Insect Distribution

Insect Distribution

  • Qasim Ahmed added an answer:
    Where do turnip aphids exist?


    I wonder if there is anybody who could help with distribution and identification of turnip aphids. What is the most popular ID key used to identify this species? Where have turnip aphids been reported? Especially across the US. What are the suitable conditions for this species?

    Thank you in advance.


    Qasim Ahmed · Murdoch University

    Hello Mustafa, 

    Check this website, please.

  • Devina Seram added an answer:
    Can anyone help with the identification keys for Palearctic Bruchinae. ?

    I need recent identification keys to identify the seed beetles in my collection from Turkey.

  • Where is Megasoma mars distributed?

    We have collected male and female Megasoma mars in Paraguay, however, scarce information from the web suggests a different distribution range. I would appreciate any information regarding this species as well as sources of information to contrast. Both specimens were found dead in forest islets and with almost five years apart when found them. I also attached two pictures in case this might be a case of wrong identification.

    Seyed Mohammad Moein Sadeghi · University of Tehran

    The full paper of "Hardy" has been attached.

  • Jason Gibbs added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest peer-reviewed articles(s) noting the spread of Osmia taurus in Eastern US - especially as it relates to its southerly migration?

    Since the unintentional Nearctic introduction of O. taurus to the Mid-Atlantic in the 1970's, the species has been spreading - colonizing & naturalizing as it goes. While mostly recorded spreading due-West & North-East along the coast from its original landfall to date, Georgia now marks the most southerly progression of the species. Both its adaptability to the environs of the Eastern US, as well as its remarkable population growth once present, should be of note for both researchers and farmers. 

    To track the progression of Osmia taurus into the Deep South, I would really appreciate any peer-reviewed literature which identified O. taurus outside its suspected original Mid-Atlantic port-of-call - most importantly South of the Mason-Dixon (anywhere from MD through WV, VA, KY, TN, SC, NC...).

    ** Also, any papers like those requested above - but pertaining to the presence of Osmia cornifrons & Anthidium manicatum - would likewise be very much appreciated!! **

    Jason Gibbs · Michigan State University

    I recently went through a series of male O. cornifrons and O. taurus form NJ. It was hard to be confident based on the external characters listed on DiscoverLife. But I believe the shape of the gonostylus, which was often protruding enough to see in those specimens, quite clearly separated the two (which then allowed me to get a gestalt for the external characters as well). I think Rust (1974) in Wasmann J of Biol. illustrates the genitalia of O. cornifrons (and also notes its introduction to Utah)...I don't have the paper on hand.

  • Anton Krištín added an answer:
    Does anyone have or know some recent data and literature on Madagascar Orthoptera?

    All data on altitudinal and latituidinal distribution would be welcome

    Anton Krištín · Slovak Academy of Sciences

    thanks Gonzalo,

    yes, I am checking this nice link regularly

  • Timothy A Ebert added an answer:
    Does anyone has experience on developing an automated counter for insect census?

    To develop a program inside the device

    Timothy A Ebert · University of Florida

    Ah, that is better. The radar system works for flying insects, as might the photonic fence. I have used a camera and Image Pro Plus to analyze for pesticide deposits on a leaf surface. The biggest problem is contrast. However, bag worms are large (relative to pesticide deposits) and are usually darker than the leaf surface. However, the leaf would probably have to be back lit to maximize contrast.

    If the bagworms do not leave the plant when the larvae are mature it may be difficult to determine if the bagworm is still alive.

  • Vytautas Tamutis added an answer:
    Would someone know the descriptions of female genitalia of European Badister species?

    Badister males are well distinguished , but females, especially Baudia subgenus, are mystical. Is it not?

    Vytautas Tamutis · Aleksandras Stulginskis University

    Dear Borislav,

    many thanks for information and suggestions. I will ask.  Seemingly  this species not so frequent as I supposed. Is it rare in Bulgaria too?

  • Abdallah M. Albeltagy added an answer:
    What statistical analysis should I use for measuring dispersal of insect vectors using mark–release–recapture techniques?

    I intend to study the dispersal pattern of phlebotomine sand flies in a forested area in the cerrado (savanna) biome of Northeastern Brazil. Human dwellings and domestic animals are commonly found in the area. What is the best statistical test that should be applied in the analysis? The insects will be trapped, marked with fluorescent dust and then released at different collecting points. I will try to recapture the phlebotomine sand flies in the next ten days. I want to gather information about dispersal range, spatial memory, host fidelity, site fidelity and longevity. Can you help me?

