• Andrey Mikhaylov asked a question:
    What is Regional Innovation System (two opposite approaches found)?

    Dear colleagues, please help me clarify the following issue:

    Regional innovation system (RIS) is

    a) a subsystem of a region ‘responsible’ for generation, diffusion and exploitation of knowledge (along with political subsystem, social subsystem, etc.)

    or b) a certain regional context, a certain state of regional institutions, which in total makes a region as a system to be regarded as innovative (i.e. innovation is being present in various subsystems of the region, such as social, ecological, etc.)?

    Any other explanation apart from the two mentioned above are welcome. Please cite your references.

  • Walter Malacrida asked a question:
    Is there any plant in Europe which operates the pyrolysis of sewage sludge?

    I am looking for examples in Europe of plants (pilot or real scale) which operate the pyrolysis of sewage sludge, as an innovative thermal process for the treatment of it.

  • Edeltraut Kröger added an answer:
    What is the most innovative health improving technology you know of?

    Why is it innovative?
    How does it presumably improve health?
    What understanding of health is is grounded on?

    Edeltraut Kröger · Centre d'excellence sur le vieillissement de Québec, Québec, Canada

    Hi there, this is getting really interesting. Music therapy may have much more to offer than we are aware of but I take it that you are not really interested in clinical or brain research on the healing potential of music. With regard to computer based health technologies, many are being experimented now and also implemented, e.g. cell-phone apps to help with medication adherence, depression treatment in children, diabetes surveillance etc. The problem with the evidence base is that high quality RCTs cost money and time, so when doing systematic reviews, oftentimes these technologies can't be rated. I'ld say an interesting one right now is also the e-cigarette. Some reviews re starting on evidence regarding those. This is an exciting field of research to be in :-)

  • Teun Wolters added an answer:
    Agricultural technology/innovation or traditional/indigenous knowledge of farming?

    Which way to go and where does it leave the smallholder farmers? More often than not, smallholder farmers are accused of the failures of most technologies or innovations delivered to them that attempts to transform the agricultural sector. In some literature, they are labeled as "backwards", "obtuse", etc. But is it the issue of the smallholder farmers that fails these innovations that are being promoted or is it something to do with the innovations themselves and those that promote them? Further, do we have to completely do away with IK and throw it in the dust bin of history for the so called "modern technologies?"

    Teun Wolters · Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences, Apeldoorn, the Netherlands

    There is a need for knowledge sharing and enhancement. However, there is also a need for good strategies that are helpful to traditional farmers. Who are going to develop these strategies? Major issue is the degree of interdependence and self-sufficiency. Markets and logistics are endangered when there is political turmoil or climatic disruption. However, they can also be sources of extra income which improves the livelihoods of poor people strongly. Self-sufficiency can be sustainable but is in need of modern knowledge that can enhance productivity etc. In short: we need a broader view which integrates the various perspectives.

  • M. Vivarelli added an answer:
    Do you know any references of agent-based models of innovation?

    I would need mainly models that make use of real data at the local or regional level and firm-based, but any reference would be welcomed. Thanks!

    M. Vivarelli · Catholic University of the Sacred Heart

    I would suggest you recent works by Giovanni Dosi and co-authors.



  • How to promote RRI (Responsible Research and Innovation) in science teacher education?

    Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) is an inclusive approach to R&I (Research and Innovation). It ensures that societal actors work together during the whole R&I process, aiming to better align both the process and outcomes of R&I, with the values, needs and expectations of European society.

    In  HORIZON 2020 RRI is a package that consists of designing and implementing R&I policy that will:

    1. engage society more broadly in its R&I activities,

    2. increase the access to scientific results,

    3. ensure gender equality in both the research process and research content,

    4. take account of the ethics dimension, and
    5. promote formal and informal science education.

    According to Kotler (2011) the term "Responibilty" is defined:

    "Responsibility is literally what it says – our ability to respond. It’s a choice we make... To be responsible is to be proactive in the world, to be sensitive to the interconnections, and to be willing to do something constructive, as a way of giving back. Being responsible for something means that we are entrusted with realizing its potential, turning promise into reality. Taking responsibility is a way of taking ownership in our lives, of acknowledging our own hand in the shaping of destiny. Responsibility is the antidote for victimhood." 

