• Luis Fernando Molina Prieto added an answer:
    Can anyone provide literature on landscape Conservation and Management?

    I am in dire need of useful literature on landscape conservation and management to enable develop and actualize a task. Thanks

    Luis Fernando Molina Prieto · Universidad de América

    Charles, check this:

    I hope you serve

  • Dhananjay Sant added an answer:
    Can anyone explain landscape configuration and landscape composition and their importance in landscape ecological studies?

    Remote sensing ,landscape studies 

    Dhananjay Sant · The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda

    Landscape is an assemblage of various landforms having different origin interns of processes and time. each landform therefore have different sediment sequence and thereby different thickness of soil profiles locally. Group of flora and fauna would have their preference in growth and occupancy. When one undertake ecological studies one needs to tie up characteristics of occupancy and habit of flora and fauna with landscape.

  • Philia Wang added an answer:
    What kind of urban landscape is suitable for "water birds"?

    Does anyone know that what kind of landscape is suitable for "water birds" in urban areas?

    I have a result in my research shows farm/total area proportion exhibits a high correlation with water birds.

    And what I'm thinking is, what kind of impact will happen to water birds distribution if we change rooftop area into urban farms? I am not sure whether high altitude of buildings will be a detrimental factor.

    It will be great if there are any good references to this topic. Thank you!

    Philia Wang · National Taiwan University

    Thank you Tiago & Eyal! Really helpful!

  • Carola Haas added an answer:
    Landscape metrics for fragmentation and heterogeneity?

    I want to quantify heterogeneity and fragmentation of two different agricultural land use that have different crop types and area. Which landscape metrics could quantify landscape heterogeneity and fragmentation without redundant information?

    Carola Haas · Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

    You might find helpful information in the documentation for FRAGSTATS software that is used to calculate a variety of landscape metrics.

  • Subhash C. Kundu added an answer:
    In the field of landscape are there parameters that can influence the base value of the view (V)?

    See above

    Subhash C. Kundu · Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology

    Some more information in field of landscape are there parameters that can influence the base value of the view, may be seen through link. 

  • Nicolas Salliou added an answer:
    Are agricultural landscapes emergent structures?

    I wonder whether agricultural landscapes can be described as emergent structures. Are they more than their individual components (crops, forests, hedgerows, orchards and meadows)? 

    Is there some work about emergence and agricultural landscape?

    What are the properties that one can describe from agricultural landscape emergence?

    Nicolas Salliou · French National Institute for Agricultural Research

    @ Davide : Thanks for your answer. This is very interesting. I was quite baffled by the following assumptions : " the land-use succession in a given place depends only on the land-use successions in neighbouring plots"

    The result of the map is quite good but I still don't get the way this assumption works as I feel that in a landscape some plots LUs are absolutly not defined by neighbors when they are not from the same farmer/Owner.

  • Napoleon Ono Imaah added an answer:
    What are the opportunities and challenges in adopting ecosystem-based approach for managing degraded ecosystems in semiarid landscapes (Ghana)?

    Role of local knowledge practices.

    Climate change and variability impacts.

    Napoleon Ono Imaah · Rivers State University of Science and Technology

    Various opportunities and challenges emanate when people apply appropriate ecosystem-based management approach to semiarid, arid or any other  types of environments that might be deficient of desired but deficient of qualitative and quantitative climatological elements. Arid and semiarid environment lack sufficient quantity of water, which might also be deficient in quality in the atmosphere and in the ground. Situation. This situation leads to scanty or stunted plant of poor, scorched soils.

    The opportunities to manage the ecosystem-based landscapes well, is like nurturing sick people back to health; using both affordable local herbs and foods. Opportunities in management of the ecosystem's water supply systems in order to improve on the quality of the soil and increase plant growth are available. The opportunity to introduce irrigation could follow improved water supply due to good ecosystem-based approach in the management of resources and landscapes. Many opportunities will manifest to develop: Agriculture, agronomy and horticulture. With sufficient efficiently managed ecosystem-based landscapes, there will emerge aquaculture and fish farming. The dry hot semiarid environment is very good for a quick turnover in fish farming. Opportunities also abound for the establishment of agro-allied industries. Thus, the opportunities to improve the quality of life of the people within a well managed ecosystem-based landscapes will multiply.

