Requirements Engineering

Requirements Engineering

  • Noor Bakar added an answer:
    Is there anybody here working on feature extraction from natural languages requirement specifications for reuse?
    My preliminary data analysis is available here. Hope to get response from SoftwareEngineering Communities in here.
    Noor Bakar · International Islamic University Malaysia

    Maya, Thanks for your reply!! That is a very helpful link that you have for us. I will definitely join the forum. See you there!

  • Taghi Javdani Gandomani added an answer:
    What are the early cost estimation techniques used for software cost estimation?
    I want to know about the cost estimation techniques used in software cost estimation at present. What are the early, immediate, instant or emergency cost estimation techniques?

    There in no instant cost estimation unless you have a well-defined history of your previous estimations and you have enough knowledge about the future project in terms of requirements, limitations, required platform and infrastructure. 

  • Kestutis Kapocius added an answer:
    What is your opinion on the use of business vocabularies (glossaries) in various information systems/software projects?
    As you may have noticed, inclusion of business vocabularies (also referred to as glossaries) into the project activities is trending, yet this process is often lacking objective feedback and consolidated opinion from the experts and industry. Do we really need specialized/additional solutions for that? If you are working in the field of business analysis, business modeling, requirements engineering, IS design or development, I would like to hear your opinion!

    Or better yet, please consider filling out an anonymous five minute survey that is being conducted by the Center of Information Systems Design Technologies of Kaunas University of Technology and is available at
    On the last page of the survey, there is an option to leave extended feedback, if you wish to do so. Each answer is extremely valuable to us!

    We would appreciate your response by March 24th. Feel free to also forward it to your fellow colleagues, both academicians and practitioners. And big thanks to all of those who have already contributed!

    I must also add that this survey is part of research that we plan to publish in the form of a paper, if we get enough feedback (which is harder to achieve than we thought). So you will be the first to know when it happens!
    Kestutis Kapocius · Kaunas University of Technology

    Jose, yes, the short version of the results (8 pages long paper to be precise) has been presented at the IEEE conference called CIT 2014 a few weeks ago. I have an e. book of the proceedings. However, I'm afraid I can not share this paper (as usual), so we'll have to wait untill it becomes available on IEEE Xplore (no idea when, sorry).

    On the other hand, it would be interesting to know if copy-pasting the conclusions to this chat would contradict the copyright agreement with IEEE. Any ideas? :)

  • Saeed Siddik asked a question:
    Software Test Case Prioritization Dataset

    Currently I am studying on software test cases prioritization as my graduation thesis. However, I need some data-sets containing software test cases, requirements, and source code. It will make me very pleased if any one provide those. 

    Thank you. 

  • Mehdi Dadkhah asked a question:
    Software Requirement engineering lesson

    I need slide of "Software Requirement engineering lesson". i need slide for each chapter. have any one it?

  • Marelis Virgen Pérez added an answer:
    Is anyone interested in Requirement Engineering (Pattern to Requirement Statements)?
    I am starting a RG Project to work through an example for developing an approach to using requirement pattern concepts, UML profiles, and a UML CASE tool to generate requirement statements.

    If interested please let me know, this will be open to anyone who wants to participate, or check on our progress,
    Marelis Virgen Pérez · University of Information Sciences

    I'm working on the topic of how to prioritize non-functional requirements for critical software, anyone can help me????????

  • Ken Robinson added an answer:
    Is it possible to do a software cost estimation before requirement collection?
    Software development is a big issue in the price of the software. For example, say someone asked how much money it took to make a shop management software (or any software). They did not say anything about this software but asked only how much it cost (without requirement). But what could be the answer, because without the necessary information it can't be answered. In the case of software development many have a cost estimation but have no way to do a software development cost estimation without requirement collection. Is this also a problem you have come across? What is your advice on this situation?
    Ken Robinson · University of New South Wales

    Let me add a comment that doesn't strongly depend on the process used, or alternatively perhaps the process doesn't matter.

    I don't have recent data, but not that long ago somewhere around 85% of very large software projects (we're talking $multimillion) failed due to failure to satisfy the requirements.  Essentially this means that many projects proceed without precise requirements; most likely some vague ideas about what is required.  Further, requirements are informal, but there satisfaction needs to be able to be verified in the implementation.  The latter is, of course, usually not done effectively.

    It seems to me that this can only be effectively done using rigorous, formal verification.  But that is rarely done.  For a technique that could be used, see Event-B.

  • Dario Russo added an answer:
    Is there a good open-source software for requirements analysis for linux?
    I'm searching for some tools that help me to formalize the analysis, something more than just an UML editor.
    Dario Russo · National Research Council

    In the end I did the requirements analysis by myself without the use of any software.