    Abdallah M. Albeltagy · Plant Protection Research Institute (PPRI)

    I think it's " Split - split plot design " .

  • Nyonka Vuchkova Velcheva added an answer:
    How do I determine if a moth specimen has never been found in the state or county before?

    I found adult moths, caterpillars, and pupa of the Lantana Stick Moth (Neogalea sunia) on a Lantana plant in Sacramento County, in California. Range information shows this as a first record of this species in California. Where can I go to find out if this is really the first recorded time this moth has been found in California, or at least in Sacramento County? If this is a first appearance for the state or county, how do I and should I report this pest? I have live caterpillar specimens, live cocoons, and a dead moth specimen.

    Nyonka Vuchkova Velcheva · Agricultural Academy - Bulgaria

    Found the gentalii of male on and check you moth. Threre are many papers about this species in Internet.

  • Castillo Carrillo added an answer:
    How can I tell apart the sexes of syrphidae flies?
    I'm separating the sexes of syrphidae flies.
    Castillo Carrillo · Universidad Nacional de Tumbes-Perú

    The males have holoptic eyes and females the eyes are separated

  • Does anyone know where can I get relative air humidity data for South America?

    I'm trying to model the distribution of a species of fly, so I used the Bioclim data from The problem is that relative humidity plays an important role in insects distribution and I can't find the data for it anywhere.

    Is there any place where I can download it?

    Thanks in advance

    Juliano Lessa Pinto Duarte · Universidade Federal de Pelotas

    Thank you guys!

    I'll try those sites.


  • Can anyone identify this Cicadellid?

    This specimen is collected on mulerry, boxwood, raspberry, citrus and many other host plant.

    Asadollah Hosseini Chegeni · University of Guilan

    Can anyone identify these two HYALOMMAS tick?

  • Steve W Wilson added an answer:
    Do you have any experiences on the spread and damage of Metcalfa pruinosa (Flatidae) in your country?
    Citrus flatid planthopper, a native insect to North America, have had for a long time a scarce economic importance there. However, being polyphagous made small damage on citrus trees and some ornamentals. In 1979 it was introduced to Italy where it established and spread quickly. It is now an invasive alien species (IAS) continually spreading in South and Central Europe causing considerable damage in grapevine, fruit trees and various ornamentals.

    In Hungary M. pruinosa causes damage - as in other European countries - in grapevine, fruit and other ornamental trees and shrubs. Unfortunately, it spreads in semi-natural and natural areas like hedges. I have observed nymphs, adults and vaxy filaments of M. pruinosa on the majority (70%) of the trees and shrubs in a hedge.

    Infested plants – among them some with American origin – were: Acer negundo, Celtis occidentalis, Clematis vitalba, Crataegus monogyna, Hedera helix, Juglans regia, Lycium barbarus, Malus domestica, Morus alba, Prunus domestica, Prunus padus, Prunus serotina, Prunus spinosa, Robinia pseudo-acacia, Rosa canina, Ulmus campestris but also Euphorbia cyparissias.

    The length of similar hedges can be several hundred km long, which means M. pruinosa has plenty of opportunity for spreading along the railway and infesting agricultural and ornamental cultures.

    Where and on which vegetation have you observed this IAS? How much important damage have you detected?
    Steve W Wilson · University of Central Missouri

    Dear Dr. Bozsik:

    I just posted my paper on Metcalfa in South Korea.  The literature cited section includes numerous references on Metcalfa.  Please let me know if you have any questions; my email is

  • Michał Bogdziewicz added an answer:
    What method would you recommend to count weevils on sites?

    Hi all,

    I would like to compare and abundance of weevils on two sites to learn if the increased weevil infestation of acorns is due to differences in abundance of those insects. Thus, I need some index of abundance. I have not yet worked with weevils yet so I am not sure what kind of method should I use.

    I read on the Internet about weevil traps and I found for example traps like that:

    Maybe installing them on trees in autumn and then couting catched indivuduals in spring will work? Or maybe I could even install them now and get and index of abundance this year?

    I am doing my research on red oaks in eastern US.

    Anyone who has any experience with the subject - please share!.

    Michał Bogdziewicz · Adam Mickiewicz University

    I am already doing this. Thank you anyway! :)

  • Fuchs Ludovic added an answer:
    Can anyone supply me with live specimens of male and female Sinodendron cylindricum?

    I am researching the internal anatomy and microbiology of the beetle Sinodendron cylindricum to compare with that of the other two UK lucanids (Lucanus cervus and Dorcus parallelipipedus. Live specimens are required in order to compare living microorganisms contained in various organs.