    Challenges follow opportunities in the semiarid and arid environments as they do in all other circumstances of life. The challenges in the arid and semiarid environments are similar to squeezing water from stone. The challenge of sustainability of attained results is as tough as riding on the back of a tiger: if sustainability stops, the ecosystem dies; just as the rider dies if the rider stops riding the tiger.

    The inspirational success of Israel in managing their ecosystem and eventually turning the hitherto barren, fruitless land into a fruitful “land flowing with milk and honey” proves that opportunities are possible in the face of otherwise daunting challenges. Another emergent ecosystem management success stories  if happening in the arid and semiarid environments on mountains of South America. The people now affordable technology harvest dew from their ecosystem and manage it successfully for drinking and watering of their beasts and plants. Therefore, I believe that your research will find many opportunities amid the challenges.

  • Duncan Macqueen added an answer:
    How might forest and farm producers best be represented in the myriad multi-sectoral platforms that decide things on their behalf?

    The Forest Farm Facility is strengthening forest farm producer organisations - in part to help them engage in decision-making (see attached report) - but what experience do you have about which platforms it is best to engage and how (Food Security, REDD+, FLEGT, landscapes etc) ?

    Duncan Macqueen · International Institute for Environment and Development

    Thanks all for these very useful and insightful comments. The challenge does indeed seem to be how to focus the understandably multiple needs of forest farm producer groups with the usually monotypic agendas in these policy platforms. The challenge of helping both sides to understand each other and have a useful interaction is no small task. Pre-briefing representatives of forest farm producer organisations about exactly what can be negotiated in particular platforms seems ever more essential.

  • Ted Swift added an answer:
    What are potential research implications of landscape community genomics on stream/river ecology and riparian ecology?

    Landscape commuity genomics is related to eco-evolutionary processes in complex environments, such as stream and riparian ecosystems. However, its framework is not clear at the moment, because we don't know how genomic variation is affected by dynamic interactions between abiotic (environmental) and biotic (community) effects..

    Ted Swift · State of California

    Thanks to Francis for linking in Hand et al.'s essay. Very interesting, and one of those concepts that's obvious...after it's pointed out. As Edward Tufte reminds us "It's More Complicated Than That!". The research implications? As usual, it's a case of a big idea that needs to be translated into testable hypotheses on scales that can be studied on practical levels. In riparian corridors, you might expect -for example- genetic variation to be more highly correlated along the corridor, where conditions are similar, than across a stream-to-upland gradient. Or maybe the opposite, depending on the organism.

  • Trine Bekkby added an answer:
    Are you aware of Harris et al. and their worldwide map of marine geomorphology?

    This is more an update, not really a question. But did you know that Harris et al. (2014), doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2014.01.011) have done a great job with making a worldwide map of marine geomorphology? The map may be downloaded (as zipped shape files) from

    Trine Bekkby · Norwegian Institute for Water Research

    Then you can add it to your GIS project as wms,

  • Ana Loureiro added an answer:
    Is there a scale (could be a short scale or some items) for evaluating the perceived naturalness of scenes (e.g. landscape, neighbourhoods, gardens)?

    this is for a pretest of some fotographs of houses (with and without plants nearby) and gardens (with more or less plants and other natural elements).

    we want to find out which of the stimuli are evaluated by participants as being most natural and which are least natural.

    I'm not talking about scales like Perceived Restorativeness Scale.

    Ana Loureiro · Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias

    I am referring to the Lang (1980; see also Bradley & Lang, 1994) SAM scale (for arousal and valence/pleasure), adding complexity and type of environment  (natural or urban).

  • Onur Satir added an answer:
    Methods for modeling apple landscape using remote sensing and GIS?

    We would like to know a detail step by step procedure for land suitability modeling for Apple in higher mountain range. 

    Onur Satir · Yuzuncu Yil University

    Use multicriteria approach combined with weight of evidence method based on current apple landscape location.

  • Khatir Benhanifia added an answer:
    How do I perform an image difference between TM and OLI vegetation index layers?