    My questions in this context:

    • Who defines what RRI is in your country? (policy makers, scientists, industry, organised civil society, citizens)
    • What are the criteria for RRI? (profitability, appropriation schemes, resilience, ecological footprint)
    • How to separate responsible R&I from non responsible R&I? (biotechnological agriculture/GMO, organic agriculture, nanotechnologies, nuclear energy, renewable energies, energy saving, urban development, drugs, prevention, risk management)
    • Is RRI still part of in the science teacher education curriculum in your country?
    • Do you have any experiences about the promotion of RRI in teacher education?

    Kotler, P. (2011).The Age of Responsibility: CSR 2.0 and the new DNA of Business, Wiley, Pages 4-5.

    Рахметолла Байтасов · Belarusian State University

    У меня плохо с английским и возможно я плохо понял вышеприведенный текст. В Беларуси существуют проблемы на всех ступенях образования. Высшая школа: здесь маленькая зарплата. Соответственно у талантливыхх студентов нет стимула поступать в аспирантуру. В преподаватели идут дети и внуки, а также родственники преподавателей, которые в другом месте не смогли устроиться на работу. Есть, конечно, исключения, среди них попадаются талантливые преподаватели. Но основная масса - это бесталланные люди, а  какие инновации могут быть у таких людей? Основная масс преподавателей - пенсионеры. Пенсионеры пытаются использовать инновационные технологии в преподавании, но возраст, есть возраст - им тяжело. Продвижение по служебной лестнице в основном по родственным связям и близкому знакомству - способности соискателя должности мало учитываются. Отсюда распространенная практика в университетах когда опытные лаборанты практически выполняют функции заведующего кафедрой, вместо человека назначенного на эту должность. Издать свои учебники очень трудно, поскольку типографии требуют оплату, а денег у преподавателей на это нет. К тому же, чтобы получить гриф министерства образования нужно много согласований и рецензий. Я, например, обхожу это, издавая свои учебники в России и Германии, но денег на этом заработать не смог. Научной работой занимаюсь из личного энтузиазма и за свои деньги. Поэтому, считаю, что основные проблемы с использованием инноваций в высшей школе Беларуси следующие: 1. политика государства в отношении оплаты труда преподавателей; 2. кумовство и служебная коррупция в системе образования; 3. бюрократизм.   I'm not good with English and maybe I misunderstood the above text. In Belarus there are problems at all levels of education. High school: here a small salary. Accordingly, the students talantlivyhh no incentive to go to graduate school. As teachers are the children and grandchildren, as well as relatives of teachers who else could not get a job. Of course there are exceptions, among them there are talented teachers. But the majority - it bestallannye people, and what innovations can be such people? The main mass of teachers - pensioners. Pensioners are trying to use innovative technologies in teaching, but age is the age - they are hard. Career advancement mainly on family ties and familiarity - the ability of the applicant post a little neglected. Hence the common practice in universities where experienced technicians practically serve as head of the department, instead of the person appointed to this position. Publish their books very difficult, because the printing demand payment, and money is not on the teachers. In addition to the bar to get the Ministry of Education needs a lot of approvals and reviews. For example, I get around this by publishing their books in Russia and Germany, but the money to make money but could not. Engaged in scientific work of personal enthusiasm and for their money. Therefore, I believe that the main problems with the use of innovation in higher education in Belarus are as follows: 1. The government policy on the remuneration of teachers; 2. nepotism and corruption official in the education system; 3. bureaucracy.

  • Hazim Hashim Tahir added an answer:
    Does anybody have information about Innovation Readiness Assessment?

    In particular I'm looking for studies dealing with criteria for evaluating innovation readiness.

    Hazim Hashim Tahir · Ministry of Science and Technology, Iraq

    Dear Colleague,

    Good Day,

    Technology development is the process of developing and demonstrating new or unproven technology, the application of existing technology to new or different uses, or the combination of existing and proven technology to achieve a specific goal. Technology development associated with a specific acquisition project must be identified early in the project life cycle and its maturity level should have evolved to a confidence level that allows the project to establish a credible technical scope, schedule and cost baseline.1 Projects that perform concurrent technology development and design implementation run the risk of proceeding with an ill-defined project baseline. The purpose of this document is to present a tailored version of a proven NASA and DoD technology assessment model that will assist DOE Program Offices in identifying those elements and processes of technology development required to reach proven maturity levels to ensure project success. A successful project is a project that satisfies its intended purpose in a safe, timely, and cost-effective manner that would reduce life-cycle costs and produce results that are defensible to expert reviewers (Reference: DoD Technology Readiness Assessment Deskbook, July 2009). ( Please, See the 1st attached pdf file ), the last file shows Technology readiness levels (TRL) Summary. See the rest articles too.