    Colin Hawes

    Fuchs Ludovic · Office National des Forêts

    That's OK, I have your Sinodendron.

    Give me your adress and I'll send it next monday.

  • Ayman Ahmed added an answer:
    How can I determine the population of mosquitoes?

    I am working in an area and have caught some mosquitoes over a period of time? How can i determine the population of mosquitoes in the location and in the state in general? Is there any formula I can use, please how do I go about it?

    Ayman Ahmed · US Naval Medical Research Unit-3

    As Mr. Renaud said you have to go with Mark-Release-Recapture, which you have to mark known number  of Mosquito with fluorescent dye, and release them at the targeted area and give them time to get homogenized with wild population, and recapture mosquito and sort the harvest to marked and wild mosquitoes and use the equation to estimate the population size. for details :-

    Best wishes


  • George (György) Hangay added an answer:
    Anyone interested in doing some DNA work on scarabaeoids?

    I am looking for a collaborator and possible co-author in a project aimed to re-describe some Australian Lucanidae and describe new spp. I need to carry out DNA studies, what I can't afford financially on my own, being a private researcher.

    Thank you for your replies.

  • András Bozsik added an answer:
    What could be the interest to include some parasitoid species (like some Hymenoptera Braconidae) into the Redlist of IUCN?

    Threatened insects are not so common and nearly none of them are parasitoids.

    But some of the parasitoids species could probably also be considered as threatened because their high specialization to one or few hosts, their distribution (a lot of species of Braconidae are known only from few specimens or few places, even if this could be a bias of sampling) or their presence in threatened area (like rain forests).

    Is this opportunity could help to their studies or the conservation of several areas/ecosystems? Did you have information, ideas, papers, example of such cases?

    András Bozsik · University of Debrecen

    Dear All,

    The lectures in York may be interesting but cannot influence either the saving of parasitoids or their recognitions. Most of parasitods belong to the order Hymenoptera which are enormously difficult to identify. Unfortunately, majority of growers has no idea on natural enemies. Many of them use blindly pesticides.

  • Bernard Boateng added an answer:
    Can someone identify this Coccinellidae species?
    Recently found in Serbia
    Bernard Boateng · University of Ghana

    Good work, guys

  • In which country are insects the most popular human food and what kinds of insects?
    In Western Kenya, termites are a delicacy.
    Eduardo Goncalves Paterson Fox · University of Lausanne

    People should always be reminded that insects are regularly consumed in food in all countries as an inevitable outcome of agriculture and storage and exposure of goods until consumption, particularly remains of eggs and larvae. If one is young, lives in a really cold country and totally avoids vegetables, there might be a chance that this person has yet never eaten any insect. Regarding accidental consumption of insects, I would assume that residents of tropical and subtropical regions must have the highest inadvertent rates of entomophagy.

  • Ranjith Raveendran added an answer:
    Who knows a good place in the southern US where Microplitis croceipes can be collected on the field?
    If possible, in AL, GA, MS, TN, FL
    Ranjith Raveendran · University of Calicut
    Microplitis croceipes (Cresson) 1872, is a potential parasitoid of Helicoverpa zea Boddie, 1850 (Corn worm) and Heliothis virescence Fabricius, 1777 (Tobacco bud worm). If there is Corn field and Tobacco plants in Southern US you can easily see the Host larvae and try to collect the larvae and starts to rear it. This parasitoid is specific for those host larvae.
  • Anya Nova Metcalfe added an answer:
    Is anyone familiar with the larval stage of Cisthene moths (Arctiidae)?
    Can the caterpillars be found in bio soil crusts? I collect adult Cisthene angelus by the thousands along the riparian corridor of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park, but their caterpillars are nowhere to be found. There's not a ton of lichen throughout the river corridor, it depends on which rock layers are exposed (seems like the lichen is mostly on limestones). What can you tell me about these elusive caterpillars? Where have you found them?
    Anya Nova Metcalfe · United States Geological Survey
    Christian - I will keep this in mind and look for tree lichens on my next trip down Grand Canyon. There are not too many trees in the riparian zone, I'm going to check the mesquites and cat claw acacias in the old high water zone for lichens. Do you have any further advice for finding them? Will the caterpillars be easiest to spot with white or UV light? Do you know of anything they are attracted to? Are the eggs large enough to be seen with the naked eye?

