• M. Vivarelli added an answer:
    How can you measure the connection between firm innovation and managerial competencies?

    I'm doing research about the connection between firm innovation and managerial competencies and I am looking for some references, research, case studies, and suggestions of methods.

    M. Vivarelli · Catholic University of the Sacred Heart

    You may be interested to the enclosed arrticle; kind regards, MV

  • Jeevan Jyoti added an answer:
    Is there a recent survey on innovation capacity?

    I am looking to conduct a survey on innovation capacity and wanted to know if there was any literature or instruments you would recommend.  

    Jeevan Jyoti · University of Jammu

    please consult our paper that I have attached

  • Thanos Fragkandreas added an answer:
    Are there any research papers about service innovations barriers?

    Are there any research papers about service innovations barriers?

    Thanos Fragkandreas · Birkbeck, University of London

    Hi Kasparas,

    You may find the following paper interesting:

    D'Este et al. (2012) "What hampers innovation? Revealed barriers versus deterring barriers"

    Good luck


  • Alicia Ramirez-Orellana added an answer:
    Is there a database with resources applied in innovations development and exportation in organizations from Europe, Asia, EUA, or another countries?

    I am trying to do research about the relationship between exportation and innovation capabilities. I would like to compare Brasil and other countries. For the comparation, I need a dados and I don't know where I'll find it. And, I am inviting a researcher to follow this idea with me.

    Alicia Ramirez-Orellana · Universidad de Almería

    Hola Laura Rugeles:

    no trabajo con frutas y hortalizas frescas.

    Saludos cordiales

  • Peyman Falsafi added an answer:
    Does someone have information about strategic innovation in agriculture particularly in agricultural extension?

    I am looking for information about strategic innovation in agriculture particularly in agricultural extension. If anyone has specific materials, please let me know.

    Peyman Falsafi · Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization

    Dear Dr. Hosseini

    I have some experiences in this case . We can make an appointment for the next week and see each other . I also refer you to  my and Dr. Shahpasand country paper which has presented in one of the recent APO's workshops in The Philippines. I have attached it to your application. 

  • Juha Kettunen added an answer:
    What are some key performance indicators to measure knowledge?

    My institution is developing a new knowledge management strategy. As part of the logframe and implementation plan, we are looking for new innovations in measuring knowledge.

    Juha Kettunen · Turun ammattikorkeakoulu

    I suggest the Balanced Scorecard approach, which has the "learning and growth perspective". I attach two papers. You can find more  Balanced Scorecar articles in my ResearchGate. 

  • Jacques Martin added an answer:
    Can we use TQM practices like variables for ISO 9001:2008 for exploring the relationship between ISO 9001:2008 and innovation?

    See above

    Jacques Martin · Université de Toulon

    As stated in the other answers, the first thing to be aware of is the difference bith between the philosophy and the objectives of TQM and ISO. Although since the 2000 version there has been convergence between ISO and TQM, the scope of ISO is still more limited than that of TQM. I do not see any major obstacle to relating ISO and innovation (although using TQM would be more apt) as ISO now also operates in a continuous/al improvement context. Understood broadly, continuous improvement implies innovation. As shown by M. Porter a number of years ago already, in the end the only real source of improvement permitting to sustain some competitive advantage is innovation. ISO can be a starting point, but surely not sufficient.

  • Xueqing Guo added an answer:
    How can we show that the market orientation, innovation orientation and innovation marketing are components of marketing of innovation ?

    for me marketing of innovation includes new marketing techniques and methods involved in the whole process of innovation, from the formalization of the innovation strategy to the commercialization of the new product, while innovation marketing is the innovation in marketing 4P, ie the innovation marketing is a part of marketing of innovation.

    Xueqing Guo · Wayne State University

    Try this,  first do substituting the "Innovation" with other things to see what construct the Marketing of XXX is. then apply the results to your question.  

  • Niloofar Salajegheh added an answer:
    Can anyone help me out in finding the questionnaire of administrative innovation and technical innovation?

    my topic is impact of TQM practices on organizational effectiveness with the mediating role of innovation.

    Niloofar Salajegheh · University of Tehran

    Dear Maria

        OECD report on Innovation 2005 has good data and criteria for technological innovation and on technological innovation.

  • Hazem Kiwan added an answer:
    What is meant with the User Centered Innovation, and how do we use the agile methodology on this criteria?

    Please, what did they mean about the User Centered Innovation, and how we use the agile methodology on this criteria?