    I'm currently trying to find the change in value between two dates for a couple vegetation indices generated from two different types of Landsat data. The first image is a TM image from 2011 and the second is a 2013 Landsat 8 OLI image. Both images are georegistered and converted to atmospherically corrected TOA values. While doing some preliminary investigating, I found that the values for unchanged landscape features are significantly different between dates. I'm wondering if this is a result of the difference in radiometric resolution between the sensors (8bit vs 12bit). The Landsat 8 values appear to be lower in a number of areas compared to the TM. Whats should I do to accurately difference the images?

    Khatir Benhanifia · centre of spacial techniquess

    If the study aimes to compare spectral values in different times, in this case atmospherical calibration is mandatory. Even if it aimes to establish change detection supervised post classification of NDVIs guves acceptable results.

  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer:
    Is there any survey that critically assesses the pedagogical position behind different Intelligent Tutoring Systems?

    Intelligent Tutoring Systems are very important in current landscape of AIED. However, I am not able to find papers discussing the pedagogical positions behind different ITSs in a critical way. 


    Krishnan Umachandran · NELCAST

    No tutoring system can be as intelligent without a "real tutor interface". All IT enabled teaching and learning systems are confined to a particular set of knowledge base attached to it, being probed by a "Keyword search" or a "string search" options into the knowledge database.
    Over a period of implementations it can be fine tuned.

    with regards to motivation, it should be an economical advantage to the "content contributor". However, in a business model, the content provider is paid and forgotten as the site goes alive and the technical team takes charge of support and maintenance.

  • Paunita Iuliana Boanca added an answer:
    Which are the best journal articles and books on green infrastructure?

    I am working on my doctoral dissertation on Green Infrastructure of the Rural Settlement and its Surrounding Landscape, while considering all components of the rural green infrastructure - (green spaces in school gardens, cemeteries, church gardens, town centre, streetscapes, lakesides, accompanying vegetation of watercourses and roads, trees at objects of small sacral architecture in the landscape, etc.). I have done literature reviews and bibliographical research since 2012 but I do not want to miss any good recent journal articles or books. Do you know some? Maybe you have recently published something on the same or similar issue.

    Looking forward to interesting references,

    Best regards from Vienna,


    Paunita Iuliana Boanca · University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine

    I believe that the following publications could be useful for your research area. Most of them deal with sustainable drainage systems - which are part of green infrastructures.

    • Constructed farm wetlands - treating agricultural water pollution and enhancing biodiversity, Produced by Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust with Natural England, Mackenzie, S.M. and McIlwraith, C.I., May 2013. ("This guidance is aimed at farm advisers, primarily Catchment Sensitive Farming Officers, as well as other Natural England and Environment Advisers working with farmers. The aim is to provide further information and examples on the use of constructed wetlands and sustainable drainage systems on farms. These wetland features can reduce diffuse water pollution from agriculture as well as improving biodiversity and other benefits. Different types of constructed wetlands and sustainable drainage systems are described, with guidance on their suitability for different farm situations and pollution issues, location, design, costs, permits required and case studies.").
    • Rural Sustainable Drainage Systems (RSuDS), Published by: Environment Agency, Horizon House, Deanery Road, Bristol, BS1 5AH, Author(s): Dr Lisa M Avery, Catchment Management, Macaulay Institute, 2012.
    • SUDS – Sustainable Drainage Systems. To explore the effectiveness of different pathway options in slowing down the flow of surface run-off and trapping sediment from different farm and field locations.A joint project between the Environment Agency and LEAF – Linking Environment And Farming.Interim report October 2010.

    I hope that this information will be useful for you.

  • Aliyu Salisu Barau added an answer:
    Why categorical maps are used in landscape fragmentation analysis?

    Why most of landscape fragmentation studies use use categorical maps to depict patterns of fragmentation rathern than conventional topographical maps?

    Aliyu Salisu Barau · Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

    Thanks a lot Sivia for sharing your knowledega and suggestion of the reference.

  • Anthony G Gordon added an answer:
    What role does effective landscapes play in the sensory development of children with Autism?

