• Charles Anukwonke added an answer:
    Can anyone provide literature on landscape Conservation and Management?

    I am in dire need of useful literature on landscape conservation and management to enable me develop and actualize a task. Thanks

    Charles Anukwonke

    Many Thanks Colleagues for your valuable contributions here.

  • Denis Bocquet added an answer:
    What are the issues of Waterfront in Geelong in terms of landscape design principle?
    I kindly need your visual opinions and comments as visitors of Waterfront (joggers, artists, etc).
    Denis Bocquet

    Dear Majid,

    I think that one of the main issues is the continuity of the waterfront public promenade, its urban quality and its connection with the neighbouring programmes of commercial and residential urbanism as well as with public transportation. In such contexts, the work of urbanists, planners and architects has to integrate the micro-dimension of daily uses and trajectories as well as the more macro-dimension of the connection with the rest of the city. It is in my opinion this ability to play on both scales that allows (among other factors like the negociation with private developers of the extent and nature of public spaces) a project to acquire a specific value in terms of urbanity.

  • Mustiafiz Al-mamun added an answer:
    What is the definition of landscape? like as a spacial scale, natural resources level, functional level or as environmental point of view...

    according to my research area in peri-urban zone, i focus to analysis peri-urban landscape oriented planning and management, so i need to know what are those definition of landscape?

    Mustiafiz Al-mamun

    thanks boris, i have already followed..

  • Frederik Sachser added an answer:
    Are we able to link structure and function at a large spatial scale in seascapes ?

    Does the increasing resolution of marine habitats' maps and the data collected on marine species' distribution allow to produce some real seascape ecology analysis, i.e. linking structure and function at a large spatial scale?

    Could it be possible to use the tools recently developed in landscape ecology, e.g. landscape graphs, and apply it to marine habitats?

    Could it be the opportunity to develop new conservation tools intuitively comprehensible for managers ?

    Frederik Sachser

    Hello Arnaud,

    not sure but maybe this publication could be of interest for you:

  • Dileswar Nayak added an answer:
    Methods for modeling apple landscape using remote sensing and GIS?

    We would like to know a detail step by step procedure for land suitability modeling for Apple in higher mountain range. 

    Dileswar Nayak

    Thank you all for valuable suggestions

  • Dhananjay Sant added an answer:
    Can anyone explain landscape configuration and landscape composition and their importance in landscape ecological studies?

    Remote sensing ,landscape studies 

    Dhananjay Sant

    Landscape is an assemblage of various landforms having different origin interns of processes and time. each landform therefore have different sediment sequence and thereby different thickness of soil profiles locally. Group of flora and fauna would have their preference in growth and occupancy. When one undertake ecological studies one needs to tie up characteristics of occupancy and habit of flora and fauna with landscape.

  • Philia Wang added an answer:
    What kind of urban landscape is suitable for "water birds"?

    Does anyone know that what kind of landscape is suitable for "water birds" in urban areas?

    I have a result in my research shows farm/total area proportion exhibits a high correlation with water birds.

    And what I'm thinking is, what kind of impact will happen to water birds distribution if we change rooftop area into urban farms? I am not sure whether high altitude of buildings will be a detrimental factor.

    It will be great if there are any good references to this topic. Thank you!

    Philia Wang

    Thank you Tiago & Eyal! Really helpful!

  • Carola Haas added an answer:
    Landscape metrics for fragmentation and heterogeneity?

    I want to quantify heterogeneity and fragmentation of two different agricultural land use that have different crop types and area. Which landscape metrics could quantify landscape heterogeneity and fragmentation without redundant information?

    Carola Haas

    You might find helpful information in the documentation for FRAGSTATS software that is used to calculate a variety of landscape metrics.

  • Subhash C. Kundu added an answer:
    In the field of landscape are there parameters that can influence the base value of the view (V)?

    See above

    Subhash C. Kundu

    Some more information in field of landscape are there parameters that can influence the base value of the view, may be seen through link. 

  • Nicolas Salliou added an answer:
    Are agricultural landscapes emergent structures?

    I wonder whether agricultural landscapes can be described as emergent structures. Are they more than their individual components (crops, forests, hedgerows, orchards and meadows)? 

    Is there some work about emergence and agricultural landscape?

    What are the properties that one can describe from agricultural landscape emergence?