  • Florian Schneider added an answer:
    What is your favorite definition of the term "requirement"?
    There are so many subtly different definitions out there. Which one is your favorite? And why? Because it was «first»? Because it is «best»? Let's create a word cloud from all unique answers!
    Florian Schneider · Technische Universität München

    Michael and Jose, I added your choices to the word cloud from above. Hope to see more votes :-)

  • Jose Jairo Camacho added an answer:
    What software tools are used to generate test cases from requirement specification?
    What are the software tools that help a tester to generate test cases from requirement specifications?
    Jose Jairo Camacho · National University of Colombia

    Maybe some tools from Test driven development 

    I've used selenium. 

  • Jose Jairo Camacho added an answer:
    Does anyone have a paper referencing that the software cost estimation is a problem before requirement collection?
    The paper said that the need for the collection of software cost estimation is a problem before.
    Jose Jairo Camacho · National University of Colombia

    Hello! Does this question have been solved? It looks like interesting such hypothesis, a priori I guess that software cost estimation is impossible without requirements, how can you define a cost if you don´t know what are you going to do?

  • Jose Jairo Camacho added an answer:
    Are there rules (semantics) that can be used to derive implicit requirements given explicit requirements of a domain?
    How can we learn them (Implicit Requirements)? Are there mechanisms or a set of steps that we will need to follow such that if A follows that step it's going to produce Implicit Requirements and If B follows that same step, it will end up with the similar Implicit Requirements?
    Jose Jairo Camacho · National University of Colombia

    I agree with mr Fannader, when eliciting requirements one should foucus all the effort in user needs, and as stated in the swebook chapter of requirements, using a matrix to match each requirement with typical NFR or a requirements dependency tree to see if all the needs are covered.

  • Jose Jairo Camacho added an answer:
    What are the most successful approaches to privacy requirements engineering?

    Data flows modelling and analysis, risk and impact assessment, heuristics, etc. are some approaches proposed in the literature to elicit privacy requirements. There are pros and cons for all of them so, what approach do you think is the best and why? Any widespread (methodological) solution in the industry (not just at research level)? 

    Jose Jairo Camacho · National University of Colombia

    Time ago we implemented ISO 27k at a government agency.  Concerning with privacy the approach used was risk and impact assessment, we had a lot of hard work defining what the heck was private or not for each business unit, a process called "data labeling" was conducted, and at the end some agreements were done about how to treat data among the different business processes. Even contracts were redefined, everyone had to accept new conditions about handling their own work data.

  • Nadine A. Gund added an answer:
    What are the top journals and conferences for software engineering, specifically requirements engineering?

    Journal and conference impact factors.

    Nadine A. Gund · Bayerische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft

    Cheers, Nadine

  • François Christophe added an answer:
    How can we uncover Implicit requirements in a stated explicit requirement?
    Is there a methodological approach that can enable us extract possible implicit requirements (Unspoken or assumed) from a requirement document?
    François Christophe · Tampere University of Technology
    I want to believe it's possible to use linguistic metrics (e.g. G. Lami with QuARS) to find out if a requirement explained as a sentence written, say for example, in English contains implicit meaning potentially hiding tacit knowledge.
  • Maya Daneva added an answer:
    Can anyone point me to the best papers describing 'non-functional' or 'soft' requirements please?
    I'm interested in the link between knowledge elicitation and requirements analysis/elicitation and, in particular, the role of 'soft' or 'non-functional' requirements.
  • Florian Schneider added an answer:
    Today there are a lot of RE tools, but a small number of them use fine - gained use case specification.
    Few of these tools support transformations from use case models to another analysis or design model. What is your opnion on why?
    Florian Schneider · Technische Universität München
    What would such a fine-grained specification entail? A UML Use Case Model? A textual description as introduced by Jacobson? Or the more elaborate forms of e.g. Constantine or Cockburn?
  • Florian Schneider added an answer:
    Who coined the term "non-functional requirement"?
    The currently earliest paper I found containing the term is by Yeh and Zave (1). In (2), Zave speaks of non-logical properties.

    (1) R. T. Yeh and P. Zave, “Specifying software requirements,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 68, no. 9, pp. 1077–1085, 1980.
    (2) P. Zave, “A comprehensive approach to requirements problems,” presented at the Computer Software and Applications Conference, 1979. Proceedings. COMPSAC 79. The IEEE Computer Society's Third International, 1979, pp. 117–122.
    (3) J. Mylopoulos, L. Chung, and B. Nixon, “Representing and using nonfunctional requirements: a process-oriented approach,” IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 483–497, 1992.