    Sorry for the bombardment of questions. Thanks so much for your response!
  • Muhamad Ikhwan Idris added an answer:
    Why are lowland forests insect species more diverse than in the highland forests?
    The lower the elevation, the more diverse the insect species are than those living in places at higher altitude.
    Muhamad Ikhwan Idris · University Malaysia Sarawak
    Highland forest can be regarded as an habitat island (surrounded by different kind of habitat due to its altitude). The land area doesnt necessary (or guaranteed) to have a higher number of species. Numbers of habitat that present in one particular (even though it's smaller) could lead to a higher number of diversity compared to a bigger area with less types of habitat.

    It's all governed by the plant species and distribution. Since many plants can adapt to lower altitude, many plants could be found thus leads to many species of insects (provided that they might be specialist). However, those which could adapt to the highland forest could be unique and cant be found elsewhere.
  • Joanna Zalewska Gałosz added an answer:
    I wonder if any standards exist for presentation of geographical coordinates in scientific publications?
    Joanna Zalewska Gałosz · Jagiellonian University
    Dear All,
    Thanks for your answers. Normally I used 'degree, minutes, seconds' but decimal degrees format is more and more popular in sharing geodata.
    All the best, Joanna
  • Anders Lindström added an answer:
    Can someone advise on the Russian distribution of the mosquito Orthopodomyia pulcripalpis (Diptera: Culicidae)?
    In Fauna Europaea Orthopodomyia pulcripalpis is listed as present in NW Russia in the region where St Petersburg is. I cannot find any reference to this record. Does anybody know where that record is listed?

    Link to map in Fauna Europaea:
    Anders Lindström · National Veterinary Institute, Sweden
    I've had no further success in this matter, but will report back if I find out anything.
  • Paride Dioli added an answer:
    Any ideas or suggestions about the passive transport of insects on highways by windage?
    Working on the spread of Lygaeus creticus (Heteroptera) I suggested that the median of the highway, which is made ​​up of oleander, has transferred this species from southern to northern Italy. It seems that even windage operated by heavy goods vehicles has a significant impact. I'm checking out the possibility that this hypothesis is applicable to other species of insects and am looking for references in Literature.
    Paride Dioli · Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Milano, Italy
    Thank You very mach for your suggestions. They are very useful in my studies about the dispersion of Heteroptera in Italy by the principal highways, from Southern, mediterranean coasts, to Northern regions.
  • Peter Hondelmann added an answer:
    Have any one encountered fruit flies (Tephritidae) flying (or drifting) at high altitude?
    I am interested in migration pathways of fruit flies in general and Medfly in particular. Medfly tend to reappear “out of the blue” in certain places without living a clue to where they came from and how. Many insects are flying quite high when crossing long distances, and I guess so are the tephritids. So I guess this question is mainly addressed to aerobiologists who are practicing different approaches to detect flying insects.
    Peter Hondelmann · Leibniz Universität Hannover
    There are surprisingly many publications about "aerial plankton" such as "Studies in the distribution of insects by aerial currents" by Hardy & Milne (1938), Hardy & Cheng (1986) (with three parts) at least mentioning Drosophilidae in the first one, but I've no access to the others. Anyway they contain family and species lists. "Transoceanic dispersal studies of insects" by Holzapfel & Harell (1968) mentions Trypetidae in their catches,
    Also "THE DISTRIBUTION OF INSECTS, SPIDERS, AND MITES IN THE AIR" by Glick (1939) lists Trypetid species. So you have your answer (but medfly?).
    If you search for aerial plankton and Trypetidae (the older name for Tephritidae) you surely find more articles, since many of the studies were done before 1990.
  • Sumodan Pk added an answer:
    Is there anybody working on Lampyridae?
    One of my students would like to work on Lampyrid fauna of Kerala, India. Unfortunately, there are not many publications on this group in India.
    Sumodan Pk · Government College Madappally
    Thank you Justine.
  • Peter Smetacek added an answer:
    How does resource partitioning occur in dry deciduous forests among butterflies?
    When I observed various species, alfa and beta diversity of fauna (insects) is much influenced by ecological aspects. How does resource partition occur in Butterflies? Do you have evidence? Please send some literature.
    Peter Smetacek · Butterfly Research Center, Bhimtal
    What sort of resources are you looking at? If you mean nectar or other sources of sugar or salts, there is no partitioning, except on a first-come first-served basis. If you mean larval host plants, different species have different strategies, Some are gregarious and in some species, if a female sees another female of the species ovipositing, she will lay her eggs there too, so that there are very many larvae on the plants. In other cases, a single larva on the plant will discourage other females from even ovipositing on that plant.

About Insect Distribution

Significant factors limiting the geographic distribution of individual species of insects relative to climate change

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