    Nicolas Salliou

    @ Davide : Thanks for your answer. This is very interesting. I was quite baffled by the following assumptions : " the land-use succession in a given place depends only on the land-use successions in neighbouring plots"

    The result of the map is quite good but I still don't get the way this assumption works as I feel that in a landscape some plots LUs are absolutly not defined by neighbors when they are not from the same farmer/Owner.

  • Abhishek Raj added an answer:
    What are the opportunities and challenges in adopting ecosystem-based approach for managing degraded ecosystems in semiarid landscapes (Ghana)?

    Role of local knowledge practices.

    Climate change and variability impacts.

    Abhishek Raj

    Hii Yaw Agyeman

    You may look a case study on "Adaptation Learning Programme in Ghana: Women take lead in tackling climate change" in CareClimateChange under Climate change information centre. (link:

    Also see an attached file for more valuable information

    + 2 more attachments

  • Closed account added an answer:
    How might forest and farm producers best be represented in the myriad multi-sectoral platforms that decide things on their behalf?

    The Forest Farm Facility is strengthening forest farm producer organisations - in part to help them engage in decision-making (see attached report) - but what experience do you have about which platforms it is best to engage and how (Food Security, REDD+, FLEGT, landscapes etc) ?


    Thanks all for these very useful and insightful comments. The challenge does indeed seem to be how to focus the understandably multiple needs of forest farm producer groups with the usually monotypic agendas in these policy platforms. The challenge of helping both sides to understand each other and have a useful interaction is no small task. Pre-briefing representatives of forest farm producer organisations about exactly what can be negotiated in particular platforms seems ever more essential.

  • Ted Swift added an answer:
    What are potential research implications of landscape community genomics on stream/river ecology and riparian ecology?

    Landscape commuity genomics is related to eco-evolutionary processes in complex environments, such as stream and riparian ecosystems. However, its framework is not clear at the moment, because we don't know how genomic variation is affected by dynamic interactions between abiotic (environmental) and biotic (community) effects..

    Ted Swift

    Thanks to Francis for linking in Hand et al.'s essay. Very interesting, and one of those concepts that's obvious...after it's pointed out. As Edward Tufte reminds us "It's More Complicated Than That!". The research implications? As usual, it's a case of a big idea that needs to be translated into testable hypotheses on scales that can be studied on practical levels. In riparian corridors, you might expect -for example- genetic variation to be more highly correlated along the corridor, where conditions are similar, than across a stream-to-upland gradient. Or maybe the opposite, depending on the organism.

  • Trine Bekkby added an answer:
    Are you aware of Harris et al. and their worldwide map of marine geomorphology?

    This is more an update, not really a question. But did you know that Harris et al. (2014), doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2014.01.011) have done a great job with making a worldwide map of marine geomorphology? The map may be downloaded (as zipped shape files) from

    Trine Bekkby

    Then you can add it to your GIS project as wms,

  • Ana Loureiro added an answer:
    Is there a scale (could be a short scale or some items) for evaluating the perceived naturalness of scenes (e.g. landscape, neighbourhoods, gardens)?

    this is for a pretest of some fotographs of houses (with and without plants nearby) and gardens (with more or less plants and other natural elements).

    we want to find out which of the stimuli are evaluated by participants as being most natural and which are least natural.

    I'm not talking about scales like Perceived Restorativeness Scale.

    Ana Loureiro

    I am referring to the Lang (1980; see also Bradley & Lang, 1994) SAM scale (for arousal and valence/pleasure), adding complexity and type of environment  (natural or urban).

  • Khatir Benhanifia added an answer:
    How do I perform an image difference between TM and OLI vegetation index layers?

    I'm currently trying to find the change in value between two dates for a couple vegetation indices generated from two different types of Landsat data. The first image is a TM image from 2011 and the second is a 2013 Landsat 8 OLI image. Both images are georegistered and converted to atmospherically corrected TOA values. While doing some preliminary investigating, I found that the values for unchanged landscape features are significantly different between dates. I'm wondering if this is a result of the difference in radiometric resolution between the sensors (8bit vs 12bit). The Landsat 8 values appear to be lower in a number of areas compared to the TM. Whats should I do to accurately difference the images?

    Khatir Benhanifia

    If the study aimes to compare spectral values in different times, in this case atmospherical calibration is mandatory. Even if it aimes to establish change detection supervised post classification of NDVIs guves acceptable results.

  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer:
    Is there any survey that critically assesses the pedagogical position behind different Intelligent Tutoring Systems?

    Intelligent Tutoring Systems are very important in current landscape of AIED. However, I am not able to find papers discussing the pedagogical positions behind different ITSs in a critical way. 


    Krishnan Umachandran

    No tutoring system can be as intelligent without a "real tutor interface". All IT enabled teaching and learning systems are confined to a particular set of knowledge base attached to it, being probed by a "Keyword search" or a "string search" options into the knowledge database.
    Over a period of implementations it can be fine tuned.

    with regards to motivation, it should be an economical advantage to the "content contributor". However, in a business model, the content provider is paid and forgotten as the site goes alive and the technical team takes charge of support and maintenance.

  • Mehdi Rakhshandehroo added an answer:
    Which are the best journal articles and books on green infrastructure?

    I am working on my doctoral dissertation on Green Infrastructure of the Rural Settlement and its Surrounding Landscape, while considering all components of the rural green infrastructure - (green spaces in school gardens, cemeteries, church gardens, town centre, streetscapes, lakesides, accompanying vegetation of watercourses and roads, trees at objects of small sacral architecture in the landscape, etc.). I have done literature reviews and bibliographical research since 2012 but I do not want to miss any good recent journal articles or books. Do you know some? Maybe you have recently published something on the same or similar issue.

    Looking forward to interesting references,

    Best regards from Vienna,


    Mehdi Rakhshandehroo

    Dear Attila Toth 

    you can have a look at the following paper

  • Aliyu Salisu Barau added an answer:
    Why categorical maps are used in landscape fragmentation analysis?

    Why most of landscape fragmentation studies use use categorical maps to depict patterns of fragmentation rathern than conventional topographical maps?

    Aliyu Salisu Barau

    Thanks a lot Sivia for sharing your knowledega and suggestion of the reference.

  • Anthony G Gordon added an answer:
    What role does effective landscapes play in the sensory development of children with Autism?

    Improvising and narrowing down my previous research question to get a better clarity

    Anthony G Gordon

    "Children with sensory sensitivity should not be exposed to sensory-challenging environments that use artificial stimulation, to answer Anthony's question."

    I do not think the answer to this question is simple, or that it can be answered theoretically.  Empirical data are needed.   Do we say that a congenitally deaf child should not be exposed to weak and distorted auditory input?   An adult with a vestibular disorder will do better by exposing themselves to vertiginous environments in order to learn compensatory strategies.

  • Fadel Djamel added an answer:
    Does substainable concept impact on contemporary waterscape design?

    How does sustainable concept impact on contemporary waterscape innovate design in Australia and China in past decades? What will be the trend in mainstream of water-­‐sensitive landscape development?

    Fadel Djamel

    The landscape is dynamic in the human pulse. In the case of the aquatic landscape where aggression on trophic chains could have a global influence on said landscape. The man is a predator, sometimes daunting for any ecosystem therefore change the landscape of this ecosystem.

  • Ahmet Karakoç added an answer:
    Are there any standard distances from the edge to core area in a landscape patch?

    I know that there are some indicators about core area being the beginning (rare plants etc). If there is no change from edge to core, i.e., homogeneous pattern. How should I determine core size? An example is 5 km square grassland.

    Ahmet Karakoç

    thank you very much Fadel Djamel..

  • Mahboobeh Parsapoor added an answer:
    How can I plot a fitness landscape when using particle swarm optimization?

    Hi all,

     I made a comparison between different types of optimization techniques, among them was particle swarm optimization..

    My question is how can I plot heat map or 3d plots to show what the fitness landscape look likes?



  • George Stoica added an answer:
    What are the Journals supporting Art and Design Research?
    The purpose of an arts research degree is arguably to train makers and producers to develop closer links between theory and practice; and ultimately to contribute to the social discourse in the field. Are there any journals that you find continuously interesting and worth reading as artist researchers? Are you submitting to interdisciplinary journals or specialist interest journals? What is hot, what is not and where do you find the best international mix, or the most interesting dialogue?
    George Stoica

    As a mathematician, I would dare adding "Journal of Mathematics and the Arts", with website:

  • Brian Braginton-Smith added an answer:
    How can I access available ASTER, SPOT or IKONOS time series Satellite images for the ITC Zone of Africa?

    I am doing a literature review for a research proposal, and intend to assess temporal changes and expansion of farmlands in a forest landscape with shifting cultivation as predominant rural livelihood strategy.

    Thank you in anticipation for your suggestions.

    Brian Braginton-Smith

    I have a group that performs spectral analysis of satellite imagery that could provide enhanced resolution false color mapping and identify a myriad of botanical and geographical data however they do not provide this capability as a free service.   It is amazing what can be observed, identified and tracked utilizing the geospacial network.  I find it puzzling that it is not utilized more broadly in ecosystem analysis, community infrastructure planning and tracking earth changes.  I believe that this is what my colleagues are attempting to do with their business model.          

  • Mark Anderson added an answer:
    How do people come to value utilitarian infrastructure, and respond to (threats of) its removal?

    I have a number of research cases at present that are converging on the same phenomenon: that some utilitarian infrastructure (factories, towers, dams, dykes) change the landscape in substantial ways that are not intended to be beautiful - sometimes even protested at the outset - but that over time these become emblematic or enablers of sense of place, identity and lifestyle. They become perceived as public goods, requiring maintenance, despite the decline in its original utility. Does anyone know of other published examples of this phenomenon, or know of theories that relate to it?

    Mark Anderson

    Is this phenomenon not a good example of what behavioral economists either call endowment effect or call status quo bias?  The classic reference would be:

    Kahneman, D., Knetsch, J. L., & Thaler, R. H. (1991). Anomalies: The endowment effect, loss aversion, and status quo bias. The journal of economic perspectives, 193-206.

  • Alison Stenger added an answer:
    Where can I get FCD Mapper software?
    I have been looking for it in vain.
    Alison Stenger

    Good luck. If he doesn't know, he will find out. Cheers.

  • Chris Gueymard added an answer:
    What is a good measurement of solar radiation/insolation for use in landscape level analysis?

    I've looked into Fu & Rich and their ArcMap solar rad points tool. Any advice would be helpful!

    I'd like to evaluate the effect solar radiation has on aspen regeneration across three national forests in Utah. I have about 180 sites that I have 2 years of veg data for. Preliminary analysis has shown that Elevation is an important predictor of aspen regeneration, and I think that solar radiation would also explain some of the variance and that simple analysis of slope and aspect alone are not sufficient to capture the effect that solar radiation has on microsite conditions..


    Chris Gueymard

    The Fu & Rich model is terribly inaccurate and should not be used for serious work. The r.sun model in GRASS GIS is much better, but still approximate

    Historical irradiance data at a maximum spatial/temporal resolution of 90m and 30-min are also commercially available. Please contact me.


    • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: The intrinsic performance of 18 broadband radiative models is assessed, using high-quality datasets from five sites in widely different climates. The selected models can predict direct, diffuse and global irradiances under clear skies from atmospheric data, and have all been (or still are) involved in large-scale applications, for instance to prepare solar resource maps and datasets, or to evaluate solar radiation in GIS software. The input data to the models include accurate aerosol and water vapor measurements by collocated sunphotometers, if needed. Cloud occurrences are meticulously scrutinized through the use of various tools to avoid cloud contamination of the test data. The intrinsic performance of the models is evaluated by comparison between their predictions and measurements at high frequency (1-minute time step at four sites, 3-minute at one site). The total expanded uncertainty of these measurements is estimated at 3% for direct irradiance, and 5% for diffuse and global irradiance.
      Solar Energy 08/2012; 86(8):2145-2169. DOI:10.1016/j.solener.2011.11.011

    + 4 more attachments

  • Pedro Miguel Ramos Arsénio added an answer:
    How can I calculate with GIS landscape units that are spatially self-contained?

    A self-contained unit landscape is a portion of the territory where physical barriers limit and frame the view of the observer. The observer feels he is in a territorial compartment visually differentiated.

    Pedro Miguel Ramos Arsénio

    I think Joan Negre's answer is helpful but what about background slopes that, although outside the drainage basin, are visible from inside the basin? I mean, there's a foreground (and those areas should be inside the drainage basin) but there's also a visible background (and if you need to consider these visible areas outside the drainage basin, the hydrology tools are not enough.

    Maybe if you start by the drainage basins and them locate a grid of observer points inside, in order to estimate its viewshed, you will get closer to what you need.

    Nevertheless, I still think its important to use a surface model rather than a relief model.

    Hope this helped, good luck!

  • Florian Sittel added an answer:
    How can I compute a representation of the free energy landscape (FEL) sampled by the trajectories using different initial peptide conformations?

    15-residue triosephosphate isomerase peptide was subjected to 50 ns molecular dynamics in order to investigate its free energy that the peptide visited throughout the simulation (3D plot). The conformation with minimal free energy (deepest valley) was detected at timestamp of 19290 with an Rg value of 0.75 nm and an RMSD value of 0.5 nm, respectively.

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