    Am I on the right path? Different suggestions are welcome.
    Florian Schneider · Technische Universität München
    @Ina: My hope was that it would help to understand the original intended meaning of the term.

    I found the term awkward in the first place, let me draw an analogy. It occurred to me like calling all vehicles apart from cars, "non-cars". So bicycles would be classified as "non-cars". I was wondering where the dichotomy functional/non-functional came from and why it seems nobody criticized it. Boehm in 1976 already mentions the term "quality requirement" which would be a more appropriate term, but then the argument would start NFR != Quality Requirement and so on.

    Maybe the answer is, simply put, that it does not make so much of a difference if the commonly accepted taxonomy of requirements is well-designed.

    I currently assumed that Yeh took the term from somewhere and used it for his publications. Looking at the below cited publication, my assumption is that he wanted to point out that there are many more classes of requirement than functional ones. For that purpose, I guess using "non-functional" is exactly right.
    R. T. Yeh, “Requirements Analysis - A Management Perspective,” presented at the IEEE Computer Sixth International Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC), 1982, pp. 410–416.

    And a final question to Ina, again: Can you elaborate why it would make a difference to discuss NFR in different scopes? Would the definition change then? My understanding was that the definition is domain-independent. E.g. from van Lamsweerdes textbook : "Non-functional requirements define constraints on the way the software-to-be should satisfy its functional requirements or on the way it should be developed." Exchange the term "software" with "product" and you obtain a general definition.
  • Edgardo Luzcando added an answer:
    Non functional requirements
    Can you provide references of publications on how to find out and define non functional requirements at the requirements elicitation stage? Is there any IS development methodology that deals with this aspect?
    Edgardo Luzcando · Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
    I suggest taking a look at material from the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon, which has excellent guidance pertinent to Non Functional Requirements and the field of Software Architecture. circa 2008, though some of the original ideas are from the late 1990s. I have found it to be invaluable and effective for system design over the last few years.
  • Matteo Merialdo added an answer:
    Does anyone have any suggestions for tools that handle boilerplate requirements writing and management?
    In the requirements engineering field, the use of boilerplates is a way towards controlled natural language.
    Matteo Merialdo · University of Leicester
    Dear Nawel, I'm writing a tool for automatic building of Goal models from NL requirement documents. I found DODT very interesting, but I can't find anything else except that document you posted here: can you suggest me were to download the tool or the source code (or any other document)? Many thanks!
  • Nawel Amokrane added an answer:
    Proposed process to normalize a statement - comments?
    I am currently working on a process to take a statement (e.g., a paragraph from a PWS (Performance Work Statement - part of a government software development contract) and engineer the sentences into a series of "engineered" statements.

    The process would be (for each statement in the paragraph):
    1) Separate each sentence onto it's own line.
    2) Standardize the terms using the project or domain's structured business vocabulary (SBVR).
    3) Deconstruct the sentence into standalone sentences (e.g, ... and ...) being aware of implied structures (e.g., for government staff and consultants - government staff, government consultants).
    4) Reword 'gently' to standardize sentence forms.
    ... etc.
    Nawel Amokrane · Ecole des Mines d'Alès
    Do rely on a domain vocabulary for standardizing the terms, how do you map the un-standardized terms to standardized ones ?

    are you using any NLP techniques ?
  • Nick Battle added an answer:
    Can someone share information on combining semi-formal and formal methods to specify Object oriented Systems?
    Looking for a set of specific Problems to work on for my doctoral work
  • Maya Daneva added an answer:
    Who defined the term 'requirement' for the first time?
    Does anyone know who the first (systems-, software-, ...) engineer was to coin this term? Merriam-Webster says the term has been around since 1662.

    I will soon be looking at the paper titled “Conceptual models for determining information requirements” by J. C. Miller, 1964, but I don't know if this is a match yet.

    The first software engineering paper to implicitly define the term was presented by Royce in 1970.
    W. W. Royce, “Managing the development of large software systems,” presented at the IEEE WESCON, 1970, pp. 1–9.

    The first software engineering paper to dedicate a section to the term was the one by Bell and Thayer of 1976.
    T. E. Bell and T. A. Thayer, “Software requirements: Are they really a problem?,” presented at the 2nd international conference on Software engineering, San Francisco, California, United States, 1976, pp. 61–68.

    Do you know earlier ones?

About Requirements Engineering

Requirements engineering (RE) is a systems and software engineering process which covers all of the activities involved in discovering, documenting and maintaining a set of requirements for a computer-based system.

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