    Hazem Kiwan · Al-Quds University

    Thanks all and best wishes 

  • Emre Karali added an answer:
    What kind of organizational capabilities are essential for accelerating in a radical innovation process?
    Accelerating radical innovation in new technology based firms.
    Emre Karali · Rotterdam School of Management

    Dear Saeed,

    Could you explain a bit more about the context of your research or the case you are interested in? As Muhammed indicates, DCs are a type of organizational capabilities that focus on organizational change that in particular is also focussed on innovation. It may lead to organizational agility and flexibility and may allow the organization to act more quickly than competitors. Is this something that may prove to be helpful?

    Take a look too at managerial cognition as a driver of change through sensemaking and understanding (Eggers and Kaplan, 2013)

  • Bastijan Pauly added an answer:
    How can one identify and measure tools through which innovation becomes competitive?

    Innovation is complex to identify for an old business.

    Bastijan Pauly · Durham University

    you are asking for tools that make innovation competitive, however, any such 'tool' would have to be defined in relation to its purpose. Hence, may I ask you for the purpose of your question?

  • Hoyet Andrews, III added an answer:
    Where can I find when a three-digit patent class has been established by the U.S.PTO.?

    I need to calcute a variable taking into accont the age of a Technology Class. Following Shane (2001), it can be measured as the number of years since the
    three-digit patent class was established by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Is there a document that contain the year when each US class has been established?

    Mr. Lorenzo Ardito,

    As Mr. Hazim Hashim Tahir, has noted above the USPTO is collaborating with the EPO toward Joint Patent Classification System. The two offices will facilitate progress in undertaking classification harmonization projects under the IP5 Common Hybrid Classification initiative, the USPTO and the EPO have agreed together to work toward the formation of a partnership to explore the development of a joint classification system based on the European Classification system (ECLA) that will incorporate the best classification practices of the two offices. This system would be aligned with the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) classification standards and the International Patent Classification (IPC) structure. Accordingly, they have initiated discussions on governance and operational aspects of such a partnership.

    As long as USPC is still active (after December 31, 2014, which is the target date to convert fully to the Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) classification system by US Patent Examiners), until this date US examiners can identify relationships using USPC. Efforts have been on-going to establish and implement the new Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) system at the USPTO to take effect Jan 2015 when USPC will become a static system.

    You may be best served in your efforts by embracing and understanding the CPC system. Hope this helps!



  • Allan Hytowitz added an answer:
    Can a medical device competitor rush to market via 510K following results of my successful PMA?

    If my company develops a class III medical device in the US, goes full FDA PMA regulatory route with preclinical trial followed by phase 1-3 multi-center clinical trials, can a competitor then use our success to submit a 510k on similar device and get to market within a year?

    A PMA costs about 50+ million dollars and can take 10 years for approval where as a 510K can be obtained in about 6 months for <<1million; so my fear would be I spend 50M to get to market and then competitor launches 2 years later for 2% the cost. It doesn't seem as though there is regulatory protection awarded to company, beyond patents, to bring new class of device to market. 

    Allan Hytowitz · Oregon State University

    Is there a facet of your device that would allow it to be patented as well as have FDA approval?

    A micro-entity non-provisional patent will cost $400 with the PCT costing about $1900.  The only liability is that to get other international patents based on the PCT, those patents will have to be filed within 12 months of the US patent filing.  

    Sucks, but that is the way the game is played.

    Your patent, however, might inspire a partner/investor with deep pockets who could front the cost of the additional patents.

    The patents should help protect your application as long as the competitors don't have really deep pockets to afford to attack you.  And you could also use the patent to license the application TO your "competitors."

  • Arhan Sthapit added an answer:
    How is the Bootlegging process implemented?
    Bootlegging is a process wherein employees of a firm work(15-20% time) on a personal, often secret, project and later reveal it to the top management.
    Examples: 3M post it notes, gmail of Google. I am interested in knowing how they implement this and allocate resources for such projects.
    Arhan Sthapit · Tribhuvan University

    Hello Kashyap,  in bootlegging, as a research process, motivated individuals secretly organize the innovation process. Hence, it is important to consider that It usually is a non-programmed activity, organised without the official permission of the responsible management, but for the benefit of the company. It is not in the department’s action plan nor are there any formal resources allocated towards it. Experiences have shown that lack of free space for creativity at workplaces gives rise to bootlegging process. Therefore, it's important to first analyse the causes of bootlegging in any organisation.

  • Herman Resende Santos added an answer:
    What’s coming up next in ICT and Government?
    Trends and Innovative Prospects:
    Herman Resende Santos · Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA)

    In what concerns society-government interactions through ICTs, take a look at the paper Sociopolitical Digital Interactions’ Maturity: Analyzing the Brazilian States; it may be usefull.

  • Mathias Kirchmer added an answer:
    Do you have examples of innovative business processes enabled through Social Media?
    Social Media become more and more important on the enterprise level. Companies use e.g. LinkedIn to support hiring processes or Facebook to support marketing. Do you have good examples for the use of Social Media enabling innovative business processes? This includes the use of "in-house" social media technologies.
    Mathias Kirchmer · BPM-D

    Thanks. Great Input.

    Any specific business processes supported by Social Media, other than the typical marketing and HR examples?

  • Mariusz Swora added an answer:
    Are there any incentives for innovations in the system of energy regulation in your countries?

    I am particularly interested in special rewards in energy tarrifs and other regulatory measures employed to promote energy innovations (R&D) by energy regulators. To be more precise: I am not asking about feed in tariffs or other forms of promotion of RES.

    Mariusz Swora · Independent researcher

    Dear Vanessa,

    Thank you very much for your in-depth analysis. I'am starting to explore the webpages.

    Best regards,


  • Dean von Germeten added an answer:
    Is regulating evolving technologies that introduce potentially beneficial changes a practical and ethical challenge?

    Medical Practitioners opine that improved regulation and professional society oversight are necessary to prevent patients from being exposed to new devices and any future innovations that are introduced without proper evidence of improved clinical efficacy and safety. Should doctors use recent and ostensibly high value implantable devices not supported by high quality evidence? 

    Dean von Germeten · Arcanum Industries

    It's the medical profession trying to defend it's own turf & profits. There are certain devices that pose no harm and should be explored-- Rife, Beck, Clark, Lakhovsky, to name a few, ozone therapy, intravenous Vitamin C. Unfortunately these are open-source and impossible for the medical cartel to profit from. Dis-ease is a business, more profitable to manage than cure, I'm not the first to say it.

  • Tobias Pehrsson added an answer:
    Has anyone seen studies considering endogeneity in the innovation-performance estimation?

    See above

    Tobias Pehrsson · Halmstad University

    Thank you M. Vivarelli! I will read this paper carefully!



  • Magnus Holmén added an answer:
    How is systems thinking applied to innovation in bioenergy diffusion?

    Is any of you using systems thinking theory and methodology in his/her research? 

    My background is in political science and I am doing a study on innovation in bioenergy diffusion. As far as I know, systems thinking fits quite well my "systemic" approach to innovation in this sector, and especially because I want to look at how to best manage the interaction between the creation of new knowledge-new technology-new policy and social issues emerging within this system (in two case-studies). If you have any idea, feedback, suggestion, input, advice...this would all be very welcome.

    Thank you

    Magnus Holmén · Halmstad University


    If you’re slightly ’soft’ in your approach you can view the question from an open systems perspective, including qualitative changes and creation of new relations among actors. If so, the innovation systems approaches are useful as they deal with how industries/business eco-systems/innovation eco-systems emerge and progress (simply put: an innovation systems study analyses how actors specialize and interact in order to generate, disseminate and profit from innovations).

    The innovation systems approaches should also fit well with a background in political sciences. I can recommend you to check out the technological innovation systems approach (even if other versions of it may be just as useful). See e.g. Bergek et al (2008) Analyzing the functional dynamics of technological innovation systems: A scheme of analysis, Research Policy, 37 (3), 407-429. There are several empirical studies of green technologies that are in line with this type of analysis.



  • Eleanor Glor added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest a method for innovation in entrepreneurship?

    I read some innovation methods in technology, but in management, I think there are some also.

    Eleanor Glor · York University

    My early work had some focus on managing innovation (see my resume at:

    As an approach, I would suggest that you start by developing a clear, measurable definition of entrepreneurship.

  • Michael Redwood added an answer:
    Actor-Network Theory can be used in innovation studies? How?

    I am not very familiar with Actor-Network Theory yet, but as far as I understand it is applied in STS, whereas Innovation studies use maybe more case-studies or so. I am doing a research on innovation in bioenergy diffusion in two regional case studies and I will study actors and networks that characterize the system and also (among other things) how this helps innovation in bioenergy diffusion.

    Thank you in advance


    Michael Redwood · University of Bath

    ANT approaches are exceptionally relevant to innovation as so many great innovations come from the overlapping boundaries of different areas bringing different technologies together to create something unexpected and completely new. See:

    The role of a single actor in technical innovation and network evolution: An historical analysis of the leather network

    Michael Redwood
    David Ford
    Journal of Customer Behaviour 01/2012; 11(2). DOI: 10.1362/147539212X13420906144750

  • Phil Barbonis added an answer:
    What is a better construct or variable to define inventions in products? like tab was an invention for the people who use laptops?
    I am working on my term paper and want to add a variable or construct which define the inventions or new products. Topic of paper is consumer socialization. What is variable (for inventions) on which research has been done and depicts the inventions in market or products?

    I am not sure you can really have a variable called invention. But, you can use a variable such as number of patents granted to a firm in relation to R&D spending or in relation to revenues, for examples. But, it is of course possible to create constructs based on some aspect of patents filed or granted, or in which counry such patents were granted.I think in China it is relatively easy to get patents valid in China but it is more difficult to get patents that are valid in the US and in the EU area.

  • John Elliott Bowes added an answer:
    Why is the transfer of technology part of agricultural engineering not so effective? and how can it be made effective?

    No of innovations and developments are made by agricultural engineers but it is not reached to the end users. More emphasis required for transferring the developed / improved technology in agricultural engineering.

    John Elliott Bowes · Simon Fraser University

    There is much on this topic in the classic, oft cited work by Everett C Rogers, Diffusion of innovations,  published in the 198060s. It and sequels still very useful today.

  • Jorge Lopez added an answer:
    Is their a research opportunity to identify innovations made by customers/end users which may turn into innovative big businesses?

    Few customers develop innovations from some products which were not originally thought of. If there is a system to track down those inventions/innovations.

    Jorge Lopez · University of Malaga

    To me, the best example to follow is Lego 

  • Agricultural technology/innovation or traditional/indigenous knowledge of farming?

    Which way to go and where does it leave the smallholder farmers? More often than not, smallholder farmers are accused of the failures of most technologies or innovations delivered to them that attempts to transform the agricultural sector. In some literature, they are labeled as "backwards", "obtuse", etc. But is it the issue of the smallholder farmers that fails these innovations that are being promoted or is it something to do with the innovations themselves and those that promote them? Further, do we have to completely do away with IK and throw it in the dust bin of history for the so called "modern technologies?"

    Lourenzo Fernández Prieto · University of Santiago de Compostela

    This is a very imprtan questio for future agriculture. Sustentability will depends of reconstruction of old smallholders agricukture practices. Just the often called traditional ones. Aout this you please see

  • Claudio Vignali added an answer:
    What are the main variables/indicators that affect the national innovation capacity of the nations?
    What are the main variables/indicators that affect the national innovation capacity of the nations, and what type of variable combination is suitable for having positive affect on national innovation capacity and economy?
    Claudio Vignali · University of Gloucestershire

    sorry cant help

  • Claudio Vignali added an answer:
    How do these variables effect the National innovation capacity?
    Is this possible to measure the national innovation capacity with respect to these variables (GDP, GDP per capita, high tech exports, R&D expenditure, ICT service export, Patent applications, residents, scientists and engineers in R&D, labor force, FDI net inflow, import and export of goods and services, tax on revenue, population, agriculture) and what kind of test must be applicable.
    Claudio Vignali · University of Gloucestershire

    sorry cabnt help

  • Shaker Melhem added an answer:
    Any article or ideas to name three factors of organizational innovation in the service sector and particularly the hotel industry?
    I am using three dimensions for service innovation (product innovation, process innovation and organizational innovation). However, the result of EFA showed that organizational innovation comes out with three factors. Now, I need to rename these new factors. How to rename the new factors, is there any literature explaining how to rename new factors and any articles explaining the types of organizational innovation in the service sector? Please, I need your help regarding this issue. I cannot complete my research without solving it.
    Shaker Melhem · Universiti Utara Malaysia

    Hi Andreea, 

    Thank you for your comment, by the way i think we are both in the same area ( my research topic was- HRM practices , knowledge sharing as a mediator and service innovation ( product , process and organizational innovation ). i have done the full research actually going to submit this coming week. i used to synthesis innovation in three dimensions based on synthesis approach of service innovation. the problem was facing me during factor analysis stage, coz i have found that service innovation divided not only to the three mentioned dimensions earlier,  but i found another 3 dimensions after done factor analysis and i was confused how to rename them based on the high loading items under each dimensions. anyway dear thank you much and if you need anything in this area dont hesitate to contact me too. 

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