  • Valentina Della Corte added an answer:
    Which papers on innovation competence can you recommend?

    Dear all, we are looking for a broad collection on innovation competence and its measures. Can you help by sending paper suggestions? best regards, Doreen

    Valentina Della Corte · University of Naples Federico II

    I would suggest all the works bt Chesbrough and Von Hippel.

  • Ameur Haouari added an answer:
    How does a social network influence the innovation of e-business?
    I have read many papers, but nobody can answer the questions. Maybe I haven't understood them.
    Ameur Haouari · Université Mohamed Chérif Messaadia de Souk-Ahras

    Social networks attract many users, who make up new markets understand the actual or potential customers, also from the perspective of new ideas and therefore new products and services.

  • Timothy Richard Wojan added an answer:
    Is there a connection between disruptive innovation or incremental innovation and product life cycle?

    Hello, I was wondering if someone has written or made some researches about this topic?

    Thank you very much

    Timothy Richard Wojan · United States Department of Agriculture

    Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Growth: The David-Goliath Symbiosis by William Baumol available at examines the relationship between disruptive and incremental innovation.  

  • Phil Barbonis added an answer:
    What's the difference between technological change and innovation?
    I have been studying innovation and I can't understand what is the difference between these topics.

    I agree with  most of  the aforesaid.  Put in another way, technology is the means by which we humans do thinks better than  ever before. So, a new technology which enables us to do something quicker, faster, or more precisely is a technological change. When an artifact (physical entity)  or process is created using the technology,  we have what is called innovation. The innovation itself can be incremental or radical, and it would be radical if it allows us or does think in an entirely new way, often in a unexpected way. There are technologies which may not  pursued to the point of  creating a commercially viable innovation. We can then speak of a technology orphan. So there you have a technology which  does  not is not successfully commercialized. Is it then appropriate to talk of innovation? An  entrepreneur has created a motor scooter, whose body is made from processing a plant. The scooter is not new, but having a scooter made from plant material (hemp) is in my view innovation, with the body work being made by converting plant material. We can argue that some technology was needed to convert the hemp plant; we could also say using the hemp plant is in some way a technology change – there may be others who might disagree…

  • M. Vivarelli added an answer:
    With a changing technological dynamic and strategies used to capture rent from innovation, is Teece appropriability regime concept still relevant?

    With current debates on how firms are strategically modifying their appropriability regime and impact value creation has on value appropriation. Does Teece appropriability concept (1986)  based on its seminar work still relevant?

    M. Vivarelli · Catholic University of the Sacred Heart

    Even more crucial is the distinction made by Teece between competences and capabilities; see the paper attached.



  • Carlos Montalvo added an answer:
    How to measure an innovation index?

    Dear all, I'm thinking about building an innovation ranking of Polish companies. Something what would show how companies build their innovation value in different sectors, circumstances etc. I have quite a huge sample of different companies available and IDI/ CATI/ CAWI methodology. I' would be very grateful for any recommendations/ suggestions/ links to available resources.

    At TNO we have been working on this question for some time. Starting from a behavioural approach we aimed to advance to a model that captures innovation micro-motivations&resources to macro effects. Take a look on these two papers. Might help.

    Montalvo C. (2006), What triggers change and innovation, Technovation

    Montalvo and Moghayer (2012) State of an innovation system: theoretical and empirical advance towards an innovation efficiency index

    You can download the second from my page here in ResearchGate. The first one form Elsevier. ScienceDirect

  • Asif Hussain Nizamani added an answer:
    Has any fellow scholar researched the relationship between Process Clockspeed and Supply Chain Innovation?

    This question is with regards to Charles Fine's concept of Clockspeed, focusing on Process Clockspeed and innovation in supply chain.

    Asif Hussain Nizamani · University of Malaya

    Thank you all!!

  • Phil Barbonis added an answer:
    Can you share with me some articles related to information technology driven innovation?

    Related to sustainable development.

    Also linked to the innovation process from a knowledge management perspective?

    I think your question  is too broad to give a simple answer. IT is the supporting or overarching system  used to facilitate the conduct of, for instance a busines operation, and it is based on digital technology ( bits & bytes in a  manner of speaking). A hospital using MRI system built on an array of digital components and the data captured will be processed by software ( IT)  into images for  diagnosis, for example.The web is an IT system based on networks,  storage systems, etc. Today, there is the so-called cloud-based systems or computing and that is clearly IT ( based on digital technology) and massive data storage  facilities. We can  argue about  IT and digital technology. -- where one ends and the other begins. Anyway,  you might want to get hold of the article by Wu, Rosen, Wang and Schaefer entitled Cloud-based design and manufacturing: A new paradigm... innovation. It will appear in Computer -Aided Design Vol 55. You could thumb through the pages of journals like Technovation or look at some of the journals published by IEEE (Institution of Electrical and Electronic Engineers). You may not find a quick answer but they will set you thinking. Stephen Hawking  was in the news recently  when he said we have to be careful about computers using AI ( Artificial Intelligence) getting smarter  than human beings. AI is IT,  or computer science if you want to be pedantic.

  • Bastijan Pauly added an answer:
    What is the most important issue for innovation: time, space or velocity?
    For creative answers.
    Bastijan Pauly · Durham University

    In answer to your question, one has to keep in mind that there is no such thing as space and time but only a space-time fabric. Following this, velocity describes the speed at which an object is travelling though space-time and hence velocity would be the only sense-making answer. Having said that, I stand by what I said in my last post.

  • Carlos Montalvo added an answer:
    Do you know any research which looked at innovation in this way: Company’s innovativeness from two perspectives, internal and external factors?
    Any developed standpoint of categorizing company’s innovation evolution process into external and internal paradigm?
    Do you know any research looking at innovation from this two main perspective (internal and external) somehow try to distinguish the factors that encourage or hamper innovation? For example R&D expenditure as an internal factor encourage the innovation or maybe competitiveness may encourage innovation as an external factor.

    Check out this paper. It identifies about 80 factors (internal and external). the categories presented and their classification enable the prediction of innovative behaviour and compare innovativeness across (actors, firms, countries contingent on your sample size, he target population and levels of aggregation).

    Montalvo, C. (2006) What triggers change and Innovation? Technovation

  • Carlos Montalvo added an answer:
    Does anyone have a measure of innovative behaviours/ process?
    Currently working towards doing my dissertation. I hope to examine if authentic leadership contributes to innovative behaviours in employees. However, I can't find a specific measure of innovative behaviours.

    Hi Ealga, this response comes perhaps too late but I have done some work in this topic.

    Check this paper in Technovation:

    Montalvo, C. 2006) What triggers change and innovation, Technovation

  • Abdul AL added an answer:
    What factors contribute to SMEs in emerging markets to adopt Innovation practices?

    Key Factors that are internal to firm or external to firm 

    Abdul AL · University of Stirling

    Do you think international franchising could contribute to the survival  of SMEs in the emerging market Such as  the Gulf countries if you compare to south Africa 

  • Hengky S H added an answer:
    Is there a recent survey on innovation capacity?

    I am looking to conduct a survey on innovation capacity and wanted to know if there was any literature or instruments you would recommend.  

    Hengky S H · Universiti Utara Malaysia

    To Zentner: according Suarez-Villa (1990), It is about technological invention and innovation, and economic and social dimensions of innovation.

  • Victor Novack added an answer:
    Can a medical device competitor rush to market via 510K following results of my successful PMA?

    If my company develops a class III medical device in the US, goes full FDA PMA regulatory route with preclinical trial followed by phase 1-3 multi-center clinical trials, can a competitor then use our success to submit a 510k on similar device and get to market within a year?

    A PMA costs about 50+ million dollars and can take 10 years for approval where as a 510K can be obtained in about 6 months for <<1million; so my fear would be I spend 50M to get to market and then competitor launches 2 years later for 2% the cost. It doesn't seem as though there is regulatory protection awarded to company, beyond patents, to bring new class of device to market. 

    Victor Novack · Soroka Medical Center

    In rare instances class III devices are downgraded to class II. In addition some class III devices can be approved based on 510K, but their number is exceptionally low. It will probably never happen after only one device is approved. In terms of the trial design for this new company - I doubt that they will want to compete against the only one approved device. Usually for the first few devices of a new class the design will be based on the comparison with previous generation/clinical approach. Only after a number of the devices are approved, the new comers will be asked to do the comparison to one of them. See coronary DES approval history.

  • Rachid Sadgui added an answer:
    Are there any research papers about service innovations barriers?

    Are there any research papers about service innovations barriers?

    Rachid Sadgui · Université Moulay Ismail

    Find attached an article about the determinant of innovation in services. I hope would be useful for you.

  • Grzegorz Dybowski added an answer:
    Is there any research on services to agriculture?

    I am interested in theoretical frameworks to understand why services to agriculture are increasing and what role services play in improving the competitiveness of small farmers.

    I look to different types of services: operational services (machinery,..) and also knowledge-based services (advice, extension...).

    Grzegorz Dybowski · Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej

    Market analyses on production sources for agriculture including basic services have been prepared twice a year in the Institute of Agricultural and Food E$conomics in Warsaw, Poland for over twenty years. Summary is in English. You ma find them interesting. Regards,


  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer:
    I want to know more about innovative instructional leadership, can anyone suggest reading?
    Indicators that suitable with innovative instructional leadership in polytechnics system.
    Krishnan Umachandran · Professor

    The instructional leader charged with implementing instructional programs improved student behavior and not instruction - the rationale behind the single-gender innovation 

  • Katarzyna Szczepańska added an answer:
    How can you measure the connection between firm innovation and managerial competencies?

    I'm doing research about the connection between firm innovation and managerial competencies and I am looking for some references, research, case studies, and suggestions of methods.

    Katarzyna Szczepańska · Wyzsza Szkola Biznesu

    Bernt, thank you for help

  • Alicia Ramirez-Orellana added an answer:
    Is there a database with resources applied in innovations development and exportation in organizations from Europe, Asia, EUA, or another countries?

    I am trying to do research about the relationship between exportation and innovation capabilities. I would like to compare Brasil and other countries. For the comparation, I need a dados and I don't know where I'll find it. And, I am inviting a researcher to follow this idea with me.

    Alicia Ramirez-Orellana · Universidad de Almería

    Hola Laura Rugeles:

    no trabajo con frutas y hortalizas frescas.

    Saludos cordiales

  • Peyman Falsafi added an answer:
    Does someone have information about strategic innovation in agriculture particularly in agricultural extension?

    I am looking for information about strategic innovation in agriculture particularly in agricultural extension. If anyone has specific materials, please let me know.

    Peyman Falsafi · Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization

    Dear Dr. Hosseini

    I have some experiences in this case . We can make an appointment for the next week and see each other . I also refer you to  my and Dr. Shahpasand country paper which has presented in one of the recent APO's workshops in The Philippines. I have attached it to your application. 

  • Juha Kettunen added an answer:
    What are some key performance indicators to measure knowledge?

    My institution is developing a new knowledge management strategy. As part of the logframe and implementation plan, we are looking for new innovations in measuring knowledge.

    Juha Kettunen · Turun ammattikorkeakoulu

    I suggest the Balanced Scorecard approach, which has the "learning and growth perspective". I attach two papers. You can find more  Balanced Scorecar articles in my ResearchGate. 

  • Jacques Martin added an answer:
    Can we use TQM practices like variables for ISO 9001:2008 for exploring the relationship between ISO 9001:2008 and innovation?

    See above

    Jacques Martin · Université de Toulon

    As stated in the other answers, the first thing to be aware of is the difference bith between the philosophy and the objectives of TQM and ISO. Although since the 2000 version there has been convergence between ISO and TQM, the scope of ISO is still more limited than that of TQM. I do not see any major obstacle to relating ISO and innovation (although using TQM would be more apt) as ISO now also operates in a continuous/al improvement context. Understood broadly, continuous improvement implies innovation. As shown by M. Porter a number of years ago already, in the end the only real source of improvement permitting to sustain some competitive advantage is innovation. ISO can be a starting point, but surely not sufficient.

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