    Improvising and narrowing down my previous research question to get a better clarity

    Anthony G Gordon · Independent Researcher

    "Children with sensory sensitivity should not be exposed to sensory-challenging environments that use artificial stimulation, to answer Anthony's question."

    I do not think the answer to this question is simple, or that it can be answered theoretically.  Empirical data are needed.   Do we say that a congenitally deaf child should not be exposed to weak and distorted auditory input?   An adult with a vestibular disorder will do better by exposing themselves to vertiginous environments in order to learn compensatory strategies.

  • Fadel Djamel added an answer:
    Does substainable concept impact on contemporary waterscape design?

    How does sustainable concept impact on contemporary waterscape innovate design in Australia and China in past decades? What will be the trend in mainstream of water-­‐sensitive landscape development?

    Fadel Djamel · Université Mohamed Chérif Messaadia de Souk-Ahras

    The landscape is dynamic in the human pulse. In the case of the aquatic landscape where aggression on trophic chains could have a global influence on said landscape. The man is a predator, sometimes daunting for any ecosystem therefore change the landscape of this ecosystem.

  • Ahmet Karakoç added an answer:
    Are there any standard distances from the edge to core area in a landscape patch?

    I know that there are some indicators about core area being the beginning (rare plants etc). If there is no change from edge to core, i.e., homogeneous pattern. How should I determine core size? An example is 5 km square grassland.

    Ahmet Karakoç · Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University

    thank you very much Fadel Djamel..

  • Mahboobeh Parsapoor added an answer:
    How can I plot a fitness landscape when using particle swarm optimization?

    Hi all,

     I made a comparison between different types of optimization techniques, among them was particle swarm optimization..

    My question is how can I plot heat map or 3d plots to show what the fitness landscape look likes?



  • George Stoica added an answer:
    What are the Journals supporting Art and Design Research?
    The purpose of an arts research degree is arguably to train makers and producers to develop closer links between theory and practice; and ultimately to contribute to the social discourse in the field. Are there any journals that you find continuously interesting and worth reading as artist researchers? Are you submitting to interdisciplinary journals or specialist interest journals? What is hot, what is not and where do you find the best international mix, or the most interesting dialogue?
    George Stoica · Canada

    As a mathematician, I would dare adding "Journal of Mathematics and the Arts", with website:

  • Brian Braginton-Smith added an answer:
    How could I access available ASTER, SPOT or IKONOS time series Satellite images for the ITC Zone of Africa?

    I am doing a literature review for my PhD research proposal, and intend to assess temporal changes and expansion of farmlands in a forest landscape with shifting cultivation as predominant rural livelihood strategy.

    Thank you in anticipation for your suggestions.

    Brian Braginton-Smith · Forschungszentrum L3S

    I have a group that performs spectral analysis of satellite imagery that could provide enhanced resolution false color mapping and identify a myriad of botanical and geographical data however they do not provide this capability as a free service.   It is amazing what can be observed, identified and tracked utilizing the geospacial network.  I find it puzzling that it is not utilized more broadly in ecosystem analysis, community infrastructure planning and tracking earth changes.  I believe that this is what my colleagues are attempting to do with their business model.          

  • Mark Anderson added an answer:
    How do people come to value utilitarian infrastructure, and respond to (threats of) its removal?

    I have a number of research cases at present that are converging on the same phenomenon: that some utilitarian infrastructure (factories, towers, dams, dykes) change the landscape in substantial ways that are not intended to be beautiful - sometimes even protested at the outset - but that over time these become emblematic or enablers of sense of place, identity and lifestyle. They become perceived as public goods, requiring maintenance, despite the decline in its original utility. Does anyone know of other published examples of this phenomenon, or know of theories that relate to it?

    Mark Anderson · University of Maine

    Is this phenomenon not a good example of what behavioral economists either call endowment effect or call status quo bias?  The classic reference would be:

    Kahneman, D., Knetsch, J. L., & Thaler, R. H. (1991). Anomalies: The endowment effect, loss aversion, and status quo bias. The journal of economic perspectives, 193-206.

