suggest me?Following
- Richard Beasley asked a question:OpenShould IRM drugs containing imiquimod be patient applied drugs?IRM's are very unpredictable and result in non-specific immune responses toward antigens and rogue cells that are not well defined nor well understood which can lead to catastrophic events occurring in certain segments of the patient population. Imiquimod is one such small-molecule IRM that causes over a dozen cytokines to be induced by their respective origin of production during their physical contacts with molecules of this drug. During treatments, the users cannot separate themselves from the physiological influences of the ongoing, out of sync, induction of this family of cascading cytokines being induced at unknown and unregulated levels within their bodies during each patient applied application of the drug. As with injection or IV chemo treatments where body weight and rate of drug deterioration after injection is factored into safety profiles for the individual patient, IRM's such as imiquimod do not possess this safety feature and are actually causing unknown or "free-wheeling" pharmacological effects within each user that are increasing the levels of cytokines during the weeks of treatments rather than systematically reducing them over time as we see in traditional chemotherapies. Drug induced autoimmunity is the number one possibility surrounding these IRM's.Following
- Andrzej Szymanski added an answer:3Does anyone know useful biomarkers of hepatic steatosis?Generally, the echo analysis is clinically used for diagnosis of steatosis (fatty liver). I would like to know any other tools or biomarkers to detect steatosis in the preclinical or clinical study?I think that the following links will be useful to you: