International Trade Law

International Trade Law

  • Alessandro Bonadonna added an answer:
    Do you know if certification schemes and/or labeling schemes dedicated to "mountain products" have already been implemented?

    EU Delegated Regulation no. 665/2014 defines the requirements for applying the optional quality term "mountain product", which was introduced with EU Regulation no. 1151/2012. These requirements are the result of a long process to standardise the different approaches presented by EU Member States. Previously France and Switzerland had already implemented a scheme dedicated to mountain products.
    Do you know if certification schemes and/or labeling schemes dedicated to mountain products have already been implemented (excluding Europe and Switzerland)?
    Does anyone have a scientific reference about quality term "mountain product" in France, in Swiss or in other country?
    Thank you.

    Alessandro Bonadonna · Università degli Studi di Torino

    Dear Adel, thank you for your answers and link.

  • Javad Abedini added an answer:
    How can I estimate the cost of sanctions on the target country's economy?

    I am trying to estimate the effect of economic sanctions on the target country's economy. For that I need the cost of sanctions on the target country.

    I have been searching for a database that might contain this information, but no such thing exists. Most papers have estimated the cost of sanctions themselves, but it is not clear how.

    If you have any information or suggestions regarding this matter, please let me know.

    Hi Hamideh,

    Actually, it could be seen much easier. Not to forget that all (numerical) values in economics are calculated using a basic equation of P*Q.

    In this case,  you should first calculate what the real GDP might be if there was no sanction at all in place. It is actually calculated through a simple projection of the previous trend of real GDP (before the sanctions).

    Then you need to calculate the impact that the sanctions have had on the general consumer price index. The final step consists of calculating how much more the consumers have to pay (with the sanctions) to achieve the real GDP estimated with the assumption of no sanction.

    Good chance,


  • Pablo Klein-Bernard added an answer:
    What is the true effect of distortion through subsidy on food security, poverty reduction and income generation at the national and regional levels?
    In as much as some countries use subsidies to revitalize production in their collapsing agricultural subsectors (with a purpose of not only increasing production but also enhancing incomes of small-holder farmers), such distortions at times have adverse (and at times beneficial) effects on global trade with the true effect so far being blur. I humbly would like to have expert views on some of the findings from empirical studies so far on this issue.
    Pablo Klein-Bernard · Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México (ITAM)
    For more news and data on subsidies (agricultural and other), you can join the "Subsidy Wonkrs" group on Linked-in. I recently started a discussion there on the fight over Agricultural subsidies at the WTO.
  • Tomaz Strojnik added an answer:
    How effective is the doctrine of comity in arbitration and what is it's relationship with international trade?
    Given that in international law it exists between courts of different jurisdiction while in arbitration the public policy comes in especially with the issue of immorality.
    Tomaz Strojnik · University of California, Los Angeles
    trade agreements are only enforceable if both parties are subject to the same treatment in arbitration. Most trade treaties involve a third party in order to settle disputes. Comity become problematic when the foreign policy conflicts with domestic policy. For example, for the TPP, there is a section on investment protection that allows investors to sue states if they enact laws that would hurt their investment and therefore affect the creation of laws. Of course the United States would be obligated to allow this to occur but the country is also obligated to protect its citizens from from "things" that affect the well-being of its citizens. Then there is the mentality of "you scratch my back, I scratch yours". This would involve the national government to be involved in the decision making powers of the judicial system of their respective country. Now I do not have to tell you how unconstituional that would be in the United States but you get the idea of how problematic comity could be
  • Tiia Vissak added an answer:
    What are the latest trends in international trade?
    What are currently the most profitable business and which countries are most attractive traders? I am interested in international business and its low details. If you can give me more information for a few specific countries.
    Tiia Vissak · University of Tartu
    Have a look at these:

    NB! A new one should come out in a couple of weeks.
  • Louis Brassard added an answer:
    I would like you all to reflect upon the notions of 'free trade' and 'competition'
    Can trade be something else than free? Can trade still be possible in the absence of competition? We all understand the idea of perfect competition which presupposes among other things trade in homogeneous products. In an economy dominated by services and complex products (that can never be homogeneous) comparison between products is not possible on objective bases. We do not buy products, but images that appeal to us and fit to our self image. Would you consider that the notion of trade and competition should be revisited and maybe redefined?
    Deneault's thesis is that the Offshore is not simply a realm of tax evasion, but a realm of legal evasion that has an invisibility cloak where corporate and financial sovereignt agents whose power is superior to many states. This new realm of sovereignty has been put in place by the financial oligarchy with the political backing of all the most advance states. Invisible actors are taking financial decision behind the invisible offshore cloak which have major impacts on African conflicts, arm deals, delocalization of jobs, closing of factory, etc… Hidden behind the expression of “globalization” is the reality of the offshorisation of all economical actors, including all the large scale criminal organizations. Real economic powers is gradually moving behind the offshore cloak and gradually escaping any national regulations and laws with the the full collaboration of the political and financial and criminal elite of all the most developed countries. If this trend continue, all profits will be offshore with no taxes to be paid, all major economic decisions will be offshore by unknown agents, and financial broken states will compete with each other for the localization all economical activies that can be moved or can be done online. How these states will manage to build their infrastructure, educate and care for their peoples will not be part of the concerns of the offshore agents.

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