  • Alison Stenger added an answer:
    Where can I get FCD Mapper software?
    I have been looking for it in vain.
    Alison Stenger · Institute for Archaeological Studies

    Good luck. If he doesn't know, he will find out. Cheers.

  • Chris Gueymard added an answer:
    What is a good measurement of solar radiation/insolation for use in landscape level analysis?

    I've looked into Fu & Rich and their ArcMap solar rad points tool. Any advice would be helpful!

    I'd like to evaluate the effect solar radiation has on aspen regeneration across three national forests in Utah. I have about 180 sites that I have 2 years of veg data for. Preliminary analysis has shown that Elevation is an important predictor of aspen regeneration, and I think that solar radiation would also explain some of the variance and that simple analysis of slope and aspect alone are not sufficient to capture the effect that solar radiation has on microsite conditions..


    Chris Gueymard · Solar Consulting Services

    The Fu & Rich model is terribly inaccurate and should not be used for serious work. The r.sun model in GRASS GIS is much better, but still approximate

    Historical irradiance data at a maximum spatial/temporal resolution of 90m and 30-min are also commercially available. Please contact me.


  • Pedro Miguel Ramos Arsénio added an answer:
    How can I calculate with GIS landscape units that are spatially self-contained?

    A self-contained unit landscape is a portion of the territory where physical barriers limit and frame the view of the observer. The observer feels he is in a territorial compartment visually differentiated.

    Pedro Miguel Ramos Arsénio · University of Lisbon

    I think Joan Negre's answer is helpful but what about background slopes that, although outside the drainage basin, are visible from inside the basin? I mean, there's a foreground (and those areas should be inside the drainage basin) but there's also a visible background (and if you need to consider these visible areas outside the drainage basin, the hydrology tools are not enough.

    Maybe if you start by the drainage basins and them locate a grid of observer points inside, in order to estimate its viewshed, you will get closer to what you need.

    Nevertheless, I still think its important to use a surface model rather than a relief model.

    Hope this helped, good luck!

  • Florian Sittel added an answer:
    How can I compute a representation of the free energy landscape (FEL) sampled by the trajectories using different initial peptide conformations?

    15-residue triosephosphate isomerase peptide was subjected to 50 ns molecular dynamics in order to investigate its free energy that the peptide visited throughout the simulation (3D plot). The conformation with minimal free energy (deepest valley) was detected at timestamp of 19290 with an Rg value of 0.75 nm and an RMSD value of 0.5 nm, respectively.

  • Frederico Mestre added an answer:
    How much is landscape scale?

    Does anyone knows how much can be landscape scale in numbers? it is common to see references about landscape scale but I do not know about references that define numerical scale of landscape scale. May be this 1:250.000? 1:500.000.

    Frederico Mestre · Universidade de Évora

    I think that the landscape scale is dependent on the scale at which the focal species operates. For example small mammals explore the landscape in a much more finer detail than large predators. As connectivity is dependent on the dispersal ability of the species, I think that the "landscape scale" is dependent upon the home range.

  • Hari Priyadi added an answer:
    What are the key measures to attain the success of forest landscape restoration based on your experiences?

    Forest landscape restoration is the long-term process of regaining ecological functionality and enhancing human well-being across deforested or degraded forest landscapes. But when it comes to the different natural and social condition, the approaches for restoring degraded landscape/forests may be different.

    Hari Priyadi · Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

    Thank you Nikolay for your opinion. 

  • Andrea Porro added an answer:
    Can anyone help with assessing the link between wetlands and sanitation by applying landscape method?

    Hi everyone.

    I want to assess the links between wetland and sanitation issue in rural area. I want to know where the waste produce in village end up. I used Google earth to make map of land usage in village (Landscape). I Record GPS position of boreholes, toilets, waste dump places in villages. I outline channels that collect rainwater into wetland. The point is I am not that much good in statistic, I am not sure how to analyse the data I collect. Your idea and comments are most welcome.

    Andrea Porro · University of Milan

    we used to assess riverflow, wells and pollution in Lebanon (Assi River) a software developed by SEI (Stockholm Environmental Institute) called WEAP21. Very simple and free for DVC. Simplified mapping tools and pollution simulation. easy to understand for policy makers.


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